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PROF. BHAVANA CHAUHAN
SHARANYA.MATHODAN - 26 NIKITHA.MENON PRIYA.MENON SRIRAJ.NAIR ANU.PANDEY FARHEEN SAYYED - 28 - 29 - 35 - 38 - 44
³Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization´.
Humans are an organization's greatest assets; without them, everyday business functions such as managing cash flow, making business transactions, communicating through all forms of media, and dealing with customers could not be completed. Humans and the potential they possess drive an organization. Today's organizations are continuously changing. Organizational change impacts not only the business but also its employees. In order to maximize organizational effectiveness, human potential²individuals' capabilities, time, and talents²must be managed. Human resource management works to ensure that employees are able to meet the organization's goals.
"Human resource management is responsible for how people are treated in organizations. It is responsible for bringing people into the organization, helping them perform their work, compensating them for their labors, and solving problems that arise. There are seven management functions of a human resources (HR) department that will be specifically addressed: staffing, performance appraisals, compensation and benefits, training and development, employee and labor relations, safety and health, and human resource research.´
The term training refers to ³the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies´. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labourmarket recognize today the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.
Training is activity leading to skilled behavior. 1. It¶s not what you want in life, but it¶s knowing how to reach it 2. It¶s not where you want to go, but it¶s knowing how to get there 3. It¶s not how high you want to rise, but it¶s knowing how to take off 4. It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome 5. It¶s not what you dream of doing, but it¶s having the knowledge to do it 6. It's not a set of goals, but it¶s more like a vision 7. It¶s not the goal you set, but it¶s what you need to achieve it Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities through professional development.
OBJECTIVE OF TRAINING :
Training objective tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives, 1. Trainer 2. Trainee 3. Designer 4. Evaluator Trainer ² The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.
Trainee ² The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise. Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee¶s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training. Designer ² The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he¶ll buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry. Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately.
Evaluator ² It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants.
IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS :
Training needs can be assessed by analyzing three major human resource areas: the organization as a whole, the job characteristics and the needs of the individuals. This analysis will provide answers to the following questions: Where is training needed? What specifically must an employee learn in order to be more productive? Who needs to be trained? Begin by assessing the current status of the company how it does what it does best and the abilities of your employees to do these tasks. This analysis will provide some benchmarks against which the effectiveness of a training program can be evaluated. Your firm should know where it wants to be in five years from its long-range strategic plan. What you need is a training program to take your firm from here to there. Second, consider whether the organization is financially committed to supporting the training efforts. If not, any attempt to develop a solid training program will fail. Next, determine exactly where training is needed. It is foolish to implement a companywide training effort without concentrating resources where they are needed most. An internal audit will help point out areas that may benefit from training. Also, a skills inventory can help determine the skills possessed by the
employees in general. This inventory will help the organization determine what skills are available now and what skills are needed for future development. In summary, the analysis should focus on the total organization and should tell you (1) where training is needed and (2) where it will work within the organization. Once you have determined where training is needed, concentrate on the content of the program. Analyze the characteristics of the job based on its description, the written narrative of what the employee actually does. Training based on job descriptions should go into detail about how the job is performed on a task-by-task basis. Actually doing the job will enable you to get a better feel for what is done. Individual employees can be evaluated by comparing their current skill levels or performance to the organization's performance standards or anticipated needs.
NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT :
In simple words, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities, knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training and development is determined as follows: ³It is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee¶s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee¶s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge.´
The need for training and development is determined by the employee¶s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training and development needs = Standard performance ± Actual performance
We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinctions enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning if the term training. Which refers to the process of imparting specific skills, Education, on the other hand is confined theoretically learning in classroom To distinct more, the training is offered in case of operatives whereas development programs are conducted for employees at higher levels. Education however is common to all the employees.
TRAINING GOALS :
The goals of the training program should relate directly to the needs determined by the assessment process outlined above. Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill will be changed as a result of the training and should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future. Setting goals helps to evaluate the training program and also to motivate employees. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success.
SELECTION OF TRAINEES :
Once you have decided what training is necessary and where it is needed, the next decision is who should be trained? For a small business, this question is crucial. Training an employee is expensive, especially when he or she leaves your firm for a better job. Therefore, it is important to carefully select who will be trained. Training programs should be designed to consider the ability of the employee to learn the material and to use it effectively, and to make the most efficient use of resources possible. It is also important that employees be motivated by the training experience. Employee failure in the program is not only damaging to the employee but a waste of money as well. Selecting the right trainees is important to the success of the program.
INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT :
Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into the distant future. The inputs of training and development are as follows:
1) Skills :
Training is imparting skills to the employees. A worker needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipments with least damage and scrap. This is basic skills without which the operator will not function. There is also a need of motor skills or psychomotor skills as they are refer to performance of specific physical activities .These skills involve learning to move various parts of their body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Employees
particularly like supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills mostly know as people skills. These skills helps a person understand oneself and others better and act accordingly. Examples of interpersonal skills include listening. Persuading and showing an understanding of others feelings.
2) Education :
The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by the HR specialist. In fact, sometimes, organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. Chief executive officers (CEO¶s) are known to attend refresher course conducted in many Business schools. The late Manu Chabria, CMD, Shaw Wallace, attended such a two month programme at the Harvard business school. Education is more important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers.
3) Development :
Another component of a training and development programmed is development which is less skill ± oriented but stress on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of a company. Development programme should help an employee to be a self-starter, build sense of commitment, motivation, which should again helps him being self generating. It should make their performance result oriented and help them in being more efficient and effective.
It should also help in making the employee sensitive towards the environment that is his work place and outside. This programme should keep the employee aware of him i.e. his potentials and his limitations. Help him see himself as others see him and accept his self image as a prelude to change. It helps teach an individual to communicate without filters, to see and feel points of view different from their own. Also helps them understand the powers in their hands and thereby develop leadership styles which inspire and motivate others. And finally helps install a zest for excellence, a divine discontent, a nagging dissatisfaction with the status quo.
4) Ethics :
There is a need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programmed. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. They are less seen and talked about in the personnel function this does not mean that the HR manager is absolved if the responsibility. If the production, finance or marketing personnel indulge in unethical practices the fault rest on the HR manager. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need for ethical behavior.
5) Attitudinal Changes :
Attitudinal represents feelings and beliefs an individual towards others. Attitudes affect motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes needs to be converted into positive attitudes. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because of commitments Employees refuse to change They have prior
And Information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient. Attitude must be changed so that the employee feels committed to the organization and give better performance.
6) Decision making and problem solving skills :
Decision making and problem solving skill focus on methods and techniques for making organizational decision and solve work related problems. Learning related to decision making and problem solving skills seeks to improve trainee¶s abilities to define and structure problems, collect and analysis information, generate alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisors and professional.
WHY TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS ?
Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action.Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organization performance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its sub group.
Organizational Level ± Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats.
After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs.
For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level.
Individual Level ± Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are:
y y y y y y y
Appraisal and performance review Peer appraisal Competency assessments Subordinate appraisal Client feedback Customer feedback Self-assessment or self-appraisal
Operational Level ± Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis (TNA) is done.
IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT :
Optimum Utilization of Human Resources ± Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.
Development of Human Resources ± Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources¶ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal grow
Development of skills of employees ± Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.
Productivity ± Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.
Team spirit ± Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.
Organization Culture ± Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.
Organization Climate ± Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.
Quality ± Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.
Healthy work environment ± Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal.
Health and Safety ± Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.
Morale ± Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force
Image ± Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.
Profitability ± Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e.
Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organisational policies Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.
THE FOUR BASIC STEPS IN THE TRAINING PROCESS :
Training is one of the most profitable investments an organization can make. No matter what business or industry you are in the steps for an effective training process are the same and may be adapted anywhere. If you have ever thought about developing a training program within your organization consider the following four basic training steps. You will find that all four of these steps are mutually necessary for any training program to be effective and efficient. STEP 1: ESTABLISHING A NEEDS ANALYSIS :This step identifies activities to justify an investment for training. The techniques necessary for the data collection are surveys, observations, interviews, and customer comment cards. Several examples of an analysis outlining specific training needs are customer dissatisfaction, low morale, low productivity, and high turnover. The objective in establishing a needs analysis is to find out the answers to the following questions: y ³Why´ is training needed? y ³What´ type of training is needed? y y ³When´ is the training needed? ³Where´ is the training needed?
y ³Who´ needs the training? and "Who" will conduct the training? y ³How´ will the training be performed?
By determining training needs, an organization can decide what specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes are needed to improve the employee¶s performance in accordance with the company¶s standards. The needs analysis is the starting point for all training. The primary objective of all training is to improve individual and organizational performance. Establishing a needs analysis is, and should always be the first step of the training process. STEP 2: DEVELOPING MANUALS:TRAINING PROGRAMS AND
This step establishes the development of current job descriptions and standards and procedures. Job descriptions should be clear and concise and may serve as a major training tool for the identification of guidelines. Once the job description is completed, a complete list of standards and procedures should be established from each responsibility outlined in the job description. This will standardize the necessary guidelines for any future training. STEP 3: DELIVER THE TRAINING PROGRAM:(This step is responsible for the instruction and delivery of the training program. Once you have designated your trainers, the training technique must be decided. One-on-one training, on-the-job training, group training, seminars, and workshops are the most popular methods.)
( Before presenting a training session,) make sure you have a thorough understanding of the following characteristics of an effective trainer. (The trainer should have: - A desire to teach the subject being taught. - A working knowledge of the subject being taught. - An ability to motivate participants to ³want´ to learn. - A good sense of humor. - A dynamic appearance and good posture. - A strong passion for their topic. - A strong compassion towards their participants.) - Appropriate audio/visual equipment to enhance the training session. For a training program to be successful, the trainer should be conscious of several essential elements, including a controlled environment, good planning, the use of various training methods, good communication skills, and trainee participation. STEP 4: EVALUATE THE TRAINING PROGRAM:(This step will determine how effective and profitable your training program has been. Methods for evaluation are pre-and post- surveys of customer comments cards, the establishment of a cost/benefit analysis outlining your expenses and returns, and an increase in customer satisfaction and profits.]
The reason for an evaluation system is simple. The evaluation of training programs are without a doubt the most important step in the training process. It is this step that will indicate the effectiveness of both the training as well as the trainer. There are several obvious benefits for evaluating a training program. First, evaluations will provide feedback on the trainer¶s performance, allowing them to improve themselves for future programs. Second, evaluations will indicate its costeffectiveness. Third, evaluations are an efficient way to determine the overall effectiveness of the training program for the employees as well as the organization. The importance of the evaluation process after the training is critical. Without it, the trainer does not have a true indication of the effectiveness of the training. Consider this information the next time you need to evaluate your training program. You will be amazed with the results. The need for training your employees has never been greater. As business and industry continues to grow, more jobs will become created and available. Customer demands, employee morale, employee productivity, and employee turnover as well as the current economic realties of a highly competitive workforce are just some of the reasons for establishing and implementing training in an organization. To be successful, all training must receive support from the top management as well as from the middle and supervisory levels of management. It is a team effort and must implemented by all members of the organization to be fully successful.
The method by which training is delivered often varies based on the needs of the company, the trainee, and on the task being performed. Ideally, the method chosen will motivate employees to learn, help employees prepare themselves for learning, enable the trainees to apply and practice what they've been taught, help trainees retain and transfer what they have learned, and integrate performance with other skills and knowledge. Other factors affecting the choice of a training method include: y Age, gender, or level of education of the trainees y Learning styles of the trainees y Number of trainees y Budget y Trainer's skills and training style
METHODS OF TRAINING :
The most widely used methods of training used by organizations are classified into two categories: On-the-Job Training & Off-the-Job Training.
ON THE JOB TRAINING :
ON-THE-JOB TRAINING is given at the work place by superior in relatively shorter period of time. This type of training is cheaper and less time consuming.
The following are the different methods by which training is imparted:
COACHING ±Coaching is learning by doing. In this, the superior guides his subordinates & gives him/her job instructions. The superior points out the mistakes & gives suggestions for improvement.
JOB ROTATION-In this method, the trainees move from one job to another, so
that he/she should be able to perform all types of jobs. E.g. In banking industry, employees are trained for both back-end & front-end jobs. In case of emergency, (absenteeism or resignation), any employee would be able to perform any type of job.
MENTORING -A mentor can tutor others in their learning. Mentors help
employees solve problems both through training them in skills and through modeling effective attitudes and behaviors. This system is sometimes known as a buddy system. Pros: It can take place before, during, or after a shift. It gives the trainee individual attention and immediate feedback. It also helps the trainee get information regarding the business culture and organizational structure. Cons: Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves on. If a properly trained mentor is not chosen, the trainee can pick up bad habits. When choosing from among these methods, the trainer must decide which one best suits the trainees, the environment, and the investments available. Many trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them. Others will select a single method that works best for them and never vary. With so many options, a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity.
OFF THE JOB TRAINING METHODS :
It is given outside the actual work place.
LECTURES -This approach is well adapted to convey specific information, rules,
procedures or methods. This method is useful, where the information is to be shared among a large number of trainees. The cost per trainee is low in this method. A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary education. Yet, it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners. In this method, one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. He or she may use handouts, visual aids, question/answer,
or posters to support the lecture. Communication is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner. Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details. Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally.
CONFERENCE -The conference training method is a good problem-solving
approach. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions.
Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. The trainees build consensus and the
trainer can use several methods (lecture, panel, seminar) to keep sessions interesting. Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the managers ideas, causing conflict.
FILMS It can provide information & explicitly demonstrate skills that are not
easily presented by other techniques. Motion pictures are often used in conjunction with Conference, discussions to clarify & amplify those points that the film emphasized.
SIMULATION EXERCISE - Any training activity that explicitly places the
trainee in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a Simulation. Simulation activities include case experiences, experiential exercises, vestibule training, management games & role-play.
DEMONSTRATION - Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training.
The trainer shows trainees how to do something. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to perform the task being demonstrated. Pros: This method emphasizes the trainee involvement. It engages several senses: seeing, hearing, feeling, touching. Cons: It requires a great deal of trainer preparation and planning. There also needs to be an adequate space for the training to take place. If the trainer is not skilled in the task being taught, poor work habits can be learned by the trainee.
ROLE PLAY - Its just like acting out a given role as in a stage play. In this
method of training, the trainees are required to enact defined roles on the basis of oral or written description of a particular situation. During a role play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training. Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. They get an opportunity to practice people skills. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers.
Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Trainers must be skilled and
creative in helping the class learn from the situation. In some role play situations, only a few people get to practice while others watch.
MANAGEMENT GAMES -The game is devised on a model of a business
situation. The trainees are divided into groups who represent the management of competing companies. They make decisions just like these are made in real-life situations. Decisions made by the groups are evaluated & the likely implications of the decisions are fed back to the groups. The game goes on in several rounds to take the time dimension into account.
-Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures,
discussions, conferences, demonstrations. Pros: Group members are involved in the training. The trainer can use many group methods as part of the seminar activity. Cons: Planning is time-consuming. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. More time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods.
PANEL -A panel provides several points of view on a topic to seek alternatives to
a situation. Panel members may have differing views but they must also have objective concerns for the purpose of the training. This is an excellent method for using outside resource people.
Pros: Trainees often find it interesting to hear different points of view. The process invites employees to share their opinions and they are challenged to consider alternatives. Cons: It requires a great deal of preparation. The results of the method can be difficult to evaluate.
CASE STUDIES - A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation
which contains information that trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. The trainees recommend solutions based on the content provided. Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important. Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions, making points, and keeping trainees on track.
PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) -These devices systematically present
information to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement principles to promote appropriate responses. When PI was originally developed in the 1950s, it was thought to be useful only for basic subjects. Today the method is used for skills as diverse as air traffic control, blueprint reading, and the analysis of tax returns.
COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) -With CAI, students can
learn at their own pace, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Educational alternatives can be quickly selected to suit the student's capabilities, and performance can be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
AUDIOVISUAL TECHNIQUES -Both television and film extend the range of
skills that can be taught and the way information may be presented. Many systems have electronic blackboards and slide projection equipment. The use of techniques that combine audiovisual systems such as closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining.
NEW TRENDS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT :
The importance of training and development programs for organizational competitiveness, and highlighting the role of HRM(Human Resource Management Department or Professional) as its facilitator. To amplify more on the issue, it should be noted that the HRM is confronted with dynamic changes in approaches and methodologies in training and development. There are at least six critical trends in training that should be taken into serious account by HRM professionals and organizations, to wit: 1. Adopt a Performance Consulting Strategy 2. Measure Results to See Impact 3. Training Delivery Is Changing 4. Training Delivery Systems Are in Transformation
5. Your Customer Is the Individual Employee 6. Training is Delivered Just-in-time, as Needed Training and development programs are supposed to be designed and implemented to correct and/or improve employee¶s or organization¶s performance. And results there from should be measured against projected or set training goals and objectives. The assessment at the end of the program will not suffice. (Some organizations tend to use this to measure the effectiveness of the training. This is very superficial, ineffective, and is based only on the impression of the training activity not its results.) Metrics should have been defined even before the training plan is approved. Otherwise, it would be a waste of resources to train people when there are no metrics in place to evaluate learning and improvements results. Sarah is correct to observe that most training programs are out of the shelf, catalogs, and have lost their effectiveness. They are no longer performance related. In my book, these are what you call university or academic approaches to human resource training and development.
Training and development programs, first and foremost , should address a discrepancy between the current performance of the employee and to what is expected (based on his detailed job description or KRA (Key Result Area) sheet. In cases of advancement, the discrepancy is the difference between the current performance (that is, the employee is meeting desired performance criteria and goals) compared against the desired level of performance when new responsibilities are added or where promotion to the next job level is expected. Again, here is why performance evaluation and metrics are very important.
With the introduction of internet, intranet, and multi-media devices, training delivery and systems are indeed changing. The HRM should be able to harness these new systems to achieve better results from training. Plus, the emphasis on training employees who are expert on certain topics to train others is indeed occurring. The trainers¶ and HRM roles on this should focus on developing good trainers out of this employees. In the first place, they are more credible trainers when it comes to their areas of expertise. Training skills are thus required to make them effective trainers.
It is good news that more and more trainers and HRM professionals are adopting the JIT* (just in time) system in training. Sometimes, the underlying causes for this are entirely insignificant to training such as improvement on the work process, machine problems, psychological issues like the lack of motivation, etc. However, issues that needs to be addressed should be acted upon immediately. Training and development programs, however the methods and trends are, will continue to remain the most effective means of producing and maintaining a highly competitive workforce. The HRM must endeavor to put more efforts towards effective implementations y Creating Training Stickiness Before the Employee Training Sessions You can do the following in advance of the employee training session to increase the likelihood that the training you do will actually transfer to the workplace. y Make sure the need is a training and development opportunity- Do thorough needs and skills analysis to determine the real need for employee training and development. Make sure the opportunity you are pursuing or the problem you are solving is a training issue.
If the employee is failing in some aspect of her job, determine whether you have provided the employee with the time and tools needed to perform the job. Does the employee clearly understand what is expected from her on the job? Ask yourself whether the employee has the temperament and talent necessary for her current position; consider whether the job is a good skill, ability, and interest fit
y Create a context for the employee training and development - Provide information for the employee about why the new skills, skill enhancement, or information is necessary. Make certain the employee understands the link between the training and his job. You can enhance the impact of the training even further if the employee sees the link between the training and his ability to contribute to the accomplishment of the organization's business plan and goals. It's also important to provide rewards and recognition as a result of successful completion and application of the training. (People like completion certificates, for instance. One company I know lists employee names and completed training sessions in the company newsletter. y Provide training and development that is really relevant to the skill you want the employee to attain - or the information he needs to expand his work horizons. You may need to design an employee training session internally if nothing from training providers exactly meets your needs. Or, seek out providers who are willing to customize their offerings to match your specific needs.
It is ineffective to ask an employee to attend a training session on general communication when his immediate need is to learn how to provide
feedback in a way that minimizes defensive behavior. The employee will regard the training session as mostly a waste of time or too basic; his complaints will invalidate potential learning. y Favor employee training and development that has measurable objectives and specified outcomes - that will transfer back to the job. Design or obtain employee training that has clearly stated objectives with measurable outcomes. Ascertain that the content leads the employee to attaining the skill or information promised in the objectives. y Provide information for the employee about exactly what the training session will involve - prior to the training. Explain what is expected of the employee at the training session. This will help reduce the person's normal anxiety about trying something new. If she knows what to expect, she can focus on the learning and training transfer rather than her potential discomfort with the unknown. y Make clear to the employee that the training is her responsibility and she needs to take the employee training seriously. This includes completing pre-training assignments, actively participating in the session, and applying new ideas and skills upon returning to work. y Make sure that internal or external training providers supply pre-training assignments. Reading or thought-provoking exercises in advance of the session promote thoughtful consideration of the training content. Exercises or self-assessments, provided and scored in advance of the session, save precious training time for interaction and new information. These ideas will
engage the employee in thinking about the subject of the session prior to the training day. This supplies important paybacks in terms of his interest, commitment, and involvement. y Train supervisors and managers either first or simultaneously so they know and understand the skills - and information provided in the training session. This will allow the supervisor to: model the appropriate behavior and learning, provide an environment in which the employee can apply the training, and create the clear expectation that she expects to see different behavior or thinking as a result of the training. An executive, who has participated in the same training as the rest of the organization, is a powerful role model when he is observed applying the training. y Train managers and supervisors in their role in the training process The average supervisor has rarely experienced effective training during his career. Even more rare is the supervisor who has worked in an environment that maximized transfer of training to the actual workplace. Thus it is a mistake to believe that supervisors automatically know what must happen for effective training to take place. y You can coach supervisors about their role - Provide a handy tip sheet that explains in detail the organization¶s expectations of the supervisor in support of effective training. At one General Motors location, the education and training staff provided a three-hour class called, The Organization and the Training Process. The session was most effective in communicating roles and responsibilities to supervisory staff.
Ask supervisors to meet with employees prior to the training session - to accomplish all I have recommended in this article. Discuss with the individual what he hopes to learn in the session. Discuss any concerns he may have about applying the training in the work environment. Determine if key learning points are important for the organization in return for the investment of his time in the training. Identify any obstacles the employee may expect to experience as he transfers the training to the workplace.
CASE STUDY :
Nestlé is today the world¶s leading food company, with a 135-year history and operations in virtually every country in the world. Nestlé¶s principal assets are not office buildings, factories, or even brands. Rather, it is the fact that they are a global organization comprised of many nationalities, religions, and ethnic backgrounds all working together in one single unifying corporate culture.
Culture at Nestlé and Human Resources Policy
Nestlé culture unifies people on all continents. The most important parts of Nestlé¶s business strategy and culture are the development of human capacity in each country where they operate. Learning is an integral part of Nestlé¶s culture. This is firmly stated in The Nestlé Human Resources Policy, a totally new policy that encompasses the guidelines that constitute a sound basis for efficient and effective human resource management. People development is the driving force of the policy, which includes clear principles on non-discrimination, the right of collective bargaining as well as the strict prohibition of any form of harassment. The policy deals with recruitment, remuneration and training and development and
emphasizes individual responsibility, strong leadership and a commitment to lifelong learning as required characteristics for Nestlé managers.
Training Programs at Nestlé
The willingness to learn is therefore an essential condition to be employed by Nestlé. First and foremost, training is done on-the-job. Guiding and coaching is part of the responsibility of each manager and is crucial to make each one progress in his/her position. Formal training programs are generally purpose-oriented and designed to improve relevant skills and competencies. Therefore they are proposed in the framework of individual development programs and not as a reward.
Most of Nestlé¶s people development programs assume a good basic education on the part of employees. However, in a number of countries, we have decided to offer employees the opportunity to upgrade their essential literacy skills.
A number of Nestlé companies have therefore set up special programs for those who, for one reason or another, missed a large part of their elementary schooling. These programs are especially important as they introduce increasingly sophisticated production techniques into each country where they operate. As the level of technology in Nestlé factories has steadily risen, the need for training has increased at all levels. Much of this is on-the-job training to develop the specific skills to operate more advanced equipment. But it¶s not only new technical abilities that are required. It¶s sometimes new working practices. For example, more flexibility and more independence among work teams are sometimes needed if equipment is to operate at maximum efficiency. ³Sometimes we have debates in class and we are afraid to stand up. But our facilitators tell us to stand up because one day we might be in the parliament!´ (Maria Modiba, Production line worker, Babelegi factory, Nestlé South Africa).
Nestlé Apprenticeship Program
Apprenticeship programs have been an essential part of Nestlé training where the young trainees spent three days a week at work and two at school. Positive results observed but some of these soon ran into a problem. At the end of training, many students were hired away by other companies which provided no training of their own. ³My two elder brothers worked here before me. Like them, for me the Nestlé Apprenticeship Program in Nigeria will not be the end of my training but it will provide me with the right base for further advancement. We should have more apprentices here as we are trained so well!´ (John Edobor Eghoghon, Apprentice Mechanic, Agbara Factory, Nestlé Nigeria) ³It¶s not only a matter of learning bakery; we also learn about microbiology, finance, budgeting, costs, sales, how to treat the customer, and so on. That is the reason I think that
this is really something that is going to give meaning to my life. It will be very useful for everything.´ (Jair Andrés Santa, Apprentice Baker, La Rosa Factory Dosquebradas, Nestlé Columbia).
Two-thirds of all Nestlé employees work in factories, most of which organize continuous training to meet their specific needs. In addition, a number of Nestlé operating companies run their own residential training centers. The result is that local training is the largest component of Nestlé¶s people development activities worldwide and a substantial majority of the company¶s 240000 employees receive training every year. Ensuring appropriate and continuous training is an official part of every manager¶s responsibilities and, in many cases; the manager is personally involved in the teaching. For this reason, part of the training structure in every company is focused on developing managers¶ own coaching skills. Additional courses are held outside the factory when required, generally in connection with the operation of new technology. The variety of programs is very extensive. They start with continuation training for ex-apprentices who have the potential to become supervisors or section leaders, and continue through several levels of technical, electrical and maintenance engineering as well as IT management. The degree to which factories develop ³home-grown´ specialists varies considerably, reflecting the availability of trained people on the job market in each country. On-the-job training is also a key element of career development in commercial and administrative positions. Here too, most courses are delivered in-house by Nestlé trainers but, as the level rises, collaboration with external institutes increases. ³As part of the Young Managers¶ Training Program I was sent to a different part of the country and began by selling
small portions of our Maggi bouillon cubes to the street stalls, the µsari sari¶ stores, in my country. Even though most of my main key accounts are now supermarkets, this early exposure were an invaluable learning experience and will help me all my life.´ (Diane Jennifer Zabala, Key Account Specialist, Sales, Nestle Philippines). ³Through its education and training program, Nestlé manifests its belief that people are the most important asset. In my case, I was fortunate to participate in Nestlé¶s Young Managers Program at the start of my Nestlé career, in 1967. This foundation has sustained me all these years up to my present position of CEO of one of the top 12 Nestlé companies in the world.´ (Juan Santos, CEO, Nestlé Philippines) Virtually every national Nestlé company organizes management-training courses for new employees with High school or university qualifications. But their approaches vary considerably. In Japan, for example, they consist of a series of short courses typically lasting three days each. Subjects include human assessment skills, leadership and strategy as well as courses for new supervisors and new key staff. In Mexico, Nestlé set up a national training center in 1965. In addition to those following regular training programs, some 100 people follow programs for young managers there every year. These are based on a series of modules that allows tailored courses to be offered to each participant. Nestlé Pakistan runs 12month programs for management trainees in sales and marketing, finance and human resources, as well as in milk collection and agricultural services. These involve periods of fieldwork, not only to develop a broad range of skills but also to introduce new employees to company organization and systems. The scope of local training is expanding. The growing familiarity with information technology has enabled ³distance learning´ to become a valuable resource, and many Nestlé companies have appointed corporate training assistants in this area. It has the great
advantage of allowing students to select courses that meet their individual needs and do the work at their own pace, at convenient times. In Singapore, to quote just one example, staff is given financial help to take evening courses in job-related subjects. Fees and expenses are reimbursed for successfully following courses leading to a trade certificate, a high school diploma, university entrance qualifications, and a bachelor¶s degree.
Nestlé¶s success in growing local companies in each country has been highly influenced by the functioning of its international Training Centre, located near our company¶s corporate headquarters in Switzerland. For over 30 years, the Rive-Reine International Training Centre has brought together managers from around the world to learn from senior Nestlé managers and from each other.Country managers decide who attends which course, although there is central screening for qualifications, and classes are carefully composed to include people with a range of geographic and functional backgrounds. Typically a class contains 15±20 nationalities. The Centre delivers some 70 courses, attended by about 1700 managers each year from over 80 countries. All course leaders are Nestlé managers with many years of experience in a range of countries. Only 25% of the teaching is done by outside professionals, as the primary faculty is the Nestlé senior management. The programs can be broadly divided into two groups: Management courses: these account for about 66% of all courses at Rive-Reine. The participants have typically been with the company for four to five years. The intention is to develop a real appreciation of Nestlé values and business approaches. These courses focus on internal activities.
Executive courses: these classes often contain people who have attended a management course five to ten years earlier. The focus is on developing the ability to represent Nestlé externally and to work with outsiders. It emphasizes industry analysis, often asking: ³What would you do if you were a competitor?´
Nestlé¶s overarching principle is that each employee should have the opportunity to develop to the maximum of his or her potential. Nestlé do this because they believe it pays off in the long run in their business results, and that sustainable long-term relationships with highly competent people and with the communities where they operate enhance their ability to make consistent profits. It is important to give people the opportunities for life-long learning as at Nestle that all employees are called upon to upgrade their skills in a fast-changing world. By offering opportunities to develop, they not only enrich themselves as a company, they also make themselves individually more autonomous, confident, and, in turn, more employable and open to new positions within the company. Enhancing this virtuous circle is the ultimate goal of their training efforts at many different levels through the thousands of training programs they run each year. So in these way, training and development are needed because they enhance employees' skills and reveal hidden capabilities in the area in which they work. By training and developing workers, the productivity of a company can be increased and company growth in many areas can be realized. This increases company profitability and (hopefully) allows employees to make more money and rise in the company structure. All this equates to a win-win for the company and those employed there.