# CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.

0 MATRICES
TOPIC 5.0 : MATRICES AND SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS
CONCEPT PRARTICE
Exercise 5.1 Matrices
1. Determine the order of each matrix.
(a) [ ]
1 5 8
(b)
3
5
y
− ]
]
]
]
]
(c) [ ]
7
(d)
x y
z w
]
]
]
2. Find the following sums
(a)
3 2
5 1
] ]
+
] ]
] ]
(b)
3 5 1 4 8
8 2 4 5 0
4 5 3 3 4
− − − ] ]
] ]
− +
] ]
] ] − −
] ]
3. Let A =
4 1
3 0
− ]
]
]
, B =
1 2
7 4
− − ]
]
]
, C =
3 4
2 5
− − ]
]

]
D =
4
5
− ]
]
]
and E =
1
5
− ]
]
]

Find each of the following matrices if possible.
(a) A + B (b) A – D
(c) 3(A + C) (d) 2A – B
(e) (A + B) + C (f ) A + (B + C)
4. Find the order of AB in each case if the matrices can be multiplied
(a) A has order 3 x 2, B has order 2 x 5
(b) A has order 3 x 1, B has order 1 x 3
(c) A has order 4 x 2, B has order 2 x 5
57
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
(d) A has order 3 x 4, B has order 3 x 4
(e) A has order 4 x 2, B has order 3 x 4
5. Find the following products
(a) [ ]
3 2 −
4
1
]
]
]
(b)
1 3
2 4
]
]

]
1
3
]
]
]
(c)
5 1 1 2
2 1 3 1
] ]
] ]
] ]
(d)
3
1
]
]
]
[ ]
5 6
(e)
0 2 5 3
0 1 4 6
a
b
− ] ]
] ]
] ]
(f)
1 4 2 2 0 1
2 5 3 3 1 4
3 6 4 1 2 5
] ]
] ]
] ]
] ]
] ]
6. Let A =
2
3
1
]
]

]
]
]
, B = [ ]
2 3 4
, C =
2 3
4 5
1 0
]
]
]
]
]
Find the following if possible
(a) AB (b) BC
(c) AC (d) CB
7. Given T
3 0 4
5 1 6
1 2 7
]
]
·
]
] −
]
and R
1 3
0 0
3 4
]
]
·
]
] −
]
Find :
(a) TR (b) R
T
T
T
(b) (TR)
T
(d) Is (TR)
T
=R
T
T
T
?
8. Given A
4 1
3 2
2 5
− ]
]
· −
]
]
]
, verify that :
(a) (A
T
)
T
= A (b) (2A)
T
=2A
T
58
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
9. Find the values of a, b, c and d if
(a)
]
]
]

2
4
2
3
4
2
b
a
=
]
]
]

− 2
4
8
3
4 2
6 c
d
(b) 2
]
]
]

+ − b d
a
4 3
2
= –3
]
]
]

−b
c
2 1
2
10. Given that A =
]
]
]

2 0
1 1
, B =
]
]
]

− −

2
0
6
3
3
1
, C =
]
]
]
]
]

− 2
3
5
5
4
1
and D =
]
]
]
]
]

2 3 1
3 4 2
0 4 3
, evaluate the following :
(a) BC + 2A
(b) D
2
– CB
(c) A – 3(BC + A)
Exercise 5.2 Determinant Of Matrices
1. Find the determinant of each matrix
(a)
1 3
0 2
]
]
]
(b)
1 3
8 8
1
2
4
]

]
]
]

]
]
2. If A =
]
]
]
]
]

5 7 0
6 8 4
3 1 2
, find the minor of
(a) M
21
(b) M
32
(c) M
23
59
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
3. Find the indicated cofactors using the matrix
3 1 0
2 1 3
2 0 4
− ]
]

]
] −
]
(a) C
11
(b) C
12
(c) C
13
(d) C
21
(e) C
22
(f) C
23
(g) C
31
(h) C
32
(i) C
33
4. Given that matrix A =
]
]
]
]
]

− −
3 1 4
4 5 2
2 4 2
, find the determinant using cofactor
expansion by
(a) second row
(b) third column
(c) second column
Exercise 5.3 Inverse Matrices
1. For each given matrix A, show that AI = A and IA = A where I is the identity
matrix of the appropriate order.
(a) A =
1 3
4 6
]
]
]
(b) A =
3 2
5 9
]
]
]
(c) A =
3 2 1
5 6 2
7 8 3
]
]
]
]
]
(d) A =
3 4 1
2 2 5
0 3 6
]
]
]
]
]

2. Find the inverse of each matrix A if possible. Check that AA
-1
= I and A
-1
A = I
(a)
1 4
0 2
]
]
]
(b)
1 5
1 3
− ]
]

]
(c)
0 2 0
3 3 2
2 5 1
]
]
]
]
]
(d)
1 0 1
0 2 2
2 1 0
]
]
]
]
]
60
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
3. For each of the following matrices. Find:
(b) inverse matrix
(i)
1 2 3
2 1 0
4 2 5
− ]
]
]
] −
]
(ii)
2 1 1
1 2 0
1 0 3
− − ]
]

]
] −
]
4. Perform the indicated row operation on the given matrices.
(a) A
2 1
1 3
]
·
]
]
(i) interchange row 1 and row 2
(ii) add (-2) times row 1 to row 2
(iii) multiply row 2 by
1
5
| `

. ,
(iv) add (-3) times row 2 to row 1

(b) B
1 1 1
0 1 3
0 0 1
− − ]
]
·
]
]
]
(i) add row 2 to row 1
(ii) add (-2) times row 3 to row 1
(iii) add (-3) times row 3 to row 2
Exercise 5.4 Systems Of Linear Equations with three variables
1. Write the augmented matrix for each system of equations.
(a) x – y – z = 4 (b) x + 3y – z = 5
x + 3y – z = 1 x + z = 0
2y – 5z = -6
61
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
2. Perform the indicated row operations on the given augmented matrix.
(a)
2 4 1
1 2 0
− ]
]
]
(i)
1 2
R R ↔
(ii)
1 2
2R R +
(iii)
2
1
8
R
(iv)
2 1
2R R − +
(b)
2 3 4 1
2 2 3 2
1 2 2 3
− − ]
]

]
]
− −
]
(i)
3 1
R R ↔
(ii)
1 3
2R R +
(iii)
1 2
2R R − +
(iv)
2 3
R R ↔
(v)
2 3
2R R +
(vi)
3 1
2R R +
(vii)
2 1
2R R − +
3. Solve each system using Cramer Rule and Gaussian Elimination.
(a) -x + 2z = 2
3x + y – 6z = 4
-2x – y + 5z = -3
(b) 7x – 3y – 3z = 2
-x + y = -1
-x + z = -3
62
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
(c) -x + 3y – 2z = -5
3x – 3y + z = 3
-2x + y = -1
(d) x + y + z = 2
x + 2y + 3z = 1
2x – y – 3z = 6
4. A school spends RM 84 to purchase 100 files for its office use. A total of x files
of brand A at a cost of 70 cents each and y files of brand B at a cost of 90 cents
each were bought. Write down a system of linear equations from the information
given, and rewrite it in matrix form. Hence, solve the linear equations to obtain
the values of x and y.
5. Three friends Eric, Karim and Ali write to one another from time to time. Last
year, Eric received 1 letter from Karim and 5 from Ali, Karim received 2 letters
from Eric and 3 from Ali, and Ali received 1 letter from Eric and 6 from Karim.
(a) Summarized this information in a matrix
(b) Use the matrix in part (a) to determine which of the friends wrote the most
letters last year.
63
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
Exercise 5.1 Matrices
1. (a) 1 x 3 (b) 3 x 1
(c) 1 x 1 (d) 2 x 2
2. (a)
5
6
]
]
]
(b) undefined because the matrixs are in different order
3. (a)
5 1
10 4
− − ]
]
]
(b) undefined (c)
21 9
15 15
− − ]
]

]
(d)
7 4
1 4
− ]
]
− −
]
(e)
8 5
12 1
− − ]
]

]
(f)
8 5
12 1
− − ]
]

]
4. (a) 3 x 5 (b) 3 x 3 (c) 4 x 5
(d) undefined (e) undefined
5. (a) [ ]
10 −
(b)
10
10
]
]

]
(c)
8 11
5 5
]
]
]
(d)
15 18
5 6
]
]
]
(e)
2 5 3
4 6
a a a
b b b
− ]
]
]
(f)
16 8 27
22 11 37
28 14 47
]
]
]
]
]
6. (a)
4 6 8
6 9 12
2 3 4
]
]
− − −
]
]
]
(b) [ ]
20 21
(c) undefined (d) undefined
7. (a)
15 7
23 9
20 31
− ]
]

]
] −
]
(b)
15 23 20
7 9 31
]
]
− − −
]
(c)
15 23 20
7 9 31
]
]
− − −
]
(d) (TR)
T
= R
T
T
T
9. (a) a = -4, b = -4, c = 0, d =
1
2

(b) a = -3, b = 14, c =
4
3
− , d =
1
2
64
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
10. (a)
9 2
11 3
− ]
]

]
(b)
31 1 2
22 27 12
10 19 17
]
]
]
]
]
(c)
31 10
33 1
− ]
]

]
Exercise 5.2 Determinant of matrices
1. (a) 2 (b)
23
32
2. (a) -16 (b) 0 (c) 14
3. (a) 4 (b) -2 (c) 2
(d) 4 (e) 12 (f) -2
(g) 3 (h) 9 (i) 5
4. (a) -34 (b) -34 (c) -34
Exercise 5.3 Inverse Matrices
2. (a)
1 2
0 0.5
− ]
]
]
(b)
3 5
2 2
1 1
2 2
]
− −
]
]
]
− −
]
]
(c)
3.5 1 2
0.5 0 0
4.5 2 3
− − ]
]
]
] −
]
(d)
1 1 1
3 6 3
2 1 1
3 3 3
2 1 1
3 6 3
]

]
]
]

]
]
]

]
]
65
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
3. (a) (i)
5 4 3
10 7 6
8 6 5
− −
]
]

]
− − ]
]
(ii)
5 4
1
3 3
10 7
2
3 3
8 5
2
3 3

]

]
]
]

]
]
] − −
]
(b)
(i)
6 3 2
3 5 1
2 1 3
]
]
]
]
]
(ii)
6 3 2
7 7 7
3 5 1
7 7 7
2 1 3
7 7 7
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

4. (a) (i)
1 3
2 1
]
]
]
(ii)
1 3
0 5
]
]

]
(iii)
1 3
0 1
]
]
]
(iv)
1 0
0 1
]
]
]
(b) (i)
1 0 2
0 1 3
0 0 1
]
]
]
]
]
(ii)
1 0 0
0 1 3
0 0 1
]
]
]
]
]
(iii)
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
]
]
]
]
]
Exercise 5.4 Systems of Linear Equations with Three Variables
1. (a)
1 1 1 4
1 3 1 1
0 2 5 6
] − −
]

]
]
− −
]
(b)
1 3 1 5
1 0 1 0
] −
]
]
2. (a) (i)
1 2 0
2 4 1
]
]

]
(ii)
1 2 0
0 8 1
]
]
]
(iii)
0
1 2
1
0 1
8
]
]
]
]
]
(iv)
1
1 0
4
1 0 1
8
]

]
]
]
]
]

66
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
(b) (i)
1 2 2 3
2 2 3 2
2 3 4 1
− − ]
]

]
]
− −
]
(ii)
1 2 2 3
2 2 3 2
0 1 0 5
− − ]
]

]
]

]
(iii)
1 2 2 3
0 2 1 8
0 1 0 5
− − ]
]

]
]

]
(iv)
1 2 2 3
0 1 0 5
0 2 1 8
− − ]
]

]
]

]
(v)
1 2 2 3
0 1 0 5
0 0 1 2
− − ]
]

]
]

]
(vi)
1 2 0 7
0 1 0 5
0 0 1 2
− ]
]

]
]

]
(vii)
1 0 0 3
0 1 0 5
0 0 1 2
]
]

]
]

]
3. (a) x = 4 y = 10 z = 3
(b) x = 2 y = 1 z = 3
(c) x = 2 y = 3 z = 6
(d) x = 2 y = 1 z = -1
4. x = 30 y = 70
5. (a)
0 1 5
2 0 3
1 6 0
]
]
]
]
]
(b) Ali
67

B = [ 2 3 4] . A has order 3 x 4. verify that : 2 5    (a) (AT)T= A (b) (2A)T=2AT 58 .0 MATRICES (d) (e) 5.  3 0 4 1 3   5 1 6   Given T =   and R = 0 0   −1 2 7   3 −4      Find : (a) (b) TR (TR)T (b) (d) RTTT Is (TR)T=RTTT ? 8. 2   Let A =  −3 .  4 −1   Given A =  3 −2  . B has order 3 x 4 A has order 4 x 2.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. 1   Find the following if possible (a) (c) AB AC  2 3   C =  4 5 1 0   (b) (d) BC CB 7. B has order 3 x 4 Find the following products (a) (c) [ −3 4 2]   1  (b) (d) 1 3  1  2 −4  3    3 1 [ 5 6 ]   1 4 2   2 0 1  2 5 3 3 1 4     3 6 4  1 2 5      5 1 1 2   2 1 3 1      a 0   −2 5 3  0 b  1 4 6    (e) (f) 6.

evaluate the following :  2  (a) BC + 2A (b) D2 – CB (c) A – 3(BC + A) Exercise 5.0 MATRICES 9. Find the determinant of each matrix 1 3  0 2    3 1 8 − 8    2 − 1   4   (a) (b) 2. c and d if (a)  4  2 − a 3 2b 4 6  = 2 − 4d 2  3 −c −8 4 2  (b) 2  − 3d  2 a  c  = –3 1 4 + b  2  2 −b   10. find the minor of  5  (a) M21 (b) M32 (c) M23 59 . C = − 2  −5  −5 −3  2   and D = 3 2   1 4 4 3 0 3 .CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.2 Determinant Of Matrices 1. Find the values of a. b. 2  If A = 4  0 1 8 7 3 6 . 1 Given that A =  0 −1 1   . B = 3 2  −3 −6 1  0  4 .

show that AI = A and IA = A where I is the identity matrix of the appropriate order.3 Inverse Matrices 1. Check that AA-1 = I and A-1A = I (a) 1 4  0 2    0 2 0  3 3 2   2 5 1    (b)  1 −5   −1 3    1 0 1  0 2 2   2 1 0   (c) (d) 60 .0 MATRICES 3.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. find the determinant using cofactor  − 3  4. 2  Given that matrix A = − 2 4  expansion by (a) second row (b) third column (c) second column Exercise 5. Find the inverse of each matrix A if possible. For each given matrix A. (a) 1 3 A =  4 6 3 2 1    A = 5 6 2 7 8 3    (b) 3 2  A =  5 9  3 4 1   A = 2 2 5 0 3 6   (c) (d) 2.  3 −1 0    Find the indicated cofactors using the matrix  2 1 −3  −2 0 4    (a) C11 (d) C21 (g) C31 (b) C12 (e) C22 (h) C32 (c) C13 (f) C23 (i) C 33 −4 5 1 − 2 4  .

(a) x–y–z=4 x + 3y – z = 1 2y – 5z = -6 (b) x + 3y – z = 5 x+z=0 61 .4 Systems Of Linear Equations with three variables 1.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. Find: (a) (b) adjoint matrix inverse matrix (i)  −1 2 3   2 1 0    −4 2 5    (ii)  2 −1 −1  −1 2 0     −1 0 3    4. For each of the following matrices.0 MATRICES 3. Perform the indicated row operation on the given matrices. (a)  2 1 A=   1 3 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) interchange row 1 and row 2 add (-2) times row 1 to row 2  1 multiply row 2 by  −   5 add (-3) times row 2 to row 1 (b) 1 −1 −1   B = 0 1 3  0 0 1    (i) (ii) (iii) add row 2 to row 1 add (-2) times row 3 to row 1 add (-3) times row 3 to row 2 Exercise 5. Write the augmented matrix for each system of equations.

Perform the indicated row operations on the given augmented matrix. (a) -x + 2z = 2 3x + y – 6z = 4 -2x – y + 5z = -3 (b) 7x – 3y – 3z = 2 -x + y = -1 -x + z = -3 62 . Solve each system using Cramer Rule and Gaussian Elimination.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. (a) −  2 1  4 1 2 0  (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) R1 ↔ R2 2R1 + R2 1 R2 8 −2R2 + R1 (b) −2 −3 4 1     2 2 −3 2   1 2 −2 −3   (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) R3 ↔ R1 2R1 + R3 −2R1 + R2 R2 ↔ R3 2R2 + R3 2R3 + R1 −2R2 + R1 3.0 MATRICES 2.

and rewrite it in matrix form. and Ali received 1 letter from Eric and 6 from Karim. 5. 63 . solve the linear equations to obtain the values of x and y. Hence. Karim and Ali write to one another from time to time. Eric received 1 letter from Karim and 5 from Ali. Last year. A total of x files of brand A at a cost of 70 cents each and y files of brand B at a cost of 90 cents each were bought.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. A school spends RM 84 to purchase 100 files for its office use. Three friends Eric. Karim received 2 letters from Eric and 3 from Ali.0 MATRICES (c) -x + 3y – 2z = -5 3x – 3y + z = 3 -2x + y = -1 (d) x+y+z=2 x + 2y + 3z = 1 2x – y – 3z = 6 4. (a) (b) Summarized this information in a matrix Use the matrix in part (a) to determine which of the friends wrote the most letters last year. Write down a system of linear equations from the information given.

c = 0. (a) (a) (d) 4. (a) (c) 9. c = − . (a) (c) 2.1 Matrices 1. d = 3 2 64 . (a) 1x3 1x1 5  6     −5 −1 10 4     −7 4   −1 −4    3x5 undefined (b) (d) (b) (b) (e) (b) (e) (b) 3x1 2x2 undefined because the matrixs are in different order undefined  −8 −5 12 −1   3x3 undefined  10   −10     −2a 5a 3a   b 4b 6b    (c) 8 11 5 5    16 8 27   22 11 37     28 14 47    (c) (f) (c)  −21 −9   15 −15    −8 −5 12 −1   4x5 [ −10] 15 18 5 6   (d) (e) (f) 6. b = -4. (a) (d) 5. (a) (b) (d) a = -4. b = 14.0 MATRICES ANSWERS Exercise 5. 3. (a) (c) 8  4 6  −6 −9 −12    2 3 4    undefined 15 −7   23 −9     20 −31   15 23 20   −7 −9 −31   (b) (d) (b) [ 20 21] undefined 15 23 20   −7 −9 −31   (TR)T = RTTT 1 2 7. d = − 4 1 a = -3.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.

(a) (a) (a) (d) (g) 4. 3. (a) 2 -16 4 4 3 -34 (b) (b) (b) (e) (h) (b) 23 32 0 -2 12 9 -34 (c) (c) (f) (i) (c) 14 2 -2 5 -34 Exercise 5.5 −1 2   0.2 Determinant of matrices 1.5 0 0     4.3 Inverse Matrices  1 −2  0 0.5    3 − 2  − 1  2   1  3  − 2  3   2  3  5 −  2  1 −  2  − 1 6 1 3 1 6 1  3   1  3   1 − 3  2.0 MATRICES 10. (a)  −9 2   −11 3    (b)  31 1 2   22 27 12    10 19 17    (c)  31 −10  33 −1    Exercise 5. 2.5 2 −3   (d) 65 .CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. (a) (b) (c)  −3.

(ii) (iii) (iv) 66 .  1 −1 −1 4    (a) 1 3 −1 1  0 2 −5 −6    (a) (i)  1 2 0    −2 4 1   0 1 2  0 1 1   8   (b) 1 3 −1 5    1 0 1 0  1 2 0    0 8 1   1 1 0 − 4    0 1 1   8    2. (a) (i) (iii)  1 3  2 1    1 3 0 1   1 0 2  0 1 3    0 0 1    (ii) (ii) (iv) 1 3   0 −5    1 0  0 1    (iii) 1 0 0  0 1 0    0 0 1    (b) (i) 1 0 0  0 1 3   0 0 1    Exercise 5.4 Systems of Linear Equations with Three Variables 1.0 MATRICES 3.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. (a) (i)  5 − 4 − 3  − 10 7 6     8 − 6 − 5   (ii)  5 −4  −1  3 3    − 10 7 2   3 3   8 5  −2 −  3  3 (b) (i) 6 3 2 3 5 1   2 1 3   (ii) 6 7  3 7 2  7 3 7 5 7 1 7 2 7  1 7 3  7 4.

CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. x = 30 (a) (b) x=4 x=2 x=2 x=2 z=3 z=3 z=6 z = -1 0 1 5 2 0 3   1 6 0    Ali 67 . 5.0 MATRICES (b) (i)  1 2 −2 −3    2 2 −3 2   −2 −3 4 1     1 2 −2 −3     0 −2 1 8   0 1 0 −5     1 2 −2 −3     0 1 0 −5   0 0 1 −2    1 0 0 3     0 1 0 −5   0 0 1 −2    y = 10 y=1 y=3 y=1 y = 70 (ii)  1 2 −2 −3     2 2 −3 2   0 1 0 −5     1 2 −2 −3     0 1 0 −5   0 −2 1 8    1 2 0 −7    0 1 0 −5  0 0 1 −2    (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) 3. (a) (b) (c) (d) 4.