CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.

0 MATRICES
TOPIC 5.0 : MATRICES AND SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS
CONCEPT PRARTICE
Exercise 5.1 Matrices
1. Determine the order of each matrix.
(a) [ ]
1 5 8
(b)
3
5
y
− ]
]
]
]
]
(c) [ ]
7
(d)
x y
z w
]
]
]
2. Find the following sums
(a)
3 2
5 1
] ]
+
] ]
] ]
(b)
3 5 1 4 8
8 2 4 5 0
4 5 3 3 4
− − − ] ]
] ]
− +
] ]
] ] − −
] ]
3. Let A =
4 1
3 0
− ]
]
]
, B =
1 2
7 4
− − ]
]
]
, C =
3 4
2 5
− − ]
]

]
D =
4
5
− ]
]
]
and E =
1
5
− ]
]
]

Find each of the following matrices if possible.
(a) A + B (b) A – D
(c) 3(A + C) (d) 2A – B
(e) (A + B) + C (f ) A + (B + C)
4. Find the order of AB in each case if the matrices can be multiplied
(a) A has order 3 x 2, B has order 2 x 5
(b) A has order 3 x 1, B has order 1 x 3
(c) A has order 4 x 2, B has order 2 x 5
57
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
(d) A has order 3 x 4, B has order 3 x 4
(e) A has order 4 x 2, B has order 3 x 4
5. Find the following products
(a) [ ]
3 2 −
4
1
]
]
]
(b)
1 3
2 4
]
]

]
1
3
]
]
]
(c)
5 1 1 2
2 1 3 1
] ]
] ]
] ]
(d)
3
1
]
]
]
[ ]
5 6
(e)
0 2 5 3
0 1 4 6
a
b
− ] ]
] ]
] ]
(f)
1 4 2 2 0 1
2 5 3 3 1 4
3 6 4 1 2 5
] ]
] ]
] ]
] ]
] ]
6. Let A =
2
3
1
]
]

]
]
]
, B = [ ]
2 3 4
, C =
2 3
4 5
1 0
]
]
]
]
]
Find the following if possible
(a) AB (b) BC
(c) AC (d) CB
7. Given T
3 0 4
5 1 6
1 2 7
]
]
·
]
] −
]
and R
1 3
0 0
3 4
]
]
·
]
] −
]
Find :
(a) TR (b) R
T
T
T
(b) (TR)
T
(d) Is (TR)
T
=R
T
T
T
?
8. Given A
4 1
3 2
2 5
− ]
]
· −
]
]
]
, verify that :
(a) (A
T
)
T
= A (b) (2A)
T
=2A
T
58
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
9. Find the values of a, b, c and d if
(a)
]
]
]


2
4
2
3
4
2
b
a
=
]
]
]



− 2
4
8
3
4 2
6 c
d
(b) 2
]
]
]

+ − b d
a
4 3
2
= –3
]
]
]

−b
c
2 1
2
10. Given that A =
]
]
]


2 0
1 1
, B =
]
]
]

− −

2
0
6
3
3
1
, C =
]
]
]
]
]



− 2
3
5
5
4
1
and D =
]
]
]
]
]

2 3 1
3 4 2
0 4 3
, evaluate the following :
(a) BC + 2A
(b) D
2
– CB
(c) A – 3(BC + A)
Exercise 5.2 Determinant Of Matrices
1. Find the determinant of each matrix
(a)
1 3
0 2
]
]
]
(b)
1 3
8 8
1
2
4
]

]
]
]

]
]
2. If A =
]
]
]
]
]

5 7 0
6 8 4
3 1 2
, find the minor of
(a) M
21
(b) M
32
(c) M
23
59
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
3. Find the indicated cofactors using the matrix
3 1 0
2 1 3
2 0 4
− ]
]

]
] −
]
(a) C
11
(b) C
12
(c) C
13
(d) C
21
(e) C
22
(f) C
23
(g) C
31
(h) C
32
(i) C
33
4. Given that matrix A =
]
]
]
]
]



− −
3 1 4
4 5 2
2 4 2
, find the determinant using cofactor
expansion by
(a) second row
(b) third column
(c) second column
Exercise 5.3 Inverse Matrices
1. For each given matrix A, show that AI = A and IA = A where I is the identity
matrix of the appropriate order.
(a) A =
1 3
4 6
]
]
]
(b) A =
3 2
5 9
]
]
]
(c) A =
3 2 1
5 6 2
7 8 3
]
]
]
]
]
(d) A =
3 4 1
2 2 5
0 3 6
]
]
]
]
]

2. Find the inverse of each matrix A if possible. Check that AA
-1
= I and A
-1
A = I
(a)
1 4
0 2
]
]
]
(b)
1 5
1 3
− ]
]

]
(c)
0 2 0
3 3 2
2 5 1
]
]
]
]
]
(d)
1 0 1
0 2 2
2 1 0
]
]
]
]
]
60
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
3. For each of the following matrices. Find:
(a) adjoint matrix
(b) inverse matrix
(i)
1 2 3
2 1 0
4 2 5
− ]
]
]
] −
]
(ii)
2 1 1
1 2 0
1 0 3
− − ]
]

]
] −
]
4. Perform the indicated row operation on the given matrices.
(a) A
2 1
1 3
]
·
]
]
(i) interchange row 1 and row 2
(ii) add (-2) times row 1 to row 2
(iii) multiply row 2 by
1
5
| `


. ,
(iv) add (-3) times row 2 to row 1

(b) B
1 1 1
0 1 3
0 0 1
− − ]
]
·
]
]
]
(i) add row 2 to row 1
(ii) add (-2) times row 3 to row 1
(iii) add (-3) times row 3 to row 2
Exercise 5.4 Systems Of Linear Equations with three variables
1. Write the augmented matrix for each system of equations.
(a) x – y – z = 4 (b) x + 3y – z = 5
x + 3y – z = 1 x + z = 0
2y – 5z = -6
61
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
2. Perform the indicated row operations on the given augmented matrix.
(a)
2 4 1
1 2 0
− ]
]
]
(i)
1 2
R R ↔
(ii)
1 2
2R R +
(iii)
2
1
8
R
(iv)
2 1
2R R − +
(b)
2 3 4 1
2 2 3 2
1 2 2 3
− − ]
]

]
]
− −
]
(i)
3 1
R R ↔
(ii)
1 3
2R R +
(iii)
1 2
2R R − +
(iv)
2 3
R R ↔
(v)
2 3
2R R +
(vi)
3 1
2R R +
(vii)
2 1
2R R − +
3. Solve each system using Cramer Rule and Gaussian Elimination.
(a) -x + 2z = 2
3x + y – 6z = 4
-2x – y + 5z = -3
(b) 7x – 3y – 3z = 2
-x + y = -1
-x + z = -3
62
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
(c) -x + 3y – 2z = -5
3x – 3y + z = 3
-2x + y = -1
(d) x + y + z = 2
x + 2y + 3z = 1
2x – y – 3z = 6
4. A school spends RM 84 to purchase 100 files for its office use. A total of x files
of brand A at a cost of 70 cents each and y files of brand B at a cost of 90 cents
each were bought. Write down a system of linear equations from the information
given, and rewrite it in matrix form. Hence, solve the linear equations to obtain
the values of x and y.
5. Three friends Eric, Karim and Ali write to one another from time to time. Last
year, Eric received 1 letter from Karim and 5 from Ali, Karim received 2 letters
from Eric and 3 from Ali, and Ali received 1 letter from Eric and 6 from Karim.
(a) Summarized this information in a matrix
(b) Use the matrix in part (a) to determine which of the friends wrote the most
letters last year.
63
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
ANSWERS
Exercise 5.1 Matrices
1. (a) 1 x 3 (b) 3 x 1
(c) 1 x 1 (d) 2 x 2
2. (a)
5
6
]
]
]
(b) undefined because the matrixs are in different order
3. (a)
5 1
10 4
− − ]
]
]
(b) undefined (c)
21 9
15 15
− − ]
]

]
(d)
7 4
1 4
− ]
]
− −
]
(e)
8 5
12 1
− − ]
]

]
(f)
8 5
12 1
− − ]
]

]
4. (a) 3 x 5 (b) 3 x 3 (c) 4 x 5
(d) undefined (e) undefined
5. (a) [ ]
10 −
(b)
10
10
]
]

]
(c)
8 11
5 5
]
]
]
(d)
15 18
5 6
]
]
]
(e)
2 5 3
4 6
a a a
b b b
− ]
]
]
(f)
16 8 27
22 11 37
28 14 47
]
]
]
]
]
6. (a)
4 6 8
6 9 12
2 3 4
]
]
− − −
]
]
]
(b) [ ]
20 21
(c) undefined (d) undefined
7. (a)
15 7
23 9
20 31
− ]
]

]
] −
]
(b)
15 23 20
7 9 31
]
]
− − −
]
(c)
15 23 20
7 9 31
]
]
− − −
]
(d) (TR)
T
= R
T
T
T
9. (a) a = -4, b = -4, c = 0, d =
1
2

(b) a = -3, b = 14, c =
4
3
− , d =
1
2
64
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
10. (a)
9 2
11 3
− ]
]

]
(b)
31 1 2
22 27 12
10 19 17
]
]
]
]
]
(c)
31 10
33 1
− ]
]

]
Exercise 5.2 Determinant of matrices
1. (a) 2 (b)
23
32
2. (a) -16 (b) 0 (c) 14
3. (a) 4 (b) -2 (c) 2
(d) 4 (e) 12 (f) -2
(g) 3 (h) 9 (i) 5
4. (a) -34 (b) -34 (c) -34
Exercise 5.3 Inverse Matrices
2. (a)
1 2
0 0.5
− ]
]
]
(b)
3 5
2 2
1 1
2 2
]
− −
]
]
]
− −
]
]
(c)
3.5 1 2
0.5 0 0
4.5 2 3
− − ]
]
]
] −
]
(d)
1 1 1
3 6 3
2 1 1
3 3 3
2 1 1
3 6 3
]

]
]
]

]
]
]

]
]
65
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
3. (a) (i)
5 4 3
10 7 6
8 6 5
− −
]
]

]
− − ]
]
(ii)
5 4
1
3 3
10 7
2
3 3
8 5
2
3 3

]

]
]
]

]
]
] − −
]
(b)
(i)
6 3 2
3 5 1
2 1 3
]
]
]
]
]
(ii)
6 3 2
7 7 7
3 5 1
7 7 7
2 1 3
7 7 7
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

4. (a) (i)
1 3
2 1
]
]
]
(ii)
1 3
0 5
]
]

]
(iii)
1 3
0 1
]
]
]
(iv)
1 0
0 1
]
]
]
(b) (i)
1 0 2
0 1 3
0 0 1
]
]
]
]
]
(ii)
1 0 0
0 1 3
0 0 1
]
]
]
]
]
(iii)
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
]
]
]
]
]
Exercise 5.4 Systems of Linear Equations with Three Variables
1. (a)
1 1 1 4
1 3 1 1
0 2 5 6
] − −
]

]
]
− −
]
(b)
1 3 1 5
1 0 1 0
] −
]
]
2. (a) (i)
1 2 0
2 4 1
]
]

]
(ii)
1 2 0
0 8 1
]
]
]
(iii)
0
1 2
1
0 1
8
]
]
]
]
]
(iv)
1
1 0
4
1 0 1
8
]

]
]
]
]
]

66
CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.0 MATRICES
(b) (i)
1 2 2 3
2 2 3 2
2 3 4 1
− − ]
]

]
]
− −
]
(ii)
1 2 2 3
2 2 3 2
0 1 0 5
− − ]
]

]
]

]
(iii)
1 2 2 3
0 2 1 8
0 1 0 5
− − ]
]

]
]

]
(iv)
1 2 2 3
0 1 0 5
0 2 1 8
− − ]
]

]
]

]
(v)
1 2 2 3
0 1 0 5
0 0 1 2
− − ]
]

]
]

]
(vi)
1 2 0 7
0 1 0 5
0 0 1 2
− ]
]

]
]

]
(vii)
1 0 0 3
0 1 0 5
0 0 1 2
]
]

]
]

]
3. (a) x = 4 y = 10 z = 3
(b) x = 2 y = 1 z = 3
(c) x = 2 y = 3 z = 6
(d) x = 2 y = 1 z = -1
4. x = 30 y = 70
5. (a)
0 1 5
2 0 3
1 6 0
]
]
]
]
]
(b) Ali
67

B = [ 2 3 4] . A has order 3 x 4. verify that : 2 5    (a) (AT)T= A (b) (2A)T=2AT 58 .0 MATRICES (d) (e) 5.  3 0 4 1 3   5 1 6   Given T =   and R = 0 0   −1 2 7   3 −4      Find : (a) (b) TR (TR)T (b) (d) RTTT Is (TR)T=RTTT ? 8. 2   Let A =  −3 .  4 −1   Given A =  3 −2  . B has order 3 x 4 A has order 4 x 2.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. 1   Find the following if possible (a) (c) AB AC  2 3   C =  4 5 1 0   (b) (d) BC CB 7. B has order 3 x 4 Find the following products (a) (c) [ −3 4 2]   1  (b) (d) 1 3  1  2 −4  3    3 1 [ 5 6 ]   1 4 2   2 0 1  2 5 3 3 1 4     3 6 4  1 2 5      5 1 1 2   2 1 3 1      a 0   −2 5 3  0 b  1 4 6    (e) (f) 6.

evaluate the following :  2  (a) BC + 2A (b) D2 – CB (c) A – 3(BC + A) Exercise 5.0 MATRICES 9. Find the determinant of each matrix 1 3  0 2    3 1 8 − 8    2 − 1   4   (a) (b) 2. c and d if (a)  4  2 − a 3 2b 4 6  = 2 − 4d 2  3 −c −8 4 2  (b) 2  − 3d  2 a  c  = –3 1 4 + b  2  2 −b   10. find the minor of  5  (a) M21 (b) M32 (c) M23 59 . C = − 2  −5  −5 −3  2   and D = 3 2   1 4 4 3 0 3 .CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.2 Determinant Of Matrices 1. Find the values of a. b. 2  If A = 4  0 1 8 7 3 6 . 1 Given that A =  0 −1 1   . B = 3 2  −3 −6 1  0  4 .

show that AI = A and IA = A where I is the identity matrix of the appropriate order.3 Inverse Matrices 1. Check that AA-1 = I and A-1A = I (a) 1 4  0 2    0 2 0  3 3 2   2 5 1    (b)  1 −5   −1 3    1 0 1  0 2 2   2 1 0   (c) (d) 60 .0 MATRICES 3.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. find the determinant using cofactor  − 3  4. 2  Given that matrix A = − 2 4  expansion by (a) second row (b) third column (c) second column Exercise 5. Find the inverse of each matrix A if possible. For each given matrix A. (a) 1 3 A =  4 6 3 2 1    A = 5 6 2 7 8 3    (b) 3 2  A =  5 9  3 4 1   A = 2 2 5 0 3 6   (c) (d) 2.  3 −1 0    Find the indicated cofactors using the matrix  2 1 −3  −2 0 4    (a) C11 (d) C21 (g) C31 (b) C12 (e) C22 (h) C32 (c) C13 (f) C23 (i) C 33 −4 5 1 − 2 4  .

(a) x–y–z=4 x + 3y – z = 1 2y – 5z = -6 (b) x + 3y – z = 5 x+z=0 61 .4 Systems Of Linear Equations with three variables 1.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. Find: (a) (b) adjoint matrix inverse matrix (i)  −1 2 3   2 1 0    −4 2 5    (ii)  2 −1 −1  −1 2 0     −1 0 3    4. For each of the following matrices.0 MATRICES 3. Perform the indicated row operation on the given matrices. (a)  2 1 A=   1 3 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) interchange row 1 and row 2 add (-2) times row 1 to row 2  1 multiply row 2 by  −   5 add (-3) times row 2 to row 1 (b) 1 −1 −1   B = 0 1 3  0 0 1    (i) (ii) (iii) add row 2 to row 1 add (-2) times row 3 to row 1 add (-3) times row 3 to row 2 Exercise 5. Write the augmented matrix for each system of equations.

Perform the indicated row operations on the given augmented matrix. (a) -x + 2z = 2 3x + y – 6z = 4 -2x – y + 5z = -3 (b) 7x – 3y – 3z = 2 -x + y = -1 -x + z = -3 62 . Solve each system using Cramer Rule and Gaussian Elimination.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. (a) −  2 1  4 1 2 0  (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) R1 ↔ R2 2R1 + R2 1 R2 8 −2R2 + R1 (b) −2 −3 4 1     2 2 −3 2   1 2 −2 −3   (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) R3 ↔ R1 2R1 + R3 −2R1 + R2 R2 ↔ R3 2R2 + R3 2R3 + R1 −2R2 + R1 3.0 MATRICES 2.

and rewrite it in matrix form. and Ali received 1 letter from Eric and 6 from Karim. 5. 63 . solve the linear equations to obtain the values of x and y. Hence. Karim and Ali write to one another from time to time. Eric received 1 letter from Karim and 5 from Ali. Last year. A total of x files of brand A at a cost of 70 cents each and y files of brand B at a cost of 90 cents each were bought.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. A school spends RM 84 to purchase 100 files for its office use. Three friends Eric. Karim received 2 letters from Eric and 3 from Ali.0 MATRICES (c) -x + 3y – 2z = -5 3x – 3y + z = 3 -2x + y = -1 (d) x+y+z=2 x + 2y + 3z = 1 2x – y – 3z = 6 4. (a) (b) Summarized this information in a matrix Use the matrix in part (a) to determine which of the friends wrote the most letters last year. Write down a system of linear equations from the information given.

c = 0. (a) (a) (d) 4. (a) (c) 9. c = − . (a) (c) 2.1 Matrices 1. d = 3 2 64 . (a) 1x3 1x1 5  6     −5 −1 10 4     −7 4   −1 −4    3x5 undefined (b) (d) (b) (b) (e) (b) (e) (b) 3x1 2x2 undefined because the matrixs are in different order undefined  −8 −5 12 −1   3x3 undefined  10   −10     −2a 5a 3a   b 4b 6b    (c) 8 11 5 5    16 8 27   22 11 37     28 14 47    (c) (f) (c)  −21 −9   15 −15    −8 −5 12 −1   4x5 [ −10] 15 18 5 6   (d) (e) (f) 6. b = -4. (a) (d) 5. (a) (b) (d) a = -4. b = 14.0 MATRICES ANSWERS Exercise 5. 3. (a) (c) 8  4 6  −6 −9 −12    2 3 4    undefined 15 −7   23 −9     20 −31   15 23 20   −7 −9 −31   (b) (d) (b) [ 20 21] undefined 15 23 20   −7 −9 −31   (TR)T = RTTT 1 2 7. d = − 4 1 a = -3.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5.

(a) (a) (a) (d) (g) 4. 3. (a) 2 -16 4 4 3 -34 (b) (b) (b) (e) (h) (b) 23 32 0 -2 12 9 -34 (c) (c) (f) (i) (c) 14 2 -2 5 -34 Exercise 5.5 −1 2   0.2 Determinant of matrices 1.5 0 0     4.3 Inverse Matrices  1 −2  0 0.5    3 − 2  − 1  2   1  3  − 2  3   2  3  5 −  2  1 −  2  − 1 6 1 3 1 6 1  3   1  3   1 − 3  2.0 MATRICES 10. (a)  −9 2   −11 3    (b)  31 1 2   22 27 12    10 19 17    (c)  31 −10  33 −1    Exercise 5. 2.5 2 −3   (d) 65 .CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. (a) (b) (c)  −3.

(ii) (iii) (iv) 66 .  1 −1 −1 4    (a) 1 3 −1 1  0 2 −5 −6    (a) (i)  1 2 0    −2 4 1   0 1 2  0 1 1   8   (b) 1 3 −1 5    1 0 1 0  1 2 0    0 8 1   1 1 0 − 4    0 1 1   8    2. (a) (i) (iii)  1 3  2 1    1 3 0 1   1 0 2  0 1 3    0 0 1    (ii) (ii) (iv) 1 3   0 −5    1 0  0 1    (iii) 1 0 0  0 1 0    0 0 1    (b) (i) 1 0 0  0 1 3   0 0 1    Exercise 5.4 Systems of Linear Equations with Three Variables 1.0 MATRICES 3.CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. (a) (i)  5 − 4 − 3  − 10 7 6     8 − 6 − 5   (ii)  5 −4  −1  3 3    − 10 7 2   3 3   8 5  −2 −  3  3 (b) (i) 6 3 2 3 5 1   2 1 3   (ii) 6 7  3 7 2  7 3 7 5 7 1 7 2 7  1 7 3  7 4.

CONCEPT PRACTICE 5. x = 30 (a) (b) x=4 x=2 x=2 x=2 z=3 z=3 z=6 z = -1 0 1 5 2 0 3   1 6 0    Ali 67 . 5.0 MATRICES (b) (i)  1 2 −2 −3    2 2 −3 2   −2 −3 4 1     1 2 −2 −3     0 −2 1 8   0 1 0 −5     1 2 −2 −3     0 1 0 −5   0 0 1 −2    1 0 0 3     0 1 0 −5   0 0 1 −2    y = 10 y=1 y=3 y=1 y = 70 (ii)  1 2 −2 −3     2 2 −3 2   0 1 0 −5     1 2 −2 −3     0 1 0 −5   0 −2 1 8    1 2 0 −7    0 1 0 −5  0 0 1 −2    (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) 3. (a) (b) (c) (d) 4.