Power Aware Routing Scheme in Ad Hoc Network
Divya Sharma, Ashwani Kush
Abstract— A recent trend in ad hoc network routing is the reactive on-demand philosophy where routes are established only when required. Most of the protocols in this category, however, use single route and do not utilize multiple alternate paths. This paper proposes a scheme to improve existing on-demand routing protocols by introducing the power aware virtual node scheme in whole scenario. The scheme establishes the multi paths without transmitting any extra control message. It offers quick adaptation to distributed processing, dynamic linking, low processing and memory overhead and loop freedom at all times. This scheme uses the concept of Power awareness among route selection nodes by power states of each node in the topology which insures fast selection of routes with minimal efforts and faster recovery. The scheme is incorporated with the Ad-hoc OnDemand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol and the performance has been studied through simulation. Index Terms— Ad Hoc networks, Alternate path, Routing Protocol, Power Consumption, Power Factor

——————————  ——————————

n ad hoc network consists of hosts communicating among themselves with portable radios. This network can be deployed without any wired base station or infrastructure support where routes are mainly multi-hop because of the limited radio propagation range. Topology of the network changes frequently and unpredictably since its host moves randomly. Therefore, routing is an integral part of ad hoc communication, and has received interests from many researchers. In traditional “ondemand” routing schemes like Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) scheme [3], when route disconnects, nodes of the broken route simply drop data packets because no alternate path to the destination is available until a new route is established. When the network traffic requires real time delivery (voice, for instance), dropping data packets at the intermediate nodes can be costly. The Power Aware Ad hoc routing Protocol algorithm enables dynamic, self starting, multi hop routing between participating mobile nodes wishing to establish and maintain an ad hoc network. It allows mobile nodes to maintain routes to destinations with more stable route selection. This scheme responds to link breakages and changes in network topology in a timely manner and also takes care of nodes that does not have better power status and of Virtual nodes to participate in route selection.


One distinguishing feature of Power aware ad hoc routing protocol is its use of Power status for each route entry. Given the choice between two routes to a destination, a requesting node is required to select one with better power status and more active. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 illustrates the related work which already has done on power aware routing protocols in Manet. New protocol description and system methodology presented in section 3. Performance evaluation via simulation is presented in Section 4 and conclusions are given in Section 5.

Ad hoc networks have limited power capabilities mainly owing to the nature of the infrastructure they use. Power required by each mobile host can be classified into two categories as (a) Communication-related power and (b) Non-communication-related power Three Layers are involved in communications as a) Physical layer Transmission power should be at a minimum level to maintain links. It should allow adapting to changes in transmission environment. Excessive transmission power can cause interference to other hosts. b) Data Link Layer Energy conservation can be achieved by using effective retransmission request schemes and sleep mode operation. It is important to appropriately determine when and at what power level a mobile host should attempt retransmission. Node’s transceiver should be powered off when not in use. c) Network Layer In wireless network it is important that the routing algorithm select the best path from the viewpoint of power constraints as part of route stability.Routing algorithms that can evenly

• Divya Sharma is with the Department of IT, ITM University Gurgaon, 122017. • Ashwani Kush is with the Department of Computer Science, University college, Kurukshetra University, 132119.


distribute packet-relaying loads to each nodes to prevent nodes from being overused.

2.1 Power Consumption States In a MANET, wireless communication involves usage of a transceiver at the source, intermediate, and destination nodes. The transmitter sends control, route request and response, as well as data packets originating at or routed through the transmitting node. The receiver is used to receive data and control packets -some of which are destined for the receiving node and some of which are forwarded. A wireless network interface has five possible energy consumption states (six including the off state). a) Transmit state for transmitting data, control and routing packets b) Receive state is for receiving data, control and routing packets. c) In the idle state, which is the default state for ad hoc environment, the interface can transmit or receive packets. d) The sleep state has extremely low power consumption as the interface can neither transmit nor receive in this state. e) Lastly, a card can enter a reduced energy discard state while the media carries uninteresting traffic. The decision to enter the reduced energy discard state is made by the non-destination nodes in the range of the sender. This decision is based on the packet size information in the RTS (request to send) control packet that is exchanged between the sender and the receiver at the start of packet transfer. The reduced energy state uses slightly less power than the idle state, but significantly more than that used in the sleep state [3].

culated separately for the cases when transmit power is fixed and when transmit power is varied dynamically. Variation is in terms of the distance that changes between receiver and sender. For fixed case energy for each operation is given by [11] E (packet) = b * packet_size + c Where b denotes packet size-dependent energy consumption and c is a fixed cost for acquiring channel. For varying transmit power Lin [12] proposed a local routing algorithm. The authors assumed theα power needed for transmission is a linear function of d where d is distance between two neighboring nodes and α is a parameter depending on physical environment. This procedure requires GPS equipped systems, which in turn limits its usage and also it is based on least power cost routes which in many cases lead to problems. In this case nodes die soon and most of the cases those nodes die which are most needed to maintain network connectivity.

The previous case gave rise to number of battery cost aware routing algorithms as described below: (a) Minimum battery cost routing algorithm [13]: It minimizes the total cost of the route. It minimizes the summation of inverse of remaining battery capacity for all nodes on the routing path. (b) Min-Max battery cost algorithm [10] [13]: It is a modification of minimum battery cost routing. It tries to avoid the route with nodes having the least battery capacity among all nodes in all possible routes.


Main emphasis of research on routing protocols in Ad Hoc networks has been delivery of packets and network performance. There has been very less amount of work have done on power aware routing schemes, though it is very important aspect in route selection and performance of protocol. Some study has been done in this context and presented is a brief review of them.

The objective of Power-aware Routing will be to extend the useful service life of a MANET. This is highly desirable in the network since death of certain nodes leads to a possibility of network partitions, rendering other live nodes unreachable. Power aware source routing solves the problem of finding a route π at route discovery time t such that the following cost function is minimized:

3.1 Minimum Power Routing
Singh, Woo and Raghvendra [10] [11] proposed a routing algorithm based on minimizing the amount of power required to send a packet from source to destination. The equation is: Min ∑ P(i,i +1) i∋ path Where P (i, i+1) denotes the power expended for transmitting packet between node i and node i+1. Link cost is calWhere Pi is the transmit power of node i Fi is the full charge battery capacity of node i Ri remaining battery capacity of node i at time t α is a positive weighting factor


In this scheme main aim is to provide an efficient, more stable and long lasting path from source to destination. This routing scheme is designed for mobile ad hoc networks with large number of nodes. It can handle low, moderate, and relatively high mobility rates. It can handle a variety of data traffic levels. This Protocol is designed for network topology in which the nodes can trust each other, and there are no malicious intruder nodes. Since the main aim is to improve the performance of existing on-demand protocols (specifically AODV in this paper), this protocol description is based on AODV. Modifications to AODV for applying this scheme [14,15] are also introduced. There are three major operations in this scheme: RREQ (Route Request) phase, RERR (Route Errors) phase and local repair phase. As a major change to all existing protocols, we start Power related function only when RREP (Route Reply) phase occurs as in the start, when network is new, all nodes are fresh with adequate energy levels and can very well select shortest path for data transmission. This in turn reduces overhead and end to end delay. Route Construction: Route construction scheme can be incorporated with reactive routing protocols. This scheme does not require any modification to the AODV's RREQ route request process. When a source wants to transmit a data to a destination but does not have any route information, it searches a route by broadcasting a ROUTE REQUEST (RREQ) packet. Route Error & Maintenance: In this scheme data transmits continuously through the primary route unless there is a route disconnection. When a node detects a link break, it performs a one hop data broadcast to its immediate neighbors. The node specifies in the data header that the link is disconnected and thus the packet is candidate for alternate routing. Upon receiving this packet route maintenance phase starts by selecting alternate path and checking power status. Power factor is calculated using status report based on three factors using a 2-D matrix function. Three states are defined as Active, Critical and Danger level. In this phase when route error message has sent to previous neighbor of any intermediate node it just reinitiates route construction phase by considering power status of all its virtual nodes. All this route maintenance occurs under local repair scheme. Local repair scheme tries to get rid off the regeneration of route request phase in the case of route break.

comparing the simulation results of the AODV protocol with and without applying this scheme and we also compare this scheme with DSR and TORA. In this section, we termed the AODV protocol that applied this scheme with alternate route and local repair scheme. We are using the network simulator NS-2 version 2.28. The Network Simulator NS-2 is a scalable simulation environment for wireless network systems. Simulation modeled a network of 50 mobile hosts placed randomly within a 1000 meter * 1000 meter area. Radio propagation range for each node was 300 meters and channel capacity was 2 Mb/s. Each run executed for 250 seconds of simulation time. Here we are using random waypoint mobility model. Each node randomly selects a position, and moves toward that location with a speed between the minimum and the maximum speed. Once it reaches that position, it becomes stationary for a predefined pause time. After that pause time, it selects another position and repeats the process. The minimum and the maximum speed were zero and 20 m/s, respectively. The Metrics used for Performance comparison are: Packet Delivery Ratio: The fraction of successfully received packets, which survive while finding their destination. This performance measure also determines the completeness and correctness of the routing protocol.

Successfully delivered packets, C is total number of flows, f is id, R is packets received from f and T is transmitted from f. End-to-End Delay: Average end-to-end delay is the delay experienced by the successfully delivered packets in reaching their destinations. This is a good metric for comparing protocols. This denotes how efficient the underlying routing algorithm is, because delay primarily depends on optimality of path chosen.

Average end-to-end Delay = Routing Overhead: The number of routing packets sent by the routing protocol to deliver the data packets to destination. Where S is no. of packets received successfully, ri is time at which packet is received and si is time at which it is sent, i is unique packet identifier.

To evaluate the performance made by the PAR, we are


nation. PAR delivers more data packets, and those packets that are delivered in PAR but not in AODV, take alternate and possibly longer hop routes. PAR having longer delays than AODV does not represent its ineffectiveness since these protocols use the same primary route.

A new scheme has been presented that utilizes power states of each mobile node and alternate paths. This scheme can be incorporated into any ad hoc on-demand unicast routing protocol to improve reliable packet delivery in the face of node movements and route breaks. Alternate routes are utilized only when data packets cannot be delivered through the primary route. As a case study, this algorithm has been incorporated on AODV to check performance improvements. More simulations are in progress using speed and more pause time as functions. Moreover system is under evaluation for sparse medium as well. Simulation results have indicated that our technique provides robustness to mobility and enhances protocol performance. However, this scheme may not perform well under heavy traffic networks. We are currently investigating ways to make this protocol robust to traffic load. Additionally, we plan to further evaluate this scheme by using more detailed and realistic channel models with fading and obstacles in the simulation. The performance of protocol is slightly costlier as compared to AODV and its counterparts and causes slight overhead in route selection initially.

Figure 1: Packet Delivery Ratio Figure 1 shows the throughput in packet delivery ratio. We can see that this scheme improves the throughput performance of AODV as well as this scheme performs much better than DSR and TORA.

Figure2 : End-to-end delay As the mobility increases (i.e., pause time gets shorter), the performance gain by alternate routes becomes more significant. Due to presence of neighboring which are in active state, nodes attempt to use multiple alternate paths for data delivery in the presence of route breaks, the protocol is able to deliver more packets to the destination than AODV. AODV simply drops data packets when routes are disconnected. PAR also has some packet losses. Alternate paths may be broken as well as the primary route because of mobility or power status of nodes, or be unavailable and not discovered during the route reply phase. Moreover, packets can be lost because of collisions and contention problems. End-to-end delay is presented in Figure 2. As expected, PAR has longer delays than AODV. We can only measure delays for data packets that survived to reach their desti[1] S.H. Bae, S.- J. Lee, W. Su and M. Gerla “The Design, Implementation and Performance Evaluation of On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol in Multihop Wireless Networks “, IEEE Network,Special issue on Multicasting Empowering the Next Generation Internet,Vol 14 no.1, pp. 70-77, 2000. A.Nasipuri, R. Castaneda, and S.R. Das,”Performance of MultiPath routing for On-Demand Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network”, ACM/Baltzer Journal of Mobile Network and Applications(MONET) C.E. Perkins, and E.M.Royer “Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing,” Proc of 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications(WMCSA), New Orleans, pp. 90-100, 1999. J. Raju, and J.J.Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “A New approach to On-Demand Loop Free Multi path Routing,” Proc of 8 th IEEE International conference on computer communications and Networks(ICCCN), Boston, MA, pp. 522527, 1999. Z. Wang, and J.Crowcroft “Shortest Path first with emergency Exits,” Proc of ACM SIGCOMM Symposium on Communication Architectures and protocols, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 166-176, 1990. J. Moy, “Link state Routing,” In Routing in communication Networks, edited by M.E. Steenstrup, Prentice Hall, pp. 135-157, 1995. V.D. park, and M.S.Corson, “A Highly AdaptivNew approach to On-





[6] [7]




[10] [11]

[12] [13]



Demand Loe Distributed Routing Algorithm for Mobile wireless Networks,” Proc of IEEE International conference on computer communications (INFOCOM), Kobe, Japan, pp. 1405-1413, 1997. N. Shancham, E. J. Craighill and A.A. Poggio, “Speech Transport in Packet-Radio Networks with Mobile Nodes,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in communications,Vol. SAC-1,no.6, pp. 1084-1097, 1983. A Nasipuri, and S.R.Das, “On-Demand Multi path routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc of 8 th Annual IEEE International conference on computer communications and Networks(ICCCN), Boston, MA, pp. 64-70, 1999. S. Singh, Mike Woo, C. S. Raghavendra, “Power Aware routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc of ACM MOBICOM 98, Dallas, 1998. S. Lindsay, K. Sivalingam, and C.S. Raghavendra, “Power aware routing and MAC protocols for wireless and mobile networks,” in Wiley Handbook on wireless Networks and Mobile Computing; Ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2001. Stojimenovic, and X .Lin “Ppower aware localized routing in wireless networks,” Proc of IEEE IPDPS, Cancum, Mexico, 2000. C.K. Toh, “Maximum Battery Life Routing to support Ubiquitous Mobile Computing in wireless Ad Hoc Networks,,” IEEE Communication Magazine, 2001. A.Kush, P. Gupta, "Power Aware Virtual Node routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks," International Journal of Ubiquitous Computing and Communication(UBICC),Vol 2 No. 3, pp 55-62, 2007 A.Kush, P. Gupta and C. Hwang, "A Hybrid Stable Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc of the World Wireless Congress” WWC 2008,San Francisco,USA, pp 19-25,2008

Ms Divya Sharma is working as Assistant professor in IT Department at ITM University, Gurgaon. She is pursuing PhD in computer Science from Kurukshetra University. She has interest areas in Wirless networking and Power management. She is member of CSI, SCRA. Dr Ashwani Kush is working as Head of the Computer science Department at University College Kurukshetra University, India. He has done PhD in association with Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and Kurukshetra University. He has more than 60 research papers to his credit in various International/National Journals and conferences.He has authored 15 books in computer science for undergraduate and school student. His research interests are Ad hoc networks Routing, Security and Power awareness. He is member of ACM, IEEE, CSI and IACSIT.