Proceedings of t h e 2000 IEEE Internatlorial Mol khhop Robot and Human Intrracttve Commuriicatmli Osaka. Japan  September 2729 2000
A Wearable Robotic Arm with High ForceReflection Capability
Younkoo Jeong, Dongjoon Lee, Kyunghwan Kim, and JongOh Park
Korea Institute of Science & Technology P.O.Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul, Korea, 130650
Abstract
Many exoskeletal robotic arms have been developed for teleoperation having force reflection. They can measure operator’s arm motion and apply reactive force to the operator as well. The previous research has emphasized control performance of motion tracking and force reflection mainly but ignored how comfortable an operator feels, that is, issues of human wearability. Most robotic arms are designed heavily in weight and give an operator excess fatigue during the teleoperation. In this paper, we propose a new robotic arm that satisfies high wearability and high forcereflection simultaneously. In order to accomplish these two objectives, the proposed arm has parallel mechanism, one for a forearm and the other for a brachium. The parallel mechanism has an analogy to human muscular structure in which many extensors and flexors interact with each other and generate torque. The prismatic joints in the parallel mechanism act as virtual human muscles and determine joint torque by contraction and relaxation. The configuration of the prismatic joints enhances human wearability because all the joints are placed on the circumference of cylinders. Consequent&, this circular configuration distributes internal force over an arm and thus contributes to reduce human fatigue during operation. In addition, the robotic arm does not make any singularity in its kinematics. Pneumatic actuators are used to be in compliance with human motion smooth&. The maximum power of each actuator is high enough to resist human muscular strength. The kinematic parameters in the robotic arm are selected to maximize operator’s workspace while considering performance offorce reflection.
issues of human wearability [ 1,2]. Because most robotic arms are heavy in weight and fixed at a structure such as a wall or a pole, operator’s arm motion is limited in a space and the operator is apt to feel excess fatigue. This restricts its range of applications, especially, in the area of medical rehabilitation or VR experience where issues of human wearability are very important. We already developed two wearable robotic arms that have high human wearability [3,4]. The robotic arms have parallel mechanism by analogy with human muscles and the robotic arms are attached to operator’s arm. Operator wearing these robotic arms can move freely during operation and this reduces operator’s fatigue. An disadvantage of the previous versions is computational complexity in kinematics and low forcereflection capability [5]. The proposed wearable robotic arm is designed to have not only high wearability, but also simple kinematics and high forcereflection capability. To simplify its kinematics without degrading wearability, rotational motions of human arm are decoupled from the parallel mechanism. In addition, Pneumatic actuators are used to be in compliance with human motion smoothly and to improve forcereflection capability. A new proportional control valve is developed for the pneumatic control system.
2. Design Concepts and Kinematics Analysis 2.1 Design Concepts 2.1.1 Anatomic Analysis of Human Arm Movement
Human arm shown in Fig.1 has 7 degrees of freedom when translation of shoulder joint is neglected. Shoulder joint has three degrees of freedom, that is, flexiodextension, abductiodadduction and medial rotatiodlateral rotation. Elbow joint has two degrees of freedom, that is, flexiodextension and pronatiodsupination. Wrist joint has 2 degrees of freedom, that is, flexiodextension and abductiodadduction [ 6 ] . All these motions originate from muscular movement in which many extensors and flexors around bones interact with each other and generate torque. The parallel mechanism has an analogy to this human muscular movement. The prismatic joints in the parallel
1. Introduction
A wearable robotic arm is an exoskeletal robotic a m r to follow human arm motion and to provide human arm with force feedback if needed. It can be used for humanpower amplification, medical rehabilitation and VR experience. Master arms used in teleoperation can be used to embody concept of the wearable robotic arm. Previous researches have emphasized control performance of motion tracking and force reflection mainly but ignored how comfortable an operator feels, that is,
0780362 73 X/00/ $1O.OO(92000 I EE E
411

however. 4 Simplified kinematic model for upper and lower arms. including the fixed base. 3 Kinematic model of the proposed robotic arm. a revolute joint is attached at moving plate of parallel mechanism that has only 2 degrees of freedom for flexiodextension and abductiodadduction.Degrees of freedom of moving plate for parallel mechanism can be calculated with Gr bler's criterion (1). Fig. 3 and two parallel mechanisms are shown in Fig.1. 2 Configuration of the proposed robotic arm. v and w as equation (3). increases the complexity of parallel mechanism as well as its kinematics. U X vx w x (3) 412 .2 Mechanism Design It is possible to embody 3 degrees of freedom at shoulder joint using a parallel mechanism based on the stewart platform. The configuration of the prismatic joints in parallel mechanism enhances human wearability because all the joints are placed on the surface of human arm. required time to solve it increases and singularity problem becomes serious. 4. (a) @) 2. ! Fig. a revolute joint is embedded between the elbow joint (revolute joint) and base plate of the parallel mechanism for wrist part. @) 3 RPS (wrist). (2). : degree of relative motion permitted by joint CJ. For pronatiodsupination of elbow joint. Consequently.mechanism may act as virtual human muscles and affect operator's muscular strength by contraction and relaxation. assuming that all the joints are binary. this distributes internal force over an arm and thus contributes to reduce human fatigue during operation. iz : number of links in a mechanism .2 Kinematics Analysis Total degrees of freedom for the proposed robotic arm is shown in Fig. To avoid this. Prismatic and Spherical) joints as shown in Fig. . The parallel mechanism for shoulder joint is composed of 4 RPS (Revolute.1 Inverse kinematics The rotation matrix from plate A to B can be expressed in terms of the direction cosines of U . 2. F = A(n . The rotational motion along the arm (medial rotatiodlateral rotation). 1 Muscles of the thorax and right upper extremity.2. Both degrees of freedom of moving plate for shoulder parallel mechanism and wrist parallel mechanism are calculated as two degrees of freedom like eq. As the complexity of kinematics increases. (a) 4 RPS (shoulder).1 ) + Here. 2. 2. The parallel mechanism for wrist joint is composed of 3 RPS joints and it has 2 degrees of freedom for flexiodextension and abductiodadduction of wrist joint. Fig. Fig. j : number of joints in a mechanism. 2 : DOF of the space in which a mechanism is intended to function. (1) A.j .
pu + Pur% 1 + h.e. From #u3. ~. #i .e. Z2. + e.guux .2guP. g sin(r +e). (a) coordinate system. (Pur% + P .2 Forward kinematics *" 4 Since the diagonal of the plate B is mu and the B"I (c) Fig.u. a 4 .~~t...~ + + ~. 0. a l . With these values and dimension of the proposed robotic arm.and e. = ( p ~ + p : y + p ~ ) + m Z ( v ~ + v : + v ~ ) +2mu(P. the position of upper plate B can be calculated successively.. cos8 + puysin e) + gu2 (1 1) 2. 5 Kinematic model for an upper arm...(v. a.' 2% (PIU% P u y U y + 2m. cosO+puysin8)+ ' h.zti2.~~t. of the prismatic joints ( this vector. olT (5) e. = [h cos@..as are obtained.. = ( p i + pfy + p i ) + mu2 + us + u: ) (U. Equation (15) can be solved by Sylver dialytic elimination method[7]... .. + Eu4ititi+l + = O (15) From equations (4). Position vectors of points a. Z = e.  From the vector (7). Where.2.vx+ PUYVY + P U V . (b) lower plate..2h.cos #ui cos #ui+I k eu2i sin h sin @ d + l i +e. (c) upper plate. + e. sin h 8.. 2 ( u i + u ~ y + u f z ) +2m. . ) + m . the total d:.m. Z = 4eZi. U y + Pur% 1 2m. + e. By solving equations of forward kinematics for parallel mechanisms. 4..] ='mu2 (12) systems A and B can be expressed as equations (4) and (5). a6and a7are obtained (Fig. e... cosO+vy sine) 2h. If angles between prismatic joints and plate A are defined as vector.. cos 8 + vy sin 0) 2g.+ e.e.4 ) is obtained.equation (12) can be derived T from Pitagoras' theory..(p. ..OIT a. 01' au4= [ g cos(n + e ) .. 3). (4) = [ h. = [g. a2. For wrist parallel mechanism. 2ti sin#i = 1 + ti' (14) When [t sub I] is defined as equation (14).h. tilting angle vector (bUu2. .m.?+.cos @ui + e. equation (13) is derived from trigonometric identities. = < P i + P f y + P f .. + e. = e. +e. . #. equations of forward kinematics and inverse kinematics can be derived and solved using the same method.. The position vector qi of Bjand length vector of prismatic joints can be represented as equations (6) and (7) respectively. df.' 413  . ) 2h. .. equation (13) can be represented by [t sub I] as equation (1 5).. = eli e3.O]' Bi [qui in the coordinate qui+l] [qui qui+..4i #ui+l + eusi 0 cos = (13) cos#i 1ti' =1+t.O. +e... elbow and wrist. + gu2 dt.. (v. length of prismatic joints can be obtained as equations (8)(1 1): Z33i= e. (5) and (6). and as the result. By sensing angles of revolute joints at shoulder..s position vector of Bi is qi .did = (pk + piy + p i ) + mu2 + v: + vf ) (vi 2 2mu (PIUVX + P u y V y + P m V z ) 2g.. + e.. ( p .
... ) is selected as 2.. 7 Joint range & torque for wrist 31WS Fig.. . 6 Maximum workspace & torque for shoulder 4RPS With similar method.1 Nm. . . .. .. To define the performance index.. not only maximum joint range and joint torque were calculated. . At that value.. ) are selected as design parameters. .. diagonal ratio of base plate ( g... The specification of pneumatic cylinders includes their diameter and stroke... 6 shows the maximum joint range and maximum joint torque for shoulder part at various diagonal ratios..... ... . Shoulder (stroke) 4 20" (0) 9" 16" (65") 44 44deg 1.. . . maximum joint torque and uniformity factor (a factor related to position of maximum torque) are used...... .... . maximum joint range. Joint space Max. .... 7 shows the joint range. Since maximum joint range affects the dexterity of robotic arm. Fig. 2.. .2 In consideration of total weight and wearability. Fig. parameters of parallel mechanism for forearm can be designed.. 8 shows joint range and torque for elbow joint.. 18 1..9 ..... 23 . . Parameter Design of Parallel mechanisms In parametric design of parallel mechanisms.. .... .. limitation of diameter of pneumatic cylinder is set as below 20" for shoulder part. .. PI = JR*Wl+ JT*W2 + UF*W3 (19) Where. The maximum joint range is about 97 degree and the maximum joint torque is about 7..8 .. / h... 23 .. .4 25 I7 2 &A Fig. ) and distance between two plates ( P." 78 Elbow (stroke) wrist (stroke) Cylinder Spec. .. ... maximum joint range is as about 97 degree and the maximum joint torque is about 17...3 W3 : weight factor of UF = 0. .. 1. joint torque and lengths of prismatic joints at optimized PI value. but also the specification of pneumatic cylinders was defined. . . diagonal ratio (g.. Fig.. .. .... .. Through this design. According to PI. . 8 Workspace & torque for elbow Table 2 shows the result of parametric design. JR : normalized maximum joint range JT : normalized maximum joint torque UF : normalized uniform factor W 1 : weight factor of JR = 0... / h....torque 4 4 (" 3) 3 1" 6 9 1" 0 (50") 097deg 71 ...... The performance index(P1) is defined as equation (19) and the maximum value of PI was 1.. the performance index is defined to give high weight factor to maximum joint range...." 30 30deg " 4   414  ..... ..1. ..< . Fig. . 16 mm for elbow part and 10 mm for wrist part...8 Nm. diagonal of upper plate ( mu). ..... .. 21 22 . .5 W2 : weight factor of JT = 0.
Operator Model 1 ? . This prevents the most dangerous posture of a parallel mechanism. A small size proportional control valve that has linear characteristic related to differential pressure is developed to control thrust forces of pneumatic cylinders effectively. So.2 Control System Design and Failsafe Method The schematic diagram for the total control system of r the proposed robotic a m is shown in Fig.3. Since the size of the control valve is small (about 20*30*10mm) and its weight is low. This makes the length of pneumatic tube between valve and cylinder shorten and as the result of it. 11. operator can move freely with low effort.3 Experimental Results Fig. In this case. At motion detection mode._ . The total weight of proposed robotic arm is about 4 kgf. (2) In the shoulder part parallel mechanism. home position of one pair pneumatic cylinders of mechanism is designed to be opposite to the other. 11 Schematic diagram of control system (1) When the control system stops suddenly. (3) The designed joint ranges of robotic arm are within allowable joint range of human arm. the main pneumatic pressure supply line is cut off automatically by closing the main cutoff valve. Experimental Results 3. Even though operator moves continuously. differential pressure of cylinder is tracing the reference input with good performance. This allows operator to move freely during operation with low effort. the control system tries to keep differential pressure of pneumatic cylinders as zero value.any failure of control system may cause dangerous situation. When reference differential pressure is set as zero. the control system calculates reference thrust forces for each pneumatic cylinder and provides them to subcontroller to control the differential pressure of pneumatic cylinder to trace the reference force value. it is possible to attach it near to pneumatic cylinder on the robotic arm. 9 A dummy wearing the robotic arm Fig. 3. 9. which may occur when all the length of pneumatic cylinder becomes maximized. This control valve uses two pressure sensors embedded in the valve body to provide differential pressure signal between two ports and this signal is used to maintain the linear differential pressure characteristic according to input voltage. (sinusoidal reference input) 415  . A dummy wearing the proposed robotic arm is shown in Fig. 13 shows another experimental result when reference differential pressure is set as a stepwise form and operator’s movement is allowed. To protect the operator at failure state. This shows good tracking performance. joint angles of robotic arm do not exceed reasonable values. 12 shows an experimental result when a sinusoidal form of reference differential pressure is inputted and operator’s movement is not allowed. Fig..1 4 Fig. the system has several failsafe methods. Fig. Slave Robot. the time delay during the movement of pneumatic cylinder reduces. operator’s movement affects thrust force of pneumatic cylinder as disturbance. Since the maximum thrust force of pneumatic cylinder is great(about 13ON). VIfiuaI Robot.1 Pneumatic Control Valve The proposed robotic arm is totally manufactured with engineering plastic except connection part to reduce weight. 10 413 way proportional control valve 3. At force reflection mode.
JangHyun Park. “Singularity Analysis and its Avoidence for KIST Hybrid Master Arm. but also in areas of a medical rehabilitation. 64. ppl95205. qui:The direction vector of i th joint in upper arm. etc. : a. ali: The position vector of i th joint in fixed base of lower arm. Jeungtea Kim. 1998. time(tec) Fig. In this research.. :The fixed base of lower arm. Dongshin. :The direction vector of i th joint in lower arm. JongOh Park. 1985 f [7] LungWen Tsai. : The length of diagonal line in moving platform of upper arm. : The length of diagonal line in fixed base of upper ann. and D.1999 [6] Blandine CalaisGermain.1807 . BUi The position of i th joint in moving platform of upper arm.11261133. References [ 13 Akito Nakai. As the results. human power amplification.G. [3] Jonghyun choi.” 99 ICAR. m.pp. 8 : The angel with diagonal line in fixed platform of upper arm. : The direction vector of i th joint in fixed base of upper arm. JangHyun Park.” Proceeding o the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division.1810. pp. hongWon Lee. Caldwell. (bIi : The tilt angel of i th link in lower arm. 1999. Anatomy o Movement. : The length of diagonal line in fixed base of upper arm. :The length of diagonal line in fixed base of upper ami.. J. [2] N. JungTae Kim. Acknowledgement Author would like to thank D . h. 509 . 13 Reflection force tracking test (stepwise form and operator’s movement allowed) b. 1998. :The moving platform of upper arm. JongOh Park. [4] JongHyun Choi.” ROMAN’99. Conclusions In the future. A development and verification of task algorithm for complex tasks will be continued and discussed afterwards. g. f [5] Jungtea Kim. etc. “Human Armlike Hybrid Master Arm for dexterous teleoperation. JiHeuk Song. : The position vector of i th joint in moving platform of upper arm. Chongwon Lee.... the possibility of a wearable robotic arm with enough workspace and force reflection capability was verified. Robot Analysis. Ai : The position of i th joint in fixed base of upper arm. r Sibouk Ryu for their precious help in making proportional control valve. a wearable robotic arm will be used not only in the area of teleoperation. :The position vector of i th joint in fixed base of upper arm. d. P.514. pp. J. “Development of 7 DOF Exoskeleton f f Type Haptic Interface. g. b. DSCVol. and entertainment. h. : The position vector of i th joint in moving platform of lower arm. : The length of diagonal line in fixed base of lower arm.. Tsagarakis. “Design and Characteristic Analysis of 7 DOF Hybrid Master Arm woth f Human Kinematics.. A. 4ui: The tilt angel of ith link in upper arm.” Journal o Robotics Society o Japan. 416  . PI: The position vector of mowing platform of lower arm. that is designed in consideration of not only the wearability but also forcereflection capability.110. “A 7DOF Pneumatic Muscle Actuator @MA) Powered Exoskeleton. :The vector of i th link. a new wearable robotic arm was introduced. 1999.: The direction vector of i th joint in fixed base of lower arm.” Proceedings o the 13th KACC.Nomenclature 4 : The fixed base of upper arm. m.vol 17.. dui: The vector of i th link in upper arm 4. 8. 1999. q.Yehsun Hong and Mr.:The length of diagonal line in moving platform of upper arm. B. WileyInterscience. : The position vector of mowing platform of upper ami. Bl : The moving platform of lower arm.