(Problem of Piracy Faced By Bollywood Industry)




(BATCH-2008-11 & Roll no- 36.)


This is to certify that __________________________________has successfully completed the project work as a part of academic fulfillment of Bachelor of Management Studies (B.M.S.) semester V examination.

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I, Archana Parmar of Bachelor of Management Studies (Semester V) of Babasaheb Gawde Business School (BGBS), hereby declare that I have successfully completed this Project on (Problem Of Piracy Faced By Bollywood Industry) in the academic year 2008-11. The information incorporated in this project is true and original to the best of my knowledge.

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A part from the efforts of me, the success of this project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project I would like to show my greatest appreciation to my greatest appreciation to my principal. I thank for the tremendous support and help from Dr. TARUNA PARMAR. I feel motivated and encouraged every time. Without their encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized. The guidance and support received from all the people, who contributed their knowledge to this project, was vital for the success of the project. I am grateful for their constant support and help.


1 Findings 5|Page .5 Research methodology 1.1 Theoretical background of the study 5.2 External sources 6.1 Problem of the study 1.1 Introduction 2. CHAPTER 1 Contents Page no.6 Executive summary Chapter 2 2. 1.4 Limitation of the study 1. Chapter 8 8. 1.1 Case study 8.2 Product profile 4. Chapter 6 6. Chapter 7 7. Chapter 3 3.INDEX Sr.1 Samsung history 5.1 Samsung in India 3.no.2 Industry profile 3. Chapter 5 5.1 Data analysis and interpretation 7.3 Scope of the study 1.2 Objective of Study 1. Chapter 4 4.

2 Bibliography 6|Page .1 Annexure 11. Chapter 9 Suggestion and recommendation 10 Chapter 10 Conclusion 11 Chapter 11 11.9.

[1] Bollywood is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest centers of film production in the world. dramatic reversals of fortune. Such movies are called masala movies. they want songs and dances. it is considered to be the largest in the world in terms of number of films produced. or even whole sentences. Maharashtra. conniving villains. There has been a growing presence of Indian English in dialogue and songs as well. twins separated at birth. What is "Bollywood"? Bollywood is the name given to the Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. Kannada). Bengali. these movies have everything. comedy and dare-devil thrills. India. Indian audiences expect full value for their money. and maybe also the number of tickets sold. It is not uncommon to see films that feature dialogue with English words and phrases. courtesans with hearts of gold. Like masala. The term Bollywood was created by conflating Bombay (the city now called Mumbai) and Hollywood (the famous center of the United States film industry). When combined with other Indian film industries (Tamil. which includes several regional film industries sorted by language. all mixed up in a three hour long extravaganza with intermission. The plots are often melodramatic. Telugu. Malayalam. Few movies are made without at least one songand-dance number. corrupt politicians.Bollywood Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai. Bollywood films are usually musicals.[2][3][4] Bollywood is formally referred to as Hindi cinemathough frequent use of poetic Urdu words is fairly common. and convenient coincidences. They frequently employ formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers. love interest. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema. 7|Page . angry parents. after the spice mixture masala. it is only a part of the total Indian film industry.

A film. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen. or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. including the cinematic culture of Andhra Pradesh. Assam. including picture. picture show. which reflect those cultures. moving picture. a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. A common name for film in the United States is movie. a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating ² or indoctrinating ² citizens. and. the silver screen. Gujarat. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture. When these images are shown rapidly in succession. Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. photo-play and flick. in turn. while in Europe the term cinema is preferred. the cinema and the movies The cinema of India consists of films produced across India. Indian films came to be followed throughout South Asia and the 8|Page . Kerala. is a story conveyed with moving images. Mumbai. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement. Punjab. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. Karnataka. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision. Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. affect them. also called a movie or motion picture. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry. Film is considered to be an important art form. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures.

Tamil.3 billion US Dollars 9|Page . The Indian government extended film delegations to foreign countries such as the United States of America and Japan while the country's Film Producers Guild sent similar missions through Europe. especially Satyajit Ray (Bengali).000 films in various languages of India were produced annually. India is the world's largest producer of films. along with the American and Chinese film industries. The country also participated in international film festivals. Kannada. Adoor Gopalakrishnan (Malayalam).[2] Indian filmmakers such as Shekhar Kapur. In 2009. radically altering the manner in which content reached the target audience. Malayalam. India produced a total of 2961 films on celluloid that include a staggering figure of 1288 feature films. the net worth of which was found to be 1.Middle East. Sony Pictures. accounting for some 12% of the revenue generated by a mainstream film. UTV. As cinema as a medium gained popularity in the country as many as 1. Mira Nair. Indian cinema. and Warner Bros. Deepa Mehta etc. Prominent Indian enterprises such as Zee. Tax incentives to multiplexes have aided the multiplex boom in India. Indian cinema found markets in over 90 countries where films from India are screened. Expatriates in countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States continued to give rise to international audiences for Indian films of various languages especially Telugu. Adlabs and Sun Network's Sun Pictures also participated in producing and distributing films. making the commercial presence of the medium felt. contribute substantially to the overall revenue of Indian cinema. In the 20th century. Enhanced technology paved the way for up gradation from established cinematic norms of delivering product. These earnings. The provision of 100% foreign direct investment has made the Indian film market attractive for foreign enterprises such as 20th Century Fox. Bengali and Hindi. became a global enterprise. The Indian diaspora consists of millions of Indians overseas for which films are made available both through mediums such as DVDs and by screening of films in their country of residence wherever commercially feasible. found success overseas. By 2003 as many as 30 film production companies had been listed in the National Stock Exchange of India.

Regional (especially southern) films command almost 60 per cent of the total Indian film market with the rest being commanded by Hindi films. 10 | P a g e . y y y Current size: Rs 6. The Dubbing industry has grown at the rate of 25-30% over the last 4-5 years.300 crore CAGR: 18% The Indian film industry is currently worth about US$ 1256 million and is expected to grow at a Compounded Annual Growth Rate of 18 per cent for the next 5 years. In fact. The foreign investment in the Indian film industry is also increasing significantly. with the music rights alone accounting for 4±5% of the net revenues generated by a film in India. India has over 5 million home video and DVD users. Nearly one thousand films are produced every year. The Indian film industry is also making its presence felt in the international market.in 2000. Size Next to Hollywood. And it is the largest in terms of films produced & tickets sold. The technology used and the special effects in movies are becoming increasingly sophisticated and animation is also finding a huge market with kids. Many international films are dubbed in local languages and shown in India. Indian film industry is said to be the largest in the world. The industry is currently witnessing the trend of more digital cinemas and growth of multiplexes.800 crore Projected size by 2010: Rs 15. Music in Indian cinema is another substantial revenue generator. it witnessed the maximum flow of foreign investment in 2006.

Though some purists deplore the name. I was not happy with the name of the column Studio Roundup and thought of `Flipping around Follywood¶. arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. Bollywood was not by accident. Bollywood the name itself tells us that it is name given to Bombay film industry which is having highest viewers in the world and also produces films in market terms that create some kind of challenge to Hollywood. Due to Oscars most European films are getting recognition and reaching global audience otherwise they too are viewed within the 11 | P a g e . I settled for `On the Bollywood Beat¶ instead. In no time at all the stars were calling up to find out why they were mentioned in Bollywood and others to find out why they were not mentioned in Bollywood. the center of the American film industry. The name is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood. It was very much by design« I got into film journalism by pure accident and knew nothing about Hindi films« I was given a studio beat to do. From a studio roundup column I began commenting on what was happening off the sets too and it turned into a gossip column. it seems likely to persist and now has its own entry in the Oxford English Dictionary.Origin Bollywood is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindustani language film industry in India. In spite of its large contribution English cinema does not really have any distinctive status. but it sounded too harsh. I guess they were responsible for giving my word longevity. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema.

Indian cinema on the other hand not only rules in its home country but also viewed in other parts like Middle East. Movies in hindi are dubbed from Hollywood movies and there titles changed. Even thought most of them do not understand the language they are familiar with the films and actors. The US films in India are estimated to be 150 in a year which is no way comparable to bollywood movies production each year. Indian movie lover watch bollywood movies though they are made in similar way.country of origin. In this globalized world it is expected that there will be a sharing of knowledge which is already done between Hollywood and bollywood. Italian and Polish films that concentrate on art and culture and they does not really make any good money in other parts of world. Most of the remaining parts of world watch French. It is said that on daily basis fourteen million Indian¶s go to the movies to watch over 800 films produced each year that is more than double the number of movies produced in United States. Hollywood is also trying to make its influence on Asian country but it could only make its influence on some metro city in India with its blockbuster hits like Titanic.6 billion audiences. The countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh are also having high number of viewers even after watching Indian movies was official ban by the government. South East Asia and even Africa. This tells us Indian film industry is getting a good recognition in global market and is becoming more and more conventional around the world. Based on analysis bollywood movies now make good money in UK and US as they are produced more in number throughout the year and also due to huge NRI population.000 a year and are watched by 3. This dubbing business has become big with American¶s dominating the business and a small extent is contributed by Indians. Some film making aspects are also outsourced to Bombay. Bollywood movies are produced more than 1. Jurassic park etc. Generally most of the bollywood movies are watched worldwide as Indian population is more throughout the world. 12 | P a g e .

Chitre and R. And the first exposing of celluloid in camera by an Indian and its consequent screening took place in 1899. when Harishchandra Bhatvadekar (Save Dada) shot two short films and exhibited them under Edison's projecting kinetoscope. and it was half British in its make. Thanawalla were two other Indian pioneers engaged in the production of short films in Calcutta and Bombay in 1900. J. a new entertainment form dawned in India-the Cinema.HISTORY At the turn of this century.F. 13 | P a g e . N. Madan and Abdullah Esoofally launched their career with Bioscope shows of imported short films. The first exposure to motion pictures which India received was in 1896.G. In 1912. Around 1902. when the Lumiere Brothers' Cinematographer unveiled six soundless short films at Watson Hotel. Torney made a silent feature film Pundalik which was released on May 18.B. Esplanade Mansion. and Bombay on July 7.G. Hiralal Sen and F. when the country was poised for major social and political reforms.

It involves use of secondary sources such as web and other research articles printed by various financial institutions and other journals and magazine. interview. It involves analysis and tabulation of data which is collected from customers is done by various means such as pie charts. until you publish. The study involves the primary data which is collected through questionnaire. 2. 4. you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. 3. PRINMARY DATA COLLECTION METHOD:In primary data collection. There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include: y Questionnaires Interviews Observation Case-studies Data collection y y y y 14 | P a g e . The project involves the study of customer¶s perception.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:1. no one else has access to it. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and your research and. and observation.

organizational records and data collected through qualitative methodologies or qualitative research. surveys. which is generated by the above methods. Primary data Sample Size: 50 It is proposed to collect primary data from homes of common people through proper sampling Sample Unit: Homes of relatives.The primary data. Common sources of secondary data for social science include censuses. Secondary data y y y Newspaper Magazines Internet 15 | P a g e . friends living in nearby area Sampling Instrument: y y y y Observation Personal Interview Telephonic Interview Internet feedback Sample area: Mumbai SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION METHOD Secondary data is data collected by someone other than the user. may be qualitative in nature (usually in the form of words) or quantitative (usually in the form of numbers or where you can make counts of words used).

particularly in the case of quantitative data. provides larger and higher-quality databases than would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own. analysts of social and economic change consider secondary data essential.Secondary data analysis saves time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and. In addition to that. since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past change and/or developments Sampling Instrument: y y Internet Magazines 16 | P a g e .

but still on the Way back Machine at archive. Their contention is bogus. It does not matter to them who copies the disc or why. is piracy. But the piracy of audio-video files is a much developed and penetrated crime as compared to another sort of piracies.org. software¶s or even hardware utilities. is fair use. and glut condition appears in market of original items. The recording industry is calling a lot of things piracy these days. The item can be a sound file. Calling copying something piracy has always been a bit of sensationalism. This used to be called bootlegging. Just what do these words mean? Piracy originally meant murder. PC games. pirated materials are easily available in market at very cheap prices. whether the whole disc or just part of it. video file like movies. so to save pockets people prefer to compromise with quality and they buy pirated items. Bootlegging originally meant hiding liquor in the legs of your boots during the prohibition era. but just what is piracy? Is copying a CD? They contend that to make a copy of a CD. it is in fact severely detrimental for growing music and video industries. An academic paper about this subject has been published by the University of Konstanz. To make copies of discs to sell for profit is piracy. Actually original copyrighted pieces of articles are very expensive by nature on the other hand. Piracy is a special crime categorized under sections of copyright violations. (It is no longer on their server. rape and robbery on the high seas. or to make a custom mix of your favorite songs from discs you own.WHAT IS PIRACY? Piracy is simply defined as the creation of duplicate un-authenticated copies of some copyright protected item. This in turn dilutes the money invested in creating original items.) 17 | P a g e . How it came to mean making an unauthorized recording is unclear. To make a copy of your own disc for personal use. So piracy ultimately discourages the entertainment industry by rationalizing their hard works.

and their quality is often grossly inferior to legitimately produced CDs. Also. you can keep going to the flea market." Any artist that wouldn't do it their way might never find an audience. their power was akin to that of a king. I am entitled to the lion's share of money from your music sales. It is clear that the people producing and selling these recordings are guilty of piracy. but much of it is. It is power that recording industry bigwigs fear they will lose.It is easy to find bootlegs and pirated CDs. et cetera. They decided which artists we would hear on the radio. or the colors are dull. so the recording industry shut Napster down. or their suppliers. even if it were free. The recording industry does not consider the bootleg dealers to be competition or a threat. The recording industry is afraid of CD burners and the Internet because they are new. The artists who created the music we enjoy get nothing from the sale of these recordings. The cover art is wrong. your concert tickets. You can frequently tell that these discs are not the genuine article. Not all music sold at flea markets and swap meets is pirated. No one is busting them. CDs can often be found for under five dollars. They arrogantly told artists. Kings fear a revolution. and which artists would have their music for sale at the mall. Napster changed that. Anything new will always be perceived as a threat by those in power. Unknown artists simply made their music available to the file trading community. Before Napster. Why don't the RIAA and the recording labels go after them instead of file traders? The main reason is that people who would buy a CD for under five dollars at a flea market would never spend almost twenty dollars for one at the mall. and the dealers are still there. "I made you a star. The packaging is different from the CDs at the mall. your t-shirt sales. They wouldn't even consider it. a street vendor in a city. We were able to decide for ourselves what music was good. a swap meet. but week after week. people who will pay full retail prices at the mall wouldn't be caught dead with something from the flea market. Go to a flea market. and what was not by trying before buying. Most people know that these discs are pirated. and 18 | P a g e . and month after month. The industry did not like that. They want to dictate to us what's hot and what's not. or some thrift stores and you will find music and videos at amazingly low prices. and found their audience without having to sell their souls.

They are mistaken. or because they don't have a stereo system other than the computer. Fans decide who is and isn't a star. Sometimes these discs won't play at all. Any time the industry spends millions of dollars to develop a new scheme. where and how we use their products. and it won't play! The industry just lost a customer. or don't sell at all.started to make discs that won't play in a computer." They are only making it hard for paying customers to use our personal property as we see fit. He accuses artists of biting the hand that feeds them. It may technically be illegal to do this. but how are they going to catch people? They are not making it hard for "pirates. The industry constantly puts its prefabrications purported to be artists on the radio. who are the very people the recording industry covets. especially teenagers with disposable income. a commuter on a bus or a subway train. they have the power to decide when. Once this is the case. Fans are the difference between a starving artist and a successful one. 19 | P a g e . It is a classic example of the industry's "I made you a star" arrogance. The industry thinks that because the DMCA. but the ones from the flea market or a street vendor will. A lot of people want to play CDs in their computer for background music while they work. and in stores. people who previously wouldn't be caught dead with a disc from the flea market or street vendor will line up to buy them. Every "copy protection" scheme they have invented has been cracked. There is an article on the RIAA's official website by Miles Copeland claiming to dispel recording industry myths. but their CDs either don't sell for long. and using our personal property as we see fit is our right. none of the discs from the mall will play in a computer. Take for example. even after we buy them. Copy protection of CDs is an expensive exercise in futility that will only create new enemies for the record labels and the RIAA. It can be this easy or this easy. This commuter puts a new CD by his or her favorite artist into a laptop computer. Soon. crackers will break it for next to nothing. and similar laws many nations are considering or have adopted prohibit circumvention of copy protection. The new copy protected discs the industry is producing will be their undoing.

20 | P a g e . but we must point out that the pirates have proven one thing.If the recording industry is so blinded by their lust for power and their greed. filmmaker. Survey International Forum on the Creative Economy: International Forum on the Creative Economy Bollywood . The price of CDs is way too high. But the whole notion of what¶s pejorative has changed.´ ± Amit Khanna The term µBollywood¶ reflects the politics of cultural colonialism and the politics of representation. We at dontbuycds. Pirates are selling CDs dirt cheap. scholar and President of the Film & Television Guild coined this contentious term in the mid seventies in one of his articles and it caught on like wildfire which the purists are still trying to extinguish! ³People still have a problem with the word µBollywood¶. and pirates only copy discs. including Hollywood. Doing so does take earnings away from the artists we enjoy. Bollywood produces more films than anywhere else in the world.behind the scenes Sharada Ramanathan Bollywood ± what¶s in the name? Bollywood refers to India's film capital centered in the city of Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay and thus the origin of the word Bollywood). they will self-destruct. To say Bollywood is demeaning is to question a brand name like Coke or McDonalds. and still making a profit. We¶ve to see the Indian film industry as a brand.org do not endorse buying pirated discs. They produce and promote music. as well as manufacturing the discs. Amit Khanna. that they continue on their current course. We admit that the recording companies do have higher costs. but these costs do not justify price gouging.

According to an estimate by FICCI and Ernst and Young Indian entertainment industry would worth more than Rs. only the film µTitanic¶ has ever made it to India's top five lists.6. Bollywood . By 2009.000 million in 2008. The Central Board of Film Certification of India cites on its website that every three months an audience as large as India's billion-strong population visits cinema halls According to a Price Waterhouse Coopers study titled "The Indian Entertainment Industry ± An Unfolding Opportunity´. the Indian entertainment industry. In contrast. live entertainment and music .1 % (US$ 8 million).15 billion). In 2004.28 % (US$ 2. television will grow to almost US$ 11.Indian Film Industry (IFI) ± facts and figures: Over 800 films are censored/ released by IFI each year in over 15 languages.4% of the population of 1 billion) and pay the equivalent to the average Indian's day's wages (US $1-3) to see a film.5 billion. The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of the ticket sales and the number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone). Despite Hollywood¶s market penetration. But in 2007. Live events will be a US$ 60 million industry. It is expected to grow at a compounded rate of 18 per cent a year over the next five years to reach the US $10 billion mark by 2009. Fourteen million Indians go to the movies on a daily basis (about 1.3 % (US$ 20 million) and radio . Million in 2006. films . 5 Indian films have made it to the top 5 list in the US 21 | P a g e . the market shares were: television . 473 films were produced in the US in 2003.vs.2 billion . followed by films at US$ 5 billion . up from US$ 26.9 billion).65 % (US$ 4.9 billion. and earnings are currently estimated at US$2. 400. Hollywood: About 150 Hollywood films (English/sub-titled/dubbed) release in India every year since 1998. which is 95% film based is valued at US $ 4. Movie tickets in India are among the cheapest in the world India accounts for 73% of movie admissions in the Asia-Pacific region.

and often determine box office hits. Unlike commercial Western films. The lead star in a film often receives as much as 40% of the budget (average US $2 million) for the formula/mainstream film. Mumbai Mindscreen Technical Institute. there is almost no nudity at all in Indian films. The mostly suggestive µvulgar¶ scenes are usually removed by the Indian Censor Board in µpublic interest¶. Mumbai Actors Training Centre. Indian commercial films. The lyrics are usually well written and set to music with catchy tunes. They tend to feature romance. Bollywood. Pakistani. Delhi Film Institute. Kolkata Asian Academy of Film & Television. Chennai IFI follows the µstar¶ system. Pune Satyajit Ray Film Institute. Telugu juxtaposed with Afghani. are usually 2.to be a great way of staying in touch with their culture and their fellow South Asians.and UK. Nepali & Lankan Film Training Government Institutions Film And Television Institute Of India. The principal difference between American and Indian commercial cinema is that Indian mainstream/commercial films usually feature periodic song-and-dance routines which need not be integrated into the film story. Marathi. Bangladeshi. and other generic elements. Indian film screenings in American and British theaters are increasing. Tamil. Since natural location 22 | P a g e . South Asians have found Indian films ± dominated by Bollywood . Chennai Private Institutions SAE Institute. Assamese. Malayalam. action. suspense.5 to 3 hours long. Stars are in such high demand that they're working on an average of 4 films a year. Phalke Cinema µindustries¶ of India Bengali.P. Chennai Whistling Woods. comedy. sung by professional play back singers and lip-synched by dancing actors and actresses. Kannada. IFI ± the setup: IFI started in 1911 when the first silent Indian feature film was released by D. with an intermission. Chennai Prasad institute.

Each Indian state with a film industry has several registered unions for all categories of actors and technicians. In-Film advertising generates anything between US$ 15.000. An estimated 6 million people earn their livelihood from the entertainment industry ± Film and TV Unionization of the film industry is a state subject. The financial infrastructure for Indian cinema is customized to the traditional differentiation between art and commercial cinema.2 million per star.000 . Film stars forge strategic linkages with advertising products and earn a separate income from this co-branding that ranges from USD 25. per co-branding. Chennai and Hyderabad. µArt¶ films usually deal with a wide range of subjects but many are in general explorations of complex human circumstances and relationships within an Indian setting. µCommercial¶ cinema claims to be for the µmasses¶ and follows the generic formula with a good deal of µwesternization¶ element. which cater to the expanding middle class of 300 million Indians and the diaspora are setting the trend for the future of IFI. Film production scales: high23 | P a g e .shooting is impractical in India. the concept of the µfilm city¶ has emerged and there are now film cities in the three major film sub-industrial hubs in Mumbai. About 70% of television revenues are from films and film-based programs ± source: FICCI Infilm advertising is helping to build brands and proving to be a revenue-spinner for several ad agencies.000 to Rs 50 million for the producers. More than 95% of film financing goes towards µcommercial cinema¶ The National Film Development Corporation was set up in (year) to counter this trend and promote ³excellence in cinema´. It is critiqued that the film unions have excessive control over production processes. Film placements are currently raking in anything between Rs 5.000 per film for film budget sizes ranging from USD 500.00.000 ± 200. Two Indian production/distribution companies are ranked among the world's top 20 production houses by a Hollywood Reporter survey. The corporatization of the film industry and the mushrooming multiplexes.Million.

Mass electorate and film stars ± Four film stars have become Chief Ministers in two South Indian states Cinema as instrument for political careers ± The current chief minister of Tamilnadu became popular as an ideological Script writer In contrast.impact: The impact of Indian cinema is in terms of: Political Social Cultural Economic content International Perceptions of India Indian Cinema ± impact Political: Instrument of patriotism ± since the freedom movement in the 1930s up to the most recent war for Kashmir. Neither the context nor the cinematic style has any connection with reality The Unreal and Surreal sub-genres abet and promote aspirational lifestyle and Indian perceptions of 24 | P a g e .0001.R.5 million. Low budget ± US$130.g.the context is aspirational such as a European/American/Pseudo-Indian setting. Very low budgets for independent films and documentaries. of Aamir Khan (tribals activism) and A. Bollywood stars have failed political careers since they don¶t represent any ideology and attain stardom mostly through socially disconnected films for non-urban audiences. Indian Cinema ± impact Social: Indian Cinema ± impact Social Mainstream Indian films are contexualized in 3 broad social spaces ± The µReal¶ ± reality is attempted to be depicted in µart¶ cinema The µUnreal¶ ± the context could be Indian but the protagonist is unreal/superhero. Films on environment and wildlife are negligible. Indian Cinema . Medium budget ± US$2 million. Rahman (remixes of national songs) Film stars are wooed and paid handsomely to campaign for political parties during elections. Film related stars as national icons e. The µSurreal¶.budget ± US$ 15 million.

gaming.western materialism. and new media comics Live events and film award functions are revenue earners since the branded stars participate even though the quality of the event is often compromised. However. it was a film maker rooted in his culture who won the lifetime achievement award at the Oscars. The former is hard-core commercial while the latter is strictly art-films 25 | P a g e . Film stars are used as protagonists for the growing industries of animation. Since the TV boom. Economic content More than 50% of The Indian TV industry¶s revenue is derived from film-based programs. The international film festivals are the only platforms for Indian cinema to be properly represented and the presence of quality mainstream cinema is increasing. Gender equations/dynamics of youth are influenced by film stars¶ behavioural patterns on and off screen Indian Cinema ± impact Cultural: Mainstream formula films are based on their own perceptions of westernization in every aspect of film making The cinema-advertising nexus promotes not just products but lifestyles where culture specificities and nuances are threatened. The top three revenue earners of all channels are film-based programs. Hollywood used them as entry points to Indian cinema. Indian films have a tangible impact on youth. The cinema-advertising nexus deliberately develop and merchandize Film trends/styles ± from hair clips to retro-wardrobes the new trend of commercial films fashioned in culturally alien settings aims to reach µglobal¶ urban audiences and the diaspora.Deepa Mehta.Shilpa Shetty and µBig Brother¶ in the UK Indo-American and Indo-European productions is now underway. film stars are being shipped in to please the diaspora .. Meera Nair. International perceptions Bollywood as the mainstream face of India is problematic NonResident Indian film makers are also perceived as representing Indian cinema.

But the quality of this vehicle is critiqued and questioned. unlike Hollywood. The term "Bollywood" has origins in the 1970s. and the journalist Bevinda Collaco. The name "Bollywood" later arose as the Bombay-based film industry overtook the one in Tollygunge as the center of the Indian film industry. Credit for the term has been claimed by several different people. when India overtook America as the world's largest film producer. However. filmmaker and scholar Amit Khanna. Dating back to 1932. The naming scheme for "Bollywood" was inspired by "Tollywood". arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. "Tollywood" was the earliest Hollywood-inspired name. the center of the American film industry. it has its own entry in the Oxford English Dictionary. Indian cinema is a powerful vehicle for the diaspora to stay µconnected¶ with its¶roots. including the lyricist. Bollywood does not exist as a physical place. referring to the Bengali film industry based in Tollygunge. Though some deplore the name. Etymology The name "Bollywood" is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood. History 26 | P a g e . which rhymed with "Hollywood" and was the center of the cinema of India at the time.oriented. the name that was used to refer to the cinema of West Bengal.

Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931) 27 | P a g e .Film poster for first Indian sound film.

color did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s.Nargis and Raj Kapoor in Awaara (1951) . The first Indian sound film. 28 | P a g e . Mother India. However. also directed and produced by Kapoor. By the 1930s. World War II. It was nominated for the Grand Prize of the 1951 Cannes Film Festival. for which he was the director. Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931). It is one of Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies. of Alam Ara fame. At this time. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist. The next year. Ardeshir Irani. producer and leading actor. or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. In 1937. he made another color film. was a major commercial success. Guru Dutt in Pyaasa (1957). Bollywood and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming. but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues. The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression. the Indian independence movement. made the first colour film in Hindi. was the first silent feature film made in India. by Dadasaheb Phalke. There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals. and the violence of the Partition. the industry was producing over 200 films per annum. lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Raja Harishchandra (1913). Kisan Kanya.

directed by Bimal Roy and written by Ritwik Ghatak. Shyam Benegal and Vijaya Mehta. Hindi films were frequently in competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival throughout the 1950s and early 1960s. as well as the latter's commercial success. had 29 | P a g e . it also began gaining prominence in Hindi cinema. Dilip Kumar. Other acclaimed mainstream Hindi filmmakers at the time included Kamal Amrohi and Vijay Bhatt. popularized the theme of reincarnation in Western popular culture. Raj Kapoor and Guru Dutt. Madhumati (1958). Ketan Mehta. Waheeda Rehman and Mala Sinha.s Ever since the social realist film Neecha Nagar won the Grand Prize at the first Cannes Film Festival. Meena Kumari. the 1950s also saw the emergence of a new Parallel Cinema movement. paved the way for Indian neorealism and the Indian New Wave. Nutan. and K. Madhubala. which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. including Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957). Though the movement was mainly led by Bengali cinema. Kumar Shahani.Some of the most famous epic films of Hindi cinema were also produced at the time.Golden Age Following India's independence. Some of the most criticallyacclaimed Hindi films of all time were produced during this period. These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class urban life in India. Early examples of Hindi films in this movement include Chetan Anand's Neecha Nagar (1946) and Bimal Roy's Two Acres of Land (1953). While commercial Hindi cinema was thriving. with some of them winning major prizes at the festival.e. while successful actresses included Nargis. Their critical acclaim.Azam (1960). Some of the internationally-acclaimed Hindi filmmakers involved in the movement included Mani Kaul. while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life. Successful actors at the time included Dev Anand. Examples include the Guru Dutt films Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) and the Raj Kapoor films Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955). Guru Dutt. while overlooked in his own lifetime. Asif's Mughal . Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream. the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s are regarded by film historians as the "Golden Age" of Hindi cinema. Govind Nihalani.

Azam (1960) all tied at 346 on the list. Leena Chandavarkar and Helen. Modern cinema In the late 1960s and early 1970s. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released in 1975. Some Hindi filmmakers such as Shyam Benegal continued to produce realistic Parallel Cinema throughout the 1970s. the 'art film' bent of the Film Finance Corporation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in 1976. However. Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra (1952). Jaya Bachchan and Rekha. Mumtaz. Dutt is now regarded as one of the greatest Asian filmmakers of all time. romance movies and action films starred actors like Rajesh Khanna and Dharmendra. Govind Nihalani and Vijaya Mehta. Asif's Mughal . which solidified Amitabh Bachchan's position as a lead actor. Another important film from 1975 was Deewar. alongside Mani Kaul. a gang leader based on real30 | P a g e . the star known for his "angry young man" roles. alongside the more famous Indian Bengali filmmaker Satyajit Ray. Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957) and K. which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema. and with both Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) tied at 160 in the 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll of all-time greatest films. which lasted into the early 1990s. with Pyaasa (1957) being featured in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies list. The 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll of greatest filmmakers ranked Dutt at 73 on the list. In the mid-1970s. Actresses from this era included Hema Malini. A crime film pitting "a policeman against his brother. and actresses like Sharmila Tagore. The 1970s thus saw the rise of commercial cinema in the form of enduring films such as Sholay (1975). rode the crest of this trend with actors like Mithun Chakraborty and Anil Kapoor.e. directed by Yash Chopra and written by SalimJaved. Some of his films are now included among the greatest films of all time. romantic confections made way for gritty. Kumar Shahani. Amitabh Bachchan.belatedly generated international recognition much later in the 1980s. Ketan Mehta. Several other Hindi films from this era were also ranked in the Sight & Sound poll. including Raj Kapoor's Awaara (1951). violent films about gangsters (see Indian mafia) and bandits.

the most influential example being Satya (1998). Juhi Chawla and Kajol). 31 | P a g e . Devdas (2002). Mil Gaya (2003). some of which succeeded commercially. etc. Rang De Basanti (2006).life smuggler Haji Mastan". The critical and commercial success of Satya led to the emergence of a distinct genre known as Mumbai noir. Madhuri Dixit. the pendulum swung back toward family-centric romantic musicals with the success of such films as Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988). Dhoom 2 (2006). urban films reflecting social problems in the city of Mumbai.. led to wider box office successes in India and abroad. Lage Raho Munnabhai (2006). Tabu and Urmila Matondkar. During the late 1980s and early 1990s. making stars out of a new generation of actors (such as Aamir Khan. action and comedy films were also successful. In that point of time. Some of the largest production houses. This led to a resurgence of Parallel Cinema by the end of the decade. Maine Pyar Kiya (1989). with actors like Govinda and Akshay Kumar and actresses such as Raveena Tandon and Karisma Kapoor appearing in films of this genre. Furthermore. Veer-Zaara (2004). Salman Khan and Shahrukh Khan) and actresses (such as Sridevi. portrayed by Amitabh Bachchan. cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects. more Bollywood releases abroad and the explosion of multiplexes in big cities. directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap. These films often featured actors like Nana Patekar. Krrish (2006). this decade marked the entry of new performers in art house and independent films.. The most internationally-acclaimed Hindi film of the 1980s was Mira Nair's Salaam Bombay! (1988). which won the Camera or at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003). Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994) and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995). among them Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions were the producers of new modern films. whose performances were usually critically approved. The opening up of the overseas market. Manisha Koirala. The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity in the world. animation. Koi. This led the nation's filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality. including Lagaan (2001). Manoj Bajpai. it was described as being ³absolutely key to Indian cinema´ by Danny Boyle. Om Shanti Om (2007).

The Hindi film industry has preferred films that appeal to all segments of the audience (see the discussion in Ganti. 2004. Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi (2008). However. back-story and story within a story. where music. particularly in its narratives." Sanskrit dramas were known as natya.Chak De India (2007). with its highly stylized nature and emphasis on spectacle. Among the mainstream films. cited in references). Kareena Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra). Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story. derived from the root word nrit (dance). Lagaan won the Audience Award at the Locarno International Film Festival and was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 74th Academy Awards. and has resisted making films that target narrow audiences. Influences Gokulsing and Dissanayake identify six major influences that have shaped the conventions of Indian popular cinema: y The ancient Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana which have exerted a profound influence on the thought and imagination of Indian popular cinema. while Devdas and Rang De Basanti were both nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Ghajini (2008) and 3 Idiots (2009). such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films Khalnayak and Gardish. filmmakers may be moving towards accepting some box-office segmentation. and keeping the popularity of actors of the previous decade. Abhishek Bachchan) and actresses (Aishwarya Rai. between films that appeal to rural Indians and films that appeal to urban and overseas audiences. It was believed that aiming for a broad spectrum would maximise box office receipts. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots. Rani Mukerji. Preity Zinta. characterizing them as 32 | P a g e . delivering a new generation of popular actors (Hrithik Roshan. y Ancient Sanskrit drama. dance and gesture combined "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience.

narrative and spectacle. they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day to day lives in complex and interesting ways." y Western musical television. However. The Parsi plays contained crude humour. y The Parsi theatre. while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films. particularly MTV. used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films. The theory of rasa dating back to ancient Sanskrit drama is believed to be one of the most fundamental features that differentiate Indian cinema. y The traditional folk theatre of India. "whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant. integrating them into a dramatic discourse of melodrama. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology. camera angles. though Indian filmmakers departed from their Hollywood counterparts in several ways. An early example of this approach was in Mani Ratnam's Bombay (1995). melodious songs and music. "For example. from that of the Western world. dance sequences and music of 2000s Indian films. and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the American musical film genre. earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation. the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh. an illusion. particularly Hindi cinema. as can be seen in the pace." y Hollywood. music and dance. Indian filmmakers.spectacular dance-dramas which has continued Indian cinema. where musicals were popular from the 1920s to the 1950s. which became popular from around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theatre. which "blended realism and fantasy. fairy stories and so on through song and dance. the Hollywood musicals had as their plot the world of entertainment itself. Bollywood began influencing musical films in the Western world. sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft. history. 33 | P a g e . In the 2000s. These regional traditions include the Yatra of Bengal. which has had an increasing influence since the 1990s. and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu. a fiction. Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation." In addition.

Dreamgirls. The Black Eyed Peas' Grammy Award winning 2005 song "Don't Phunk with My Heart" was inspired by two 1970s Bollywood songs: "Ye Mera Dil Yaar Ka Diwana" from Don (1978) and "Ae Nujawan Hai Sub" from Apradh (1972). Enchanted and Mamma Mia! Were produced. R. The film incorporated an Indian-themed play based on the ancient Sanskrit drama The Little Clay Cart and a Bollywood-style dance sequence with a song from the film China Gate. was lifted from Lata Mangeshkar's "Thoda Resham Lagta Hai" from Jyoti (1981). The Phantom of the Opera. which in turn influenced another Hollywood film Chances Are (1989). Rahman. with Madhumati (1958) inspiring the Hollywood film The Reincarnation of Peter Proud (1975). Sweeney Todd. Rent. The 1975 film Chhoti Si Baat is believed to have inspired Hitch (2005). Devo's 1988 hit song "Disco Dancer" was inspired by the song "I am a Disco Dancer" from the Bollywood film Disco Dancer (1982). A. The 2002 song "Addictive". an Indian film composer. sung by Truth Hurts and produced by DJ Quik and Dr. wrote the music for Andrew Lloyd Webber's Bombay Dreams. Also in 2005. was also directly inspired by Bollywood films. Hairspray. The Bollywood musical Lagaan (2001) was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. the 34 | P a g e . The theme of reincarnation was also popularized in Western popular culture through Bollywood films. Dre. and two other Bollywood films Devdas (2002) and Rang De Basanti (2006) were nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film. which in turn inspired the Bollywood film Karz (1980). and featured the dancer Helen. fueling a renaissance of the genre. and is considered to be a "homage to Hindi commercial cinema". sung by Asha Bhosle. Across the Universe. The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! renewed interest in the then-moribund Western musical genre. and a musical version of Hum Aapke Hain Koun has played in London's West End. For example.Baz Luhrmann stated that his musical film Moulin Rouge! (2001) was directly inspired by Bollywood musicals. The Producers. which has won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards. The influence of Bollywood filmi music can also be seen in popular music elsewhere in the world. which in turn inspired the Bollywood film Partner (2007). Both songs were originally composed by Kalyanji Anandji. Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire (2008). and subsequently films such as Chicago.

these movies are a mixture of many things such as action. Many Asian Underground artists. particularly those among the overseas Indian diaspora.Songs From R D Burman's Bollywood. A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers. including the Singaporean artist Kelly Poon. comedy. Genre conventions Bollywood films are mostly musicals. which was nominated for "Best Contemporary World Music Album" at the 2006 Grammy Awards. Most films have heroes who are able to fight off villains all by themselves. Indian audiences expect full value for their money. the Uzbek artist Iroda Dilroz. the American artist Ciara. and are expected to contain catchy music in the form of song-and-dance numbers woven into the script. with a good entertainer generally referred to as paisa vasool. comedy and dare-devil thrills are all mixed up in a three-hour-long extravaganza with an intermission. Such movies are called masala films. Indeed. after the Hindi word for a spice mixture. D. Filmi music composed by A.Songs and dances. R. Burman compositions. love triangles. with Asha Bhosle as the singer. Like masalas. Rahman (who would later win two Academy Awards for the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack) has frequently been sampled by musicians elsewhere in the world.Kronos Quartet re-recorded several R. 35 | P a g e . into an album You've stolen my heart . (literally. the French rap group La Caution. and the German band Löwenherz. have also been inspired by Bollywood music. a film's music is often released before the movie itself and helps increase the audience. among others. romance etc. "money's worth").

dramatic reversals of fortune. Though these changes can widely be seen in contemporary Bollywood. courtesans with hearts of gold. A large Indian diaspora in English speaking countries. have nudged Bollywood films closer to Hollywood models. They often lost out at the box office to movies with more mass appeal. however.Our earliest films. love triangles. family ties.. There have always been Indian films with more artistic aims and more sophisticated stories.". They frequently employ formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers and angry parents.had liberal doses of sex and kissing scenes in them. it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures. Strangely. conniving villains." Plots now tend to feature Westernised urbanites dating and dancing in clubs rather than centering on pre-arranged marriages.. and convenient coincidences. long-lost relatives and siblings separated by fate. Pictured Achhut Kanya (1936) Bollywood plots have tended to be melodramatic. corrupt politicians. sacrifice. Bollywood conventions are changing. and increased Western influence at home.Melodrama and romance are common ingredients to Bollywood films. both inside and outside the Bollywood tradition (see Parallel Cinema). traditional conservative ways of Indian culture continue to exist in India outside the industry and an element of resistance 36 | P a g e . kidnappers. Film critic Lata Khubchandani writes.

by making several movies simultaneously. Models and beauty contestants. Indeed some studies into fashion in India have revealed that some people are unaware that the changing nature of fashion in Bollywood films which are presented to them are often influenced by globalization and many consider the clothes worn by Bollywood actors as authentically Indian. and the relatives of film-industry insiders have an edge in getting coveted roles in films or being part of a film's crew. many foreign extras are employed too. an Englishwoman. Stardom in the entertainment industry is very fickle. Industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is fierce and if film industry scions do not succeed at the box office. Hence many stars make the most of their fame. such as 37 | P a g e . Despite this. Some of the biggest stars. and Bollywood is no exception. theatre actors and even common people come to Mumbai with the hope and dream of becoming a star. one recent example is the hit film Rang De Basanti. all hoping for a break in the industry. their careers will falter. Bollywood continues to play a major role in fashion in India. Bollywood can be very clannish. where the lead actress is Alice Patten. The popularity of the stars can rise and fall rapidly. There have been some exceptions. television actors. Indian movie actresses. Just as in Hollywood. Indian film music directors and Indian playback singers Bollywood employs people from all parts of India.by some to western-based influences. Lagaan. once they become popular. Kisna. Cast and crew for further details see Indian movie actors. Indian film directors. Directors compete to hire the most popular stars of the day. though many have tried from time to time. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses. and The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey also featured foreign actors. very few succeed. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad. Only a very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood. who are believed to guarantee the success of a movie (though this belief is not always supported by box-office results).

for which it was notorious. Sound Sound in Bollywood films is rarely recorded on location (otherwise known as sync sound). see List of Bollywood film clans. which required a blimp (cover) in order to shield the sound of the camera. Bollywood song and dance 38 | P a g e . and several Bollywood films have employed on-location sound since then.[57] This opened up a heated debate on the use and economic feasibility of onlocation sound. For film clans. never bothered to blimp the camera. this became the standard for Indian films. not just the Hindi-language variety. with the actors reciting their lines as their images appear on-screen in the studio in the process known as "looping in the sound" or ADR²with the foley and sound effects added later. after a 30-year hiatus of synchronized sound.Dharmendra. are known for their lack of ambient sound. Therefore. and Shahrukh Khan have succeeded despite total lack of show business connections. with the film Lagaan. The trend was bucked in 2001. The ubiquity of ADR in Bollywood cinema became prevalent in the early 1960s with the arrival of the Arriflex 3 camera. The actors have to act twice: once on-location. the sound is usually created (or recreated) entirely in the studio. Commercial Indian films. once in the studio²and the emotional level on set is often very difficult to recreate. and its excessive noise required that everything had to be recreated in the studio. in which producer-star Aamir Khan insisted that the sound be done on location. known for their speed. Eventually. from on-location filming. since the sound in these films usually occurs a frame or two earlier or later than the mouth movements or gestures. This creates several problems. so there is a silence underlying everything instead of the background sound and noises usually employed in films to create aurally perceivable depth and environment. Amitabh Bachchan. Commercial Indian filmmakers.

L. While most actors.Songs in Bollywood are sung by professional playback singers. are excellent dancers. Suraiyya. and Noor Jehan were also known as both singers and actors. meaning "of films"). Pictured here is Mukesh. who starred in several major films in the 1950s while also having a stellar career as a playback singer. Saigal. especially today. rather than actors. who lip-sync the lyrics. Bollywood dances usually follow filmi songs Bollywood film music is called filmi music (from Hindi. with the actors then lip synching the words to the song on-screen. a famed playback singer. K. often while dancing. few are also singers. Songs from Bollywood movies are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers. One notable exception was Kishore Kumar. Some actors in the last thirty years 39 | P a g e .

Balasubramanyam. Sometimes. dances of historic northern Indian courtesans (tawaif). Their songs can make or break a film and usually do. are also well-known. has recorded thousands of songs for Indian movies. Talat Mahmood. Mukesh. This staging is referred to as a "picturisation". Shamshad Begum and Alka Yagnik among female playback singers. In modern films. Manna Dey. The composers of film music. especially older ones. Going by the quality as well as the quantity of the songs they rendered. known as music directors. through the course of a career spanning over six decades. Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the movie. L. though it is not unusual to see Western pop and pure classical dance numbers side by side in the same film.have sung one or more songs themselves. followed by Lata Mangeshkar. is primarily modelled on Indian dance: classical dance styles. Kishore Kumar. S. and producers may even release remixed versions of some of their films' songs along with the films' regular soundtrack albums. Mohammed Rafi. Udit Narayan and Sonu Nigam among male playback singers. most notable singers of Bollywood are Lata Mangeshkar. Kumar Sanu. for a list. The dancing in Bollywood films.P. in several ways. Geeta Dutt. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films feature unrealistically instantaneous shifts of location or changes of costume between verses of a song. Other 40 | P a g e . it is often staged in beautiful natural surroundings or architecturally grand settings. If the hero and heroine dance and sing a duet. Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own fans who will go to an otherwise lackluster movie just to hear their favorites. Hemant Kumar. Asha Bhosle. and K. who. Remixing of film songs with modern beats and rhythms is a common occurrence today. a song is worked into the plot. Indian dance elements often blend with Western dance styles (as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals). so that a character has a reason to sing. see Singing actors and actresses in Indian cinema. or folk dances. Mohammed Rafi is often considered arguably the finest of the singers that have lent their voice to Bollywood songs. Saigal. The hero or heroine will often perform with a troupe of supporting dancers.

The actress Helen was famous for her cabaret numbers. Contemporary mainstream movies also make great use of English. hoping that the music will pull audiences into the cinema later. Some movie scripts are first written in Roman alphabet. the event is often two characters falling in love. In older films. or presages an event that has not occurred yet in the plot of the movie. Characters may shift from one language to the other to express a certain atmosphere (for example. The songs are also often referred to as a "dream sequence". For the last few decades Bollywood producers have been releasing the film's soundtrack. a song is an externalisation of a character's thoughts. before the main movie release. Dialogues are usually written in an unadorned Hindi or Hindustani that would be understood by the largest possible audience. often completely unrelated to the main cast and plot of the film. item numbers may be inserted as discotheque sequences. Bollywood films have always used what are now called "item numbers". some promotional videos feature a song which is not included in the movie. English in a business setting and Hindi in an informal one). and anything can happen that would not normally happen in the real world. performs a catchy song and dance number in the film. However. the "item number" may be performed by a courtesan (tawaif) dancing for a rich client or as part of a cabaret show. A physically attractive female character (the "item girl"). Dialogues and lyrics The film script or lines of dialogue (called "dialogues" in Indian English) and the song lyrics are often written by different people. dancing at celebrations. or as stage shows. 41 | P a g e . however. In this case. Some movies. In the last few years some producers have also been releasing music videos. have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting. as tapes or CDs.times. In modern films. Often the soundtrack is more popular than the movie. or old-fashioned courtly Urdu in Mughal era historical films. usually featuring a song from the film.

Devdas and other recent films. Indian producers are winning more and more funding for big-budget films shot within India as well. and self-sacrifice liberally. the United States. especially in the old movies. Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists. so Mumbai film crews are increasingly filming in Australia. although with some notable exceptions. the United Kingdom. 42 | P a g e . whether in dialogues or lyrics. As Western films and television gain wider distribution in India itself. particularly in areas such as action and special effects. duty. mother. with the most expensive productions costing up to 100 crores rupees (roughly USD 20 million). special effects. frequently use Arabo-Persic Urdu vocabulary. New Zealand. Many lyrics compare the singer to a devotee and the object of his or her passion to Krishna or Radha. costumes. Recent Bollywood films have employed international technicians to improve in these areas. and the gopis. coupled with rising film budgets. such as Lagaan. Radha. there is an increasing pressure for Bollywood films to attain the same production levels. Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II.g. The increasing accessibility to professional action and special effects. or Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe). such as Krrish (2006) which has action choreographed by Hong Kong based Tony Ching. Sequences shot overseas have proved a real box office draw. to the point that the lyricist and composer are seen as a team.. Bollywood song lyrics. Another source for love lyrics is the long Hindu tradition of poetry about the mythological amours of Krishna. has seen an explosion in the action and sci-fi genres. and cinematography were less than world-class up until the mid-to-late 1990s.Cinematic language. continental Europe and elsewhere. family. Canada. Sets. Finances Bollywood films are multi-million dollar productions. Song lyrics are usually about love. is often melodramatic and invokes God. This phenomenon is not unlike the pairings of American composers and songwriters that created old-time Broadway musicals (e. Nowadays.

they have been known to use money and muscle power to get their way in cinematic deals. In 2001. Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by countless small cable TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia. television and imported foreign films are making huge inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. However. In January 2000. Mumbai mafia hitmen shot Rakesh Roshan. such as the Mumbai underworld. now fewer tend to do so. Often. bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies.S. Indian banks and financial institutions were forbidden from lending money to movie studios. Besides catering to the homegrown market. distribution and telecast). this ban has now been lifted. bootleg DVD copies of movies are available before the prints are officially released in cinemas. the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of the movie Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the movie was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai underworld. The Mumbai underworld has been known to be involved in the production of several films. and are notorious for their patronisation of several prominent film personalities. Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread copyright infringement of its films. while consumer copying adds to the problem. However. Satellite TV. recouping their investments from many sources of revenue. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to the piracy problem. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) estimates that the Bollywood industry loses $100 million annually in loss of revenue from pirated home videos and DVDs. On occasion. and VHS copies of the latest movie titles is a well established 'small scale industry' in parts of South Asia and South East Asia. including selling ancillary 43 | P a g e . some funding also comes from illegitimate sources. VCD. In the past. too. As finances are not regulated. Manufacturing of bootleg DVD. Small convenience stores run by members of the Indian diaspora in the U. demand for these copies is large amongst some sections of the Indian diaspora. most Bollywood producers make money. since the Government of Pakistan has banned their sale.Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. and the UK regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance. (In fact. most Bollywood films could make money. a film director and father of star Hrithik Roshan.

Hussain used to paint film posters early in his career) This was because human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material.F. Most of the better-funded film releases now have their own websites. 44 | P a g e . are becoming increasingly collectible as folk art. as used in Hollywood. and crew. a majority of the huge and ubiquitous billboards in India's major cities are created with computer-printed vinyl. and information about the story. stills. cast.) of US$1. There are also increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom. As more Indians migrate to these countries.6 billion tickets and generated total revenues (again from all formats) of US$51 billion. Bollywood sold 3. is widely practiced in Bollywood. where Bollywood is slowly getting noticed. A popular tune is believed to help pull audiences into the theaters. Product placement. see chart. whereas Hollywood films sold 2. The old hand-painted posters. Bollywood is also used to advertise other products. For an interesting comparison of Hollywood and Bollywood financial figures. Canada. It shows tickets sold in 2002 and total revenue estimates. Advertising Many Indian artists used to make a living by hand-painting movie billboards and posters (The well-known artist M. once regarded as ephemera. before the actual release of the film can also be considered a form of advertising.rights. television etc.6 billion tickets and had total revenues (theatre tickets. Now. or music videos. DVDs. they form a growing market for upscale Indian films. Bollywood publicists have begun to use the Internet as a venue for advertising. Releasing the film music.3 billion. and the United States. where browsers can view trailers.

but films from all the other regional movie industries and independent/art films. Advertisers say that a star endorsement boosts sales. the Filmfare Awards are voted for by both the public and a committee of experts. A dual voting system was developed in 1956. awarded by the government run Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF). which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government. The Indian screen magazine Filmfare started the first Filmfare Awards in 1954. Additional ceremonies held within India are: y y Stardust Awards Star Screen Awards Ceremonies held overseas are: 45 | P a g e . The ceremony was referred to as the Clare Awards after the magazine's editor. Like the Oscars. Since 1973.Bollywood movie stars appear in print and television advertisements for other products. the Filmfare awards are frequently accused of bias towards commercial success rather than artistic merit. and awards were given to the best films of 1953. such as watches or soap (see Celebrity endorsement). Under this system. Modelled after the poll-based merit format of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. The DFF screens not only Bollywood films. the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards. the National Film Awards were introduced in 1954. individuals may submit their votes in separate categories. These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India. Awards The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India. As the Filmfare. in contrast to the National Film Awards.

largely by Lebanese businessmen. Bollywood progressed in its popularity as it entered the consciousness of Western audiences and producers.(different country each year) IIFA Awards . Hindi films have been distributed to some parts of Africa. songs have also been copied by Hausa singers and stories have influenced the writings of Nigerian novelists. and numerous celebrities. United States Global Indian Film Awards .Long Island. Mother India (1957). for example. such far off locations as Nigeria to Egypt to Senegal and to Russia generations of non-Indian fans have grown up with Bollywood during the years. while posters of Indian films adorn the walls of tailor 46 | P a g e . Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Northern Nigeria. bearing witness to the cross-cultural appeal of Indian movies. Film education y y y Film and Television Institute of India Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute Asian Academy of Film & Television Popularity and appeal Besides being popular among the India diaspora.(different country each year) Most of these award ceremonies are lavishly staged spectacles.(different country each year) Zee Cine Awards.y y y y Bollywood Movie Awards . Over the last years of the twentieth century and beyond. New York. dancing. Indian movies have also gained ground so as to alter the style of Hausa fashions. continued to be played in Nigeria decades after its release. Historically. featuring singing.

where Hollywood movies were seen to have "no shame". Unlike in Europe and North America where Indian films largely cater to the expatriate Indian market yearning to keep in touch with their homeland. Dil Jo Bhi Kahey (2005) was shot almost entirely in Mauritius. The new era features more sexually explicit and violent films. Other similarities include wearing turbans." where the former is based socialist values and on the reality of developing countries emerging from years of colonialism. such movies rose in popularity despite the lack of a significant Indian audience. youths riding Bajaj motor scooters. In Indian movies women were modestly dressed. The film Padmashree Laloo Prasad Yadav (2005) was one of many movies shot in South Africa. and there is no nudity. based on a religion wholly different. which has a large ethnically Indian population. The latter choice was a failure because "they don't base themselves on the problems of the people. more westernized picturizations. Indian movies were said to show "respect" toward women. and. Ominously. Several Bollywood personalities have avenued to the continent for both shooting movies and off-camera projects. chewing sugar cane. porters carrying large bundles. 47 | P a g e . men and women rarely kiss. wedding celebrations. commented that older films of the 1950s and 1960s had culture to the newer.shops and mechanics' garages in the country. and so forth. the presence of animals in markets. where movies are about an alien culture. changing Bollywood seems to be diminishing the popularity on the continent. where the emerging Islamic Courts Union found a bete noire. Nigerian viewers. however. as in many other parts of the world. Chad and Ethiopia have also shown an interest in the movies. Indian movies also allowed for a new youth culture to follow without such ideological baggage as "becoming western. One such explanation for this lied in the similarities between the two cultures. With the strict Muslim culture. for example. the popularity of old Bollywood versus a new." Bollywood is also popular among Somalis and the Somali diaspora. in West Africa. The changing style of Bollywood has begun to question such an acceptance. thus Indian movies are said to "have culture" that Hollywood films lack. a language that is unintelligble to the viewers. for the most part.

A greater globalised world worked in tandem with the sexualisation of Indian films so as to become more like American films.. Asia Bollywood films are widely watched in South Asian countries. Continued easing followed in 2009 and 2010. Pakistan banned the legal import of Bollywood movies in 1965. Many Pakistanis watch Bollywood films. Since the early 2000s. Jordan. The new policy is controversial in Pakistan. Special channels dedicated to Indian films have been displayed on cable television.. Nepal. such as the 2006 colorized re-release of the classic Mughal-e-Azam or the 2006 film Taj Mahal. including Palestine. Exceptions were made for a few films. However. including Dharmatma. Kabul Express. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. thus negating the preferred values of an old Bollywood and diminishing Indian soft power. who are booking large profits after years of poor receipts. The emergence of Nollywood. 16 were screened in 2008. It is opposed by ardent nationalists and representatives of Pakistan's small film industry. the Pakistani government eased the ban and allowed the import of even more movies. Bollywood movies are also popular in Afghanistan due to the country's proximity with the Indian subcontinent and certain other cultural perspectives present in the movies. such as Bangladesh. A number of Bollywood movies were filmed inside Afghanistan while some dealt with the country. as they understand Hindi (due to its linguistic similarity to Urdu). Early in 2008. Hindi films have also been popular in numerous Arab countries. Africa's local movie industry has also contributed to the declining popularity of Bollywood films. 48 | P a g e . a thriving trade in pirated DVDs and illegal cable broadcasts ensured the continued popularity of Bollywood releases in Pakistan. Bollywood has progressed in Israel. and India's policy was wholly influenced by his missionary zeal to end racial domination and discrimination in the African territories" were replaced by newer realities. Khuda Gawah and Escape From Taliban. it is embraced by cinema owners. Imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic upon the film's release.The old days of India avidly "advocating decolonization . Egypt and the Gulf countries.

Bollywood films are also popular across Southeast Asia (particularly the Malay Archipelago) and Central Asia (particularly in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan). especially its soundtrack. which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule. Raj Kapoor was a famous movie star in China. Since then. The most popular Hindi films in China were Dr. Rahman to score the soundtrack for his film Warriors of Heaven and Earth (2003). Hindi films significantly declined in popularity in China. The films from India. were found to be a good source 49 | P a g e . until the Academy Award nominated Lagaan (2001) became the first Indian film to have a nationwide release there in decades. the Soviet Union was recovering from the onslaught of the Second World War. As there was no means of other cheap entertainment. Bollywood films have been dubbed into Russian. particularly the films directed by the late Guru Dutt. Awaara (1951) and Two Acres of Land (1953). and shown in prominent theatres such as Mosfilm and Lenfilm. Indian Ambassador to Suriname. Europe Bollywood films are particularly popular in the former Soviet Union. who has served three times in the Commonwealth of Independent States region during his diplomatic career said: The popularity of Bollywood in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from Hollywood and other Western countries were banned in the Soviet Union. R. Some Hindi movies also became big successes in the People's Republic of China during the 1940s and 1950s. Several older Hindi films also have a cult following in Japan. Ashok Sharma. and the song "Awara Hoon" ("I am a Tramp") was popular in the country. In addition. The Chinese filmmaker He Ping was impressed by Lagaan. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani (1946). the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and nonpolitical. and thus hired the film's music composer A.

The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values. when it recruited Russian actress Kseniya Ryabinkina for the movie. Yash Raj Films. The film Mera Naam Joker (1970). Toronto and New York City. In other words. or entirely. Germany. and the Scandinavian countries. This made things difficult for Bollywood as it was losing market share to Hollywood. After the collapse of the Soviet film distribution system. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union. Hollywood occupied the void created in the Russian film market. video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks. films from India do more business in the United States than films from any other non-English speaking country. In the contemporary era. one of India's largest production houses and distributors. particularly in Switzerland. Numerous films in the mid-1990s and onwards have been largely.of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses. 50 | P a g e . The awareness of Hindi cinema is also substantial in the United Kingdom. A considerable number of Hindi movies has been shot in Western Europe as well. reported in September 2005 that Bollywood films in the United States earn around $100 million a year through theater screenings. such as Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001) have been set in London. shot in New York. and is particularly popular amongst the South Asian communities in large cities as Chicago. Bollywood is also appreciated in France. the Netherlands. Russian newspapers report that there is a renewed interest in Bollywood among young Russians. However. where they frequently enter the UK top ten. Various Bollywood movies are dubbed in German and shown on the German television channel RTL II on a regular basis. Many films. North America Bollywood has experienced a marked growth in revenue in North American markets. which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union. Lucky: No Time for Love was shot entirely in Russia. starting with Dilwale Dulhania le Jayenge. Los Angeles. The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. sought to cater to such an appeal and the popularity of Raj Kapoor in Russia.

Since 1997 the country has provided a backdrop for an increasing number of Bollywood films.Vancouver and Toronto. with its large Indian minority. to have more Indian movies shooting in the country to boost tourism. However. and initially used it as the setting for song-and-dance sequences. Australian actress Tania Zaetta. it ranks second to Hollywood in countries such as Fiji. having seen the film. This was followed by Heyy Babyy (2007) Chak De! India (2007) and Singh Is Kinng (2008) which turned out to be box office successes. Australia and New Zealand. Australian locations are becoming more important to the plot of Bollywood films. The Yash Raj Film Salaam Namaste (2005) became the first Indian film to be shot entirely in Australia and was the most successful Bollywood film of 2005 in the country. Following the release of Salaam Namaste. who co-starred in Salaam Namaste. Hindi films shot in Australia usually incorporate aspects of Australian lifestyle. expressed her keenness to expand her career in Bollywood. Bollywood's immersion in the traditional Hollywood domain was further tied with such films as The Guru (2002) and Marigold: An Adventure in India (2007) trying to popularise the Bollywood-theme for Hollywood. where the Bollywood and cricket nexus. which demonstrated the contrast between the values. was further tightened with Steve Waugh's appointment as tourism ambassador to India. Bollywood is popular amongst non-Asians in the country as well. among other Bollywood films. Oceania Bollywood is not as successful in the Oceanic countries and Pacific Islands such as New Guinea. Australia is one of the countries where there is a large South Asian Diaspora. However. on a visit to India the then Prime Minister John Howard also sought. South America 51 | P a g e . Indian filmmakers have been attracted to Australia's diverse locations and landscapes. nowadays.

Certain filmmakers see plagiarism in Bollywood as an integral part of globalisation where American and western cultures are firmly embedding themselves into Indian culture. a remake of What Lies Beneath. Brazil. In 2006. Plagiarism Constrained by rushed production schedules and small budgets. plot lines. Dhoom 2 became the first Bollywood film to be shot in Rio de Janeiro.Bollywood movies are not influential in South America. In past times. This has led to criticism towards the film industry. The Hindi film industry was not widely known to non-Indian audiences (excluding the Soviet states). a remake of Jagged Edge. tunes or riffs have been copied from other Indian film industries or foreign films (including Hollywood and other Asian films). amongst other mediums. and Kasoor. Vikram Bhatt. though Bollywood culture and dance is recognised. has spoken about the strong influence of 52 | P a g e . Screenwriters themselves have been criticised for lack of creativity which happened due to tight schedules and restricted funds in the industry to employ better screenwriters. but due to financial uncertainty and insecurity over the success of a film many were rejected. some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to resort to plagiarism. Screenwriters generally produce original scripts. who would not even be aware that their material was being copied. this could be done with impunity. director of films such as Raaz. Organizations like the India EU Film Initiative seek to foster a community between film makers and industry professional between India and the EU. Audiences may also not have been aware of the plagiarism since many audiences in India were unfamiliar with foreign films and music. Bollywood and other film industries are much more aware of each other now and Indian audiences are more familiar with foreign movies and music. While copyright enforcement in India is still somewhat lenient. in Bollywood films. which is manifested. Ideas. One of the common justifications of plagiarism in Bollywood is that producers often play a safer option by remaking popular Hollywood films in an Indian context. Copyright enforcement was lax in India and few actors or directors ever saw an official contract.

and due to the long time they take to decide a case. you're a genius. Many U. There have been very few cases of film copyright violations taken to court because of serious delays in the legal process. The American way of life is creeping into our culture. I would be more secure knowing that a particular piece of work has already done well at the box office. Hollywood. their diet cokes and also their attitude. There have been some notable cases of conflict though.American culture and desire to produce box office hits based along the same lines in Bollywood. We want their films. with Orion Pictures recently securing the rights to remake the Hollywood film. "Financially." Mahesh Bhatt has said. to battle counterfeiting. It marks a new relationship between the Motion Picture Association of America and the industry in India.R. B. Our TV shows are adaptations of American programmes. Hitch and Oldboy.S. their planes. Bollywood battle DVD piracy Hollywood has teamed up with Bollywood. He said. Copying is endemic everywhere in India.000. paving the way for the film's release. Films to court over its forthcoming Banda Yeh Bindaas Hai. 53 | P a g e . their cars. films are pirated in India by people who take camcorders into cinemas. The makers of Partner (2007) and Zinda (2005) have been targeted by the owners and distributors of the original films. "If you hide the source. American Studio Twentieth Century Fox brought the Mumbai-based B. Films eventually settled out of court by paying the studio at a cost of about $200. Some on the other hand do comply with copyright law.R. allegedly an illegal remake of its 1992 film My Cousin Vinny. which has often been at odds with Hollywood. There's no such thing as originality in the creative sphere". the name given to India's vast movie industry.

DVD piracy laws were tightened in Canada in 2007. Pernicious problem:"Piracy is one of the most pernicious problems facing the entertainment industry. Reliance took a 50 per cent share in Steven Spielberg's DreamWorks studio. Piracy has made huge leaps in India because of higher internet connection speeds and DVD player usage. He was sentenced to 2½ months after pleading guilty to two counts of distributing high-quality pirated copies of Hollywood films.S. according to an Ernst & Young study. told The Associated Press. signalling a major push by an Indian firm into the Hollywood market. 54 | P a g e . Last year.000 jobs. The deal between the U. became the first Canadian to get a prison sentence for breaking cinematic copyright." Now seven Indian production companies say they need to fight piracy.3 billion US in 2008. 27." said Reliance Pictures CEO Sanjeev Lamba.000 fine. Making illegal movie recordings is a criminal offence punishable by six months in jail and a $25." Dan Glickman.S. On Tuesday."This is a country of one billion people who love movies more than anywhere else. head of the U. Piracy was also blamed for the loss of 571. which is a source of 90 per cent of pirated DVDs. association. industry group and India's movie studios would translate into pressure on police in India to step up enforcement as well as on legislators to tighten piracy laws. the promoters say. Gérémi Adam. The announcement of a joint attack comes just two days after a precedent-setting ruling in Canada that sent a Montreal man to prison for pirating movies. which cost that country's film industry $2. "We'd be foolish not to want to come into this market. The Motion Picture Association of America has made similar deals with alliances in Europe and Hong Kong to crack down on camcorder filming.

at an estimated cost of 70 million dollars. according to reports. Maqbool (2003) and The Rising (2005) as a producer. CASE STUDY:1)'Piracy in US leads to $1 billion loss for Indian films' Bobby BediIndian filmmaker Bobby Bedi has said India is losing huge chunks of its entertainment profits to global pirates. quoted by press agency AFP. Ltd." said the producer of 'Bandit Queen' and 'The Rising' (Mangal Pandey). and America is becoming the battleground.one billion dollars per year -. Bedi was speaking at an event in Washington to mark the World Intellectual Property Day on Saturday. Bobby Bedi. Saathiya (2002). He said the American enforcement agencies were not forceful enough in helping plug losses suffered by the Indian entertainment industry in the United States. Moser Baer executive Harish Dayani says 700 million illegal DVDs are bought by Indian consumers every year. "The Indian film industry now understands their product is getting stolen at significant rates. says the number of households in India with DVD players has gone risen to 45 million from four million in just two years. the Mahabharata. Bedi made his name with Electric Moon (1992).Moser Baer. Bandit Queen (1994). "We are losing 90 percent of our home video market in the United States. a CD and DVD manufacturer in India. Fire (1997)...through piracy and related activities in the United States. The founder of Kaleidoscope Pvt." Glickman said. is currently producing a three-film series of the Indian mythology.. 55 | P a g e .

Amit Mitra.March 2008 Piracy Report Bipasha Basu.prepared for USIBC by Ernst & Young India. Ron Somers. Saif Ali Khan and Katrina Kaif in Superhit 'Race'The U. said.000 direct jobs are also lost as a result of theft and piracy. as well as illuminate the adverse impact theft and piracy have on creativity and innovation." 56 | P a g e . The Bollywood-Hollywood Initiative promotes the sustainable growth and convergence underway between the entertainment industries in both our countries.000 crores are lost each year due to piracy. said.-India Business Council (USIBC) had released a study in March 2008 showing huge job and revenue losses to the Indian economy as a result of piracy in India's burgeoning entertainment industry. afflicting India's entertainment industry. This is an enormous and unacceptable magnitude of loss . 16. USIBC President. "This study estimates that the Indian entertainment industry loses some 820.000 jobs and about $4 billion each year to piracy." The piracy study was commissioned as part of the USIBC-FICCI BollywoodHollywood Initiative.S.by any measure. For the average Indian who wants to increase his or her chances for being employed in Bollywood and associated industries. "This study covers film. shows as much as Rs. fighting piracy is a place where all our collective efforts must start. As many as 800. "This study shows that the best way to make the boom in the Indian entertainment bigger is to stop the affliction of piracy. The study . which aims to highlight the value of intellectual property. television and video games and has been funded by the Global Intellectual Property Center of the U. music. Dr.'The Effects of Counterfeiting and Piracy on India's Entertainment Industry' ." Presented with a copy of the study. FICCI Secretary General. Chamber of Commerce. Speaking at the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) FRAMES 'Business of Entertainment' Conference.S.

We are pleased to stand shoulder to shoulder with counterparts in India to help protect jobs and revenues that are now being needlessly lost to piracy." Farokh T. We strongly support passage by India of optical disc legislation that will thwart piracy in this important industry. we intend to continue fighting piracy across the board.S. We will attempt to enlist more effectively the U. these industries will grow even faster and employ more Indian workers. growing at a combined annual rate of over 18%." 57 | P a g e . and Indian governments to cooperate in fighting the scourge of piracy in India. TV." Also present at the media briefing was Ramesh Sippy." Commenting on the USIBC-FICCI Bollywood-Hollywood Initiative. and electronic games. Mitra went on to point out. I commend the USIBC-FICCI Initiative for enlisting all elements of the entertainment industry against piracy. National Sector Leader. said. We looked at the industry from every angle .S. famed producer and director of the all-time number-one blockbuster 'Sholay. "I know first hand the importance of fighting piracy to support the growth of Bollywood.Dr. Media and Entertainment for Ernst & Young India. The story was the same across the board: if we can slow or stop piracy. and worldwide. radio. We will strive to bring these findings to the attention of the average person in India. Balsara. "The Media and Entertainment industry in India is an industry of the future. "This study is only the beginning.films.via direct interviews with stakeholders from the Bollywood entertainment industry. music.' Sippy said. Now that we have documented the job and revenue losses to the Indian entertainment industry from piracy. a direct correlation in the generation of wealth and employment will be the result. "Our Mumbai office collected data for this study from on the ground . as well as in the U. India's entertainment industry already generates more than $11 billion annually for the country. If we can stop piracy. USIBC President Ron Somers said.

and region. Some of us are planning to start our own vigilante team.-India commercial ties. The U. DNA has learnt that film-makers are doing their own planning to fight against piracy. Chamber of Commerce's Global Intellectual Property Center. The U.S. Police raids prove that piracy is rampant in the city and that the film-makers haven¶t been able to plug the problem. We are just constantly bleeding due to piracy. Chamber of Commerce.S.The Dark Trade' . This made-for-television documentary shows that the problem of piracy is an epidemic affecting many sectors of world-wide dimensions. is hosted under the aegis of the U. They will be a scouting team who will go and check out places where pirated 58 | P a g e . ³It¶s like a plague. sector. who recently delivered a hit with a multistarrer reveals on conditions of anonymity.S. The U.Also previewed at FICCI FRAMES as a part of the Bollywood-Hollywood Initiative was 'Illicit . Chamber of Commerce on June 12.India Business Council celebrates its 33rd Anniversary at the U.S.S.a special documentary that airs worldwide. A big budget Bollywood producer.C.S. 2) Bollywood united against piracy First Ashutosh Gowariker¶s What¶s Your Raashee? and now the recently released Karan Johar film starring Imran Khan and Sonam Kapoor losing lots of money in its opening weekend due to piracy has certainly shaken up the industry. D.-India Business Council.S. Government to advance U. produced by National Geographic for the U. 2008 in Washington. Chamber of Commerce is the world's largest business federation representing more than 3 million businesses and organizations of every size. formed in 1975 at the request of the Government of India and the U.S.

For this we have to work closely with the police.´ Another film-maker adds.´ 59 | P a g e . We will make a note of these areas and quickly go and report to the police for them to take necessary action. These firms locate the source where the CDs are being made and filtered into the market.films are up for sale on the day of the release. we don¶t want to reveal everything but we are planning to plug the losses incurred. It is a hectic process but something has to be done to combat it. We are also looking to hire private firms tackling piracy to help us out.´ Karan Johar feels though individual efforts are the need of the hour. First we will start this in Mumbai and then try and go national. ³All the film-makers should come and form a body that only looks into stopping piracy nationally or else it will be very difficult to cut losses. We should join hands with everyone possible to tackle the crime. the industry has to be united in its fight against piracy. we will hit them hard. If we shut down those warehouses. ³Since all the plans are sketchy.

We've only 2 major forensic labs (FSL) in India which are capable of analyzing the hard disk and computer data for cyber crime. Introduction´ Well I'm not a Lawyer. no one is yet convicted under it lol.³Piracy in India. 1. Online Piracy . One is located in Hyderabad and another is in Gandhinagar. But as far as I know. which provides prison upto 10 Years and Fine up to 1 Million Rupees. the police doesn't really care about anything cyber. Offline Physical Piracy of CDs & DVDs Part-1 : Online Piracy in India. blackmailing some girl or making fake profile of her in Face book or sending death threats to ministers or claiming responsibility after doing a terrorist attack. So unless the offense is related to credit card theft. and I've no other platform to express this information apart from piratebay! I divide the piracy in India in 2 parts. I only write this article because I'm bored and thought this information might entertain some curious souls here and pass the time of other bored souls here. Wares & File sharing etc. neither some piracy expert to start debates or lectures here. 2. 60 | P a g e .Torrent . We've an Information & Technology (IT) Act. Porn or piracy doesn¶t even remotely come under their priorities.

we've age old Indian Penal code which was made in 1860s. And at worse if you're sent to jail. unlike in Penal code's fraud cases where case moves based on witnesses and other pen-paper evidences. the register it under the Indian Penal Code's cheat & fraud related chapters rather than in IT Act's stringent sections. The court process are very slow. the moment you're arrested you've to pay bribe no matter you're guilty or not. thus you can easily be out on bail for 30-40 years even when you're convicted in cybercrime. Since our policemen are not very skilled regarding cyber crime. The Same law which also provided for 10 years' prison for homosexual also known as Art. just like in your Hollywood movie when hero cop is given some traffic duty or desk job When someone comes with a cyber crime complaint. and since your jail term is 2 years.Apart from this IT Act. Needless to say. the average time span of a petty criminal case can take from 5 to 15 years and you can always bribe your way out of any trouble in India . because you see in IT act the evidences have to be technical like harddisk. so cops can't manipulate them easily. because its considered to be a punishment posting. And since those courts already have millions of cases pending.If you get convicted you can appeal to higher court. Same way if you want to file complain and to get someone else arrested you again have to pay bribe. in fact when some honest officer is to be 'taught a lesson' he is sent to the cyber crime department.377 however that anti-gay law was scrapped off last year. For police there is a secret advantage of booking people under Penal code instead of IT act. you can still enjoy all the luxuries of life like wine and 61 | P a g e . which can be easily manipulated so the bribe earning potential is better for them. So first you go to High court and then you go to supreme-court in appeal when it doesn't come in your favour. during the Britishers' rule. IP records. and in cheating cases you can easily get bails and max jail is 2 years only even if convicted. you can get a bail even after conviction.

* The mobile store owners keep a separate computer for the sole purpose of giving 62 | P a g e . but he won't because that'll ruin the business. Since most college students can't afford to buy the legit copies of original authors. IPod etc. Apart from this. software¶s and games and walk away without any problem. Always remember the rule in India that "you can always bribe your way out of any trouble. Dick & Harry can come to any cyber cafe with a blank DVD or USB drive and download the choicest pirated movies. songs to movies. Cyber cafes are also ideal places for unmarried couples to go and enjoy sex in those secluded small cabins. The cost of it is: 1$ for 150 pages of anything photocopied on A4 sized paper." Cyber cafes and Piracy After the terrorists started sending emails from cyber cafe after the bomb attacks. what emails did he send? (LOL ) So theoretically cyber cafe owner is supposed to check my id. *Books & Piracy* Photocopying the copyrighted book is regular phenomenon here. they buy the photo copied versions. So any Tom. the police issued an order that every owner of such cafe needs to maintain a register of every visitor also about which websites did he go. Now to the second part Part-2: Offline or Physical Piracy We've a single Copyrights act that covers everything from books. driving license and all. *Music-Mobile.women after paying the bribe to the police. however sometimes the cafe owner makes a CCTV recording of it and sells it to mobile porn sellers.

he won't even ask for deposit. so its not like that Industry's people are loosing their bread and butter due to piracy. You can buy anything and everything under the sky from them. That means for 1 dollar you can buy 4 DVD. movies and everything to customer. Mp3* There are special vendors with Hand-carts or Rickshaws. 63 | P a g e . *Videos. *Movies-Bollywood* Just like you've Hollywood for America. Be it the latest Hollywood movie to Video song. so Indian movie producers got smart and now they start selling the legit copy for 24 Rs. Then he recovers all his money. (not the buyer. they also give it on rent so in that case you've to give 50 Rs. The prices are 10 Rs. they'll install the choicest applicationmusic-movies as per your requirement without additional charges. we've Bollywood for India. sit in the crowded markets. he'll keep 10 Rs and return you 40 Rs. So you've to only tell him "I'm a music guy" or "I'm a porn guy" and he'll give you appropriate memory card Sometimes they get caught. so you don't runaway with his stuff loll . to 20 Rs. Sometimes he'll ask you to give a photocopy of your driving license. but the store owner) but he can always bribe his way out. But If you're a regular customer. (1$) as deposit and once you return the CD or DVD. after 6months of movie release and or sell the rights to cable channels like Sony India or Star India. They even keep pre-loaded memory cards. you can buy pirated copy for 20 Rs. As stated ago.ringtones. And those cable TVs recover their money by showing 1 hour ads in 2 hours' movie so their money is also recovered. full music tracks. If you're a new mobile phone or i-pod buyer.

direct movies are downloaded and distributed so any no0b in the neighborhood can be a pirated CD vendor. *Software piracy* Almost every Home-computer running Microsoft is pirated. no user or buyer or customer is ever caught or booked so far. So when they see it. have special agents to check piracy. Big Companies like Sony. and close the case. A no0b Pirate vendor can earn up to 1200 Rs a day ($24) if he's in a good locality. And there were Pirate Mafias controlling the business. If you want to buy a legit copy then you've to goto big city like Mumbai. while City based big groups pay on monthly basis. Every Hollywood movie available in small towns is pirated. small time isolated vendors and big organized city based groups. The small time isolated vendors have to pay Commission at the end of everyday.Same as above except that the legit copies are not available at all. T-series. *Physical Piracy and India Police* Indian police gets a regular payment for allowing those pirated CD vendors to operate in their territoriy. they'll complaint the police & police will arrest a few people for the namesake along with only a small portion of their inventory. from that he has to give Commission to police. there are two types of pirates. When the internet was absent. Shemaroo. the master copies of pirated CDs generally came from Pakistan or Dubai. Nowadays thanks to internet. Except the Big government 64 | P a g e . Under any circumstances. because no one buys them anyway.

the computer guys keep readymade disk to install everything in one go when you buy a new computer. if you buy in bulk. Many of us feel that if we watch a movie with good theme it will be refreshment for us. The movie industries after Hollywood are Bollywood and Tollywood which produces good number of movies. We sing songs. If they've to install a new Vista or XP the charge is Rs. The movies that are produced released in these industries are huge. 50. Even though it is a entertainment most of the people are depended on these. Even the channels evolved with the movie programs only. 250/. and watch programs related movies only.about 20$ Cheapest Computer (Acer) -about 180$ so as you can see physical piracy doesn't require huge investment in India Piracy is killing the Cine Industry (Movie Industry) Movies are the word that most of the people look at when they need an entertainment. If anything messes up. The movie industry gives a lot of employment. Movies are the great pass time in these areas. 5 Blank DVDs for 1$. The people also love to watch the movies. Cheapest DVD writer (Samsung). There are thousands of people working with 65 | P a g e . The movies give us a kind of relaxation. Here again. dance.(5$) *Prices* The cheapest computer you can get is in 180 $ 50 Blank Cd for about 1$. The movies in each region have their importance. The movies are for entertainment and enjoyment.or corporate offices. they'll fix it for Rs. The word which buzzes around mouth is movies.

66 | P a g e . The Reliance Big Entertainment. Hence when we are watching the piracy movie it is killing their ideas. EROS International joined hands with the motion picture association of America to fight piracy. We download the songs for free. Its like a building a house with care by spending lot of money on it. Yash Raj Films. Hence. The movies updated themselves with technology. time. But when we take the positive note then we have to go with second option.Every year this is damaging the industry. Because A movie involves lot of creativity. The total movie industry revenue depends upon the movie hits and flops. work and time. investment in terms of money. They work very hard to meet our expectations. The Tollywood people recently went for hunger strike and requested state government to fight for piracy. other one is thinking about the whole movie industry. UTV Motion pictures. This is making the movie industry horrible. employment and creativity is "piracy". but also hitting their life patterns too. Hence it is really a tough task to make a good movie and meet the expectation of people. work is being spent to make and release a movie. The only word which is killing the whole industry in terms of revenue. It takes a tough path to release the movie. Huge amounts of money. The movies have changed a lot then it was used to release in the past. But we people watch the movie for free on internet. Recently Hollywood and Bollywood joined to fight the piracy.the industry. Movie industry is not only an entertainment sector but also it gives life to lot of people. This involves lot of creativity . apart from this the importance of creativity and ideas. When we think of piracy there arises two options one is to watching the movie for free by one click. The music album consist lot of hard work from the whole music team. Because here we watch the movie for free this impacts on the revenue of movie industry. This is not only making damage for the industry.

the on us rests with us to educate and inform people about initiatives like AACT¶s toll free number´ ³I hope that every one supports us and go to theatres to watch the movie. As responsible citizens we need to be vigilant about not encouraging illegal activities.´ Supporting the campaign against piracy. especially among the youth. I am glad that we now have an industry body like AACT to fight piracy on behalf of all of us. Priyanka¶s Views against piracy After being a part of AACT.´ ³When someone buys or downloads a pirated movie they are not aware about the damage that piracy causes to the industry. As people from the film fraternity.´ 67 | P a g e .INTERVIEWS Ranbir. ³People forget that there is no replacement to watching a movie in a theatre. µAnjaana Anjaani¶ producer Sajid Nadiadwala commented. everyone in the value chain right from distributors to exhibitors as well as the audience has benefitted. However. Priyanka added. ³Piracy has become a serious issue for the industry.´ added the µFashion¶ star. Piracy nullifies the effect of these changes. ³Over the last decade Bollywood has been in the midst of a transformation. With corporates coming into industry. Ranbir said.

as some senior actors are hurt and we feel sad to see them hurt. 68 | P a g e . Boman Irani at that time urged everyone to stop piracy and help the Bollywood industry in being successful to fight against piracy.´ Warms the veteran actor.Boman Irani urges all against piracy Intellectual and a gifted actor Boman Irani had launched the DVD of Shyam Benegal¶s film µWell Done Abba¶ and he felt happy while doing that. everyone tends to listen to that don¶t all of them listen? ³Please do not encourage piracy. It¶s negative implications way beyond money alone. He also adds that. to help in saving the intellectual property of the Bollywood industry. When an actor like Boman urges all to go against piracy. ³We do hope piracy is stopped.

69 | P a g e .Salman Khan Speaks About Piracy A glittering event had stars and filmmakers making an earnest appeal against piracy and discussing ways to create public awareness about the crisis industry is facing. I brought five pirated VCDs of my own movies and the quality was really bad. Salman focused on how films were pirated. There is a kid who has been pirating my number for Rs. There were the regular dance performances by Amisha Patel and Yana Gupta. Unlike most clichéd speeches on the topic. 25. Salman made an impassioned case for not watching pirated films on DVD¶s or VCD¶s.000 and then I get calls from kids asking µis this Salman Uncle¶ late in the night. much before they were released. Breathless after his act. The Cinema People¶s Academy (CPA) launched it¶s first initiative in association with Sahara Manoranjan to educate the public about film piracy in a star-studded extravaganza that combined entertainment with some sermonizing. The picture and sound was worst. He said films were pirated when they are sent for processing.´ He added jocularly: ³If you come across people who are pirating movies then you can call me and we¶ll fix them! These days even my mobile number has been pirated. After his performance. ³Just to check the quality of these movies. host Rakshanda Khan requested him to say few words on piracy. But it was Salman Khan who rocked at the Kambakht Piracy gig.

Mostly People watch Movies for entertainment as it¶s an important part of life to reduce the stress.1) Do you watch movies? 0% 100% yes no INTERPRETATION: According to survey I found out that 100% of my samples watch movies. 70 | P a g e . tension of our life¶s.

2) If yes how do you watch movies generally? Others 14% CD/DVD 45% Theatre 25% Download 16% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that most of the people watch movies by buying CD/DVD. 16% of the total public prefer watching movies by Downloading it directly from the internet. 3) How often do you watch movies? 71 | P a g e . 25% of the total public prefer watching movies going to the theatre directly whenever the movies get released they watch movies in the theatre till the time the movie is available in the theatre. 45% of the people prefer watching movies by buying new CD/DVD. Other means of watching movies that I found through the survey was Television. rest 14% of the total public prefer watching movies by other means. 14% of the total public watch movies through Television.

This is the least group with only 6%. It means that they watch movie at least once in a week. That is they go to watch movie every month. 38% of the total public prefers watching movies on a monthly basis. 56% of the total public goes to watch movies on a weekly basis.Yearly 6% Monthly 38% Weekly 56% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that most of the people go to watch movies weekly. There is an other group of people who go to watch movies on a monthly basis. who prefer watching movies on a weekly basis go to watch every Friday. that is gets released on every Friday. That is they go to watch movie once in a year. Whenever the new movies get released. 4) Do you buy pirated CD/DVD? 72 | P a g e . and hence these people. Next group of people is that group which prefers watching movies on a yearly basis.

5) If yes then from where do you buy them? 73 | P a g e . Rest 30% do not buy pirated CD/DVD. Most of the people buy the pirated CD/DVD. 70% of the total public prefer watching movies by buying pirated CD/DVD. They answered no to the question about do they buy the pirated CD/DVD.No 30% Yes 70% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that maximum number of the people prefer watching movies by buying pirated CD/DVD.

This % is exactly the same as that of people who prefer buying from the other means of buying the CD/DVD. Trains and some other places.Other 17% Train 17% Foothpath Vendor 66% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that out of the total public that buy pirated CD/DVD. or copying the movie in a CD/DVD from the computer. 66% of the total public prefer buying pirated CD/DVD from this place. 6) Why do you prefer buying pirated CD¶S/DVD? 74 | P a g e . most of the people buy it from the footpath vendors. Next group of people is that group which buy CD/DVD from the trains. By studying the market I found out that pirated CD/DVD are sold on the footpath vendors. Other means can be getting the CD/DVD from friends. About 17% of the total public prefer buying pirated CD/DVD from the train. Out of these places most of the people buy it from the footpath vendors.

There are 2 groups of people who prefer buying pirated CD/DVD due to 2 reasons. 9) How do you listen to music generally? 75 | P a g e . About 58% of the total public buy the pirated CD/DVD because these CD/DVD are available at very cheap rates as compared to the original CD/DVD. as well as available very soon. Pirated CD/DVD are available within 2-3 days after the release of the new movie in the theatre.Availability 42% Cheap rates 58% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that most of the public prefer buying pirated CD/DVD because of the cheap rates of the pirated CD/DVD. they are cheap rates and the availability of these CD/DVD. The rest 42% of the total public buy the pirated CD/DVD due to the reason of the availability of them. People cannot afford to go to the theatre and therefore think that watching movie by these CD/DVD can be profitable as it is cheap.

As nowadays radio is available on the cellphones. such as MP3 etc« 11) Who do you think gets affected by piracy? 76 | P a g e . 14% from the total public prefer listening to music by buying pirated CD/DVD. The first group is the group who listen to music by downloading the music directly from the internet. 8% of the total public prefer listening to the music by radio. The next group of people is that group who prefer listening to the music on radio. it¶s easier to carry radio everywhere. Out of the total public 58% prefer listening to the music by downloading directly from the internet. The rest 4% of the total public listen to music by other means . The next group is who prefer buying the original CD/DVD to listen to the Music. The next group of people is those who buy the pirated CD/DVD to listen to the music.Others 4% Radio 8% Original CD/DVD 16% Pirated CD/DVD 14% Downloading 58% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that there are 5 groups of people that listen to music in 5 different ways.

62% of the total public think that the entire industry gets affected. Around 4% of the total public think that directors get affected due to piracy. 13) Do you think piracy is damaging the intellectual property of Bollywood? 77 | P a g e . The last group of people are the one¶s who think that directors get affected. Most of the people think that the entire industry gets affected by piracy. Next group think that producers get affected due to piracy. Next group of people think that the Actors/Actresses get affected due to piracy.Actor/Actress 14% Producers 20% Entire Industry 62% Directors 4% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that there are 4 groups of people who think that who get¶s affected by piracy. About 14% of the total public think that Actors/Actresses are the only people who get affected due to piracy. About 20% of the total public think that producers are the one who get affected due to piracy.

15) What influences you to buy pirated movies or music? 78 | P a g e . Intellectual property means the t5alent of the Actor/Actresses that act in the movies.No 14% Yes 86% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found that what people think about the damage of the intellectual property of the bollywood industry. There are 2 groups of people who think whether the intellectual property is damaged or not. And only 14% of the total public think that no the intellectual property does not get damaged due to piracy. 86% of the total public think that yes the intellectual property does get damaged due to piracy. The answer is that actually the intellectual property does get affected due to piracy because the Actor/Actresses talented does not get the actual price.

And the last group are the people who get influenced due to their habit. The 3 types of people are the friends. 44% out of the total public get6 influenced by their friends to buy the CD/DVD. the surrounding. maximum numbers of customers get influenced by their friends to buy the pirated CD/DVD. There are also some people who get influenced by their surroundings.habit 24% Friends 44% Surrounding 32% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that there are 3 types of people who influence the customers to buy the pirated CD/DVD. According to the findings. and the habit of the people. 32% of the total public get influenced by their surroundings. 16) Do you get satisfied by watching pirated movie? 79 | P a g e . Around 24% of the total public get influenced due to their own habit.

The rest that is the 30% of the total public gets satisfied by watching the pirated movies.Yes 30% No 70% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that maximum number of people are not satisfied by watching the pirated movies. About 70% of the total public do not get satisfied by watching pirated movies. 80 | P a g e .

18) Within how many days is the movie available in pirated CD/DVD after release? 81 | P a g e . Around 82% of the total public do not find good quality of picture and sound in the pirated CD/DVD. About 18% of the total public find good quality of picture and sound in the pirated CD/DVD.17) Do you get good quality picture and sound in pirated CD/DVD? Yes 18% No 82% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that the maximum numbers of people do not find good quality of picture and sound in the pirated CD/DVD.

1 Week 36%

2 Days 28%

3 Days 36%

INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found that there are three different times in which the public thinks the pirated CD/DVD is available after the release of the movie in the theatre. Those 3 timings are 2 days, 3 days and 1 week. 36% of the total public say that the pirated CD/DVD is available within 3 days. 36% of the total public say that the pirated CD/DVD is available within 1 week after the release of the movie. And only 28% of the total public say that the pirated CD/DVD is available within 2 days after the release of the movie.

19) While buying a new CD/DVD which do you prefer?

82 | P a g e

pirated 40%

Original 60%

INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found that people who prefer buying original CD/DVD are more as compared to those who want to buy the pirated CD/DVD. About 60% of the total public would prefer to buy the original CD/DVD and the rest of the 40% prefer buying pirated CD/DVD if they want to buy the new CD/DVD

83 | P a g e








1) Do you watch movies? Yes No

2) If yes how do you watch movies generally? CD/DVD Theatre Download Other

3) If other please specify: ______________________________________________

4) How often do you watch movies? Weekly Yearly Monthly

5) Do you buy pirated CD/DVD? Yes No 84 | P a g e

6) If yes then from where do you buy them? Trains Other Footpath vendors

7) If others then please specify: ___________________________

8) Why do you prefer buying pirated CD¶S/DVD? Cheap Rates Availability

9) How do you listen to music generally? Pirated CD/DVD Original CD/DVD Others 10) If others please specify:_________________________________ Downloading Radio

11) Who do you think gets affected by piracy? Actors/Actresses Director¶s Producers Entire industry

12) What would you do to stop piracy? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

13) Do you think piracy is damaging the intellectual property of Bollywood? Yes No 85 | P a g e

14) In what ways is piracy damaging the intellectual property of Bollywood? _____________________________________________________ 15) What influences you to buy pirated movies or music? Friends Habit Surrounding 16) Do you get satisfied by watching pirated movie? Yes No 17) Do you get good quality picture and sound in pirated CD/DVD? Yes No 18) Within how many days is the movie available in pirated CD/DVD 2 days 1 week 3 days after release? 19) While buying a new CD/DVD which do you prefer? Original Pirated 20) If any suggestions please specify:__________________________ _____________________________________________________ 86 | P a g e .

com 4) www.wikipedia.scribd.managementparadise.com 3) www.google.BIBILOGRAPHY:1) www.com 2) www.com 87 | P a g e .