8-1 Angle Measure and Rotation

Unit 8 Trigonometric and Circular Functions

Concepts and Objectives
Arc Measurement and Rotation (Obj. #26) Convert between degrees and radians Calculate the length of an arc intercepted by a given angle Calculate the area of a sector

Radian Measure
Up until now, we have measured angles in degrees. Another unit of measure that mathematicians use is called radian measure. y An angle with its vertex at the center of a circle that intercepts an arc on the circle equal in length to the radius of the circle has a measure of 1 radian.
r

θ
r x

θ = 1 radian

Radian Measure
You should recall that the circumference of a circle is given by C = 2πr, where r is the radius of the circle. An angle of 360°, which corresponds to a complete circle, intercepts an arc equal to the circumference.
360° = 2π radians 180° = π radians

π 1° = radians 180

180° 1 radian = π

If no unit of angle measure is specified, then the angle is understood to be measured in radians.

Radians and Degrees
Converting between radians and degrees is just like converting between any other type of units: Put the unit you are converting from on the bottom, and the unit you are converting to on the top. Example: Convert 120° to radians. 120° 1 π 180° = 120π 180 = 2π radians 3

Radians and Degrees
Example: Convert 57° 48' to radians 48 57°48' = 57 + = 57.8° 60  π  57.8π = 0.321π ≈ 1.01 radians 57.8°  = 180  180° 
3π Example: Convert radians to degrees 5

3π  180   π  = 3(36 ) = 108° 5 

Unit Circle
2π 120° = 3 3π 135° = 4 5π 150° = 6
180° = π

90° =

π 2

60° =

π 3 π 45° = 4 π 30° = 6
0° = 0 360° = 2π

210° =

7π 6

225° =

5π 4 4π 240° = 3π 3 270° = 2

11π 330° = 6 7π 315° = 4 5π 300° = 3

Arc Length of a Circle
The length of an arc is proportional to the measure of its central angle.
s

The length s of the arc on a circle of radius r by a central angle measuring θ is given by s = rθ (θ must be in radians)

θ
r

Arc Length of a Circle
Example: Find the length to the nearest hundredth of the arc intercepted by the given central angle and radius. 5π r = 1.38 ft, θ = 6  5π  s = (1.38 )   ≈ 3.61 ft  6  Remember—the angle measure must be in radians. If you are given an angle measure in degrees, you must convert it into radians.

Arc Length of a Circle
Example: Two gears are adjusted so that the smaller gear drives the larger one. If the smaller gear rotates through an angle of 225°, through how many degrees will the larger gear rotate? 25π 5π = 4.8θ 225° = 8 4 2.5 cm 4.8 cm 125π θ= radians s = rθ 192 5π    125π  180°  = 2.5   =    4   192  π  25π = cm ≈ 117° 8

Area of a Sector of a Circle
Recall that a sector is the portion of the interior of the circle intercepted by a central angle. The area of the sector is proportional to the area of the circle.

The area A of a sector of a circle of radius r and central angle θ is given by 1 2 A= r θ 2 (θ must be in radians)

θ
r

Area of a Sector of a Circle
Example: Find the area of a sector of a circle having the given radius r and central angle θ.

2π r = 59.8 km, θ = 3
1 2  2π  A = 59.8   = 3745 km2 2  3 

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Homework
College Algebra (brown book) Page 565: 10, 15, 25-65 (×5s), 68, 71, 75-90 (×5s), 120, 124, 126 Turn in: 30, 50, 68, 80, 88, 90, 126