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(Problem of Piracy Faced By Bollywood Industry)
BACHELOR OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES (BMS) UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
BABASAHEB GAWDE BUSINESS SCHOOL
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF (Dr. Taruna Parmar ) SUBMITTED BY
(BATCH-2008-11 & Roll no- 36.)
This is to certify that __________________________________has successfully completed the project work as a part of academic fulfillment of Bachelor of Management Studies (B.M.S.) semester V examination.
Name & Signature of Project Guide
Date : _________________ Principal BGBS
I, Archana Parmar of Bachelor of Management Studies (Semester V) of Babasaheb Gawde Business School (BGBS), hereby declare that I have successfully completed this Project on (Problem Of Piracy Faced By Bollywood Industry) in the academic year 2008-11. The information incorporated in this project is true and original to the best of my knowledge.
A part from the efforts of me, the success of this project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project I would like to show my greatest appreciation to my greatest appreciation to my principal. I thank for the tremendous support and help from Dr. TARUNA PARMAR. I feel motivated and encouraged every time. Without their encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized. The guidance and support received from all the people, who contributed their knowledge to this project, was vital for the success of the project. I am grateful for their constant support and help.
5 Research methodology 1.1 Samsung history 5.2 Objective of Study 1. Chapter 4 4. Chapter 8 8.2 Product profile 4.3 Scope of the study 1.1 Theoretical background of the study 5.4 Limitation of the study 1. Chapter 3 3. 1.2 Industry profile 3. CHAPTER 1 Contents Page no.1 Samsung in India 3.2 External sources 6.1 Problem of the study 1.6 Executive summary Chapter 2 2. Chapter 7 7.1 Data analysis and interpretation 7.1 Case study 8. Chapter 6 6. 1.1 Findings 5|Page .INDEX Sr.no. Chapter 5 5.1 Introduction 2.
2 Bibliography 6|Page .9.1 Annexure 11. Chapter 9 Suggestion and recommendation 10 Chapter 10 Conclusion 11 Chapter 11 11.
Maharashtra. all mixed up in a three hour long extravaganza with intermission. Bollywood films are usually musicals. India. When combined with other Indian film industries (Tamil. What is "Bollywood"? Bollywood is the name given to the Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. Telugu. twins separated at birth. It is not uncommon to see films that feature dialogue with English words and phrases. Few movies are made without at least one songand-dance number. corrupt politicians. conniving villains. The term Bollywood was created by conflating Bombay (the city now called Mumbai) and Hollywood (the famous center of the United States film industry). Malayalam. The plots are often melodramatic. and maybe also the number of tickets sold. 7|Page . angry parents. these movies have everything.Bollywood Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai. they want songs and dances. it is considered to be the largest in the world in terms of number of films produced. which includes several regional film industries sorted by language. Kannada). love interest. There has been a growing presence of Indian English in dialogue and songs as well. and convenient coincidences. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema. Bollywood is formally referred to as Hindi cinemathough frequent use of poetic Urdu words is fairly common. after the spice mixture masala. or even whole sentences. courtesans with hearts of gold. Indian audiences expect full value for their money. comedy and dare-devil thrills. it is only a part of the total Indian film industry. dramatic reversals of fortune. Like masala. Bollywood is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest centers of film production in the world. They frequently employ formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers. Such movies are called masala movies. Bengali.
Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. Punjab. and. The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. which reflect those cultures. moving picture. including picture. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture. affect them. When these images are shown rapidly in succession. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen. while in Europe the term cinema is preferred. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. picture show. A common name for film in the United States is movie. in turn. Assam. photo-play and flick. the cinema and the movies The cinema of India consists of films produced across India. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision. Kerala. Mumbai. Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating ² or indoctrinating ² citizens. Film is considered to be an important art form. a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. the silver screen. including the cinematic culture of Andhra Pradesh. is a story conveyed with moving images.A film. Karnataka. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. also called a movie or motion picture. or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. Gujarat. Indian films came to be followed throughout South Asia and the 8|Page . The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry.
along with the American and Chinese film industries. Indian cinema. making the commercial presence of the medium felt. Bengali and Hindi.000 films in various languages of India were produced annually.3 billion US Dollars 9|Page . By 2003 as many as 30 film production companies had been listed in the National Stock Exchange of India. Adlabs and Sun Network's Sun Pictures also participated in producing and distributing films. India is the world's largest producer of films. Deepa Mehta etc. especially Satyajit Ray (Bengali). became a global enterprise. Malayalam. contribute substantially to the overall revenue of Indian cinema. Indian filmmakers such as Shekhar Kapur. The Indian diaspora consists of millions of Indians overseas for which films are made available both through mediums such as DVDs and by screening of films in their country of residence wherever commercially feasible. Indian cinema found markets in over 90 countries where films from India are screened.Middle East. Prominent Indian enterprises such as Zee. In the 20th century. The country also participated in international film festivals. the net worth of which was found to be 1. As cinema as a medium gained popularity in the country as many as 1. In 2009. Mira Nair. Sony Pictures. found success overseas. Kannada. UTV. Tax incentives to multiplexes have aided the multiplex boom in India. These earnings. The provision of 100% foreign direct investment has made the Indian film market attractive for foreign enterprises such as 20th Century Fox. accounting for some 12% of the revenue generated by a mainstream film. India produced a total of 2961 films on celluloid that include a staggering figure of 1288 feature films. The Indian government extended film delegations to foreign countries such as the United States of America and Japan while the country's Film Producers Guild sent similar missions through Europe. radically altering the manner in which content reached the target audience. and Warner Bros. Tamil. Expatriates in countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States continued to give rise to international audiences for Indian films of various languages especially Telugu. Enhanced technology paved the way for up gradation from established cinematic norms of delivering product. Adoor Gopalakrishnan (Malayalam).
The Indian film industry is also making its presence felt in the international market. Music in Indian cinema is another substantial revenue generator.in 2000. The industry is currently witnessing the trend of more digital cinemas and growth of multiplexes.800 crore Projected size by 2010: Rs 15. The Dubbing industry has grown at the rate of 25-30% over the last 4-5 years. Regional (especially southern) films command almost 60 per cent of the total Indian film market with the rest being commanded by Hindi films. In fact. with the music rights alone accounting for 4±5% of the net revenues generated by a film in India. it witnessed the maximum flow of foreign investment in 2006. The technology used and the special effects in movies are becoming increasingly sophisticated and animation is also finding a huge market with kids. The foreign investment in the Indian film industry is also increasing significantly. 10 | P a g e . And it is the largest in terms of films produced & tickets sold. Nearly one thousand films are produced every year. Size Next to Hollywood. y y y Current size: Rs 6.300 crore CAGR: 18% The Indian film industry is currently worth about US$ 1256 million and is expected to grow at a Compounded Annual Growth Rate of 18 per cent for the next 5 years. Indian film industry is said to be the largest in the world. Many international films are dubbed in local languages and shown in India. India has over 5 million home video and DVD users.
In no time at all the stars were calling up to find out why they were mentioned in Bollywood and others to find out why they were not mentioned in Bollywood. Due to Oscars most European films are getting recognition and reaching global audience otherwise they too are viewed within the 11 | P a g e . Bollywood was not by accident. From a studio roundup column I began commenting on what was happening off the sets too and it turned into a gossip column. Bollywood the name itself tells us that it is name given to Bombay film industry which is having highest viewers in the world and also produces films in market terms that create some kind of challenge to Hollywood. It was very much by design« I got into film journalism by pure accident and knew nothing about Hindi films« I was given a studio beat to do.Origin Bollywood is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindustani language film industry in India. but it sounded too harsh. In spite of its large contribution English cinema does not really have any distinctive status. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema. I was not happy with the name of the column Studio Roundup and thought of `Flipping around Follywood¶. I settled for `On the Bollywood Beat¶ instead. it seems likely to persist and now has its own entry in the Oxford English Dictionary. Though some purists deplore the name. The name is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood. arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. I guess they were responsible for giving my word longevity. the center of the American film industry.
country of origin. Even thought most of them do not understand the language they are familiar with the films and actors. Indian movie lover watch bollywood movies though they are made in similar way. South East Asia and even Africa. Jurassic park etc. Italian and Polish films that concentrate on art and culture and they does not really make any good money in other parts of world. It is said that on daily basis fourteen million Indian¶s go to the movies to watch over 800 films produced each year that is more than double the number of movies produced in United States. The US films in India are estimated to be 150 in a year which is no way comparable to bollywood movies production each year. 12 | P a g e . In this globalized world it is expected that there will be a sharing of knowledge which is already done between Hollywood and bollywood. This dubbing business has become big with American¶s dominating the business and a small extent is contributed by Indians. Hollywood is also trying to make its influence on Asian country but it could only make its influence on some metro city in India with its blockbuster hits like Titanic. Movies in hindi are dubbed from Hollywood movies and there titles changed. Based on analysis bollywood movies now make good money in UK and US as they are produced more in number throughout the year and also due to huge NRI population. Indian cinema on the other hand not only rules in its home country but also viewed in other parts like Middle East. Bollywood movies are produced more than 1. Generally most of the bollywood movies are watched worldwide as Indian population is more throughout the world.000 a year and are watched by 3. This tells us Indian film industry is getting a good recognition in global market and is becoming more and more conventional around the world. Some film making aspects are also outsourced to Bombay. The countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh are also having high number of viewers even after watching Indian movies was official ban by the government. Most of the remaining parts of world watch French.6 billion audiences.
Madan and Abdullah Esoofally launched their career with Bioscope shows of imported short films. Around 1902.HISTORY At the turn of this century. and Bombay on July 7. a new entertainment form dawned in India-the Cinema. and it was half British in its make. Chitre and R. Hiralal Sen and F.F.G. Thanawalla were two other Indian pioneers engaged in the production of short films in Calcutta and Bombay in 1900. when Harishchandra Bhatvadekar (Save Dada) shot two short films and exhibited them under Edison's projecting kinetoscope. And the first exposing of celluloid in camera by an Indian and its consequent screening took place in 1899. Torney made a silent feature film Pundalik which was released on May 18. In 1912. when the country was poised for major social and political reforms.B. J. N.G. 13 | P a g e . when the Lumiere Brothers' Cinematographer unveiled six soundless short films at Watson Hotel. Esplanade Mansion. The first exposure to motion pictures which India received was in 1896.
It involves use of secondary sources such as web and other research articles printed by various financial institutions and other journals and magazine. 2. until you publish. 4. PRINMARY DATA COLLECTION METHOD:In primary data collection. and observation. no one else has access to it.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:1. The study involves the primary data which is collected through questionnaire. It involves analysis and tabulation of data which is collected from customers is done by various means such as pie charts. There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include: y Questionnaires Interviews Observation Case-studies Data collection y y y y 14 | P a g e . The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and your research and. 3. you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The project involves the study of customer¶s perception. interview.
organizational records and data collected through qualitative methodologies or qualitative research. may be qualitative in nature (usually in the form of words) or quantitative (usually in the form of numbers or where you can make counts of words used). Common sources of secondary data for social science include censuses. surveys.The primary data. which is generated by the above methods. friends living in nearby area Sampling Instrument: y y y y Observation Personal Interview Telephonic Interview Internet feedback Sample area: Mumbai SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION METHOD Secondary data is data collected by someone other than the user. Primary data Sample Size: 50 It is proposed to collect primary data from homes of common people through proper sampling Sample Unit: Homes of relatives. Secondary data y y y Newspaper Magazines Internet 15 | P a g e .
particularly in the case of quantitative data. since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past change and/or developments Sampling Instrument: y y Internet Magazines 16 | P a g e . analysts of social and economic change consider secondary data essential. provides larger and higher-quality databases than would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own. In addition to that.Secondary data analysis saves time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and.
org. Their contention is bogus. rape and robbery on the high seas. It does not matter to them who copies the disc or why. is piracy. Calling copying something piracy has always been a bit of sensationalism. so to save pockets people prefer to compromise with quality and they buy pirated items. So piracy ultimately discourages the entertainment industry by rationalizing their hard works. or to make a custom mix of your favorite songs from discs you own. pirated materials are easily available in market at very cheap prices. To make a copy of your own disc for personal use. but still on the Way back Machine at archive. software¶s or even hardware utilities. Bootlegging originally meant hiding liquor in the legs of your boots during the prohibition era. The item can be a sound file. But the piracy of audio-video files is a much developed and penetrated crime as compared to another sort of piracies. The recording industry is calling a lot of things piracy these days. PC games. An academic paper about this subject has been published by the University of Konstanz. How it came to mean making an unauthorized recording is unclear. Piracy is a special crime categorized under sections of copyright violations. (It is no longer on their server. To make copies of discs to sell for profit is piracy. Actually original copyrighted pieces of articles are very expensive by nature on the other hand. is fair use. but just what is piracy? Is copying a CD? They contend that to make a copy of a CD.) 17 | P a g e . video file like movies. This used to be called bootlegging. and glut condition appears in market of original items. whether the whole disc or just part of it. This in turn dilutes the money invested in creating original items. it is in fact severely detrimental for growing music and video industries.WHAT IS PIRACY? Piracy is simply defined as the creation of duplicate un-authenticated copies of some copyright protected item. Just what do these words mean? Piracy originally meant murder.
No one is busting them. or their suppliers." Any artist that wouldn't do it their way might never find an audience. They want to dictate to us what's hot and what's not. you can keep going to the flea market. so the recording industry shut Napster down.It is easy to find bootlegs and pirated CDs. or some thrift stores and you will find music and videos at amazingly low prices. and the dealers are still there. but much of it is. your concert tickets. and 18 | P a g e . You can frequently tell that these discs are not the genuine article. The packaging is different from the CDs at the mall. but week after week. a swap meet. Most people know that these discs are pirated. et cetera. "I made you a star. and what was not by trying before buying. Why don't the RIAA and the recording labels go after them instead of file traders? The main reason is that people who would buy a CD for under five dollars at a flea market would never spend almost twenty dollars for one at the mall. and their quality is often grossly inferior to legitimately produced CDs. Before Napster. Go to a flea market. and found their audience without having to sell their souls. Kings fear a revolution. It is power that recording industry bigwigs fear they will lose. They arrogantly told artists. The recording industry does not consider the bootleg dealers to be competition or a threat. The recording industry is afraid of CD burners and the Internet because they are new. The artists who created the music we enjoy get nothing from the sale of these recordings. your t-shirt sales. Also. Anything new will always be perceived as a threat by those in power. Unknown artists simply made their music available to the file trading community. The cover art is wrong. Napster changed that. Not all music sold at flea markets and swap meets is pirated. The industry did not like that. or the colors are dull. We were able to decide for ourselves what music was good. and which artists would have their music for sale at the mall. and month after month. They decided which artists we would hear on the radio. a street vendor in a city. CDs can often be found for under five dollars. It is clear that the people producing and selling these recordings are guilty of piracy. their power was akin to that of a king. I am entitled to the lion's share of money from your music sales. even if it were free. They wouldn't even consider it. people who will pay full retail prices at the mall wouldn't be caught dead with something from the flea market.
even after we buy them. A lot of people want to play CDs in their computer for background music while they work. Sometimes these discs won't play at all." They are only making it hard for paying customers to use our personal property as we see fit. especially teenagers with disposable income. crackers will break it for next to nothing. and using our personal property as we see fit is our right. Take for example. He accuses artists of biting the hand that feeds them. and in stores. Fans decide who is and isn't a star. The industry constantly puts its prefabrications purported to be artists on the radio. a commuter on a bus or a subway train. Once this is the case. It is a classic example of the industry's "I made you a star" arrogance. where and how we use their products. and it won't play! The industry just lost a customer. people who previously wouldn't be caught dead with a disc from the flea market or street vendor will line up to buy them. There is an article on the RIAA's official website by Miles Copeland claiming to dispel recording industry myths. and similar laws many nations are considering or have adopted prohibit circumvention of copy protection.started to make discs that won't play in a computer. they have the power to decide when. or don't sell at all. This commuter puts a new CD by his or her favorite artist into a laptop computer. none of the discs from the mall will play in a computer. It can be this easy or this easy. Soon. Any time the industry spends millions of dollars to develop a new scheme. Every "copy protection" scheme they have invented has been cracked. but the ones from the flea market or a street vendor will. Copy protection of CDs is an expensive exercise in futility that will only create new enemies for the record labels and the RIAA. It may technically be illegal to do this. Fans are the difference between a starving artist and a successful one. They are mistaken. who are the very people the recording industry covets. The industry thinks that because the DMCA. but how are they going to catch people? They are not making it hard for "pirates. The new copy protected discs the industry is producing will be their undoing. or because they don't have a stereo system other than the computer. 19 | P a g e . but their CDs either don't sell for long.
But the whole notion of what¶s pejorative has changed. Doing so does take earnings away from the artists we enjoy. including Hollywood. that they continue on their current course. 20 | P a g e . Amit Khanna.´ ± Amit Khanna The term µBollywood¶ reflects the politics of cultural colonialism and the politics of representation. but we must point out that the pirates have proven one thing. Bollywood produces more films than anywhere else in the world. We¶ve to see the Indian film industry as a brand. scholar and President of the Film & Television Guild coined this contentious term in the mid seventies in one of his articles and it caught on like wildfire which the purists are still trying to extinguish! ³People still have a problem with the word µBollywood¶. The price of CDs is way too high. and still making a profit. We admit that the recording companies do have higher costs.behind the scenes Sharada Ramanathan Bollywood ± what¶s in the name? Bollywood refers to India's film capital centered in the city of Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay and thus the origin of the word Bollywood). They produce and promote music.If the recording industry is so blinded by their lust for power and their greed. Pirates are selling CDs dirt cheap. filmmaker. and pirates only copy discs. Survey International Forum on the Creative Economy: International Forum on the Creative Economy Bollywood . To say Bollywood is demeaning is to question a brand name like Coke or McDonalds. as well as manufacturing the discs. but these costs do not justify price gouging.org do not endorse buying pirated discs. they will self-destruct. We at dontbuycds.
Fourteen million Indians go to the movies on a daily basis (about 1. Bollywood . It is expected to grow at a compounded rate of 18 per cent a year over the next five years to reach the US $10 billion mark by 2009. But in 2007.2 billion .4% of the population of 1 billion) and pay the equivalent to the average Indian's day's wages (US $1-3) to see a film. films . Despite Hollywood¶s market penetration.1 % (US$ 8 million). Hollywood: About 150 Hollywood films (English/sub-titled/dubbed) release in India every year since 1998. television will grow to almost US$ 11. 473 films were produced in the US in 2003. According to an estimate by FICCI and Ernst and Young Indian entertainment industry would worth more than Rs.15 billion). which is 95% film based is valued at US $ 4. The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of the ticket sales and the number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone). and earnings are currently estimated at US$2.9 billion. Movie tickets in India are among the cheapest in the world India accounts for 73% of movie admissions in the Asia-Pacific region. up from US$ 26. the market shares were: television .9 billion). In 2004. Million in 2006.5 billion.vs. By 2009.Indian Film Industry (IFI) ± facts and figures: Over 800 films are censored/ released by IFI each year in over 15 languages. 5 Indian films have made it to the top 5 list in the US 21 | P a g e .000 million in 2008. followed by films at US$ 5 billion .3 % (US$ 20 million) and radio .65 % (US$ 4. Live events will be a US$ 60 million industry. The Central Board of Film Certification of India cites on its website that every three months an audience as large as India's billion-strong population visits cinema halls According to a Price Waterhouse Coopers study titled "The Indian Entertainment Industry ± An Unfolding Opportunity´. live entertainment and music .28 % (US$ 2.6. only the film µTitanic¶ has ever made it to India's top five lists. In contrast. the Indian entertainment industry. 400.
Pune Satyajit Ray Film Institute. Pakistani. Mumbai Mindscreen Technical Institute. The lead star in a film often receives as much as 40% of the budget (average US $2 million) for the formula/mainstream film.to be a great way of staying in touch with their culture and their fellow South Asians. Kannada. They tend to feature romance. The lyrics are usually well written and set to music with catchy tunes. sung by professional play back singers and lip-synched by dancing actors and actresses.and UK. action. Phalke Cinema µindustries¶ of India Bengali. Bollywood. Bangladeshi. South Asians have found Indian films ± dominated by Bollywood .P. The mostly suggestive µvulgar¶ scenes are usually removed by the Indian Censor Board in µpublic interest¶. Chennai IFI follows the µstar¶ system. there is almost no nudity at all in Indian films. Unlike commercial Western films. Assamese. Mumbai Actors Training Centre.5 to 3 hours long. Chennai Prasad institute. with an intermission. Kolkata Asian Academy of Film & Television. Indian commercial films. Chennai Whistling Woods. IFI ± the setup: IFI started in 1911 when the first silent Indian feature film was released by D. comedy. The principal difference between American and Indian commercial cinema is that Indian mainstream/commercial films usually feature periodic song-and-dance routines which need not be integrated into the film story. Marathi. Telugu juxtaposed with Afghani. Indian film screenings in American and British theaters are increasing. Chennai Private Institutions SAE Institute. Nepali & Lankan Film Training Government Institutions Film And Television Institute Of India. suspense. and other generic elements. Delhi Film Institute. Stars are in such high demand that they're working on an average of 4 films a year. Malayalam. and often determine box office hits. Tamil. Since natural location 22 | P a g e . are usually 2.
More than 95% of film financing goes towards µcommercial cinema¶ The National Film Development Corporation was set up in (year) to counter this trend and promote ³excellence in cinema´. The corporatization of the film industry and the mushrooming multiplexes.000 to Rs 50 million for the producers.000 per film for film budget sizes ranging from USD 500. It is critiqued that the film unions have excessive control over production processes. µArt¶ films usually deal with a wide range of subjects but many are in general explorations of complex human circumstances and relationships within an Indian setting. In-Film advertising generates anything between US$ 15.00.000 ± 200. Film placements are currently raking in anything between Rs 5. Film production scales: high23 | P a g e . Chennai and Hyderabad.2 million per star. The financial infrastructure for Indian cinema is customized to the traditional differentiation between art and commercial cinema. which cater to the expanding middle class of 300 million Indians and the diaspora are setting the trend for the future of IFI. About 70% of television revenues are from films and film-based programs ± source: FICCI Infilm advertising is helping to build brands and proving to be a revenue-spinner for several ad agencies.000. the concept of the µfilm city¶ has emerged and there are now film cities in the three major film sub-industrial hubs in Mumbai. Two Indian production/distribution companies are ranked among the world's top 20 production houses by a Hollywood Reporter survey. per co-branding.000 .shooting is impractical in India. An estimated 6 million people earn their livelihood from the entertainment industry ± Film and TV Unionization of the film industry is a state subject. Film stars forge strategic linkages with advertising products and earn a separate income from this co-branding that ranges from USD 25.Million. µCommercial¶ cinema claims to be for the µmasses¶ and follows the generic formula with a good deal of µwesternization¶ element. Each Indian state with a film industry has several registered unions for all categories of actors and technicians.
Mass electorate and film stars ± Four film stars have become Chief Ministers in two South Indian states Cinema as instrument for political careers ± The current chief minister of Tamilnadu became popular as an ideological Script writer In contrast.5 million.0001.the context is aspirational such as a European/American/Pseudo-Indian setting. Very low budgets for independent films and documentaries.R.g. Indian Cinema ± impact Social: Indian Cinema ± impact Social Mainstream Indian films are contexualized in 3 broad social spaces ± The µReal¶ ± reality is attempted to be depicted in µart¶ cinema The µUnreal¶ ± the context could be Indian but the protagonist is unreal/superhero. Neither the context nor the cinematic style has any connection with reality The Unreal and Surreal sub-genres abet and promote aspirational lifestyle and Indian perceptions of 24 | P a g e . Rahman (remixes of national songs) Film stars are wooed and paid handsomely to campaign for political parties during elections. Medium budget ± US$2 million.budget ± US$ 15 million. Low budget ± US$130. The µSurreal¶. Indian Cinema . Bollywood stars have failed political careers since they don¶t represent any ideology and attain stardom mostly through socially disconnected films for non-urban audiences. Films on environment and wildlife are negligible. Film related stars as national icons e. of Aamir Khan (tribals activism) and A.impact: The impact of Indian cinema is in terms of: Political Social Cultural Economic content International Perceptions of India Indian Cinema ± impact Political: Instrument of patriotism ± since the freedom movement in the 1930s up to the most recent war for Kashmir.
it was a film maker rooted in his culture who won the lifetime achievement award at the Oscars. The international film festivals are the only platforms for Indian cinema to be properly represented and the presence of quality mainstream cinema is increasing. Indian films have a tangible impact on youth. Gender equations/dynamics of youth are influenced by film stars¶ behavioural patterns on and off screen Indian Cinema ± impact Cultural: Mainstream formula films are based on their own perceptions of westernization in every aspect of film making The cinema-advertising nexus promotes not just products but lifestyles where culture specificities and nuances are threatened.western materialism. However.Deepa Mehta. and new media comics Live events and film award functions are revenue earners since the branded stars participate even though the quality of the event is often compromised. Since the TV boom. Economic content More than 50% of The Indian TV industry¶s revenue is derived from film-based programs.Shilpa Shetty and µBig Brother¶ in the UK Indo-American and Indo-European productions is now underway.. Film stars are used as protagonists for the growing industries of animation. International perceptions Bollywood as the mainstream face of India is problematic NonResident Indian film makers are also perceived as representing Indian cinema. The cinema-advertising nexus deliberately develop and merchandize Film trends/styles ± from hair clips to retro-wardrobes the new trend of commercial films fashioned in culturally alien settings aims to reach µglobal¶ urban audiences and the diaspora. gaming. Meera Nair. The former is hard-core commercial while the latter is strictly art-films 25 | P a g e . Hollywood used them as entry points to Indian cinema. film stars are being shipped in to please the diaspora . The top three revenue earners of all channels are film-based programs.
the center of the American film industry. when India overtook America as the world's largest film producer. arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. Dating back to 1932. unlike Hollywood. which rhymed with "Hollywood" and was the center of the cinema of India at the time. including the lyricist. Credit for the term has been claimed by several different people. "Tollywood" was the earliest Hollywood-inspired name. But the quality of this vehicle is critiqued and questioned. referring to the Bengali film industry based in Tollygunge.oriented. Bollywood does not exist as a physical place. Indian cinema is a powerful vehicle for the diaspora to stay µconnected¶ with its¶roots. Etymology The name "Bollywood" is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood. However. and the journalist Bevinda Collaco. The name "Bollywood" later arose as the Bombay-based film industry overtook the one in Tollygunge as the center of the Indian film industry. the name that was used to refer to the cinema of West Bengal. filmmaker and scholar Amit Khanna. it has its own entry in the Oxford English Dictionary. History 26 | P a g e . The term "Bollywood" has origins in the 1970s. The naming scheme for "Bollywood" was inspired by "Tollywood". Though some deplore the name.
Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931) 27 | P a g e .Film poster for first Indian sound film.
There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals. Bollywood and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming. It is one of Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies. also directed and produced by Kapoor. However. or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. Kisan Kanya. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist. Guru Dutt in Pyaasa (1957). made the first colour film in Hindi. The first Indian sound film. and the violence of the Partition. producer and leading actor. In 1937. for which he was the director. lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Mother India. By the 1930s. Ardeshir Irani. of Alam Ara fame. color did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931).Nargis and Raj Kapoor in Awaara (1951) . he made another color film. World War II. was a major commercial success. 28 | P a g e . was the first silent feature film made in India. The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression. It was nominated for the Grand Prize of the 1951 Cannes Film Festival. the industry was producing over 200 films per annum. At this time. but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues. Raja Harishchandra (1913). The next year. by Dadasaheb Phalke. the Indian independence movement.
Examples include the Guru Dutt films Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) and the Raj Kapoor films Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955). while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life. including Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957). directed by Bimal Roy and written by Ritwik Ghatak. had 29 | P a g e . Nutan. with some of them winning major prizes at the festival. Asif's Mughal . Other acclaimed mainstream Hindi filmmakers at the time included Kamal Amrohi and Vijay Bhatt.Some of the most famous epic films of Hindi cinema were also produced at the time.Golden Age Following India's independence. popularized the theme of reincarnation in Western popular culture. the 1950s also saw the emergence of a new Parallel Cinema movement. while overlooked in his own lifetime. These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class urban life in India. Early examples of Hindi films in this movement include Chetan Anand's Neecha Nagar (1946) and Bimal Roy's Two Acres of Land (1953). Waheeda Rehman and Mala Sinha. and K. Guru Dutt. Some of the internationally-acclaimed Hindi filmmakers involved in the movement included Mani Kaul. Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream. it also began gaining prominence in Hindi cinema. Their critical acclaim.e. Shyam Benegal and Vijaya Mehta. Some of the most criticallyacclaimed Hindi films of all time were produced during this period. the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s are regarded by film historians as the "Golden Age" of Hindi cinema. Though the movement was mainly led by Bengali cinema.s Ever since the social realist film Neecha Nagar won the Grand Prize at the first Cannes Film Festival. While commercial Hindi cinema was thriving. as well as the latter's commercial success. which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. paved the way for Indian neorealism and the Indian New Wave. Successful actors at the time included Dev Anand. Dilip Kumar. Kumar Shahani. Raj Kapoor and Guru Dutt. Meena Kumari. while successful actresses included Nargis. Ketan Mehta. Govind Nihalani. Madhubala. Hindi films were frequently in competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival throughout the 1950s and early 1960s. Madhumati (1958).Azam (1960).
Another important film from 1975 was Deewar. Mumtaz. Kumar Shahani. directed by Yash Chopra and written by SalimJaved. Some of his films are now included among the greatest films of all time. rode the crest of this trend with actors like Mithun Chakraborty and Anil Kapoor. Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957) and K. Govind Nihalani and Vijaya Mehta. However. a gang leader based on real30 | P a g e . Jaya Bachchan and Rekha. and actresses like Sharmila Tagore. alongside the more famous Indian Bengali filmmaker Satyajit Ray.belatedly generated international recognition much later in the 1980s. with Pyaasa (1957) being featured in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies list. which lasted into the early 1990s. Some Hindi filmmakers such as Shyam Benegal continued to produce realistic Parallel Cinema throughout the 1970s. which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema. alongside Mani Kaul. violent films about gangsters (see Indian mafia) and bandits. Several other Hindi films from this era were also ranked in the Sight & Sound poll. A crime film pitting "a policeman against his brother. Amitabh Bachchan. and with both Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) tied at 160 in the 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll of all-time greatest films. the 'art film' bent of the Film Finance Corporation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in 1976. Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra (1952). The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released in 1975. the star known for his "angry young man" roles. Dutt is now regarded as one of the greatest Asian filmmakers of all time.Azam (1960) all tied at 346 on the list. Actresses from this era included Hema Malini. Ketan Mehta. romance movies and action films starred actors like Rajesh Khanna and Dharmendra. Asif's Mughal . In the mid-1970s.e. The 1970s thus saw the rise of commercial cinema in the form of enduring films such as Sholay (1975). including Raj Kapoor's Awaara (1951). which solidified Amitabh Bachchan's position as a lead actor. Modern cinema In the late 1960s and early 1970s. The 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll of greatest filmmakers ranked Dutt at 73 on the list. romantic confections made way for gritty. Leena Chandavarkar and Helen.
Om Shanti Om (2007). Furthermore. it was described as being ³absolutely key to Indian cinema´ by Danny Boyle. action and comedy films were also successful. which won the Camera or at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003). 31 | P a g e . The most internationally-acclaimed Hindi film of the 1980s was Mira Nair's Salaam Bombay! (1988). some of which succeeded commercially. During the late 1980s and early 1990s. This led the nation's filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality. cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects. Dhoom 2 (2006). directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap. Manoj Bajpai. Juhi Chawla and Kajol). with actors like Govinda and Akshay Kumar and actresses such as Raveena Tandon and Karisma Kapoor appearing in films of this genre. Tabu and Urmila Matondkar. urban films reflecting social problems in the city of Mumbai. Salman Khan and Shahrukh Khan) and actresses (such as Sridevi. the most influential example being Satya (1998). Rang De Basanti (2006). Manisha Koirala.. Koi. In that point of time. Maine Pyar Kiya (1989). The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity in the world. Devdas (2002). Madhuri Dixit. These films often featured actors like Nana Patekar. making stars out of a new generation of actors (such as Aamir Khan. The opening up of the overseas market. Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994) and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995). animation.life smuggler Haji Mastan". Lage Raho Munnabhai (2006). Some of the largest production houses. this decade marked the entry of new performers in art house and independent films. led to wider box office successes in India and abroad. among them Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions were the producers of new modern films. Mil Gaya (2003). The critical and commercial success of Satya led to the emergence of a distinct genre known as Mumbai noir. etc. Veer-Zaara (2004). the pendulum swung back toward family-centric romantic musicals with the success of such films as Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988). Krrish (2006). including Lagaan (2001). whose performances were usually critically approved. more Bollywood releases abroad and the explosion of multiplexes in big cities. This led to a resurgence of Parallel Cinema by the end of the decade.. portrayed by Amitabh Bachchan.
with its highly stylized nature and emphasis on spectacle. and keeping the popularity of actors of the previous decade. where music. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story. It was believed that aiming for a broad spectrum would maximise box office receipts. and has resisted making films that target narrow audiences. back-story and story within a story.Chak De India (2007). cited in references). y Ancient Sanskrit drama. derived from the root word nrit (dance). between films that appeal to rural Indians and films that appeal to urban and overseas audiences. filmmakers may be moving towards accepting some box-office segmentation. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots. Lagaan won the Audience Award at the Locarno International Film Festival and was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 74th Academy Awards. characterizing them as 32 | P a g e ." Sanskrit dramas were known as natya. The Hindi film industry has preferred films that appeal to all segments of the audience (see the discussion in Ganti. Rani Mukerji. Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi (2008). dance and gesture combined "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience. such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films Khalnayak and Gardish. Abhishek Bachchan) and actresses (Aishwarya Rai. Kareena Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra). Preity Zinta. 2004. particularly in its narratives. Ghajini (2008) and 3 Idiots (2009). Influences Gokulsing and Dissanayake identify six major influences that have shaped the conventions of Indian popular cinema: y The ancient Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana which have exerted a profound influence on the thought and imagination of Indian popular cinema. while Devdas and Rang De Basanti were both nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Among the mainstream films. However. delivering a new generation of popular actors (Hrithik Roshan.
Bollywood began influencing musical films in the Western world. 33 | P a g e . fairy stories and so on through song and dance. where musicals were popular from the 1920s to the 1950s. a fiction. which "blended realism and fantasy." y Western musical television. In the 2000s. used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films. earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation. which became popular from around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theatre. though Indian filmmakers departed from their Hollywood counterparts in several ways. camera angles. The Parsi plays contained crude humour. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology. The theory of rasa dating back to ancient Sanskrit drama is believed to be one of the most fundamental features that differentiate Indian cinema. These regional traditions include the Yatra of Bengal. An early example of this approach was in Mani Ratnam's Bombay (1995)." y Hollywood. and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu. However." In addition. and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the American musical film genre. integrating them into a dramatic discourse of melodrama. history. narrative and spectacle. the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh. sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft. the Hollywood musicals had as their plot the world of entertainment itself. y The traditional folk theatre of India. particularly Hindi cinema. Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation.spectacular dance-dramas which has continued Indian cinema. while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films. dance sequences and music of 2000s Indian films. which has had an increasing influence since the 1990s. y The Parsi theatre. they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day to day lives in complex and interesting ways. "whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant. as can be seen in the pace. melodious songs and music. an illusion. music and dance. Indian filmmakers. from that of the Western world. "For example. particularly MTV.
which in turn inspired the Bollywood film Karz (1980). was lifted from Lata Mangeshkar's "Thoda Resham Lagta Hai" from Jyoti (1981). The influence of Bollywood filmi music can also be seen in popular music elsewhere in the world. R. Sweeney Todd. Rent. fueling a renaissance of the genre. Dre. The Producers. Also in 2005. The Phantom of the Opera. The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! renewed interest in the then-moribund Western musical genre. the 34 | P a g e . The Black Eyed Peas' Grammy Award winning 2005 song "Don't Phunk with My Heart" was inspired by two 1970s Bollywood songs: "Ye Mera Dil Yaar Ka Diwana" from Don (1978) and "Ae Nujawan Hai Sub" from Apradh (1972). and two other Bollywood films Devdas (2002) and Rang De Basanti (2006) were nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film. was also directly inspired by Bollywood films. The 1975 film Chhoti Si Baat is believed to have inspired Hitch (2005). with Madhumati (1958) inspiring the Hollywood film The Reincarnation of Peter Proud (1975). Dreamgirls.Baz Luhrmann stated that his musical film Moulin Rouge! (2001) was directly inspired by Bollywood musicals. wrote the music for Andrew Lloyd Webber's Bombay Dreams. sung by Asha Bhosle. which in turn influenced another Hollywood film Chances Are (1989). sung by Truth Hurts and produced by DJ Quik and Dr. and featured the dancer Helen. and subsequently films such as Chicago. The 2002 song "Addictive". The theme of reincarnation was also popularized in Western popular culture through Bollywood films. Hairspray. which in turn inspired the Bollywood film Partner (2007). For example. The Bollywood musical Lagaan (2001) was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. The film incorporated an Indian-themed play based on the ancient Sanskrit drama The Little Clay Cart and a Bollywood-style dance sequence with a song from the film China Gate. A. which has won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards. and a musical version of Hum Aapke Hain Koun has played in London's West End. Across the Universe. Devo's 1988 hit song "Disco Dancer" was inspired by the song "I am a Disco Dancer" from the Bollywood film Disco Dancer (1982). Both songs were originally composed by Kalyanji Anandji. Enchanted and Mamma Mia! Were produced. Rahman. an Indian film composer. Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire (2008). and is considered to be a "homage to Hindi commercial cinema".
including the Singaporean artist Kelly Poon. comedy.Songs From R D Burman's Bollywood. Indeed. the French rap group La Caution. and the German band Löwenherz. Such movies are called masala films. (literally. these movies are a mixture of many things such as action. have also been inspired by Bollywood music. and are expected to contain catchy music in the form of song-and-dance numbers woven into the script. romance etc. love triangles. after the Hindi word for a spice mixture. Genre conventions Bollywood films are mostly musicals. into an album You've stolen my heart . Rahman (who would later win two Academy Awards for the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack) has frequently been sampled by musicians elsewhere in the world. Like masalas. which was nominated for "Best Contemporary World Music Album" at the 2006 Grammy Awards. D. Indian audiences expect full value for their money. A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers. "money's worth"). with a good entertainer generally referred to as paisa vasool. R. among others. the American artist Ciara. Filmi music composed by A. with Asha Bhosle as the singer. 35 | P a g e . the Uzbek artist Iroda Dilroz.Kronos Quartet re-recorded several R. Many Asian Underground artists. Burman compositions. particularly those among the overseas Indian diaspora.Songs and dances. a film's music is often released before the movie itself and helps increase the audience. Most films have heroes who are able to fight off villains all by themselves. comedy and dare-devil thrills are all mixed up in a three-hour-long extravaganza with an intermission.
love triangles. have nudged Bollywood films closer to Hollywood models.had liberal doses of sex and kissing scenes in them. Bollywood conventions are changing. Strangely. it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures.Our earliest films. kidnappers. Film critic Lata Khubchandani writes.".. They frequently employ formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers and angry parents. Though these changes can widely be seen in contemporary Bollywood. There have always been Indian films with more artistic aims and more sophisticated stories. conniving villains. both inside and outside the Bollywood tradition (see Parallel Cinema). and convenient coincidences. courtesans with hearts of gold. sacrifice. dramatic reversals of fortune. A large Indian diaspora in English speaking countries. They often lost out at the box office to movies with more mass appeal. corrupt politicians.. however.Melodrama and romance are common ingredients to Bollywood films. traditional conservative ways of Indian culture continue to exist in India outside the industry and an element of resistance 36 | P a g e . family ties. Pictured Achhut Kanya (1936) Bollywood plots have tended to be melodramatic. and increased Western influence at home." Plots now tend to feature Westernised urbanites dating and dancing in clubs rather than centering on pre-arranged marriages. long-lost relatives and siblings separated by fate.
Indian film directors. by making several movies simultaneously. where the lead actress is Alice Patten. and Bollywood is no exception. Indian movie actresses. theatre actors and even common people come to Mumbai with the hope and dream of becoming a star. There have been some exceptions. all hoping for a break in the industry. Just as in Hollywood. Despite this. Directors compete to hire the most popular stars of the day. Industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is fierce and if film industry scions do not succeed at the box office.by some to western-based influences. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses. Cast and crew for further details see Indian movie actors. Hence many stars make the most of their fame. many foreign extras are employed too. The popularity of the stars can rise and fall rapidly. Kisna. Only a very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood. one recent example is the hit film Rang De Basanti. very few succeed. Indian film music directors and Indian playback singers Bollywood employs people from all parts of India. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad. television actors. though many have tried from time to time. once they become popular. Lagaan. Models and beauty contestants. Bollywood continues to play a major role in fashion in India. such as 37 | P a g e . Indeed some studies into fashion in India have revealed that some people are unaware that the changing nature of fashion in Bollywood films which are presented to them are often influenced by globalization and many consider the clothes worn by Bollywood actors as authentically Indian. Stardom in the entertainment industry is very fickle. and The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey also featured foreign actors. Bollywood can be very clannish. who are believed to guarantee the success of a movie (though this belief is not always supported by box-office results). their careers will falter. and the relatives of film-industry insiders have an edge in getting coveted roles in films or being part of a film's crew. an Englishwoman. Some of the biggest stars.
and several Bollywood films have employed on-location sound since then. Therefore. This opened up a heated debate on the use and economic feasibility of onlocation sound. Sound Sound in Bollywood films is rarely recorded on location (otherwise known as sync sound). after a 30-year hiatus of synchronized sound. from on-location filming. The ubiquity of ADR in Bollywood cinema became prevalent in the early 1960s with the arrival of the Arriflex 3 camera. which required a blimp (cover) in order to shield the sound of the camera. this became the standard for Indian films. known for their speed. Commercial Indian films. Commercial Indian filmmakers. see List of Bollywood film clans. Eventually. The trend was bucked in 2001. This creates several problems. Amitabh Bachchan. once in the studio²and the emotional level on set is often very difficult to recreate. For film clans. for which it was notorious. with the film Lagaan. in which producer-star Aamir Khan insisted that the sound be done on location. never bothered to blimp the camera. Bollywood song and dance 38 | P a g e . with the actors reciting their lines as their images appear on-screen in the studio in the process known as "looping in the sound" or ADR²with the foley and sound effects added later. and Shahrukh Khan have succeeded despite total lack of show business connections. and its excessive noise required that everything had to be recreated in the studio. are known for their lack of ambient sound.Dharmendra. the sound is usually created (or recreated) entirely in the studio. not just the Hindi-language variety. so there is a silence underlying everything instead of the background sound and noises usually employed in films to create aurally perceivable depth and environment. since the sound in these films usually occurs a frame or two earlier or later than the mouth movements or gestures. The actors have to act twice: once on-location.
Saigal. Bollywood dances usually follow filmi songs Bollywood film music is called filmi music (from Hindi. a famed playback singer. especially today. K. Pictured here is Mukesh. meaning "of films"). Suraiyya. who lip-sync the lyrics. who starred in several major films in the 1950s while also having a stellar career as a playback singer. with the actors then lip synching the words to the song on-screen. are excellent dancers. While most actors. often while dancing. Songs from Bollywood movies are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers. One notable exception was Kishore Kumar. Some actors in the last thirty years 39 | P a g e . L. few are also singers. rather than actors.Songs in Bollywood are sung by professional playback singers. and Noor Jehan were also known as both singers and actors.
Mohammed Rafi. dances of historic northern Indian courtesans (tawaif). Shamshad Begum and Alka Yagnik among female playback singers. Saigal. Their songs can make or break a film and usually do.Balasubramanyam. Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own fans who will go to an otherwise lackluster movie just to hear their favorites. Talat Mahmood. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films feature unrealistically instantaneous shifts of location or changes of costume between verses of a song. known as music directors. Other 40 | P a g e . Going by the quality as well as the quantity of the songs they rendered. Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the movie. and producers may even release remixed versions of some of their films' songs along with the films' regular soundtrack albums. In modern films. The hero or heroine will often perform with a troupe of supporting dancers. Mukesh. If the hero and heroine dance and sing a duet. Mohammed Rafi is often considered arguably the finest of the singers that have lent their voice to Bollywood songs. S. This staging is referred to as a "picturisation".P. Udit Narayan and Sonu Nigam among male playback singers. The dancing in Bollywood films. for a list. see Singing actors and actresses in Indian cinema. has recorded thousands of songs for Indian movies. Kumar Sanu. who. Remixing of film songs with modern beats and rhythms is a common occurrence today. followed by Lata Mangeshkar. though it is not unusual to see Western pop and pure classical dance numbers side by side in the same film. through the course of a career spanning over six decades. Sometimes. Kishore Kumar. L. Manna Dey.have sung one or more songs themselves. especially older ones. it is often staged in beautiful natural surroundings or architecturally grand settings. a song is worked into the plot. Indian dance elements often blend with Western dance styles (as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals). most notable singers of Bollywood are Lata Mangeshkar. or folk dances. in several ways. The composers of film music. Geeta Dutt. so that a character has a reason to sing. are also well-known. and K. Asha Bhosle. Hemant Kumar. is primarily modelled on Indian dance: classical dance styles.
Dialogues and lyrics The film script or lines of dialogue (called "dialogues" in Indian English) and the song lyrics are often written by different people. The songs are also often referred to as a "dream sequence". Dialogues are usually written in an unadorned Hindi or Hindustani that would be understood by the largest possible audience. however. However. or old-fashioned courtly Urdu in Mughal era historical films. Bollywood films have always used what are now called "item numbers". A physically attractive female character (the "item girl"). before the main movie release. Often the soundtrack is more popular than the movie. performs a catchy song and dance number in the film. a song is an externalisation of a character's thoughts. Contemporary mainstream movies also make great use of English. or as stage shows. item numbers may be inserted as discotheque sequences. or presages an event that has not occurred yet in the plot of the movie. The actress Helen was famous for her cabaret numbers. In modern films. Characters may shift from one language to the other to express a certain atmosphere (for example. 41 | P a g e . usually featuring a song from the film. English in a business setting and Hindi in an informal one). the event is often two characters falling in love. some promotional videos feature a song which is not included in the movie. dancing at celebrations. often completely unrelated to the main cast and plot of the film. In this case. In the last few years some producers have also been releasing music videos. Some movies. and anything can happen that would not normally happen in the real world. as tapes or CDs. For the last few decades Bollywood producers have been releasing the film's soundtrack. Some movie scripts are first written in Roman alphabet. In older films.times. hoping that the music will pull audiences into the cinema later. the "item number" may be performed by a courtesan (tawaif) dancing for a rich client or as part of a cabaret show. have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting.
Cinematic language. such as Lagaan. the United Kingdom. to the point that the lyricist and composer are seen as a team. Sequences shot overseas have proved a real box office draw. Recent Bollywood films have employed international technicians to improve in these areas.. with the most expensive productions costing up to 100 crores rupees (roughly USD 20 million). Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. The increasing accessibility to professional action and special effects. costumes. such as Krrish (2006) which has action choreographed by Hong Kong based Tony Ching. This phenomenon is not unlike the pairings of American composers and songwriters that created old-time Broadway musicals (e. frequently use Arabo-Persic Urdu vocabulary. whether in dialogues or lyrics. the United States. Many lyrics compare the singer to a devotee and the object of his or her passion to Krishna or Radha. particularly in areas such as action and special effects. Nowadays. coupled with rising film budgets. is often melodramatic and invokes God. so Mumbai film crews are increasingly filming in Australia. continental Europe and elsewhere. and cinematography were less than world-class up until the mid-to-late 1990s. Sets. special effects. 42 | P a g e . especially in the old movies. Indian producers are winning more and more funding for big-budget films shot within India as well.g. Song lyrics are usually about love. although with some notable exceptions. and the gopis. there is an increasing pressure for Bollywood films to attain the same production levels. Radha. New Zealand. duty. or Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe). mother. As Western films and television gain wider distribution in India itself. Finances Bollywood films are multi-million dollar productions. and self-sacrifice liberally. Devdas and other recent films. family. Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists. Another source for love lyrics is the long Hindu tradition of poetry about the mythological amours of Krishna. has seen an explosion in the action and sci-fi genres. Bollywood song lyrics. Canada.
bootleg DVD copies of movies are available before the prints are officially released in cinemas. a film director and father of star Hrithik Roshan. Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread copyright infringement of its films. As finances are not regulated. since the Government of Pakistan has banned their sale. too. Often. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) estimates that the Bollywood industry loses $100 million annually in loss of revenue from pirated home videos and DVDs. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to the piracy problem. recouping their investments from many sources of revenue. However. and the UK regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance. they have been known to use money and muscle power to get their way in cinematic deals.S. demand for these copies is large amongst some sections of the Indian diaspora. including selling ancillary 43 | P a g e . most Bollywood films could make money. The Mumbai underworld has been known to be involved in the production of several films. and are notorious for their patronisation of several prominent film personalities. such as the Mumbai underworld. this ban has now been lifted. some funding also comes from illegitimate sources. and VHS copies of the latest movie titles is a well established 'small scale industry' in parts of South Asia and South East Asia. Satellite TV.Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. Manufacturing of bootleg DVD. distribution and telecast). now fewer tend to do so. On occasion. while consumer copying adds to the problem. (In fact. In 2001. most Bollywood producers make money. the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of the movie Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the movie was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai underworld. VCD. However. Indian banks and financial institutions were forbidden from lending money to movie studios. Mumbai mafia hitmen shot Rakesh Roshan. In January 2000. Small convenience stores run by members of the Indian diaspora in the U. Besides catering to the homegrown market. In the past. Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by countless small cable TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia. television and imported foreign films are making huge inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies.
rights. a majority of the huge and ubiquitous billboards in India's major cities are created with computer-printed vinyl. and crew. Canada.3 billion. Bollywood sold 3. The old hand-painted posters. Bollywood publicists have begun to use the Internet as a venue for advertising. Hussain used to paint film posters early in his career) This was because human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material. There are also increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom.6 billion tickets and generated total revenues (again from all formats) of US$51 billion. Bollywood is also used to advertise other products. or music videos. before the actual release of the film can also be considered a form of advertising. 44 | P a g e . once regarded as ephemera. Product placement. For an interesting comparison of Hollywood and Bollywood financial figures. television etc. Advertising Many Indian artists used to make a living by hand-painting movie billboards and posters (The well-known artist M. A popular tune is believed to help pull audiences into the theaters. stills. are becoming increasingly collectible as folk art. where browsers can view trailers. see chart. It shows tickets sold in 2002 and total revenue estimates.6 billion tickets and had total revenues (theatre tickets. Most of the better-funded film releases now have their own websites. Releasing the film music.) of US$1. cast. where Bollywood is slowly getting noticed. they form a growing market for upscale Indian films. DVDs. whereas Hollywood films sold 2. as used in Hollywood. and information about the story.F. is widely practiced in Bollywood. As more Indians migrate to these countries. and the United States. Now.
such as watches or soap (see Celebrity endorsement). the Filmfare Awards are voted for by both the public and a committee of experts. Modelled after the poll-based merit format of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Advertisers say that a star endorsement boosts sales. the National Film Awards were introduced in 1954. Under this system. Since 1973. individuals may submit their votes in separate categories. and awards were given to the best films of 1953. the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards. Like the Oscars. which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government. The DFF screens not only Bollywood films. The Indian screen magazine Filmfare started the first Filmfare Awards in 1954. A dual voting system was developed in 1956. the Filmfare awards are frequently accused of bias towards commercial success rather than artistic merit.Bollywood movie stars appear in print and television advertisements for other products. awarded by the government run Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF). Awards The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India. The ceremony was referred to as the Clare Awards after the magazine's editor. Additional ceremonies held within India are: y y Stardust Awards Star Screen Awards Ceremonies held overseas are: 45 | P a g e . As the Filmfare. These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India. in contrast to the National Film Awards. but films from all the other regional movie industries and independent/art films.
Historically. songs have also been copied by Hausa singers and stories have influenced the writings of Nigerian novelists. bearing witness to the cross-cultural appeal of Indian movies. such far off locations as Nigeria to Egypt to Senegal and to Russia generations of non-Indian fans have grown up with Bollywood during the years. United States Global Indian Film Awards . largely by Lebanese businessmen.Long Island. while posters of Indian films adorn the walls of tailor 46 | P a g e .(different country each year) IIFA Awards . Mother India (1957). for example. continued to be played in Nigeria decades after its release. Hindi films have been distributed to some parts of Africa. Over the last years of the twentieth century and beyond. featuring singing. Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Northern Nigeria.(different country each year) Most of these award ceremonies are lavishly staged spectacles. Indian movies have also gained ground so as to alter the style of Hausa fashions. New York.y y y y Bollywood Movie Awards . and numerous celebrities. Bollywood progressed in its popularity as it entered the consciousness of Western audiences and producers. dancing.(different country each year) Zee Cine Awards. Film education y y y Film and Television Institute of India Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute Asian Academy of Film & Television Popularity and appeal Besides being popular among the India diaspora.
Indian movies were said to show "respect" toward women. for example. in West Africa. and so forth. the presence of animals in markets. The new era features more sexually explicit and violent films. In Indian movies women were modestly dressed. wedding celebrations. and. porters carrying large bundles. Several Bollywood personalities have avenued to the continent for both shooting movies and off-camera projects. The latter choice was a failure because "they don't base themselves on the problems of the people. Dil Jo Bhi Kahey (2005) was shot almost entirely in Mauritius.shops and mechanics' garages in the country. where the emerging Islamic Courts Union found a bete noire. Other similarities include wearing turbans. The film Padmashree Laloo Prasad Yadav (2005) was one of many movies shot in South Africa. Chad and Ethiopia have also shown an interest in the movies." Bollywood is also popular among Somalis and the Somali diaspora. Nigerian viewers. however. commented that older films of the 1950s and 1960s had culture to the newer. and there is no nudity. the popularity of old Bollywood versus a new. as in many other parts of the world. changing Bollywood seems to be diminishing the popularity on the continent. which has a large ethnically Indian population. chewing sugar cane. Unlike in Europe and North America where Indian films largely cater to the expatriate Indian market yearning to keep in touch with their homeland." where the former is based socialist values and on the reality of developing countries emerging from years of colonialism. more westernized picturizations. such movies rose in popularity despite the lack of a significant Indian audience. based on a religion wholly different. where movies are about an alien culture. thus Indian movies are said to "have culture" that Hollywood films lack. youths riding Bajaj motor scooters. One such explanation for this lied in the similarities between the two cultures. Ominously. With the strict Muslim culture. The changing style of Bollywood has begun to question such an acceptance. Indian movies also allowed for a new youth culture to follow without such ideological baggage as "becoming western. 47 | P a g e . a language that is unintelligble to the viewers. for the most part. where Hollywood movies were seen to have "no shame". men and women rarely kiss.
Africa's local movie industry has also contributed to the declining popularity of Bollywood films. Since the early 2000s. and India's policy was wholly influenced by his missionary zeal to end racial domination and discrimination in the African territories" were replaced by newer realities. Asia Bollywood films are widely watched in South Asian countries. A greater globalised world worked in tandem with the sexualisation of Indian films so as to become more like American films. Egypt and the Gulf countries. Special channels dedicated to Indian films have been displayed on cable television. including Palestine. The new policy is controversial in Pakistan. Bollywood has progressed in Israel.. However. Kabul Express. a thriving trade in pirated DVDs and illegal cable broadcasts ensured the continued popularity of Bollywood releases in Pakistan. the Pakistani government eased the ban and allowed the import of even more movies. Khuda Gawah and Escape From Taliban. Imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic upon the film's release. 16 were screened in 2008. thus negating the preferred values of an old Bollywood and diminishing Indian soft power. Exceptions were made for a few films. 48 | P a g e .. Jordan. Early in 2008. A number of Bollywood movies were filmed inside Afghanistan while some dealt with the country. Nepal. It is opposed by ardent nationalists and representatives of Pakistan's small film industry. including Dharmatma. Continued easing followed in 2009 and 2010. such as Bangladesh. Hindi films have also been popular in numerous Arab countries.The old days of India avidly "advocating decolonization . The emergence of Nollywood. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Pakistan banned the legal import of Bollywood movies in 1965. Many Pakistanis watch Bollywood films. Bollywood movies are also popular in Afghanistan due to the country's proximity with the Indian subcontinent and certain other cultural perspectives present in the movies. such as the 2006 colorized re-release of the classic Mughal-e-Azam or the 2006 film Taj Mahal. it is embraced by cinema owners. who are booking large profits after years of poor receipts. as they understand Hindi (due to its linguistic similarity to Urdu).
Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani (1946). R. Some Hindi movies also became big successes in the People's Republic of China during the 1940s and 1950s. which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule. Awaara (1951) and Two Acres of Land (1953). The most popular Hindi films in China were Dr. especially its soundtrack. Bollywood films have been dubbed into Russian. Ashok Sharma. Indian Ambassador to Suriname. The Chinese filmmaker He Ping was impressed by Lagaan. were found to be a good source 49 | P a g e .Bollywood films are also popular across Southeast Asia (particularly the Malay Archipelago) and Central Asia (particularly in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan). The films from India. Europe Bollywood films are particularly popular in the former Soviet Union. the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and nonpolitical. particularly the films directed by the late Guru Dutt. Hindi films significantly declined in popularity in China. and shown in prominent theatres such as Mosfilm and Lenfilm. the Soviet Union was recovering from the onslaught of the Second World War. until the Academy Award nominated Lagaan (2001) became the first Indian film to have a nationwide release there in decades. who has served three times in the Commonwealth of Independent States region during his diplomatic career said: The popularity of Bollywood in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from Hollywood and other Western countries were banned in the Soviet Union. and the song "Awara Hoon" ("I am a Tramp") was popular in the country. In addition. and thus hired the film's music composer A. Several older Hindi films also have a cult following in Japan. Since then. Raj Kapoor was a famous movie star in China. As there was no means of other cheap entertainment. Rahman to score the soundtrack for his film Warriors of Heaven and Earth (2003).
The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. North America Bollywood has experienced a marked growth in revenue in North American markets. films from India do more business in the United States than films from any other non-English speaking country. which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union. In the contemporary era. In other words. Yash Raj Films. such as Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001) have been set in London. reported in September 2005 that Bollywood films in the United States earn around $100 million a year through theater screenings. and is particularly popular amongst the South Asian communities in large cities as Chicago. Hollywood occupied the void created in the Russian film market. However. Russian newspapers report that there is a renewed interest in Bollywood among young Russians. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union.of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses. The film Mera Naam Joker (1970). Various Bollywood movies are dubbed in German and shown on the German television channel RTL II on a regular basis. one of India's largest production houses and distributors. when it recruited Russian actress Kseniya Ryabinkina for the movie. Lucky: No Time for Love was shot entirely in Russia. where they frequently enter the UK top ten. Toronto and New York City. The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values. shot in New York. video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks. and the Scandinavian countries. This made things difficult for Bollywood as it was losing market share to Hollywood. the Netherlands. After the collapse of the Soviet film distribution system. A considerable number of Hindi movies has been shot in Western Europe as well. Germany. Numerous films in the mid-1990s and onwards have been largely. The awareness of Hindi cinema is also substantial in the United Kingdom. Bollywood is also appreciated in France. or entirely. particularly in Switzerland. starting with Dilwale Dulhania le Jayenge. sought to cater to such an appeal and the popularity of Raj Kapoor in Russia. 50 | P a g e . Los Angeles. Many films.
who co-starred in Salaam Namaste. Oceania Bollywood is not as successful in the Oceanic countries and Pacific Islands such as New Guinea. where the Bollywood and cricket nexus. it ranks second to Hollywood in countries such as Fiji. This was followed by Heyy Babyy (2007) Chak De! India (2007) and Singh Is Kinng (2008) which turned out to be box office successes. Bollywood is popular amongst non-Asians in the country as well. which demonstrated the contrast between the values. with its large Indian minority. among other Bollywood films. Hindi films shot in Australia usually incorporate aspects of Australian lifestyle. Australian locations are becoming more important to the plot of Bollywood films. Australia and New Zealand. having seen the film. nowadays. Australian actress Tania Zaetta. Bollywood's immersion in the traditional Hollywood domain was further tied with such films as The Guru (2002) and Marigold: An Adventure in India (2007) trying to popularise the Bollywood-theme for Hollywood. Since 1997 the country has provided a backdrop for an increasing number of Bollywood films. and initially used it as the setting for song-and-dance sequences. Indian filmmakers have been attracted to Australia's diverse locations and landscapes. Following the release of Salaam Namaste. was further tightened with Steve Waugh's appointment as tourism ambassador to India. Australia is one of the countries where there is a large South Asian Diaspora. South America 51 | P a g e . on a visit to India the then Prime Minister John Howard also sought.Vancouver and Toronto. However. to have more Indian movies shooting in the country to boost tourism. expressed her keenness to expand her career in Bollywood. However. The Yash Raj Film Salaam Namaste (2005) became the first Indian film to be shot entirely in Australia and was the most successful Bollywood film of 2005 in the country.
Organizations like the India EU Film Initiative seek to foster a community between film makers and industry professional between India and the EU. though Bollywood culture and dance is recognised. Ideas. Bollywood and other film industries are much more aware of each other now and Indian audiences are more familiar with foreign movies and music. but due to financial uncertainty and insecurity over the success of a film many were rejected.Bollywood movies are not influential in South America. some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to resort to plagiarism. While copyright enforcement in India is still somewhat lenient. This has led to criticism towards the film industry. which is manifested. Plagiarism Constrained by rushed production schedules and small budgets. a remake of What Lies Beneath. In 2006. this could be done with impunity. Brazil. Screenwriters generally produce original scripts. One of the common justifications of plagiarism in Bollywood is that producers often play a safer option by remaking popular Hollywood films in an Indian context. director of films such as Raaz. The Hindi film industry was not widely known to non-Indian audiences (excluding the Soviet states). Copyright enforcement was lax in India and few actors or directors ever saw an official contract. amongst other mediums. and Kasoor. In past times. Audiences may also not have been aware of the plagiarism since many audiences in India were unfamiliar with foreign films and music. Dhoom 2 became the first Bollywood film to be shot in Rio de Janeiro. tunes or riffs have been copied from other Indian film industries or foreign films (including Hollywood and other Asian films). a remake of Jagged Edge. Vikram Bhatt. who would not even be aware that their material was being copied. in Bollywood films. Certain filmmakers see plagiarism in Bollywood as an integral part of globalisation where American and western cultures are firmly embedding themselves into Indian culture. Screenwriters themselves have been criticised for lack of creativity which happened due to tight schedules and restricted funds in the industry to employ better screenwriters. plot lines. has spoken about the strong influence of 52 | P a g e .
53 | P a g e . their diet cokes and also their attitude. Many U." Mahesh Bhatt has said.S. their planes. Hitch and Oldboy.000. to battle counterfeiting. American Studio Twentieth Century Fox brought the Mumbai-based B. with Orion Pictures recently securing the rights to remake the Hollywood film. "Financially. allegedly an illegal remake of its 1992 film My Cousin Vinny. and due to the long time they take to decide a case. Some on the other hand do comply with copyright law. the name given to India's vast movie industry. which has often been at odds with Hollywood. It marks a new relationship between the Motion Picture Association of America and the industry in India. Films to court over its forthcoming Banda Yeh Bindaas Hai. There have been very few cases of film copyright violations taken to court because of serious delays in the legal process. Our TV shows are adaptations of American programmes. you're a genius. We want their films. There's no such thing as originality in the creative sphere". paving the way for the film's release. Copying is endemic everywhere in India. their cars.American culture and desire to produce box office hits based along the same lines in Bollywood.R. Bollywood battle DVD piracy Hollywood has teamed up with Bollywood. "If you hide the source.R. I would be more secure knowing that a particular piece of work has already done well at the box office. Hollywood. B. He said. Films eventually settled out of court by paying the studio at a cost of about $200. There have been some notable cases of conflict though. films are pirated in India by people who take camcorders into cinemas. The makers of Partner (2007) and Zinda (2005) have been targeted by the owners and distributors of the original films. The American way of life is creeping into our culture.
Pernicious problem:"Piracy is one of the most pernicious problems facing the entertainment industry. Gérémi Adam. head of the U."This is a country of one billion people who love movies more than anywhere else. signalling a major push by an Indian firm into the Hollywood market. 54 | P a g e ." Dan Glickman. association.000 fine. "We'd be foolish not to want to come into this market. Making illegal movie recordings is a criminal offence punishable by six months in jail and a $25." said Reliance Pictures CEO Sanjeev Lamba. the promoters say. which is a source of 90 per cent of pirated DVDs.3 billion US in 2008. The deal between the U. On Tuesday. told The Associated Press. Last year. 27.000 jobs." Now seven Indian production companies say they need to fight piracy. He was sentenced to 2½ months after pleading guilty to two counts of distributing high-quality pirated copies of Hollywood films.S. Piracy has made huge leaps in India because of higher internet connection speeds and DVD player usage. The announcement of a joint attack comes just two days after a precedent-setting ruling in Canada that sent a Montreal man to prison for pirating movies.S. industry group and India's movie studios would translate into pressure on police in India to step up enforcement as well as on legislators to tighten piracy laws. which cost that country's film industry $2. DVD piracy laws were tightened in Canada in 2007. became the first Canadian to get a prison sentence for breaking cinematic copyright. Reliance took a 50 per cent share in Steven Spielberg's DreamWorks studio. according to an Ernst & Young study. The Motion Picture Association of America has made similar deals with alliances in Europe and Hong Kong to crack down on camcorder filming. Piracy was also blamed for the loss of 571.
at an estimated cost of 70 million dollars. is currently producing a three-film series of the Indian mythology." said the producer of 'Bandit Queen' and 'The Rising' (Mangal Pandey). The founder of Kaleidoscope Pvt. He said the American enforcement agencies were not forceful enough in helping plug losses suffered by the Indian entertainment industry in the United States. 55 | P a g e . Moser Baer executive Harish Dayani says 700 million illegal DVDs are bought by Indian consumers every year. Bandit Queen (1994). Bedi was speaking at an event in Washington to mark the World Intellectual Property Day on Saturday. according to reports. "We are losing 90 percent of our home video market in the United States. CASE STUDY:1)'Piracy in US leads to $1 billion loss for Indian films' Bobby BediIndian filmmaker Bobby Bedi has said India is losing huge chunks of its entertainment profits to global pirates.. quoted by press agency AFP. the Mahabharata. Bobby Bedi. "The Indian film industry now understands their product is getting stolen at significant rates. a CD and DVD manufacturer in India.Moser Baer.. Fire (1997).. and America is becoming the battleground. says the number of households in India with DVD players has gone risen to 45 million from four million in just two years. Bedi made his name with Electric Moon (1992)." Glickman said. Saathiya (2002). Maqbool (2003) and The Rising (2005) as a producer.through piracy and related activities in the United States.one billion dollars per year -. Ltd.
music. shows as much as Rs.-India Business Council (USIBC) had released a study in March 2008 showing huge job and revenue losses to the Indian economy as a result of piracy in India's burgeoning entertainment industry.000 jobs and about $4 billion each year to piracy. afflicting India's entertainment industry. Chamber of Commerce.S. Speaking at the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) FRAMES 'Business of Entertainment' Conference. As many as 800. said.S. which aims to highlight the value of intellectual property.'The Effects of Counterfeiting and Piracy on India's Entertainment Industry' ." The piracy study was commissioned as part of the USIBC-FICCI BollywoodHollywood Initiative. "This study covers film. FICCI Secretary General. 16. "This study shows that the best way to make the boom in the Indian entertainment bigger is to stop the affliction of piracy. This is an enormous and unacceptable magnitude of loss ." 56 | P a g e . television and video games and has been funded by the Global Intellectual Property Center of the U. The study . For the average Indian who wants to increase his or her chances for being employed in Bollywood and associated industries. The Bollywood-Hollywood Initiative promotes the sustainable growth and convergence underway between the entertainment industries in both our countries.by any measure.March 2008 Piracy Report Bipasha Basu.prepared for USIBC by Ernst & Young India. "This study estimates that the Indian entertainment industry loses some 820. Amit Mitra.000 direct jobs are also lost as a result of theft and piracy. Saif Ali Khan and Katrina Kaif in Superhit 'Race'The U. said. Ron Somers." Presented with a copy of the study. Dr. USIBC President.000 crores are lost each year due to piracy. as well as illuminate the adverse impact theft and piracy have on creativity and innovation. fighting piracy is a place where all our collective efforts must start.
we intend to continue fighting piracy across the board. The story was the same across the board: if we can slow or stop piracy.' Sippy said. We will attempt to enlist more effectively the U. I commend the USIBC-FICCI Initiative for enlisting all elements of the entertainment industry against piracy.S. said. as well as in the U. and electronic games. "The Media and Entertainment industry in India is an industry of the future." 57 | P a g e . and Indian governments to cooperate in fighting the scourge of piracy in India. We strongly support passage by India of optical disc legislation that will thwart piracy in this important industry." Also present at the media briefing was Ramesh Sippy. music. "This study is only the beginning." Farokh T. "Our Mumbai office collected data for this study from on the ground . Mitra went on to point out. USIBC President Ron Somers said. Balsara.S.films. a direct correlation in the generation of wealth and employment will be the result. We will strive to bring these findings to the attention of the average person in India. growing at a combined annual rate of over 18%. famed producer and director of the all-time number-one blockbuster 'Sholay. TV. We looked at the industry from every angle ." Commenting on the USIBC-FICCI Bollywood-Hollywood Initiative. If we can stop piracy. these industries will grow even faster and employ more Indian workers. radio. National Sector Leader. India's entertainment industry already generates more than $11 billion annually for the country. Now that we have documented the job and revenue losses to the Indian entertainment industry from piracy. We are pleased to stand shoulder to shoulder with counterparts in India to help protect jobs and revenues that are now being needlessly lost to piracy.Dr. "I know first hand the importance of fighting piracy to support the growth of Bollywood.via direct interviews with stakeholders from the Bollywood entertainment industry. Media and Entertainment for Ernst & Young India. and worldwide.
Chamber of Commerce is the world's largest business federation representing more than 3 million businesses and organizations of every size. A big budget Bollywood producer. The U.C. Chamber of Commerce's Global Intellectual Property Center. Some of us are planning to start our own vigilante team. formed in 1975 at the request of the Government of India and the U. Police raids prove that piracy is rampant in the city and that the film-makers haven¶t been able to plug the problem. ³It¶s like a plague. Government to advance U.a special documentary that airs worldwide.S. They will be a scouting team who will go and check out places where pirated 58 | P a g e .-India Business Council.Also previewed at FICCI FRAMES as a part of the Bollywood-Hollywood Initiative was 'Illicit .S.S.S. D. 2) Bollywood united against piracy First Ashutosh Gowariker¶s What¶s Your Raashee? and now the recently released Karan Johar film starring Imran Khan and Sonam Kapoor losing lots of money in its opening weekend due to piracy has certainly shaken up the industry. This made-for-television documentary shows that the problem of piracy is an epidemic affecting many sectors of world-wide dimensions.The Dark Trade' . 2008 in Washington.S.S. Chamber of Commerce on June 12. who recently delivered a hit with a multistarrer reveals on conditions of anonymity. We are just constantly bleeding due to piracy. produced by National Geographic for the U. is hosted under the aegis of the U. DNA has learnt that film-makers are doing their own planning to fight against piracy.S. The U.India Business Council celebrates its 33rd Anniversary at the U. The U. Chamber of Commerce.S. and region. sector.-India commercial ties.
we will hit them hard. ³Since all the plans are sketchy. ³All the film-makers should come and form a body that only looks into stopping piracy nationally or else it will be very difficult to cut losses. We are also looking to hire private firms tackling piracy to help us out. the industry has to be united in its fight against piracy. It is a hectic process but something has to be done to combat it.´ Karan Johar feels though individual efforts are the need of the hour. we don¶t want to reveal everything but we are planning to plug the losses incurred.´ Another film-maker adds. We will make a note of these areas and quickly go and report to the police for them to take necessary action.´ 59 | P a g e . If we shut down those warehouses. For this we have to work closely with the police.films are up for sale on the day of the release. These firms locate the source where the CDs are being made and filtered into the market. We should join hands with everyone possible to tackle the crime. First we will start this in Mumbai and then try and go national.
the police doesn't really care about anything cyber. We've an Information & Technology (IT) Act. and I've no other platform to express this information apart from piratebay! I divide the piracy in India in 2 parts. I only write this article because I'm bored and thought this information might entertain some curious souls here and pass the time of other bored souls here. Introduction´ Well I'm not a Lawyer. One is located in Hyderabad and another is in Gandhinagar. blackmailing some girl or making fake profile of her in Face book or sending death threats to ministers or claiming responsibility after doing a terrorist attack. We've only 2 major forensic labs (FSL) in India which are capable of analyzing the hard disk and computer data for cyber crime. 60 | P a g e . Online Piracy . Wares & File sharing etc. 2. neither some piracy expert to start debates or lectures here. which provides prison upto 10 Years and Fine up to 1 Million Rupees. Offline Physical Piracy of CDs & DVDs Part-1 : Online Piracy in India. So unless the offense is related to credit card theft. Porn or piracy doesn¶t even remotely come under their priorities.³Piracy in India.Torrent . no one is yet convicted under it lol. 1. But as far as I know.
thus you can easily be out on bail for 30-40 years even when you're convicted in cybercrime. the register it under the Indian Penal Code's cheat & fraud related chapters rather than in IT Act's stringent sections. so cops can't manipulate them easily. and in cheating cases you can easily get bails and max jail is 2 years only even if convicted. unlike in Penal code's fraud cases where case moves based on witnesses and other pen-paper evidences. and since your jail term is 2 years. because you see in IT act the evidences have to be technical like harddisk. you can still enjoy all the luxuries of life like wine and 61 | P a g e . IP records. in fact when some honest officer is to be 'taught a lesson' he is sent to the cyber crime department.377 however that anti-gay law was scrapped off last year. just like in your Hollywood movie when hero cop is given some traffic duty or desk job When someone comes with a cyber crime complaint. Since our policemen are not very skilled regarding cyber crime. we've age old Indian Penal code which was made in 1860s. the average time span of a petty criminal case can take from 5 to 15 years and you can always bribe your way out of any trouble in India . The Same law which also provided for 10 years' prison for homosexual also known as Art.Apart from this IT Act. the moment you're arrested you've to pay bribe no matter you're guilty or not. And at worse if you're sent to jail. Same way if you want to file complain and to get someone else arrested you again have to pay bribe. because its considered to be a punishment posting. For police there is a secret advantage of booking people under Penal code instead of IT act. which can be easily manipulated so the bribe earning potential is better for them. Needless to say. And since those courts already have millions of cases pending. The court process are very slow. you can get a bail even after conviction.If you get convicted you can appeal to higher court. during the Britishers' rule. So first you go to High court and then you go to supreme-court in appeal when it doesn't come in your favour.
* The mobile store owners keep a separate computer for the sole purpose of giving 62 | P a g e . IPod etc. Always remember the rule in India that "you can always bribe your way out of any trouble. The cost of it is: 1$ for 150 pages of anything photocopied on A4 sized paper. Now to the second part Part-2: Offline or Physical Piracy We've a single Copyrights act that covers everything from books.women after paying the bribe to the police. what emails did he send? (LOL ) So theoretically cyber cafe owner is supposed to check my id. driving license and all. Since most college students can't afford to buy the legit copies of original authors. however sometimes the cafe owner makes a CCTV recording of it and sells it to mobile porn sellers. songs to movies. *Books & Piracy* Photocopying the copyrighted book is regular phenomenon here. but he won't because that'll ruin the business. Apart from this. *Music-Mobile. Dick & Harry can come to any cyber cafe with a blank DVD or USB drive and download the choicest pirated movies. they buy the photo copied versions." Cyber cafes and Piracy After the terrorists started sending emails from cyber cafe after the bomb attacks. software¶s and games and walk away without any problem. the police issued an order that every owner of such cafe needs to maintain a register of every visitor also about which websites did he go. So any Tom. Cyber cafes are also ideal places for unmarried couples to go and enjoy sex in those secluded small cabins.
63 | P a g e . sit in the crowded markets. As stated ago. movies and everything to customer. *Movies-Bollywood* Just like you've Hollywood for America. But If you're a regular customer. Sometimes he'll ask you to give a photocopy of your driving license. full music tracks. And those cable TVs recover their money by showing 1 hour ads in 2 hours' movie so their money is also recovered. so you don't runaway with his stuff loll . Then he recovers all his money. to 20 Rs. he'll keep 10 Rs and return you 40 Rs. If you're a new mobile phone or i-pod buyer. So you've to only tell him "I'm a music guy" or "I'm a porn guy" and he'll give you appropriate memory card Sometimes they get caught. They even keep pre-loaded memory cards. *Videos.ringtones. (not the buyer. (1$) as deposit and once you return the CD or DVD. You can buy anything and everything under the sky from them. Mp3* There are special vendors with Hand-carts or Rickshaws. so Indian movie producers got smart and now they start selling the legit copy for 24 Rs. after 6months of movie release and or sell the rights to cable channels like Sony India or Star India. but the store owner) but he can always bribe his way out. we've Bollywood for India. That means for 1 dollar you can buy 4 DVD. he won't even ask for deposit. you can buy pirated copy for 20 Rs. they also give it on rent so in that case you've to give 50 Rs. so its not like that Industry's people are loosing their bread and butter due to piracy. they'll install the choicest applicationmusic-movies as per your requirement without additional charges. Be it the latest Hollywood movie to Video song. The prices are 10 Rs.
*Physical Piracy and India Police* Indian police gets a regular payment for allowing those pirated CD vendors to operate in their territoriy. no user or buyer or customer is ever caught or booked so far. while City based big groups pay on monthly basis. And there were Pirate Mafias controlling the business. because no one buys them anyway. have special agents to check piracy. T-series. from that he has to give Commission to police. Big Companies like Sony. Nowadays thanks to internet. When the internet was absent. Except the Big government 64 | P a g e . small time isolated vendors and big organized city based groups. A no0b Pirate vendor can earn up to 1200 Rs a day ($24) if he's in a good locality. Shemaroo. the master copies of pirated CDs generally came from Pakistan or Dubai.Same as above except that the legit copies are not available at all. *Software piracy* Almost every Home-computer running Microsoft is pirated. and close the case. there are two types of pirates. So when they see it. The small time isolated vendors have to pay Commission at the end of everyday. If you want to buy a legit copy then you've to goto big city like Mumbai. Under any circumstances. they'll complaint the police & police will arrest a few people for the namesake along with only a small portion of their inventory. direct movies are downloaded and distributed so any no0b in the neighborhood can be a pirated CD vendor. Every Hollywood movie available in small towns is pirated.
The movies in each region have their importance. dance. The movies that are produced released in these industries are huge. Even the channels evolved with the movie programs only. if you buy in bulk. they'll fix it for Rs. The word which buzzes around mouth is movies. Even though it is a entertainment most of the people are depended on these. Cheapest DVD writer (Samsung). Here again. The movie industry gives a lot of employment. If anything messes up. 50. Many of us feel that if we watch a movie with good theme it will be refreshment for us. 250/.or corporate offices. The movies give us a kind of relaxation. and watch programs related movies only. If they've to install a new Vista or XP the charge is Rs. Movies are the great pass time in these areas. The movie industries after Hollywood are Bollywood and Tollywood which produces good number of movies. The movies are for entertainment and enjoyment.about 20$ Cheapest Computer (Acer) -about 180$ so as you can see physical piracy doesn't require huge investment in India Piracy is killing the Cine Industry (Movie Industry) Movies are the word that most of the people look at when they need an entertainment. 5 Blank DVDs for 1$. There are thousands of people working with 65 | P a g e . the computer guys keep readymade disk to install everything in one go when you buy a new computer.(5$) *Prices* The cheapest computer you can get is in 180 $ 50 Blank Cd for about 1$. The people also love to watch the movies. We sing songs.
Hence. We download the songs for free. But we people watch the movie for free on internet. The only word which is killing the whole industry in terms of revenue.Every year this is damaging the industry. Because here we watch the movie for free this impacts on the revenue of movie industry. other one is thinking about the whole movie industry. Huge amounts of money. The movies have changed a lot then it was used to release in the past. work and time. The Tollywood people recently went for hunger strike and requested state government to fight for piracy. Yash Raj Films. Hence when we are watching the piracy movie it is killing their ideas. EROS International joined hands with the motion picture association of America to fight piracy. This is making the movie industry horrible. UTV Motion pictures. This involves lot of creativity . The total movie industry revenue depends upon the movie hits and flops. work is being spent to make and release a movie. Its like a building a house with care by spending lot of money on it. The movies updated themselves with technology. time. This is not only making damage for the industry. employment and creativity is "piracy". It takes a tough path to release the movie. Movie industry is not only an entertainment sector but also it gives life to lot of people. Because A movie involves lot of creativity.the industry. investment in terms of money. apart from this the importance of creativity and ideas. 66 | P a g e . Hence it is really a tough task to make a good movie and meet the expectation of people. They work very hard to meet our expectations. When we think of piracy there arises two options one is to watching the movie for free by one click. The Reliance Big Entertainment. But when we take the positive note then we have to go with second option. but also hitting their life patterns too. Recently Hollywood and Bollywood joined to fight the piracy. The music album consist lot of hard work from the whole music team.
Priyanka added. everyone in the value chain right from distributors to exhibitors as well as the audience has benefitted.´ Supporting the campaign against piracy.INTERVIEWS Ranbir. With corporates coming into industry. ³Over the last decade Bollywood has been in the midst of a transformation.´ ³When someone buys or downloads a pirated movie they are not aware about the damage that piracy causes to the industry. Piracy nullifies the effect of these changes. ³People forget that there is no replacement to watching a movie in a theatre. As responsible citizens we need to be vigilant about not encouraging illegal activities. Ranbir said.´ 67 | P a g e . I am glad that we now have an industry body like AACT to fight piracy on behalf of all of us. Priyanka¶s Views against piracy After being a part of AACT. As people from the film fraternity. ³Piracy has become a serious issue for the industry. especially among the youth.´ added the µFashion¶ star. µAnjaana Anjaani¶ producer Sajid Nadiadwala commented. the on us rests with us to educate and inform people about initiatives like AACT¶s toll free number´ ³I hope that every one supports us and go to theatres to watch the movie. However.
He also adds that. When an actor like Boman urges all to go against piracy.´ Warms the veteran actor. 68 | P a g e . ³We do hope piracy is stopped. to help in saving the intellectual property of the Bollywood industry. everyone tends to listen to that don¶t all of them listen? ³Please do not encourage piracy. It¶s negative implications way beyond money alone.Boman Irani urges all against piracy Intellectual and a gifted actor Boman Irani had launched the DVD of Shyam Benegal¶s film µWell Done Abba¶ and he felt happy while doing that. Boman Irani at that time urged everyone to stop piracy and help the Bollywood industry in being successful to fight against piracy. as some senior actors are hurt and we feel sad to see them hurt.
host Rakshanda Khan requested him to say few words on piracy. 69 | P a g e . much before they were released. He said films were pirated when they are sent for processing. I brought five pirated VCDs of my own movies and the quality was really bad. There is a kid who has been pirating my number for Rs. Unlike most clichéd speeches on the topic. The picture and sound was worst. Salman focused on how films were pirated.´ He added jocularly: ³If you come across people who are pirating movies then you can call me and we¶ll fix them! These days even my mobile number has been pirated.000 and then I get calls from kids asking µis this Salman Uncle¶ late in the night. Salman made an impassioned case for not watching pirated films on DVD¶s or VCD¶s. ³Just to check the quality of these movies.Salman Khan Speaks About Piracy A glittering event had stars and filmmakers making an earnest appeal against piracy and discussing ways to create public awareness about the crisis industry is facing. There were the regular dance performances by Amisha Patel and Yana Gupta. Breathless after his act. 25. But it was Salman Khan who rocked at the Kambakht Piracy gig. The Cinema People¶s Academy (CPA) launched it¶s first initiative in association with Sahara Manoranjan to educate the public about film piracy in a star-studded extravaganza that combined entertainment with some sermonizing. After his performance.
Mostly People watch Movies for entertainment as it¶s an important part of life to reduce the stress.1) Do you watch movies? 0% 100% yes no INTERPRETATION: According to survey I found out that 100% of my samples watch movies. tension of our life¶s. 70 | P a g e .
2) If yes how do you watch movies generally? Others 14% CD/DVD 45% Theatre 25% Download 16% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that most of the people watch movies by buying CD/DVD. 14% of the total public watch movies through Television. rest 14% of the total public prefer watching movies by other means. Other means of watching movies that I found through the survey was Television. 16% of the total public prefer watching movies by Downloading it directly from the internet. 45% of the people prefer watching movies by buying new CD/DVD. 3) How often do you watch movies? 71 | P a g e . 25% of the total public prefer watching movies going to the theatre directly whenever the movies get released they watch movies in the theatre till the time the movie is available in the theatre.
That is they go to watch movie once in a year. This is the least group with only 6%. and hence these people. 38% of the total public prefers watching movies on a monthly basis. 56% of the total public goes to watch movies on a weekly basis. that is gets released on every Friday. Next group of people is that group which prefers watching movies on a yearly basis. 4) Do you buy pirated CD/DVD? 72 | P a g e . It means that they watch movie at least once in a week. Whenever the new movies get released. who prefer watching movies on a weekly basis go to watch every Friday. There is an other group of people who go to watch movies on a monthly basis. That is they go to watch movie every month.Yearly 6% Monthly 38% Weekly 56% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that most of the people go to watch movies weekly.
No 30% Yes 70% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that maximum number of the people prefer watching movies by buying pirated CD/DVD. 5) If yes then from where do you buy them? 73 | P a g e . Rest 30% do not buy pirated CD/DVD. Most of the people buy the pirated CD/DVD. They answered no to the question about do they buy the pirated CD/DVD. 70% of the total public prefer watching movies by buying pirated CD/DVD.
Other 17% Train 17% Foothpath Vendor 66% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that out of the total public that buy pirated CD/DVD. Trains and some other places. Other means can be getting the CD/DVD from friends. or copying the movie in a CD/DVD from the computer. 6) Why do you prefer buying pirated CD¶S/DVD? 74 | P a g e . By studying the market I found out that pirated CD/DVD are sold on the footpath vendors. 66% of the total public prefer buying pirated CD/DVD from this place. About 17% of the total public prefer buying pirated CD/DVD from the train. Out of these places most of the people buy it from the footpath vendors. Next group of people is that group which buy CD/DVD from the trains. This % is exactly the same as that of people who prefer buying from the other means of buying the CD/DVD. most of the people buy it from the footpath vendors.
About 58% of the total public buy the pirated CD/DVD because these CD/DVD are available at very cheap rates as compared to the original CD/DVD. There are 2 groups of people who prefer buying pirated CD/DVD due to 2 reasons.Availability 42% Cheap rates 58% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that most of the public prefer buying pirated CD/DVD because of the cheap rates of the pirated CD/DVD. as well as available very soon. The rest 42% of the total public buy the pirated CD/DVD due to the reason of the availability of them. People cannot afford to go to the theatre and therefore think that watching movie by these CD/DVD can be profitable as it is cheap. 9) How do you listen to music generally? 75 | P a g e . Pirated CD/DVD are available within 2-3 days after the release of the new movie in the theatre. they are cheap rates and the availability of these CD/DVD.
As nowadays radio is available on the cellphones. The next group of people is those who buy the pirated CD/DVD to listen to the music. it¶s easier to carry radio everywhere. 8% of the total public prefer listening to the music by radio. The rest 4% of the total public listen to music by other means . The next group is who prefer buying the original CD/DVD to listen to the Music. The first group is the group who listen to music by downloading the music directly from the internet. 14% from the total public prefer listening to music by buying pirated CD/DVD. The next group of people is that group who prefer listening to the music on radio. such as MP3 etc« 11) Who do you think gets affected by piracy? 76 | P a g e .Others 4% Radio 8% Original CD/DVD 16% Pirated CD/DVD 14% Downloading 58% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that there are 5 groups of people that listen to music in 5 different ways. Out of the total public 58% prefer listening to the music by downloading directly from the internet.
About 20% of the total public think that producers are the one who get affected due to piracy. Next group think that producers get affected due to piracy. 62% of the total public think that the entire industry gets affected.Actor/Actress 14% Producers 20% Entire Industry 62% Directors 4% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that there are 4 groups of people who think that who get¶s affected by piracy. 13) Do you think piracy is damaging the intellectual property of Bollywood? 77 | P a g e . Around 4% of the total public think that directors get affected due to piracy. Most of the people think that the entire industry gets affected by piracy. The last group of people are the one¶s who think that directors get affected. About 14% of the total public think that Actors/Actresses are the only people who get affected due to piracy. Next group of people think that the Actors/Actresses get affected due to piracy.
No 14% Yes 86% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found that what people think about the damage of the intellectual property of the bollywood industry. 86% of the total public think that yes the intellectual property does get damaged due to piracy. 15) What influences you to buy pirated movies or music? 78 | P a g e . There are 2 groups of people who think whether the intellectual property is damaged or not. The answer is that actually the intellectual property does get affected due to piracy because the Actor/Actresses talented does not get the actual price. Intellectual property means the t5alent of the Actor/Actresses that act in the movies. And only 14% of the total public think that no the intellectual property does not get damaged due to piracy.
32% of the total public get influenced by their surroundings. And the last group are the people who get influenced due to their habit. According to the findings. 16) Do you get satisfied by watching pirated movie? 79 | P a g e . maximum numbers of customers get influenced by their friends to buy the pirated CD/DVD. The 3 types of people are the friends. Around 24% of the total public get influenced due to their own habit. the surrounding. and the habit of the people. 44% out of the total public get6 influenced by their friends to buy the CD/DVD. There are also some people who get influenced by their surroundings.habit 24% Friends 44% Surrounding 32% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that there are 3 types of people who influence the customers to buy the pirated CD/DVD.
The rest that is the 30% of the total public gets satisfied by watching the pirated movies.Yes 30% No 70% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that maximum number of people are not satisfied by watching the pirated movies. About 70% of the total public do not get satisfied by watching pirated movies. 80 | P a g e .
Around 82% of the total public do not find good quality of picture and sound in the pirated CD/DVD. 18) Within how many days is the movie available in pirated CD/DVD after release? 81 | P a g e . About 18% of the total public find good quality of picture and sound in the pirated CD/DVD.17) Do you get good quality picture and sound in pirated CD/DVD? Yes 18% No 82% INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found out that the maximum numbers of people do not find good quality of picture and sound in the pirated CD/DVD.
1 Week 36%
2 Days 28%
3 Days 36%
INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found that there are three different times in which the public thinks the pirated CD/DVD is available after the release of the movie in the theatre. Those 3 timings are 2 days, 3 days and 1 week. 36% of the total public say that the pirated CD/DVD is available within 3 days. 36% of the total public say that the pirated CD/DVD is available within 1 week after the release of the movie. And only 28% of the total public say that the pirated CD/DVD is available within 2 days after the release of the movie.
19) While buying a new CD/DVD which do you prefer?
82 | P a g e
INTERPRETATION: According to the survey I found that people who prefer buying original CD/DVD are more as compared to those who want to buy the pirated CD/DVD. About 60% of the total public would prefer to buy the original CD/DVD and the rest of the 40% prefer buying pirated CD/DVD if they want to buy the new CD/DVD
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1) Do you watch movies? Yes No
2) If yes how do you watch movies generally? CD/DVD Theatre Download Other
3) If other please specify: ______________________________________________
4) How often do you watch movies? Weekly Yearly Monthly
5) Do you buy pirated CD/DVD? Yes No 84 | P a g e
6) If yes then from where do you buy them? Trains Other Footpath vendors
7) If others then please specify: ___________________________
8) Why do you prefer buying pirated CD¶S/DVD? Cheap Rates Availability
9) How do you listen to music generally? Pirated CD/DVD Original CD/DVD Others 10) If others please specify:_________________________________ Downloading Radio
11) Who do you think gets affected by piracy? Actors/Actresses Director¶s Producers Entire industry
12) What would you do to stop piracy? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________
13) Do you think piracy is damaging the intellectual property of Bollywood? Yes No 85 | P a g e
14) In what ways is piracy damaging the intellectual property of Bollywood? _____________________________________________________ 15) What influences you to buy pirated movies or music? Friends Habit Surrounding 16) Do you get satisfied by watching pirated movie? Yes No 17) Do you get good quality picture and sound in pirated CD/DVD? Yes No 18) Within how many days is the movie available in pirated CD/DVD 2 days 1 week 3 days after release? 19) While buying a new CD/DVD which do you prefer? Original Pirated 20) If any suggestions please specify:__________________________ _____________________________________________________ 86 | P a g e .
com 87 | P a g e .managementparadise.scribd.BIBILOGRAPHY:1) www.wikipedia.google.com 3) www.com 4) www.com 2) www.