1 2

3 5 6 7 12 13


1 . Instead politics also plays a major part in keeping the relationship between countries and nations. affairs and matters in a certain state and government only. As we know much had happened in this world such as wars between the Soviet bloc and Soviet Union. All these factors have an influence on the role and behavior of international organizations and upon their forgotten capabilities to deal global problems. the war between Iran and Iraq and also the Gulf war.Introduction Politics in this modern world does not only concern in the structure. Therefore. we would like to talk about International Organization in this assignment so as to understand better and deeper in this important side of the political world.

Only the foundation of it was built in the ancient times. 2 . (1992) is an organization that represents a form of institution that refers to a formal system of rules and objectives. Claude Inis stated the definition of international organization as a process. It only started to appear in the nineteenth century. In short. letterhead stationery.Chapter One Definition The term international organization did not exists in the olden days. international organization is an organization with an international membership. local chapters. machines. or presence. when they were formed among political structures known as nation-states. an administrative hierarchy and so forth. emblems. physical equipment. a staff. International organization as defined by Archer C. that represents the aspects of the phase of that process which has been reached at a given time. a rationalized administrative instrument and which has a formal technical material organization: constitutions. scope.

examples: The Coca Cola Company and Toyota. However. ethnic.Regional organizations .generally open to nations worldwide as long as certain criteria are met. linguistic. II. they are: a) International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs): Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that operate internationally. and Association (ASEAN).open to members from a particular region(-s) or continent(-s) of the world. 3 . . The type of organization most closely associated with the term ³international organization´. these may either be: I. . This category includes the Council of Europe (CoE). II.Cultural. This category includes the United Nations (UN) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Examples include the World Organization of the Scout Movement and International Committee of the Red Cross. there are organizations that are made up primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states). this organization is classified into 4 categories: . religious. International Non-Profit Organizations. linguistic. or historical organizations . European Union (EU). NATO. International Corporations referred to as multinational corporations.Chapter Two Classification of International Organizations An International organization can be classified into two parts. b) Intergovernmental Organization known as International Governmental Organizations (IGOs): to members based on some cultural.Worldwide or global organizations .

religious. also exist. the reduction of trade barriers (the World Trade Organization) and International Monetary Fund. or of historical link. such as the Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC). International cartels. Some organizations.based on economic organization. Nations. such as NATO. have collective security or mutual defense provisions.ethnic. Others are focused on international development. orOrganization . Some are dedicated to free trade. An example of a recently-formed economic IGO is the Bank of the South III.Economic organizations . 4 . The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development was founded as an economics-focused organization. Examples of the include Islamic the Commonwealth Conference.

O The United Nations Charter outlines all its subsequent relationships and programmes based on certain objectives and principles. 2. or religion. sex. They are: 1. and 4. To maintain international peace and security. Collective responsibility in the enforcement of UN actions. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples. To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends. 3. Settlement of international disputes through peaceful means. 2. Equal rights of men and women. Furthermore. and 5. and to bring about by peaceful means. and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace. social. 3. and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace. and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinctions as to race. Sovereign equality of all members. Non-interference in the internal affairs of any state. cultural. language. or humanitarian character. To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economics.Chapter Three Objectivesof the U. and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace. 4. and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law.N. the UN Charter is based on the following five principles: 1. adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace. 5 . The UN Charter clearly specifies four objectives.

retains the right to determine its own internal and external affairs. each state. 6 . The UN may not interfere in the domestic affairs of any country. 2. 4. 5.Chapter Four The Principles of the United Nations Basically. at least in legal theory. Sovereignty equality of members Means that. 3. Equal rights of men and women. The UN Charter attempts to strengthen international tranquility and security by permitting regional arrangements. Countries must avoid using force or threatening to use force. which are: 1. Settlement of international disputes through peaceful means. These principles are companion principles critical to the maintenance of interventional peace and security. there are FIVE complementary principles of the United Nations.

the Security Council determines that a threat exists. The five permanent members are U.. for the maintenance of international peace and security. It consists of fifteen members where five are permanent and ten are temporary. the disputants are obliged to bring matter to the Security Council. which are:i Deliberation i Enforcement i Election Under Deliberation. Each of the fifteen members has one representative continuously present in the UN headquarter. it will try to encourage the disputants to come to a peaceful settlement themselves. France.A. it may make recommendations. it includes activities such as discussion. investigation and giving recommendations.S. However. under the charter. There are 3 main functions of the Security Council. First of all.Chapter Five The Organs of the United Nations There are 5 organsaltogether:y y y y y The Security Council The Economic and Social Council The International Courts of Justice The Trusteeship Council The Secretariat The Security Council One of the five organs of United Nations and the most effective. The Security Council has the primary responsibility. Russia. China and Britain while the ten non-permanent members are elected for a two-year terms by the General Assembly where they are chosen as to ensure an unbiased geographic distribution of power in the Security Council. Each of the five permanent members can veto an action deliberated by the council. if this step fails. if after investigating a situation. 7 .Thus.

In addition to dealing with disputes between nations. the Council's first concern is to bring it to an end as soon as possible. It may send UN peace-keeping forces to help decrease tensions in troubled areas or decide on economic sanctions (such as trade embargoes) or collective military action. when a dispute leads to war. the Security Council also deals with other threats to world peace such as armament stockpiling and the problem of controlling atomic energy. This is where the enforcement function comes. a positive vote by all permanent members is required. On the other hand. the elective function of the Security Council varies depending on the issue. An affirmative vote by all permanent members when making decisions on procedural matters is not required but when a situation is not procedural such as decisions on an enforcement action or making recommendations and certain voting procedures. Sub-units of the Security Council: i UNTSO (United Nations Truce Supervision Organization in Palestine) i UNMOGIP (United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan) i UNFICYP (United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus) i UNEF (United Nations Emergency Force) i UNDOF (United Nations Disengagement Observer Force) i Military Staff Committee i Disarmament Commission ( with the General Assembly) 8 . The Security Council has a great deal of control in the election of new members as they are only admitted after being recommended by the Security Council.However.

N shall aid in the creation of conditions of stability and well being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations ± Article 55). y Each of these and other specialised agencies has its own Charter. a President and his 2 Vice-President are elected and each member is allowed in the meeting to vote. educational. y This council has 2 session each year. World Health Organization. In the beginning of each session. y The council ³may make or initiate studies and reports with respect economic. The council may prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly.The Economic and Social Council y y Focus on socio-economic cooperation and development among nations. the Economic and Social Council fulfills 3 main functions.N Children¶s Fund.N Development programmes.´ y The council gathers the information regarding population growth. structure. and etc. cultural. y It also makes recommendations to the General Assembly and other specialized agencies of the U. refugee problems and etc. 9 . it helps to reduce international tension.) y In promoting the ideals (U. social. budget and staff.N. Under this council there are many specialized agencies such as U. Although the economic and social problems are not the sole cause of international conflicts. y This is why the U. (This draft is a written proposal of agreement) y The Economic and Social Council act as an umbrella organization.N included a separate organ called the Economic and Social Council which the council decides by its own about rules and procedures. health and related matters. U. All decisions are made amongst the 54 members (elected for 3 years terms by the General Assembly.

y The International Court of Justice only hears cases which referred to it by the General Assembly and the Security Council. it must o Involve a dispute contending claims between states o Be justifiable. supervision of those non-self-governing territories that were designated as trust territories. The y Cases are decided by a majority vote of the participating judges (9 judges constitute a quorum). For a case to reach the Court. social and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the territory. and they have the right to choose the President and Vice-President of the court. economic. no 2 judges are allowed to come from the same country. The Trusteeship Council y y Currently almost an inactive body of the U. In order to remove any national bias. International Court located at The Hague. the International Court of Justice is unable to enforce its rulings without the help of the Security Council and it also relies on the moral weight of its decisions. Each judge serves a nine-year term and the term are staggered so that only five judges come up for re-election every 3 years.N The main functions of the Council was to provide (on behalf of the international community). In case of a tie. or be subject to settlement on that basis of law o Be referred to the court y Basically. 10 . to be used as a basis for report by the administrative authority. Netherlands. y The judges are permanently in session except for holidays. y In articles 87 and 88. the Charter indicate the main methods for exercising this supervisory role: o The preparation of a detailed questionnaire on the political. the President has a casting vote.The International Court of Justice y Is made up of fifteen judges who are elected by a majority vote by both the General Assembly.

The Secretariat It is the administrative body of the UN and it is under the leadership of a Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year. a person from a nonaligned state has always filled the position. some departments. work closely with other bodies of the organization. and a written report from the Trusteeship Council to the General Assembly o The receipt and examination of positions from individuals or groups within the trust territory o Periodic visits to each trust territory by delegates of the Trusteeship Council y The council consist 14 members and 5 of them were permanent members of the Security Council and the rest were elected by the general Assembly. The Secretary General can also bring any matters of international concerns to the Security Council. The duties of a Secretary General is to prepare the budget of the United Nations. the Secretariat had some 40. several departments were created within the secretariat. These departments provide administrative and organizational skills. It is done for other bodies of the UN and its members. the Secretary General also plays an important political role as he or she has to make an annual repo on the rt works of the organization where he or she can state his or her opinion and recommendations. renewable term. gathering and analyzing information. However. In order to undertake this dynamic vote. like the Department of Social Affairs. In addition. 11 . Furthermore. As of 30 June 2009.o A comprehensive oral examination of the spokesperson for the administering authority based on the reply to the questionnaire. Since the position of the secretary general requires neutrality. economic and cultural trends. the Secretary General is the only person that represents the United Nations as a whole in negotiating with governments and organizations.publish statistics on societal. The secretariat organizes and directs the varied activities required for the continued operations of the United Nations. controlling expenses and collecting the contributions from members.000 staff members around the world. allocating funds.

they are. there are basically 5 principals. Chapter two. There are altogether 4 objectives.Conclusion In this assignment. we looked at the organs of United Nations which as the intermediary. we divided it into four chapters and they are: Chapter one. There are 5 organs altogether. In chapter three. which talks about the definition of international organization between different people and later summarized it according to our understanding. The next chapter we talked about the principles of United Nations. International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs) and also Intergovernmental Organization knows as International Governmental Organizations (IGOs). In the last chapter. 12 . we stated the objectives of United Nations. we discuss on the classifications of international organization which are divided into two parts.

International Organizations.Bibliography A.: International UK: Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited. 3rd edition.: Intergovernmental Organization. International Organizations Principles and Issues. New York: Routledge.un.International Organizations: Perspectives on Governance in the Twenty-First States: Prentice-Hall. Retrieved on: 10 May 2010 Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia.shtml. UK: Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited.Singapore. Introduction to Political Science. http://en. People. (1994). Inc. Pease. Kelly-Kate S (2000).org/wiki/Intergovernmental_organization. James John Guy. Clive Roskin and friends. Abdul Rashid Moten. (1993). 13 . Retrieved on: 19 May 2010. Fifth Retrieved on: 19 May 2010 Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Politics and Government ± A Canadian Perspective. Article 39 from the Charter of the United Nations http://www. Syed Serajul Islam. (1995).5th edition. (2001). Micheal G.wikipedia.wikipedia. http://en. 6th edition. Leroy Bennett. (2009). Political Science: An Introduction.2nd edition.