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Comparative Study in Adoption of Web2.0 Technologies between Western and Arab Universities
Mousmi Ajay Chaurasia
Abstract— Internet collaboration technologies and Web2.0 have profoundly changed the way in which individuals, institutions and organizations interact with each other. Internet environment are relatively new topic for academic institutions literature and can enhance teaching and learning methods. This paper deals with how much Web 2.0 technologies are used in education. In this paper, a comparative study is being done to show the variation of usage and adoption of Web2.0 technologies in Educational purpose.
Index Terms — Arab Education, E-learning, Web2.0 Applications, Western Education.

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1 INTRODUCTION
N recent years, Web 2.0 technologies have become increasingly sought in education settings to enhance the learning and teaching process. The term Web 2.0 was officially coined in March 2004 by Dale Dougherty, a vice-president of O’Reilly media Inc. during a term discussion on a potential future conference about the Web [1], [2]. According to the definition given by O'Reilly, Web2.0 is a network platform which crossways all Internet mechanism [14]. The ERSC society (2008) explains that Web 2.0 permits client to contribute and collaborate information online. Purposely, Web 2.0 smooths the progress of the collaboration of online users, SNS (Social Network Service) and the propagation of user generated content. Moreover, Web 2.0 extends user roles from being just consumers of content to allowing them to become producers of information and data content, and extends that to even allowing their content to be shared with others. Web1.0 was static web or about publishing, not participation where information is just provided by one end. In contrast, Web 2.0 is not a new step of technology but it has the underlying ability for better user interaction and innovation [3]. Web 2.0 empowered the common users to participate like in video share websites, e-commerce websites, Mash-ups, Podcasts and torrents etc, where each user gets likelihood to post in a website one way or the other. In this technology end users don’t need to install the software they just have to go to the web and use the existing content there [4]. Recent research has shown
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that there are different advantages in incorporating Web 2.0 in educational settings, such as promoting students’ independent learning, allowing users to update and edit their data or information, and the facilitation of accessible tools and web applications to target users with varying technical and educational backgrounds. This sort of Web 2.0 networking puts the student straightforwardly in the midst of up to date professional deliberations in a discipline, and allows students to participate in professional practice and scaffold their learning with help from the mentor or from genuine expert of the respective field. Web 2.0 has been extensively used in various domains beyond education. Such as in businesses for marketing and developing a brand in public services and in different Federal Agencies or government organizations around the world. Web2.0 has cut the high cost of traditional enterprise to install, configure, maintain and upgrade the necessary software. Web2.0 concept such as Blog, Social Networking, podcast, wiki, RSS (Really Simple Syndication) and more service will appear in the endeavor applications to improve the relationships between the corporation and prospective. Web2.0 also has changed the production, using, sharing and manipulation mode of information. Some services are videos (e.g. You-Tube, Teacher Tube), sharing photos (e.g. Flicker, Picasa, Shutterfly), powerpoints (authorstream, slideshare) etc.. Meanwhile, Web2.0 brings a revolution in education field. Much of our understanding of users’ perception towards learning technologies comes from prior research concerning attitude towards the effectiveness of e-learning and distance learning systems. E-Learning is an electronic form of learning that can be online or offline. It is increasingly being adopted in developed countries for learning in education and enterprise sectors. While extensive

• Mousmi Ajay Chaurasia, Information Technology Department, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

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research has examined the benefits and challenges with this type of learning and despite the fact that it has been used since decades, its boundaries are far from clear [5]. E-learning includes the communication technologies like E-mail, collaborative learning forums, E-boards, application sharing, real time tests and evaluation, and video and audio streaming. E-learning is a media of learning with which any one can learn in any-time and in any-place. Web2.0 has brought a real Internet revolution in which reading and writing coexist, transmission model is personalized, and creation method is standardized, joint approach socialization, experience way facilitation and media approach intensification[15]. Twitter proved to be an effective tool for professional development and for collaboration with students that can change the rules of the courses and models good pedagogy responsive to student's learning needs [16]. Tufts University combined Google's mapping technology with institution of higher education (IHE) information to create a Mash-up complete with "satellite images, informative links and category searches" in order to provide "a resource that enables prospective and current students, staff, faculty, campus visitors, community members, and others to explore the campus online and locate buildings and services"[17]. In the same league, Duke University has developed many applications including the interactive elements of Web2.0 which is especially for student educational purposes. Students can store, update their lectures, discussions, interviews, and presentations of respective subjects [17]. In the Arab world, majority of prior studies have examined general use of computers and internet usage [11], [12] and [13] but little research has been done on examining the adoption, usage and effect of Web 2.0 in learning contexts such as the micro-blogging application (Twitter) [6], [7]. According to Internet World Stats 2010, Internet usage in Arab countries varies widely and reaches maximally up to only 88 percent in Bahrain [10]. Even though the utilization of computer education with the adoption of internet usage is encouraged by educators, however this comes with new challenges that have been highlighted in recent research in the local context, such as resistance from target populations and infrastructure issues [7], [8], and [9]. As the prior review has shown, Web2.0 usage and adoption in educational sector is less propagated due to many challenges. Furthermore, Web2.0 adoption issues are in need of adequate examination and further research. This paper contributes towards this need with an examination of adoption and usage of Web2.0 technologies in universities to enhance the education process in the local context.

In this study, we examine the usage and adoption of Web 2.0 applications in teaching and learning contexts. For examination purpose, top 100 Arab universities is analyzed in which only top 50 Arab universities is being compared with the top 50 western universities. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes related work in the domain of applications of Web 2.0 adoption and diffusion in Teaching and learning methodology. Next Section 3 describes the empirical methodology based on applications of Web2.0. This is followed by its adoption in topmost universities. Section 4 explains the results of Web2.0 usage in Arab universities and a comparative analysis between top 50 Arab and western universities.

2 METHODOLOGY
This is an interpretive approach, based on qualitative as well as quantitative data analysis of the findings. E-learning implementation has many factors that can change the attitude of the people to adopt this new model of education. Furthermore, for empirical analysis, sample data is collected from website of world ranked universities defined by webometrics 1 . Top 100 universities of Arab World are being analyzed along with Top 50 western universities. However, comparative analysis will be based on top 50 universities from each section. Web2.0 applications are measured on the basis of their usage in universities .TABLE 1 contains the Web2.0 applications on which our comparative study based. TABLE 1 WEB2.0 APPLICATIONS S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Web 2.0 Applications Blogs Claroline Facebook Flicker Foursquare Futurity Gowalla I-tunes Linked In S.No 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. -Web 2.0 Applications Moodle Myspace RSS Twitter Vimeo W3C HTML W3C CSS You-Tube -----

1

http://www.webometrics.info/index.html

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3 RESULTS & DISCUSSION
3.1 Usage of Web 2.0 in universities First we examine the general usage of web 2.0 within the top ranking universities to obtain an overview of most commonly used applications in these universities. TABLE 2 shows the top 5 universities from Arab world along with their usage of Web2.0.
TABLE 2 TOP 5 UNIVERSITIES & ITS USAGE OF WEB2.0 APPLICATIONS S.No. 1. 2. Name of University King Saud University King Fahad University Of Petroleum & Minerals King Abdulaziz University Umm Al-Qura University Al-Najah National University Web2.0 applications Facebook , Twitter

3.2 Arabic results
In our study, top 100 universities from Arab region are analyzed based on their adoption of Web2.0 application in teaching & learning methodology. Furthermore, TABLE 4 describes the country wise usage of Web2.0 in Arab region. TABLE 4 COUNTRY WISE USAGE OF WEB2.0 IN ARAB REGION Country Algeria Web2.0 Applications RSS, Moodle, Claroline Facebook, RSS, Twitter, Flicker, You-Tube, Linked In, I-Tunes, W3C HTML, W3C CSS Facebook, Twitter, RSS, You-Tube RSS RSS, Facebook, Twitter, Flicker, You-Tube, Moodle Facebook, RSS, Moodle, You-Tube Twitter,Facebook, Flicker, You-Tube, Moodle, RSS RSS Twitter, RSS, Flicker, YouTube, Vimeo, Facebook You-Tube RSS RSS

Egypt RSS Facebook, Twitter, You-Tube RSS, Facebook Twitter, You-Tube Twitter, RSS Morocco Jordan Kuwait Lebanon

3. 4. 5.

Likewise, TABLE 3 illustrates the adoption of Web2.0 applications in top 5 western universities. TABLE 3 TOP 5 WESTERN UNIVERSITIES WITH ITS WEB2.0 APPLICATIONS S.No. 1. Name Of University Harvard University Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Stanford University Berkeley University Of California Cornell University Web2.0 Applications Facebook, Twitter, You-Tube, I-tunes Facebook, I-Tunes, You-Tube, RSS, Twitter Facebook, Twitter, You-Tube, Futurity Facebook, YouTube, I-Tunes, RSS Facebook, Twitter, Futurity

Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Somalia Tunisia United Arab Emirates

2. 3. 4. 5.

From TABLE 2 and TABLE 3 the difference of adoption of Web2.0 technologies in top 5 universities can be easily outlined. Topmost university in western region has adopted twice the number of Web2.0 technologies as compared to Web2.0 technologies adopted by topmost university in Arab world.

In continuation of investigation, TABLE 5 shows the top 5 Web2.0 applications along with the first three countries with their highest usage. In Arab Countries, Saudi Arabia, Palestine and Egypt are the countries most commonly accepting the usage of Web2.0 applications in Learning and Teaching methodology.

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TABLE 5 TOP 5 WEB 2.0 APPLICATIONS WITH TOP 3 COUNTRIES RESPECTIVELY. Web 2.0 applications RSS Facebook Twitter You-tube Countries Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Egypt Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Egypt Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Egypt (Morocco, Palestine, Algeria)/( Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Egypt)

Linked In Moodle MySpace

2 2 0

4 0 2

200% more in western universities ----Approximate 162% more in western universities Approximate 400% more in western universities 0% variation ----400% more in western universities

RSS

13

21

Twitter Vimeo W3C HTML W3C CSS You-tube

11 1 1 1 8

41 1 0 0 32

Moodle/Flicker

3.3 Comparative Analysis In Comparative study, we proceed with the comparison of top 50 universities from each section. This study shows how much is the variation exists in the usage of applications w.r.t. education in Arab & western region as well. Moreover, this indicates the need of enhancement in the Arab region. TABLE 6 shows the deviation of Web2.0 usage of western universities in comparison with Arab universities.
TABLE 6 COMPARISON BETWEEN USAGES OF WEB2.0 IN WESTERN & ARAB UNIVERSITIES Web2.0 applications Blogs Facebook Arab Universities 0 11 Western Universi ties 5 41

TABLE 7 shows the total usage percentage of Web2.0 applications of Arab and western universities. Following formula is applied to obtain the desired result. No. of Variety of Web2.0 application in respective region Total no. of Web2.0 applications

Total Usage Percentage = Usage Variations --Approximate 400% more in western universities Approximate 300% in western universities ------2100% more in western universities

TABLE 7 TOTAL USAGE PERCENTAGE OF WEB2.0 APPLICATIONS University Title Total Usage Percentage Arab Universities 11/13 = 68.75% Western Universities 13/16 = 81.25%

Flicker

4

11

Foursquare Futurity Gowalla I-tunes

0 0 0 1

2 5 1 21

It has been observed from the systematic review of Section 3 that four Arab countries Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Lebanon and Palestine has quite good usage and adoption of Web2.0 applications in their universities. Moreover, in the race of modern world, Saudi Arabia is leading followed by Egypt and Palestine in adoption of Web2.0 applications from Arab region. This has also been proved from TABLE 5 which mentions the top 5 Web2.0 applications usage in Arab universities with top 3 countries of each application. The sub-section 3.3 has comparative analyzed results

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between top 50 Arab and western universities in their teaching practice with Web2.0 applications. Table 7 depicts the total usage percentage of Arab and western region universities. Furthermore, though the Arab usage percentage is not so far from western Web2.0 usage but, in the deeper side, there is large gap in their adoption in teaching and learning methods. Usage and adoption of social networks in western universities are large in number than Arab universities. Arab Universities has a variety of usage but those are not adopted by a large number of universities. It brings a clear picture from TABLE 6 which shows the gap variations ranges from 0% to 2100% in handling Web2.0 applications. Most applications mention in western universities is having approximately twice the usage in Arab universities. On other side, many applications are zero use in Arabs whereas they have good usage in western universities. Likewise, most of the applications are not being used (zero use) by western universities, on the same side, Arab universities are also have low usage of those same applications. However, an individual Web2.0 application fetches our attention by conveying the message of huge gap in his adoption between Arab and western universities.

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4 CONCLUSION
In this study, it is examined that the status of Web 2.0 applications usage in education sectors is inadequate in Arab world, as compared to western universities. The comparative study in this paper has demonstrated that the adoption of Web2.0 technologies in education is in its early phases in Arab world. Moreover, western universities are well diffused in their adoption of Web2.0 technologies in education systems for the purpose of improving the learning process and effective integration of new technologies. The diffusion of Internet adoption in the Arab world suggests that Web2.0 has the potential to proliferate in a largely young population that is increasingly proficient with technology and computermediated communication.

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