RAC INTRODUCTION

Shared Storage Box INSTANCE 1 Or NODE1 INST2 Or Node2 (SAN and NAS) Database files are stored(DATABA SE)

Client s Definition: A group of individual systems connected that an acting as logically one system is called clustering In this RAC environment we must require mini two nodes having individual instances and accessing common data from shared storage box Advantage: 1. High data availability <we can add more storage device as shown above> 2. Zero down time <always servers are up and running> 3. Load balancing <distributing the load among the nodes>

UNDERSTANDING ABOUT SHARED STORAGE DEVICE: This shared storage device contains data which can be accessed by multiple nodes in RAC environment. This storage box can be in the SAN environment or NAS. SAN- storage area network NAS-network attached storage

SAN: In this environment …..This storage box accessed via the SAN switch through the optical fiber cables This optical fiber cables can transfer the data among the nodes up to 32 GB NAS: It can be accessed in the network by using hub or normal switch through fire wired cables or catch5 cables<ordinary> UNDERSTANDING ABOUT RAC ARCHITECTURE: In RAC env, we require two nodes with two network adapters each network adapter assign with ip addresses. Note: public ip addresses are use full to make the connectivity between the clients and nodes through public switch. Private ip addresses must be assign to make the connection between the storage box and nodes through the private switch. C1-clients
C1 C2 C3

Public ip address
Node1:192.168.1.101
Public sswitc h

NICcard

Node2:192.168.1.102 through public switch

Node 1

Private switch

Node 2

Private Ip address
Node1:192.168.2.101 Node2:192.168.2.102 through private switch NIC-Network Interface

San box it contains Database files and ocr &voting difference between stand files

What is data base:

alone database and RAC

STAND ALONE DATA BASE: (only one instance) • Only one instance with set background processes • Require minimum two redo log groups with at least one redologfile in each group • It also requires at least one undo table space • It does not support high availability, high scalability and load balancing Note: scalability means we can add a node or delete a node without disturbing another node to expand the network. RAC database:

Require mini two nodes

• Each node contains own SGA & PGA and set of background processes Note: apart from the normal background processes …every node contains the following additional background processes. LMON, LMSN, LOCK, DIAG and LMD. • Mini two redo log groups for each instances • It supports high scalability, high data availability, high performance and load balancing.

Another concept is buffering the data between the two instances for user requirements………for that oracle corporation uses oracle cache fusion Oracle cache fusion • It is building soft with all RAC versions from 9i

It is use full to synchronize the buffers from one instance to another instance this process is called buffer synchronization

• Using this high data availability is possible • It also improves the database performance while accessing the records from the buffers CONCURRENCY, CONSISTENCY, COHERENCY: CONCURENCY: Means that modifying the data is available in all the nodes at any time by using this process we can achieve high availability CONSISTENCY: it is also similar to concurrency But consistency means each instance must be synchronized dynamically from other nodes in RAC environment to provide the ZERO DOWN TIME COHERENCY: It is process to monitor consistence of data in all the nodes in RAC environment RAC BACKGROUND PROCESSES: Every instance contains its own background processes and RAC has extra Background processes they are LMON, LMSN, LOCK, DIAG, and LMD. LMON: global enque service monitor

This is useful to monitor the connectivity between the two nodes and monitoring other background processes activities. LMSN: global cache service processes This is useful to identify the modified blocks in the GRD buffer Grd-global resource directory LOCK: This is useful to keep the lock on update transactions till transaction is completed DIAG: Diagnostic base background processes is useful to generate log and trace files to monitor the database activities LMD: global enque service Daemon This is useful to monitor the all the cluster database activities between the nodes RAC supports load balancing LOADBALANCING: whenever no of user requests are coming to the nodes, at that time some of the userrequeats goes to one node, other request goes to other node and user request will be distributed among the nodes in RAC env is called load balancing. RAC COMPONENTS:
GLOBAL CACHE SERVICE:

Is useful to identify the modified data blocks in the buffer
GLOBAL ENQUE SERVICE:

Is useful to apply logs on the modified data blocks with help of lock processes till transaction is not completed
GLOBAL RESOURCE DIRECTORY<GRD>:

Every instance contains virtual global resource directory which is useful to hold the modified blocks information

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