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Foot Rot Disease Identification for the Betelvine Plants using Digital Images Processing
Mr.J.Vijayakumar1, Dr.S.Arumugam2
Abstract — This paper proposes a method for early detection of foot rot disease to initiate early preventive action before the farmer visually identifies a change in appearance, form or color of betel vine using image processing and pattern recognition techniques. Using these techniques, the disease in betelvine leaf can be identified before it spreads to entire crop. Digital image of the betel vine leaves at different stages of the disease are collected using a high-resolution digital camera with a resolution of 2 million pixels. The image analysis of the leaves done using Image processing toolbox in Mat lab version 7.0 Release 12 gives the standard patterns of the digital images. These patterns and images of various healthy betelvine leaves and diseased betelvine leaves at various stages are stored in the memory of the system. These are then used for comparison to identify the disease leaf at an early stage. Index Terms— Betelvine, Foot Rot Disease and phytopthora parasitica

1.INTRODUCTION Betel vine, Piper Betel L., known as Vettrilai in Tamil, a sanctity leaf is cultivated in approximately 45,000 hectares in India .In Tamil Nadu approximately 5000 hectares of land is used for cultivation. Betel leaf is used as medicine for certain diseases and also used as an antiseptic. Lots of research is going on in the field of analysis and pest control in various centers within the country under the name “ALL INDIA NETWORKING PROJECT IN BETELVINE”.During cultivation betel vine is very much affected by diseases and insects that result in great loss for the farmers. The common pests reported are mainly bugs, mites and aphids. The most important diseases of betel leaf are Foot rot and Leaf rot. It occurs in a very virulent form and if not controlled, causes widespread damage and even total destruction of the entire betelvine plantations. The cost of production of the betelvine plantation is approximately Rs.1.5 lakhs per hectare per year and around 50 percent of the total cost is used for maintenance, fertilizers and pesticides and insecticides Which is practically, when a farmer visualizes the disease, seen as a change in the form of color or appearance, the disease is in the matured stage after which diagnosis cannot save the plant. The disease spreads to the entire crop and the entire plantation gets destructed within few days. Foot rot disease starts from the roots or rootlets.
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Human eye cannot predict the disease at an early stage as it propagates through the stem. Using computerized image analyzing system the minute change in the form of color in leaves can be detected at an early stage. 2.BETELVINE DISEASES Betel vine is subjected to the attack of various diseases and pests. The most important among them are Foot Rot, Leaf Rot, Leaf Spot and Powdery mildew among diseases and bus, aphids and mites among pests. The other diseases reported in betel vine are the bacterial leaf spot, Leaf spot in storage and Tip Burn (physiological disease). 2.1 FOOT ROT DISEASE Foot Rot is caused by the fungus Phytophthora parasitica that lives in the soil and attacks roots, stem and leaves. It produces large number of spores at low temperatures, under moist conditions. These spores are carried from vine to vine through water. It occurs in a very virulent form and if not controlled, causes widespread damage and even total destruction of the betel vine plantations. At the onset of attack the plants invariably show loss of lusture, which may be recognized only by an experienced eye. Such plants also show complete suppression of the adventitious roots from the top most one or two nodes, whereas in healthy plants in the root eyes the initiation and development of the adventitious roots and rootlets can be noticed. Soon after the manifestation of these primary symptoms, the lamina of the leaves slowly begins to droop, although the petiole remains erect. The diseased plant at this stage exhibits a general pallor and drooping of the tender shoots. The aerial parts, leaves or stem do not show any other sign of infection such as lesions or rotting. Such plants when pulled out easily break at the collar region and

--------------------------------------------------------------Research scholar, Nandhha College of Technology, Erode.Tamil nadu,India.

Chief Executive officer, Nandha Engineering college, Erode.Tamil nadu,India.

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underground parts are found to be in the state of decay. The roots and rootlets are found to be black or brown, and in decaying condition. Wilting is dependent on the extent of infection, rapidity of infection in the internodes and the position of the internodes. If the internodes just below the ground surface are infected, the plants wilt very suddenly as if they are cut off from all possible sources of water and food. When the infection is first evident in internodes away from the soil surface, the aerial parts of the plants appear to remain normal and healthy for a long time as the internodes above the diseased portion still continue to function. The disease in an internodes can be easily detected by the blackening of the tissues inside. The infection to aerial parts does not usually extend beyond one or two internodes because the plant is killed before the disease progresses further. The appearance and spread of the disease is dependent on external factors. When the atmospheric humidity is high and the temperature is low the disease develops rapidly, whereas under dry conditions the progress of the disease is slow. 3 IMAGE SEGMENTATION Image segmentation refers to the decomposition of the image into its components.In this paper, the separation of the RGB components is considered. Amplitude thresholding is used in this paper for segmentation.The appropriate amplitude feature values are classified so that given amplitude interval represents a unique object characterisitics. The histogram of the image is examined for locating peaks and valleys. 4. SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION Matlab is technical supporting environment for high performance numeric computation and visualisation. Image processing toolbox in matlab supports four types of images namely  Indexed images  Binary images  Intensity images  Rgb images RGB images technique is used for anlysis in this paper. 5. PROCEDURE The betelvine leaves are washed proporly to remove the dust particles.Three different categories of betelvine farms is chosen for study. Category 1 : Healthy farm Category 2 : Infected farm Category 3 : Likely to be infected farm

Fig.1.Healthy farm

Fig.2. Infected farm

Fig.3.Likely to be infected farm In the first category farm, all the plants are healthy without any infection.The photograph is shown in Fig.1. In the second category the farm is fully infected by the Foot rot disease and the photograph is shown in Fig. 2. In the third category farm two to three plants are infected by the Foot rot disease while other plants in the farm is healthy and likely to be infected.The photograph is show in the Fig. 3. Based on the three categories mentioned above, digital imaging technique is divided in three phases respectively as, 1.Normal leaves phase 2.Infected leaves phase 3.Test leaves phase

Fig.4. Normal Leaf

Fig.5. .Infected Leaf

Fig.6.Test Leaf

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Normal leaves consists of fully healthy normal leaf images. The photograph is show in the Fig.4 Infected leaves phase consited of visually identifiable infected leaf samples at various stages of the Foot rot disease. The photograph is show in the Fig.5 Test leaves phase consists of leaf samples taken from the third category farm which are likely to be disease prone. The photograph is show in the Fig.5. twelve samples from each phase was taken.The size of all the digital images are 330 x 425 with 3 components namely Red, Green and blue. These digital images are given as input to the matlab file and the R,G,B colour components are seperated and the mean is calculated. 6. SIMULATION RESULTS The mean is calculated for all the 22 leaves.The mean values of Red component for normal leaves , infected leavesand test leaves are found as shown in fig.7. The mean values of Green component for normal leaves, infected leaves and test leaves are found as shown in fig.8. The mean values of Blue component for normal leaves, infected leaves and test leaves are found as shown in fig.9.
RED COMPONENT MEAN VLAUES
256 254 252 250 248 246 244 242 240 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 SAMPLE NUMBER

BLUE COMPONENT - MEAN VALUES
256 254 252
MEAN

250 248 246 244 242 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 SAMPLE NUMBER

NORMAL TEST INFECTED

Fig.9.Blue componen mean vlaues The mean values for uninfected leaves or normal leaves between 243.12 to 245.12 for red component, 243.10 to 244.44 for green component and 242.63 to 244.48 for blue component. The mean values for infected leaves between 247.22 to 253.96 for red component, 249.66 to 253.97 for green component and 251.54 to 253.49 for blue component. The test leaves, to compute mean value of red, green and blue component and compare the mean values of normal leaves and infected leaves. The first three test samples between 243.12 to 245.12 for red component, 243.10 to 244.44 for green component and 242.63 to 244.48 for blue component. So the first three test samples are uninfected leaves or normal leaves. For remaining test samples between 247.22 to 253.96 for red component,249.66 to 253.97 for green component and 251.54 to 253.49 for blue component. So the remaining test samples are infected leaves. 7.CONCLUSION The above proposed results convey that the foot rot disease can be identified at an early stage and thus preventive action can be taken well in advance such that the entire plantation can be saved before the disease starts to spread. This can also be extended to detect diseases of all kind to initiate early preventive action. REFERENCES [1] Sathyabrata Maiti and K.S. Shivashankara (1998), Betelvine Research Highlights.

MEAN

NORMAL TEST INFECTED

Fig.7.Red componen mean vlaues

GREEN COMPONENT MEAN VALUES
256 254 252
MEAN

250 248 246 244 242 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 SAMPLE NUMBER

NORMAL TEST INFECTED

[2] Dastur.J.F(1935). Diseases of pan (piper betle) in the general provinces. [3] Control of the foot rot disease of pan (piper betle) in the central provinces. Agric. Livestock India1 pp( 26-31). [4] Foot rot diseases of piper betle in Bengal. India J.agric.sci.7.(2006) [5] Diseases of pan (piper betle) in sylhet, Assam. India J.agric.sci.7.(2007)

Fig. 8.Green componen mean vlaues

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[6] Control of serious diseases of foot rot and leaf spot of pan crop.J. Agric 1954 pp(8-10). [7] Annual Report of All India Coordinated Research Project on Betelvine ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi) India (1997). AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY Mr.J.Vijayakumar received the Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Maharaja Engineering College under Bharathiar universityCoimbatore in the year of 2003 and Master of Engineering in Applied Electronics from Bannari Amman Institute of Technology under Anna university-Chennai in the year of 2005. He is doing Ph.D. work in Anna University of Technology- Coimbatore under the guidance of Dr.S.Arumugam. He is working as assistant professor in the department of Electronics and Communication Engineering in Nandha College of Technology- Erode. His area of interest is Digital Image Processing. Dr.S.Arumugam completed his bachelor degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering and M.Sc(Engg)., in Applied Electronics , both from PSG College of Technology under University of Madras and Ph.D., in Computer Science and Engineering from Anna University. He has been serving in the Directorate of Technical Education since 1974 onwards. He retired from Government service as additional Director of Technical Education and Chairman Board of Examinations. He served as Chief member of various boards of studies. He is a fellow member in IE, IETE, senior member in CSI and member in IEEE. He has so far published over 100 papers in various Nationals International Journals and Conferences. Presently he is working as Chief Executive officer, Nandha Educational Institution- Erode.