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Unit 8 Trigonometric and Circular Functions

**Concepts and Objectives
**

Arc Measurement and Rotation (Obj. #26) Convert between degrees and radians Calculate the length of an arc intercepted by a given angle Calculate the area of a sector

Radian Measure

Up until now, we have measured angles in degrees. Another unit of measure that mathematicians use is called radian measure. y An angle with its vertex at the center of a circle that intercepts an arc on the circle equal in length to the radius of the circle has a measure of 1 radian.

r

θ

r x

θ = 1 radian

Radian Measure

You should recall that the circumference of a circle is given by C = 2πr, where r is the radius of the circle. An angle of 360°, which corresponds to a complete circle, intercepts an arc equal to the circumference.

360° = 2π radians 180° = π radians

π 1° = radians 180

180° 1 radian = π

If no unit of angle measure is specified, then the angle is understood to be measured in radians.

**Radians and Degrees
**

Converting between radians and degrees is just like converting between any other type of units: Put the unit you are converting from on the bottom, and the unit you are converting to on the top. Example: Convert 120° to radians. 120° 1 π 180° = 120π 180 = 2π radians 3

**Radians and Degrees
**

Example: Convert 57° 48' to radians 48 57°48' = 57 + = 57.8° 60 π 57.8π = 0.321π ≈ 1.01 radians 57.8° = 180 180°

3π Example: Convert radians to degrees 5

3π 180 π = 3(36 ) = 108° 5

Unit Circle

2π 120° = 3 3π 135° = 4 5π 150° = 6

180° = π

90° =

π 2

60° =

π 3 π 45° = 4 π 30° = 6

0° = 0 360° = 2π

210° =

7π 6

225° =

5π 4 4π 240° = 3π 3 270° = 2

11π 330° = 6 7π 315° = 4 5π 300° = 3

**Arc Length of a Circle
**

The length of an arc is proportional to the measure of its central angle.

s

The length s of the arc on a circle of radius r by a central angle measuring θ is given by s = rθ (θ must be in radians)

•

θ

r

**Arc Length of a Circle
**

Example: Find the length to the nearest hundredth of the arc intercepted by the given central angle and radius. 5π r = 1.38 ft, θ = 6 5π s = (1.38 ) ≈ 3.61 ft 6 Remember—the angle measure must be in radians. If you are given an angle measure in degrees, you must convert it into radians.

**Arc Length of a Circle
**

Example: Two gears are adjusted so that the smaller gear drives the larger one. If the smaller gear rotates through an angle of 225°, through how many degrees will the larger gear rotate? 25π 5π = 4.8θ 225° = 8 4 2.5 cm 4.8 cm 125π θ= radians s = rθ 192 5π 125π 180° = 2.5 = 4 192 π 25π = cm ≈ 117° 8

**Area of a Sector of a Circle
**

Recall that a sector is the portion of the interior of the circle intercepted by a central angle. The area of the sector is proportional to the area of the circle.

The area A of a sector of a circle of radius r and central angle θ is given by 1 2 A= r θ 2 (θ must be in radians)

•

θ

r

**Area of a Sector of a Circle
**

Example: Find the area of a sector of a circle having the given radius r and central angle θ.

2π r = 59.8 km, θ = 3

1 2 2π A = 59.8 = 3745 km2 2 3

(

)

Homework

College Algebra (brown book) Page 565: 10, 15, 25-65 (×5s), 68, 71, 75-90 (×5s), 120, 124, 126 Turn in: 30, 50, 68, 80, 88, 90, 126

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