Gender Identity Final

Running head: GENDER IDENTITY

1

Gender Identity Latonia Wells Psy 340 01-27-2011 Eldridgr Newlin

cultural belief systems as expressed both in stereotypes and behaviors and in institutionalized . and is a result of biological or there are mental factors. and this means identification with self as male. change the way he or she dresses. Gender identity disorder is more prevalent in males than in females. hormonal imbalances during fetal and solid development or the environment. behaviors. This individual also may express the desire to display mannerisms. Environmental factors that have an effect on gender would be society¶s expectations of how an individual should behave or portray him or herself. Gender development is a complex interaction among biological gender differences. social interactions personal experiences.GENDER IDENTITY 2 Gender Identity Gender Identity In this paper the subject will discuss gender identity and the interaction between hormones and behavior and how these interactions affect how gender is determined. in some rare cases individuals have thought of him or herself of both or neither. Gender identity is one identification with him or herself. Gender is derived from a Latin word genus. and even alter their bodies to express his or her their desire. acts or present themselves as the opposite sex. As research as shown there is no clear explanation for gender identity but some researchers believe that it is caused by a genetic abnormalities. and environmental setting. Gender identity has been defined as a person¶s concept of themselves as either male or female. Gender identity disorder is when an individual is uncomfortable with the actual anatomic gender and identifies. or intersex. We will explore biological factors and their influences and also discuss if nature or nurture has the greatest influence on gender identity. Gender identification is often based on legal status. female.

the child's own developing understanding of gender and what it means to be female or male (n. There some researchers who believe that gender is an outward expression of beliefs and experiences with their public and social environments. Such was also the case during frontier days in America and among low status minority women who have been required to fulfill domestic and factory jobs.GENDER IDENTITY 3 structures such as school and the workplace.d). The subject of gender identity is most often discussed merely in terms of dysfunction. Men are often responsible for work outside of the homes. when this behavior is allowed. among 21st century urban professional women. The most far-reaching effect of our genetic makeup is the determination of physical sexual characteristics. When children are born from the very first day of their lives boys and girls are treated differently. This is a form of gender behavior being taught through an implicit and explicit message. and equally important. It has even been argued that gender is based on different roles that people are expected to fulfill. For example in some societies man women are expected to perform different roles in the home and work setting. Gender development originates from the moment of conception. In the 21st century women engage in some of the same activities and professions as men and these professions were once stereotyped for the role of the man. and he or she is treated in that manner from a very young age. In contrast. and it is central to the development of gender identity. and women often responsible for maintaining the duties inside the home. fathers generally interact . Gender differences emerge and environmental settings at an early age for example ³when boys are allowed to play with makeup or dress in girl¶s clothing. Our physical appearance as male or female has a powerful influence on how we perceive ourselves and are perceived by others. and the diagnosis of gender identity disorder is a known phenomenon in both children and adults. Boy¶s considered to be stronger and much rougher than girls. For example. sweating may be acceptable at the gym but not at the workplace (Schwartz).

He shared that his gender was inherent. 2003). Result of the study identified several factors were found to be related to their interpersonal relationships and how they were perceived. The most current argument as related to gender identity is the nature versus nurture and the role of heredity and environment as related to gender identity. One case study discussed a transsexual who was born a male in the 70s he shared that his identity was inherent. There is evidence that hormonal effects during fetal development play a significant role in how the gender is determined. Mothers' interactions with adolescents. Another subject in the case study shared that gender is not . In some households boys are allowed to have more freedom and independence than girls because there is the perception that boys can handle themselves in a different manner from their sisters.. A study was conducted to investigate the influence of environmental factors on sexual orientation on people who have gender identity issues.GENDER IDENTITY 4 with their adolescents through focusing on instrumental goals (e. and is associated with his psychological sex and not his outward appearance. This debate has been ongoing for some time and has gained much attention from advocates on both sides of the argument. school and athletic achievement. on the other hand. tend to be marked more by discussions of personal issues (Parental Roles. Parents want to keep girls at close range so they can watch and that sense of protection because they are looked at as delicate.g. The process of the study identified which environmental factors they believed played a strong role in their sexual orientation. Some argued that biology is solely responsible for gender identity and have conducted research to provide scientific evidence to prove this theory. future plans) and objective issues such as political discussions. and as a young child he tried to conform to the societal norms of being a boy to decrease being ridiculed and bullied. Parents perceive girls to be fragile and delicate and have a tendency of handling in interacting with girls and a different manner than that they do with boys.

I believe that both nature and nurture play a role in which gender is most identified with by an individual. In the argument of nature there was a study conducted in 2008 at several universities where the study the DNA samples from the hundred and 112 American an Australian male to female transsexuals. and being subjected to a controlled environment. then this it is a learned behavior. pressures from peers to picture a specific gender. For example there is story news recently about a lady who allows her son to wear dresses. In conclusion I believe that subject of nature versus nurture has related to gender identity will always be an ongoing debate about which is the legitimate influence of the behavior. Other environmental factors that affect gender or social influences. I am not sure how much research can be done to solidify this argument. They choose other roles of gender and sexuality sometimes not by choice but by force. One of the hormones called androgen receptor gene was found to be longer in the transsexual subjects who are non-transsexual. These DNA samples were compared to samples of typical men and were focused on three specific gene encoding sex hormones. In my very own opinion and through personal experiences with knowing people who have had issues with gender identity there is no argument about which is the cause. she shared that she wants him to be happy. .GENDER IDENTITY 5 instilled by family or society he shared his experiences also psychological and from within. The conclusion of this study was that androgen receptor gene found in transsexuals may produce less testosterone that increases their ability to identify the more with the female. For example people who have been incarcerated for long periods. personal experiences. sexual abuse. If this boy grows up and had issues with his gender. As for the argument of nurture some believe that gender identity is a learned behavior. which is an unfortunate situation but in today¶s society it happens every day. When she appeared on the Today show.

(Publication No. from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text. AAT 3354301)..Pennsylvania. Chestnut Hill College. Parental Roles.d).credoreference.GENDER IDENTITY 6 References Gender Is Determined Biologically and Socially.s Cultures. Retrieved January 26. 2011. (n.D. K. dissertation. Retrieved from http://www. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. (2003). In Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World&apos. United States -. Psy.com/entry/sprsg/parental_roles Schwartz. . Social environmental factors that influence comfort with sexual orientation: Differences between young adult sexual-minority males and females.

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