Merian Araujo Jaime De la Hoz Andrés Palma Andrés Capera Trabajo de Filosofía

Roth, A, L. (2002). Social epistemology in broadcast news interviews. Lenguage in society, 31 (3) 335-381.

Abstract This article investigates how participants in broadcast news interviews dis-play their orientations to a social distribution of knowledge regarding news- worthy events and actors. Interviewers treat the nature, grounds, and limits of interviewees¶ knowledge as accountable matters. The article employs single-case and quantitative analyses to show that, in and through the design of their

questions, interviewers distinguish between (i) interviewees as subject-actors who are responsible for direct, first-hand knowledge of their own conduct; and (ii) interviewees as commentators who, on the basis of indirect, second-hand knowledge, are entitled to opinions about third par- ties' conduct. This distinction serves as a basis for the production of inter- viewees' responses as talk that expresses either matters of fact or points of opinion. The article examines how these aspects of question design establish relevancies for interviewees' responses and, ultimately, shape news content. Keywords: Mass media, epistemology, conversation analysis, evidentiality, interaction.

knowledge work. Practice . Organizarion Science. Yet. this epistemology cannot account for the knowing found in individual and group practice. Current work on organizations is limited by this privileging and by the scant attention given to knowing in its own right. and knowledge possessed by individuals over that possessed by groups." Moreover. and that the interplay of knowledge and knowing can generate new knowledge and new ways of knowing. Organizations are better understood if explicit. these concepts make pos. J. Abstract Much current work on organizational knowledge. intellectual capital. N. We hold that knowledge is a tool of knowing." since it treats knowledge as something people possess. D. etc. We believe this generative dance between knowledge and knowing is a powerful source of organizational innovation.Cook. We explore these views through three brief case studies drawn from recent research. Keyword: Knowledge. Harnessing this innovation calls for organizational and technological infrastructures that support the interplay of knowledge and knowing..tinct and coequal forms of knowledge (each doing work the others cannot). traditional understanding of the nature of knowledge. Brown. 10 (4). Epistemology. S. tacit. the management of intellectual capital.mology of possession. knowledge-creating organizations. and the like rests on a single. 381-400. Ultimately. S. We call this understanding the "episte. Bridging Epistemologies: The Generative Dance Between Organizational Knowledge and Organizational Knowing. the epistemology of possession tends to privilege explicit over tacit knowledge. that knowing is an aspect of our interaction with the social and physical world. Knowing as action calls for an "epistemology of practice. and if knowledge and knowing are seen as mutually enabling (not competing). (1999). individual and group knowledge are treated as four dis.sible a more robust framing of such epistemologicallycentered concerns as core competencies.

language in institutional settings.. R. and involvement in the reported "trouble. 465-492. depending on he practical issues at stake. ¿Descriptions achieve their currency by depicting matters that. Zimmerman. Not every candidate description is accepted on its face. given the place of their occurrence and the categories of persons involved in their production. Lenguage in society. Moreover. Doubts can emerge and. (Conversation analysis. visual or aural access to. the offered ac.count may be subject to review and assessment and pressed for clarification.. W.that these vulnerabilities emerge and are tested and negotiated in the request for and dispatch of emergency assistance. elaboration. happenings that often occur at some remove in time and space from the occasion of their telling. we examine the way citizens' descriptions of troublesome occurrences in reports to emergency dispatch personnel are vulnerable to suspicion and doubt. D. The vulnerability of description in these cases involves callers' categorization of. 19 (4). We refer to the assortment of demand encountered by .Marilyn. Zimmerman. such issues are not solely the offspring of doubt. Abstract In this article. Describing trouble: Practical epistemology in citizen calls to the police. could have occurred in the manner described. Sacks (1972a:329-32) argued that there are systematic resources for producing and recognizing the depiction of an activity or occurrence as a "possible description. descriptions play different roles in various social circum.displays of how one has come to know about a particular event . or reformulation." a portrayal of a real event that can be appreciated by recipients without first-hand knowledge. (1990). however.stances and are therefore subject to shifting requirements for completeness. detail. and supporting evidence (Pomerantz I983). everyday descriptions are usually accepted as veridical for the purposes at hand." It is through displays of what we term practical epistemology . In the absence of reason to doubt. pragmatics) It is common for members of society to speak of events they have witnessed or have been involved in.

Schulte. Abstract In information systems. 26 (3).descriptions across settings as vulnerabilities. victim. Displays of practical epistemology are assemblies of various features of the problematic event: what one has actually seen or heard (the empirical materials of the event)." "murder. on this occasion. visual and/or aural access to the event. E..g. as a "fight.what we term callers' stance toward the troubles they report. the "definition" or categorization of the event as a particular kind of problem or trouble (e. this paper analyzes the IS . and involvement in the reported trouble.. To this end. 213-242. too much might result in unwanted accountability. or intercessory third party). However. knowledge is a double-edged sword: while too little might result in expensive mistakes. those involved in reporting troublesome occurrences to the police .just how. Leidner. in. D.Mis Quarterly. (2002).descriptions that necessarily raise issues of categorization. most research on knowledge management assumes that knowledge has positive implications for organizations. and the status of caller visa is the event (e..2 Our concern in this article is with the interactional accomplishment of epistemological displays . Studying knowledge management in infotmation systems research: discourses and theoretical assumption. We argue that in response to these issues participants orient to displays of a practical epistemology .tending by that term to collect for study the desiderata of the members' activity of doing description." "break-in." and so on). The purpose of this paper is to highlight the lack of attention paid to the unintended consequences of managing organizational knowledge and thereby to broaden the scope of IS-based knowledge management research. U. one has come to know about this particular event.g. We are concerned here with the investigation of the vulnerabilities of a particular class of descriptions. as a witness.

(Capera). The utilization of new information and communication techniques in educational field is a realively recent issue in the European Union's states and represents a phenomenon in incipient phases for us. the metaphors of knowledge. Our work is based on a sociological questionnaire applied to senior high school students. The metaphors of knowledge that emerge from this analysis are knowledge as object. asset. knowledge. Furthermore. we present a paper that is exemplary of each discourse. and discipline. C. research articles published between 1990 and 2000 in six IS journals are classified into one of four scientific discourses. For each of these discourses. Using a framework developed by Deetz (1996). and the implications apparent in the articles representing it. this introduction should be supported by appropriate equipment and adequate teacher training. (2010). An approach to the didactic activity involving the use of new information and communication technology. Keywords: Epistemology. both for the teaching staff and students. Abstract The article refers to the discovery and utilization of new practical means of materialization of didactic objectives in order to form new competences and skills and implicitly develop a new approach of the information and communication technology. These discourses are the normative. the theoretical foundations. It would increase the efficiency of the educational system without involving pedagogical practice on an exclusive basis. Mures district. still. Romania.literature on knowledge management. the interpretive. The study emphasizes the . Our objective with this analysis is to raise IS researchers' awareness of the potential and the implications of the different discourses in the study of knowledge and knowledge management. the critical. Dimitrie Cantemir University Tîrgu Mure România. and the dialogic. mind. we identify the research focus. Florea. commodity. as well as undergraduate and master graduate students of Dimitrie Cantemir University.

Keywords: competences Communication technology. risk communication is primarily. a relationship between unequal parties. 8 (1). Risk Management. Orlikowski. J. joint decision making. Previous discussions on risk communication have distinguished between two different approaches. Abstract The concept of risk communication has come to comprise more than conveying technical or scientific information to the public. and two-way dialogue forums. This inequality is analyzed through a threefold distinction of asymmetries in terms of communicative initiative. 1-15. A preliminary model for understanding the different inequalities in the risk communication situation is developed.. It can also include newer forms such as public participation. . namely the democratic versus the technical one.opportunities students have as a result of using the new ways of research and communication and the impact of using them in the educational process. J. Genres of Organizational Communication: A Structurational Approach to Studying Communication and Media. and risk influence. educational system. skills and Yates. (2006). it is argued that despite these recent attempts to widen the scope and objectives of risk communication. W. In the present paper. in most cases. informational privilege.

Composition. The transition from the former to the latter period was significantly affected by what might be called a rhetorical hermeneutics developed around 1960 by Chaim Perelman. and Communication. (2000). S. 1492-1512. 30 (2). The establishment of Composition Studies provides an example of the changed rhetorical context for disciplinary legitimating in the late twentieth century. Reducing Social Context Cues: Electronic Mail in Organizational Communications. it argues that electronic mail does not simply speed up the exchange of information but leads to the exchange of new information as well. In a field study in a Fortune 500 company. Rhetoric Society Quarterly. Kiesler. Sproull. we used questionnaire data and actual messages to examine electronic mail communication at all levels of the . L. S.. 32 (11). I focus on the rhetoric of science during two periods of disciplinary development: the use of scientific rhetoric to articulate new disciplinary identities in the 1910s and the debates over the rhetorical study of science in the 1990s. and Thomas Kuhn. The main purpose of this rhetorical history is to encourage renewed dialogue among rhetoricians studying Literature. Abstract This essay explores some rhetorical paths of thought connecting the discipline of English Studies and Speech Communication. Abstract: This paper examines electronic mail in organizational communication. Hans Georg Gadamer. Management Science.Maillou. Based on ideas about how social context cues within a communication setting affect information exchange. 5-29. On the Rhetorical Paths between English and Communication Studies: Disciplinary identities on the rhetorical paths between English and communication studies. (1986).

Abstract The relationship between epistemology and the sociology of knowledge is discussed. attention is directed towards Habermas's theory of communicative action. by an analysis of the concept of false consciousness. it is argued that a theory of language and communication must make its point of departure from an epistemological analysis in order to avoid an abstractive fallacy. J. 111-128. 33 (1). And we found that much of the information conveyed through electronic mail was information that would not have been conveyed through another medium. Consistent with experimental studies. first. we explored effects of electronic communication related to self-absorption. Based on hypotheses from research on social communication. Epistemology and Sociology of Knowledge. whereas its treatment as a sociological problem of knowledge is adequate. _______________________________________________________ _____ Israel. status equalization. Finally.organization. Epistemology in turn has to be founded in the analysis of the nonformalized logic inherent in everyday language. we found that decreasing social context cues has substantial deregulating effects on communication. Whereas Habermas tries to abandon epistemological problems and give his theory a sociological anchoring. If discussed in an epistemological context. It is asserted that epistemology is logically basic to the sociology of knowledge. The relationship between epistemology and the sociology of knowledge is discussed and exemplified. and uninhibited behavior. the analysis of false consciousness leads to unsolvable difficulties. A second illustration contrasts the two approaches and involves an analysis of the Neo-Kantian foundations of Durkheimian and Weberian sociology. it is argued. (1990). Pacific Sociological Association. .

Consequently. Here I describe the use of these calls for social communication in this species. Competitive frictions. 49 (5). Laboratory Abstract Complexity of communication is one of the important factors that distinguishes multilateral negotiation from its bilateral cousin.. E. especially if they can be the . stereotyped calls that are specific to same-sex relatives in cooperatively breeding family groups. Restricting who can communicate with whom strongly influences outcomes. McGinn. Chatterjee. and dominant birds call more often than subordinates. These vocalizations appear to function primarily in maintaining social bonds within a group and in recognizing group identity during interactions with other groups. How Communication Investigation. Communication with Shared Call Repertoires in the Cooperatively Breeding Stripe-Backed Wren. We investigate how the communication configuration affects a three-person coalition negotiation. Males call much more frequently than females within a group's territory. and called at relatively high rates following simulated territorial intrusions by neighboring birds. and not always in ways that current theory anticipates. 166-171.. 74 (2). (2003). Bolton. Links Influence Coalition Bargaining: A Management Science. Our results suggest that parties with weaker alternatives would benefit from a more constrained structure. Journal of field ornithology. appear to shape much of what we observe.Jordan. males responded to their own-group calls by producing matching call types. Abstract Male and female Stripe-backed Wrens (Campylorhynchus nuchalis) have repertoires of learned. including a tendency to communicate offers privately. G. K. J. they are potential cues for recognizing group membership and sex during social interactions. 583-598. K. In playback experiments. (2003).

34 (131). while those endowed with stronger alternatives would do well to work within a more public communication structure that promotes competitive bidding. Halsbury. 135-163 Abstract This article provides a conceptual history of science mass communication. The statement that any proposition belongs to one of three classes is then a mixed proposition of the third kind and involves no contradiction Logan. 23 (2). E. which is seen as divided into the scientific literacy and interactive science traditions. Science Communication.conduit of communication. (1959). R. are described as nonsense. The origins of the ideas that underlie the scientific literacy and interactive science traditions. are introduced. EPISTEMOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION THEORY. Their position could be unassailable if they left the matter at that. . 289-307. Pseudopropositions. Abstract Logical positivists describe certain classes of propositions as analytic or synthetic. A securer standpoint can be adopted by describing three classes of proposition: analytic. Unfortunately they add a rider to the effect that all propositions are one or the other. (2001). Cambridge University Press on behalf of Royal Institute of Philosophy. as well as some of the issues researchers have raised. being neither one nor the other. Science Mass Communication Its Conceptual History. The above rider itself appears to fall into neither class and an immediate objection may be made to the positivist's standpoint on the ground that it commits him to nonsense by his own definition. synthetic and mixed.

although the interactive tradition is a response to the applied problems within the scientific literacy model.The author argues the two traditions are not mutually exclusive. and risk communication scholarship. 10 (4). Should We Call it Expression or Communication? Innovations in Social Science Research. context-based courses. Key words: interactive science communication. (1997). The first is the use of Äcontext-based courses within formal provision. books. It is argued that the pace of research might be accelerated if there were a more comprehensive collaboration among science communication. Educação em Ciência e Tecnologi. are evaluated. TV. Against the background of a model for interactive science communication which addresses these weaknesses and which focuses on the key theme of Äthe social aspects of science /technology . media. ways to bring about these desirable changes are summarized. Abstract. two approaches to improved provision are presented. the treatment of risk. . (2008) Science Communication: Towards a Proper Emphasis on the Social Aspects of Science and Technology. 3-25. namely: the nature of science. and the relation between hem. 1 (1). Ekman. The second is the much greater use of informal provision.. namely that made through museums zoos and botanical gardens. Emeritus. 333-344. P. Finally. health communication. newspapers and magazines. the internet. The weaknesses in compulsory school science education are summarized and used to explain the lower than desired uptake of post-compulsory courses and the lack of interest in matters scientific by the general public. The challenges to be faced in using these two broad approaches. the treatment of contemporary issues. of technology.

First is the matter of just what type of information can be derived from observing a facial expression of emotion.Abstract Two issues are addressed. Abstract: The aim is to outline general differences in two academic cultures. 1-13. 2 (1). Semi-pragmatics and social constructivism are two basic theoretical orientations which. lead to a fruitful connection of the analysis of the micro and the mesolevel of communication processes. considering historic perspectives: German µKommunikationswissenschaft¶ with its roots in µPublizistik-¶ and µZeitungswissenschaft¶ and French µSciences de l¶information et de la communication¶ with its roots in semiotics and cultural views on communication. Then problems inherent in the terms expression and communication are described as they apply to facial behavior. The Open Communication Journal. Averbeck. The French researchers developed their own focus. The Sciences de l¶information et de la communication (SIC) gained their academic acceptance in France in 1975 which under international comparison was late. Comparative History of Communication Studies: France and Germany. There are different internal and external (societal and political) means which influenced the development of communication studies and theories in each of the two countries. after the end of the limiting structuralistic paradigm of the 1960ths. S (2008). . Thus. Pragmatics and Symbolic interactions played an important role in French SIC much earlier than in Germany. Seven different emotion domains are described. In this context the argument that the face just signals about interactive not emotional phenomena is shown to be a false and misleading dichotomy. One strong external moment of the instutionalization of SIC was the political aim to modernize the French University for the so called µinformation society¶.

Epistemology and Sociohistorical Inquiry in comunications. Abstract Cryptic protective mechanisms and the conspicuousness required to communicate result in a conflict of opposing selection. Abstract . Hall. We studied the variation of visual signals and found conspicuousness to be closely related to sex and age. being much higher in males and adults. communication theories. A. 329-351. A. This variation allows an individual to identify the reproductive status of conspecifics. Annual Review of Sociology.Keywords: History of communication studies.. P. Social constructivism. Caprimulgus ruficollis. a Balance between Crypsis and Conspicuousness. R. the use of a restricted signaling strategy provides an appropriate balance between these two selection forces. Conspicuous white wing and tail bands may have been favored by sexual selection in this species. providing sexual selection a basis to select these visual signals in this and other nocturnal bird species. 940-945. Visual Communication and Selection in a Nocturnal Bird Species. Reyna. French Sciences de l¶information et de la communication. German Kommunikationswissenschaft.. J. 16 (1). L. In the Red-necked Nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis) a nocturnal bird. The Wilson Bulletin. (1999). We believe that a relationship between restricted signaling strategy and sexually selected visual signals may occur in nocturnal species that use visual communication. 3 (111). (1990). Recuerda. Argones.

As yet. Positivism yet retains its defenders. and on a broader level. these contending developments do not resolve the crisis of sociohistorical knowledge. As alternatives. rationalism. both structuralist and hermeneutic challenges to science are undermined as foundations of knowledge by their own accounts. pragmatic and transcendental theories of communication substitute for epistemology classically conceived.In sociohistorical inquiry. yielding the postmodern loss of certitude. and realism have been proposed as "local epistemologies" under the new conditions. Conventionalism. no epistemology prevails as a widely accepted account of knowledge. BIBLIOGRAFÍA .

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