EXPERIMENT 5

Half wave and full wave precision rectifiers 5.1 OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the experiment are to: 1. Discover precision rectifiers. 2. Show limitation of simple diode rectifiers 3. Show the application of precision rectifiers. 4. Demonstrate Op-amp as a rectifier. 5. Simulate model in Pspice or Matlab

5.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected by completing the experiment, the students will be able to: 1. Develop the precision rectifiers 2. Solve the offset voltage problem in conventional diode rectifiers. 3. Design the half wave and full wave rectifiers

5.3 THEORY/BACKGROUND
Terms to Learn Ideal diode — a diode with zero forward voltage drop and zero reverse current. Linearize — change a nonlinear characteristic to a linear characteristic. Voltage-current characteristic — the graph of voltage (X axis) versus current (Y axis) between two terminals of a device. A Basic Op-Amp Rectifier Passive rectifiers those that use diodes in half or full wave configurations are fine for rectifying large signals if the circuit is forgiving of the diode’s forward voltage drop, VF. For small signals, meaning those much smaller than VF, passive rectifiers don’t work well at all. Wouldn’t it be nice if we could order an ideal diode? Vendors are often out of stock of ideal diodes, but we can make one by using the analog designer’s favorite tool, an op-amp. Semiconductor diodes “turn on” a little slowly before reaching a relatively constant voltage drop of 0.6 to 0.7 V (silicon) or 0.3 V (germanium). In a full wave circuit, this causes crossover distortion in the region the signal changes from forward to reverse current. Signals much smaller than VF are attenuated as well, in both full and half wave circuits. By using feedback in an active circuit as shown in Figure 1.1, we can use the op-amp’s high gain to liberalize the non-linear voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of a diode’s PN junction. (A resistor’s V-I characteristic is a straight line with a slope of A/V equal to its resistance in ohms.)

5.4 EQUIPMENT:
Oscilloscope Function Generator Digital multimeter ±15V DC Power Supply

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Figure 5.1 — The V-I characteristic curves for ideal and real diodes, showing VF for real Diodes. At B, a simple half-wave rectifier circuit with an adjustable load for measurements.

Figure 5.2 — A precision half-wave rectifier with adjustable gain controlled by the ratio of R1 and R2 with a diode clamp (D1) to prevent op-amp saturation.

Laboratory Procedure:
NOTE: Set V+ to +15V and V- to -15V. The bypass capacitors can be 0.1µF to 1 µF ceramic. Use LF356 op-amps and 1N4148 diodes unless directed otherwise. Display VO vs time on the scope unless directed otherwise. 1. Build the precision half-wave rectifier circuit shown in Fig. 5.3. You will need to replace the diode and op-amp later so try to leave room to do this without having to rebuild the whole circuit. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9 Apply a 3 Vpp sine wave at 500 Hz as Vin and capture the output waveform across R1. Use a square wave of ±1Vpp and a period of 10 ms. for Vin. Capture VO. Use a triangle wave of ±1Vpp and a period of 10 ms. for Vin. Capture VO. Reverse the polarity of D1 and repeat step 2. Display VO versus Vin in x-y mode and capture the waveform. Increase the frequency from 500Hz to 5MHz in steps of one decade and record VOpeak. Replace the diode with a 1N4004 and repeat step 7. Put the 1N4148 back in and replace the op-amp with an LM741. Repeat step 7.

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10. Put the LF356 back in and connect a 0.22 µF capacitor across R1 and capture VO at 500 Hz. 11. Build the Imprecise full-wave rectifier circuit shown in Fig. 5.4. 12. Use a 3 Vpp sine wave at 500 Hz as Vin and capture the output waveform across R3. 13. Reverse the polarity of D1 and D2 and repeat step 12. 14. Display VO versus Vin in x-y mode and capture the image. 15. Modify the circuit to produce the precision full-wave rectifier circuit as shown in Fig. 5.6. 16. Use a 3 Vpp sine wave at 500 Hz as Vin and capture the output wave form across R3. 17. Increase the frequency of the sine wave until distortion occurs. Note the frequency. Capture the output wave form across R3. Return to 500Hz. 18. Display VO versus Vin in x-y mode and capture the waveform. 19. Build the single op-amp precision full-wave rectifier circuit shown in Fig. 5.6. Adjust R3 to optimize symmetry. 20. Apply a 3 Vpp sine wave at 500 Hz to Vin and capture the output wave form across R3. 21. Increase the frequency of the sine wave until distortion occurs. Note the frequency. Capture the output wave form across R3. 22. Display VO versus Vin in x-y mode and capture the waveform. Return to 500 Hz. 23. Build the single op-amp precision full-wave rectifier current output circuit shown in Fig. 5.7. Pick an R1 value between 820Ω and 1.2KΩ. Measure IO for several different AC input voltages. Choose a waveform and frequency. IO is measured where the current source symbol is drawn. Determine a formula for IO with respect to Vin and R1.

Vplus Vminus 4 5 D1 1N4148 Vo 6 U1 Va R1 1K to 10K GND

Vminus

Vin GND

7 1

+

3

-

2

C1 0.1

C2 0.1

LF356

Vplus

Ceramic Bypass Caps Caps in uF 1.0 uF Bypass Caps are better Mount close to power pins

Fig. 5.3 Precision Half-Wave Rectifier

3

Vminus 4 5 2 Vin 3

LF356 U1

6

D1

1N4148

Vplus

Vminus

7 1

GND

R1 1K to 10K

4 5

7 1

Fig. 5.4 Imprecise Full-Wave Rectifier

Vminus 4 5

Vin

7 1

GND

R1 1K to 10K

4 5

7 1

Fig. 5.5 Precision Full-Wave Rectifier

Vminus R1 1K to 10K R2 Vin 2R1 GND 4 5 C1 0.1 C2 0.1

7 1

Fig. 5.6 Single Op-Amp Precision Full-Wave Rectifier

+

3

-

2

LF356

6 U1

Vplus

+

3

-

+

3

-

2

LF356 U1

6

D1

1N4148

R2 = R1 C1 0.1 C2 0.1 C3 0.1 C4 0.1

Vplus

2

+

3

-

+

R2 = R1 C1 0.1 C2 0.1 C3 0.1 C4 0.1

Vplus

Vminus

2

LF356

6 U2

D2

1N4148 Vo

R3 1K to 10K GND

Ceramic Bypass Caps Caps in uF 1.0 uF Bypass Caps are better Mount close to power pins

Vplus

Vplus

Vminus

Vminus

LF356

6 U2

D2

1N4148 Vo R3 1K to 10K GND

Ceramic Bypass Caps Caps in uF 1.0 uF Bypass Caps are better Mount close to power pins

Vplus

Vplus

Vminus

D1

1N4148 Vo

R3 10K GND

Ceramic Bypass Caps Caps in uF 1.0 uF Bypass Caps are better Mount close to power pins

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Vplus 7 1 Vplus Vminus

Vin GND

3 + 6 LF356 2 U1 4 5

C1 0.1

C2 0.1

Vminus D1-D4 4 * 1N4148

Io

+

Ceramic Bypass Caps Caps in uF 1.0 uF Bypass Caps are better Mount close to power pins

R1 820 to 1.2K

Fig 5.7 Single Op-Amp Precision Full-Wave Rectifier with current output.

Result 1. For the circuit given in Fig 1.3, Fig 1.4, Fig 1.5, Fig 1.6 and Fig 1.7 determine the values of Vi and VO DC volt

Voltage
Vi Vo Vi Vo 0.7 -0.7 0.8 -0.8 0.9 -0.9 1.0 -1.0 1.5 -1.5 1.6 -1.6 1.7 -1.7 1.8 -1.8 1.9 -1.9 2.0 -2.0 2.5 -2.5 3.0 -3.0 4 -4 5 -5

2. Sketching VO with respect to time given Vin = 10 sin 2πft for the rectifier circuit shown in Fig. 1.4. Assume f = 200 kHz (6 points).

3. sketch the VO vs. Vin relationship for both the full wave rectifiers shown in Fig. 1.4 and Fig. 1.5. Compare them. Give the width of the dead zone for both cases. Assume that the open loop gain of the op amp is 105. (7 points)

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Discussion: 1. Explain the operation of one of the circuits tested. Specify the Fig. number of the circuit you
are explaining. 2. 3. 4. 5. Explain what happens when the polarities of the diodes are reversed during parts of the experiment. Explain why one full-wave rectifier circuit is called "precision". Specify the Fig. number of the circuit you are explaining. Explain why the single op-amp rectifier output changes with frequency. Explain which component is more important for frequency response in the half wave precision rectifier circuit. The diode or the op-amp. Why?

6. Could any of these circuits be used to determine VRMS for sine waves? How would you do that? How about for triangle waves?

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