SFX & VFX

1. What is mean by Compositing ? Where it can be applicable ? (5) ANS:

1. It is the seamless amount of layers that contains still Images, Videos that merged one after the other in a layer sequence so that the final output obtained is layer integrated final composite. Compositing is of 2 types 1) 3d Compositing 2) Film Compositing

3d Compositing: It involves in a world of Broadcast design and
advertising field.

Film Compositing: It involves in the world of Feature film works.
Compositing can be applicable in mostly in Broadcast and films it related to Keyframe animation,Animated Tile Designing, Color Correction, Matting, Keying, Tracking and so on. 2. How to import Photoshop layers in After Effects ? Ans: Generally Photoshop Files are having multi layered files so that we can’t directly import the Photoshop file in After Effects. If we are importing multi layered Photoshop file the option are 1) Merged 2) Individual 3) Composition cropped layers

(5)

Merged: It takes all the layers in Photoshop file as a single file Individual: It takes all the individual layers of Photoshop files as separate layers
in the timeline.

Composition Cropped Layers:

It takes all the layers of the Photoshop file as a composition size in After Effects.

3. How to animate the Motion Key frames in After Effects ? (5) ANS : By Moving one point to other it creates the motion path Distance is equals to speed over time it means in after effects it consider as feet’s per sec. When you want to create the motion path and to get very precise animation, After effects provide automate time adjustment in the timeline.

Auto orientation: The object automatically moves along the path
Shft key: Transform Auto orient To get smooth animation after effects provide with inbuilt Plugin called key frame assitant in that it is having 3 options 1) Easy ease (Equals the speed) 2) Easy in (High speed curve to slow motion) 3) Easy out (Slow motion to high speed) Toggle hold frame it creates the frame hold between every single frame (Strobe effect) 5. Explain about the Paint in After Effects. (5) ANS: Paint is a vector based object, they are paint stokes that are created in after effects unlike they are not the bitmap objects. Paint can be highlighted by double clicking on the layer in the timeline. Paint is having 3 options : 1) constant 2) write on 3) single frame constant: It creates a paint stoke all along the path in the timeline. And in that paint stoke can be animatable. write on: It creates a write on when the paint stoke is made. It automatically generates a key frame from starting point and ending point. Single frame: It creates a single paint stoke per frame.

Other option tools for Paint are 1) Cloning 2) Eraser Cloning : It creates a duplicate paint stroke what you have selected on the original Object. It clone the layer Eraser: It erases the paint object or erases directly on the footage that means in that erased portion it gives alpha portion. 6. Explain about the Graph Editor? Ans

To view and manipulate all aspects of effects and animations, including effect property values, key frames, and interpolation, use the Graph Editor. The Graph Editor represents changes in effects and animations as a twodimensional graph, with playback time represented horizontally (from left to right). In layer bar mode, on the other hand, the time graph represents only the horizontal time element, without showing a visual representation of changing values. There are two types of graphs available in the Graph Editor: value graphs, which show property values; and speed graphs, which show rates of change of property values. Click the Graph Options button at the bottom of the Graph Editor, and select from the following options: Auto-Select Graph Type Automatically selects the appropriate graph type for a property: speed graphs for spatial properties (such as position), and value graphs for other properties. Edit Value Graph Displays the value graph for all properties. Edit Speed Graph Displays the speed graph for all properties. Show Reference Graph Displays the unselected graph type in the background for viewing only. (The gray numbers to the right of the Graph Editor indicate the values for the reference graph.)

Sht keys: ctrl (alpha matte)+drag on the original layer . Fit Selection Adjusts the value (vertical) and time (horizontal) scale of the graph to fit the selected keyframes in the Graph Editor. Allow Keyframes Between Frames Allows placement of keyframes between frames for fine-tuning animation. Show Graph Tool Tips Toggles the graph tool tips on and off. The horizontal zoom must still be adjusted manually. Mattes are also special kind of masks that can be applies to any particular layer. If we set the matte for any particular layer it takes the pixels of the matte to the layer but not the position data. Show Expression Editor Shows or hides the expression editor field. Using the Snap button When you drag a keyframe in the Graph editor with the Snap button toggled.Show Audio Waveforms Displays the audio waveform for any layer that has at least one property in the Graph Editor. if they exist. 7. Explain about the various Matte techniques in After Effects ? (5) ANS: Matte is an alpha sequence having white channel for opacity (opaque) and black or gray channels for transparency. the keyframe snaps to the following items: Keyframes (both vertically and horizontally) Current-time indicator In/Out points Markers Work area start/end Composition start/end Auto Zoom Height Toggles Auto Zoom Height mode. Track mattes: It takes luminance value channel matte and fits on the original composite layer. Show Layer In/Out Points Displays In and Out points of all layers that have a property in the Graph Editor. Show Layer Markers Displays layer-time markers in the Graph Editor. Fit All Adjusts the value (vertical) and time (horizontal) scale of the graph to fit all of the graphs in the Graph Editor. which automatically scales the height of the graph so that it fits the height of the Graph Editor. Alpha mattes: It takes alpha portion of the image or channels if it is having alpha channel. Luma matte: It takes the gray scale value in the layer (Black and white pixels) Stencil : It takes off the full transparency of one layer and composite into other layer.

The second frame of film is then spread across the next two fields of video--field 2 of the second video frame and field 1 of the third frame of video. Vertical Type J. and it is then repeated. you use a process called 3:2 pull down. the film is slowed down 0. Rotation E. Delete Vertex. Selection B. each film frame is repeated in a special pattern and mated to fields of video. Horizontal Type. Elliptical Mask H. Pan Behind G. Convert Vertex I. Phase occurs as a result of two conversions that happen during 3:2 pulldown: 24-fps film is redistributed through 30-fps video.97-fps (NTSC) video. This 3:2 pattern is repeated until four frames of film are spread over five frames of video. Explain about the 3:2 pulldown ratios? Where it can be applied? (5) ANS: When you transfer 24-fps film to 29. Next. Clone Stamp L.97)-fps video. Rectangular Mask. Hand C. Add Vertex. . Orbit Camera. The three whole video frames contain two fields from the same film frame. The remaining two split-field frames contain a video frame from two different film frames. Eraser M. The first frame of film is copied to fields 1 and 2 of the first frame of video. The phase of 3:2 pulldown refers to the point at which the two split-field frames fall within the first five frames of the footage. Track Z Camera F. Explain about the Tool Palette? Ans Tool panel A. Track XY Camera. The 3:2 pulldown process results in whole frames (represented by a W) and split-field frames (represented by an S).8. Pen. so each of four frames of 24-fps film is spread out over five frames of 30(29. The two splitfield frames are always adjacent to each other. Zoom D. and also to field 1 of the second video frame. Brush K. in which the film frames are distributed across video fields in a repeating 3:2 pattern. First.97 fps and 30 fps. Axis Mode buttons 9.1% to match the speed difference between 29.

press Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS). 10. If the individual effects and properties within an animation preset do not appear. Do one of the following: Select the animation preset in the Effects & Presets panel. if you created an explosion using several effects with complex parameter and animation settings within those . navigate to the animation preset you want. For example. Choose Animation > Browse Presets. and doubleclick the property you want to apply. choose Show Preset Contents from the Effects & Presets panel menu. Do one of the following: Select the layer in which you want to use the preset component. To apply selected effects from within an animation preset.Explain how to apply Animation Presets for the footages? Ans To apply an animation preset Select one or more layers. Composition. and then double-click the animation preset to apply it to the selected layer. choose Animation > Recent Animation Presets. Saving animation presets You can save settings of one or more effects as an animation preset. or Effect Controls panel. and then drag the preset to the selected layer in the Timeline. To apply a recently used or saved animation preset. Composition. and then drag them to the Timeline. Saving an effect as an animation preset also saves any set keyframes. Drag the property to a layer in the Composition panel or Timeline panel. and then choose the animation preset from the list. as well as expressions used in the effect. which are grouped into video frames containing two fields each. one frame of the film (A) is separated into two or three interlaced video fields (B). Make sure that Show Animation Presets and Show Preset Contents are selected in the Effects & Presets panel menu.When you apply 3:2 pulldown to footage. select the effects in Effects & Presets. Expand the preset in the Effects & Presets panel. or Effect Controls panel.

you cannot manipulate the objects of those files nor can you create models within the program. After Effects adds the z axis. only the current effect from the animation preset is applied. the menu will show only those presets that include the Mirror effect. You can then apply that animation preset to any other footage. you can save all those settings as a single animation preset.Explain about the 3D-Transformation controls in After Effects ? (5) ANS: After Effects can display layers in two dimensions (x. if the Mirror effect is selected. Usually. Note: When you apply an effect from the Animation Presets pop-up menu. cast shadows. the layer moves farther away in space. Once you add depth. scaling the layer's z Scale value appears to change the layer's position. 12. If the Animation Presets category in Effects & Presets does not appear. To add depth. or you can apply any single effect from that animation preset to any footage. the layer moves closer. you can change the position of the layer's anchor point or establish a parenting relationship with other layers. Using three dimensions lets you create layers that more realistically reflect light.effects. The 20 most recently saved or applied animation presets appear under Recent Animation Presets in the Animation menu. y) or three dimensions (x. z). You can specify any layer. Though you can import composited files with 3D information into After Effects. as you decrease it. except an adjustment layer. as 3D. The Animation Presets menu in the Effect Controls panel lists only those animation presets that contain the current effect. and move through space. You can also create and animate camera and light layers to view or illuminate 3D layers from any angle. Animation presets also appear in the Animation Presets menu in Effect Controls and in Effects & Presets. choose the Show Animation Presets option from the Effects & Presets panel menu. 11. scaling a layer's z axis has no effect on the layer because the layer itself has no depth. y.Explain about the lighting and light controls in After Effects ? (5) ANS: . When you specify a layer as three-dimensional (3D). For example. which provides control over the layer's depth. As you increase the z value.

but they do not allow 3D layers lower in the Timeline window to intersect. Casts Shadows Indicates whether the light source causes a layer to cast a shadow. Ambient light has no source but rather contributes to the overall brightness of a scene and casts no shadows. Lights. 2. if a layer is already lit. unconstrained light from an infinitely distant source. This option is active only if Casts Shadows is selected. Cone Angle Sets the width of the Spot light by adjusting the angle of the cone surrounding the source. Color Sets the color of the light. or a dark area. Shadow Diffusion . Layers that are above a light adjustment layer in the Timeline window do not receive the light. Cone Feather Adjusts the edge softness of the Spot light. Negative values create nonlight. 3D adjustment layers have a subtle effect. creating a directional light also pointing at that layer and employing negative values creates an area of negative light. like the spotlight used in stage productions. A Point light emits unconstrained omnidirectional light. You can specify which 3D layers a light affects by designating the light as an adjustment layer--place the light in the Timeline window above the layers on which you want it to shine. on the layer. For example. by default. This option is active only if Spot is the Light Type. For information on the point of interest. In the Light Settings dialog box. This option is active only if Spot is the Light Type. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness level of the shadow. You can rotate them and work with them in 3D. like the rays emitted from a bare light bulb. point to the point of interest. A Spot light emits light from a source that is constrained by a cone. To create a new light: 1.Lights are layers that shine light on other layers. Intensity Sets the brightness of the light. choose Layer > New > Light. Nonlight subtracts color from a layer. regardless of the light's position. specify any of the following settings: Light Type Parallel light rays emanate directional. From the Timeline or Composition window.You can choose among four different types of lights and modify them with varying settings.

move the current-time indicator to the frame where you want the layer to begin or end. and timestretches the layer by moving the Out point. To time-stretch a layer to a specific time: 1) In the Timeline window. 2) Display the In and Out columns in the Timeline window by choosing Columns > In and Columns > Out from the Timeline window menu. To time-stretch a layer from a specific time: In the Timeline or Composition Window. If you time-stretch a layer so that the resulting frame rate is significantly different from the original speed. the audio file or the original frames in the footage (and all keyframes that belong to the layer) are redistributed along the new duration. press Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) as you click the Out time for the layer in the Out column. 13. b. Layer Out-point holds the layer's current ending time and timestretches the layer by moving the In point. press Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) as you click the In time for the layer in the In column 4) To stretch the Out point to the current time.Sets the softness of a shadow based on its apparent distance from the shadowing layer. c. and time-stretches the layer by moving the In and Out points. select the Layer 1) Choose layer>Time remap 2) Type a new duration of a layer or type a strech factor 3) Click one of the Hold In Place options to specify the point in time from which the layer will be time-stretched.Explain about Time steching in After Effects ? (5) ANS: When you time-stretch a layer. Current Frame holds the layer at the position of the current-time indicator (also the frame displayed in the Composition window). and then click OK a. the quality of motion within the layer may suffer. Use this command only when you want the layer and all layer keyframes to change to the new duration. 3) To stretch the In point to the current time. Larger values create softer shadows. Turn on frame blending to improve slow-motion or fast-motion effects. Layer In-point holds the layer's current starting time. This option is active only if Casts Shadows is selected. .

You can remap audio files to gradually decrease or increase the pitch. For example. but would like to avoid creating tens or hundreds of keyframes by hand. if you increase the Shadows Amount value. You may want these colors to be more or less . try using expressions instead. Expressions can seem intimidating for those who aren't familiar with scripting or JavaScript. Once you drag the pick whip to a particular property. ______________________________________________________________ 16. you can play footage of the person moving forward.What are Expressions ? How they are created and useful in After Effects ? (5) ANS: When you want to create a complex animation. you can use an expression to link the Rotation property's values with the Drop Shadow's Direction values. ___________________________________________________________________ 15. play backward. With expressions.Explain about the color correction in After Effects ? ANS: Fine tunes the colors in regions that have changed in a color image. such as car wheels spinning. if you are using footage of a person walking. that way. and then play a few frames backwards to make the person retreat. You can easily learn the syntax and format for expressions by looking at the expressions that the pick whip creates. After Effects makes expressions easy to use and easy to learn through the expression pick whip . For example. you can create relationships between layer properties and use one property's keyframes to dynamically animate another layer. When you apply time-remap to a layer containing audio and video. the drop shadow changes accordingly as the layer rotates. or freeze a portion of a layer's duration using a process known as time-remapping.___________________________________________________________________ 14. The pick whip is a tool in the Timeline window that you can drag to connect any two properties. the expression automatically appears in the expression field in the Timeline window. You can also time-remap layers containing audio or both audio and video. or create a warbled or scratchy sound. compress. the audio and video remain synchronized. For example. Explain about the Time Remapping ? (5) ANS: In After Effects you can easily expand. Fortunately. play audio backwards. if you set rotation keyframes for a layer and then apply the Drop Shadow effect. and then play forward again to have the person resume walking. you bring out colors that were dark in the original image.

A negative value reduces contrast. Green. Midtone Contrast Adjusts the contrast in the midtones. 2) Extract : It extractes the luminance value in the footage and generates the matte 3) Linear key : This key is based on Blue screen and Green screen techniques. An increase in Midtone Contrast adjustment produces greater contrast in the midtones while tending to darken the shadows and lighten the highlights. Larger values produce an image with greater contrast. increasing values tend to produce more saturated colors. depending on the type of key. When you place a layer over another layer using transparency. In general. making the first layer appear to be part of the background. The greater the correction to the shadows and highlights. the amount of color variation depends on how much or little Shadows Amount or Highlights Amount is applied. as this reduces detail in the shadows or highlights as the intensity values get clipped and sent to pure black or white. Black Clip and White Clip Specify how much of the shadows and highlights are clipped to the new extreme shadow (level 0) and highlight (level 255) colors in the image. Adjust the Color Correction slider to give the best results. the greater the range of color correction available. The Color Correction value applies subtle control over the darkened or lightened colors in the image. the result forms a composite.e Red. parts of an image. . Note: Since the Color Correction value affects only changed portions of the image. A key locates pixels in an image that match the specified key color and makes them transparent or semitransparent. or make transparent. Each effect is called a key. and the color specified for transparency is called the key color.) Explain about the Keying Techniques in AfterEffects (5) ANS: After Effects includes several different effects that key out. and decreasing values produce less saturated colors. After Effects various keying techniques in that 1) Color Key : It extractes the alpha matte from any given colour i. in which the background is visible wherever the first layer is transparent.vivid. Be careful of setting the clipping values too large. and a positive value increases contrast. Blue or any other colour. If you want to change the color hues or saturation over the whole image. use the Hue/Saturation effect after applying the Shadow/Highlight effect. 14.

Attach point The attach point designates the place of attachment for the target footage-the layer. Feature region The feature region defines the area in the moving footage to be tracked. Explain about the Tracking concepts in After Effects ? ANS: After Effects' motion tracking feature lets you easily create composites and dynamic visual effects regardless of whether the subjects or the camera (or both) are moving. Animating a still image to match the motion of action footage. 6) Spill suppresser : It generally based on the reflected colour i. It should surround a distinct feature. It removes the spill colour. or effect that you want to synchronize with the motion footage. not within the entire frame. and angle. despite changes in light.This key effect is only applicable when there is two masks inside and outside should be there for the footage.(Black and white pixels) 5) Inner.4) Luma Key : This key is based on the luminance value. Stabilizing footage. such as making a cartoon bumblebee pursue a swaying flower. background.outer key : This keying is based upon the masking techniques . Search region The search region limits the area that After Effects must search to locate the feature. The resulting visual effect precisely matches the original moving footage Motion tracking has multiple uses: • • • • Combining elements filmed separately. such as adding video footage to the side of a city bus or a star to the end of a sweeping wand. After Effects can follow or track the movement of a specified area in a shot and then apply that movement to an effect. image. Adding effects that follow a moving element. image. After Effects must be able to clearly identify the feature throughout the footage. such as applying a lens flare to a scene where the camera pans or making a ball glow. . Confining the search to a small region saves search time and makes the search process easier.e blue or green colour that falls on the body. or other footage. _______________________________________________________________ 15. The feature needs to stand out only within the boundary of the search region. such as smoothing the wobble of footage shot with a handheld camera.

2. In the Tools palette. Select a mask in the Layer or Composition window. In the Composition window. select the pen tool. You can convert any existing mask to a RotoBezier mask.______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 16. You can convert RotoBezier masks to Bezier without affecting the mask shape. To create a RotoBezier mask: 1. Bezier masks that have adjusted direction lines change shape when converted to RotoBezier because After Effects calculates RotoBezier segments automatically. click to create a mask shape. and then click the RotoBezier option. The RotoBezier option automatically calculates the curved segments for you. What is Masking ? How to create masking in After Effects ? (5) ANS: Masking Specifies the pixels you want to change using the luminance or alpha channel of another layer. To change smooth corners to sharp corners using the RotoBezier mask option: With the pen tool selected. Choose Layer > Mask > RotoBezier. Mask Layer specifies the layer you want to use for your mask. 2. To convert a mask to a RotoBezier mask: 1. ___________________________________________________________ . Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) an existing vertex. However. thereby eliminating the need for direction lines. Masking Mode specifies the Mask Layer property to use. Use the RotoBezier option in the Tools palette to create curved masks more quickly.

Precomposing also places (5) . Choose File > Interpret Footage > Main. known either as Field 1 and Field 2. one or more layers that you select move into a new composition. Each field contains every other horizontal line in the frame. ________________________________________________________________ 18. How do you explain about the interlaced footage in After Effects ? ANS: Another way to classify analog or digital footage is as interlaced or noninterlaced.17. When you finish creating a movie for display on a television. When these fields are presented sequentially on an NTSC or PAL video monitor. maintaining high quality for broadcast display. Choose an option from the Separate Fields pop-up menu. each frame consists of two fields displayed in turn. The computer operating system and After Effects display noninterlaced video. or (as After Effects refers to them) upper and lower. unified picture. displayed for approximately 1/30 of a second. even and odd. 4. This new composition takes the place of the selected layers-something that does not occur in ordinary nesting. When you want to change the order in which layer components are rendered. most broadcast video is interlaced. a frame is divided into two fields. also known as progressive scan. and then displays the second field to fill in the alternating gaps left by the first field. Precomposing moves the layers to a new composition. 2. in which each frame is displayed completely from top to bottom. Explain about the Precomposing in After Effects ? ANS: Precomposing is an easier way to nest layers within an existing composition. Then click OK. After Effects can render it back to fields. they create a smooth. Currently. A TV displays the first field of alternating lines over the entire screen. Interlaced video consists of two fields. precomposing is a quick way to create intermediate levels of nesting in an existing hierarchy. In interlaced video. One NTSC video frame. contains two interlaced fields. Select the footage item in the Project window. 3. When you precompose. To separate video fields in imported footage: 1. Click Motion Detect (Best Quality Only) to increase image quality in nonmoving areas when the image is rendered at Best quality.

In the Timeline window containing the layers you want to precompose. and then choose Edit > Copy. To copy effects in a layer and paste them into other layers: 1. Double-click the selected effect or effects. The effect is also listed in the Effects section under the layer name in the Timeline window. Locate and select the effect or effects you want to apply. or to any spot in the existing list of effects. Explain about the Effects controls in After Effects ? ANS: When you apply an effect to a layer. If you apply additional effects to the layer. In the Timeline window. Drag the effect to the Composition window. 2. 4. The Info palette displays the name of the targeted layer as you drag over it. Each layer to which you apply effects appears on its own tab in the Effect Controls window. available for use in any composition. What are the Rendering Techniques that can be applied in After Effects ? ANS: When you create output. select the layers. Choose Layer > Pre-compose. they are listed under the first effect in the Timeline window. Drag the effect to the target layer on the Timeline window. 3. the effect is listed there. 2. Effects are rendered in order from top to bottom in this list. and then click OK. After Effects offers two options for working with layer properties and keyframes during precomposing: To precompose one or more layers: 1. . 5. the Effect Controls window opens. select one or more layers. 2. select one or more effects. the layers of a composition and each layer's masks. and then choose Edit > Paste. (5) ________________________________________________________________ 20. _____________________________________________________________________ 19. Effect list heading. Select Leave All Attributes In or Move All Attributes into the New Composition. either to the layer name.the new composition in the Project window. To apply an effect to a layer from the Effects palette: 1. You change the order in which effects are rendered by dragging the effect name to a new position in the list. 3. Drag the effect to the Effect Controls window. In the Effect Controls window.

vector paint. and viewports. Explain about the Interface and Workflow in Combustion ? ANS: (5) The main elements of the combustion user interface are the Workspace panel. Timeline. and properties are rendered frame by frame into one or more output files or. Toolbar.effects. To make a movie from a Composition : 1) Click on the Ram Preview>the movie will be cached into the ram 2) Goto composition >save Rampreview (This will be the rampreview) 3) Goto composition>Make Movie(This will rendered as a movie) 4) Goto composition> Add to Render Queue (This will rendered the movie in several different formats) 21. Most probably combustion is used in Broadcasting and Feature films. the format you choose depends on the medium from which you'll play your final output or on the requirements of your hardware. Schematic view. editing. Colour Correction tools in combustion provides users to control the rich colorcorrection from Broadcast to Highend Feature films. such as a video-editing system. Is is having highend Paint tools and Masking tools. . and 2D/3D compositing software application for multi-format work. into a series of consecutive files. It is a resolution-independent. It provides the various colour spaces including the Linear and the Logarithmetic colour spaces for conversation of tape to video. from the web to video and HDTV to feature film Combustion is a layer based compositing software package. ____________________________________________________________ 22. operator controls panel. It is having separate keying module .What is Combustion ? Explain about its features ? ANS: (5) combustion 4 is the Discreet stand-alone powerful desktop solution for creating stunning visual effects. animation. in the case of a sequence.It is having well structured gui inteface so that the new user can able to handle the tools in a easy manner. It is having individual particle generator engine so that the users can able to generate any kind of particle effects in real time. After Effects provides a variety of formats and compression types for rendering output.

(5) Applying an Operator to a Layer You can add operators to any layer in the workspace. the Composite Controls panel appears. To apply an operator to a layer: 1. In the current composite. 2. or you can show a Paint operator and move objects (shapes. _______________________________________________________________ 23. Double-click a composite to make it current. For example. A viewport can also show the Schematic view. text). Changes you make to the interface settings in the combustion preferences are kept and saved the next time you launch the application. The Schematic view. You can choose which to display and you can choose to customize their positions. Adjust the operator controls. When you first start combustion. The operator controls appear. when you select the Composite operator or one of its layers in the Workspace panel. you can show a composite and move layers. The operator is applied to the selected layer over its entire duration. . you can use a Keyer operator to key out a portion of a layer. and to play clips in real time. the results of your changes dynamically update in the viewport. Use the Timeline to animate your projects over time. As you work on projects. it shows the tools for the current operator. The Toolbar is also context sensitive. This panel and the Timeline are context sensitive. select a layer. all the interface elements appear in their default positions. You can select an operator to set its parameters in the operator controls panel.You display and interact with operators in viewports. The Toolbar shows the tools that you use as you work with operators. 4. How to apply operators in workspace in combustion ? ANS: An operator modifies a layer or a composite. masks. so they show parameters for the selected operator. For example. 3. Workspace panel. and Timeline offer different ways to see the process tree. choose an operator. For instance. From the Operators menu. Use the viewports to display operators at any point in the process tree. and then use a Color Corrector operator to color match the layer to the background. Changes in one are reflected in the others.

enable the Animate button (A). Enable the Animate button (A). In the active viewport. 3. How to do the keyframe animation in after effects ? (5) ANS: Keyframing You can animate a layer by setting at least two keyframes for the layer's categories at different times. A keyframe is a point in time that records any change to a layer in your workspace. expand the layer that you want to animate. The motion path starts here. 3. Before you can create keyframes. and then expand the Transformation category. To the right of the Playback controls. 4. drag the selected layer to its starting position. How to do the Motion Path Animation in Combustion ? (5) Ans To create a motion path for a layer in a composite: 1. Click the Timeline tab. 2. set the Z Rotation to 130°. .24. For instance. ____________________________________________________________________ 25. Use the playback controls to move to the first frame (or press Home). Select a layer (for instance. you have to enable the Animate button. 4. Use the Transform controls to set a rotation category at the first frame of the animation. To animate a layer using keyframes: 1. we select the Vanes layer from the illustration above to rotate the windmill's vanes). In the Workspace panel. Press the Home key to move to the first frame of the animation. select the layer you want to animate. 5. 2.

or adjust any other channel). To add an expression to a channel: Do one of the following: • In the Timeline. Drag the layer to its new location (you can also rotate. Browser button. Browser button. 7. you can use the Multi-line Editor to write your own expression. • In the Timeline. You can also adjust the speed along the motion path using the Speed channel. click an expression picon in the left pane. To change the shape of the motion path between keyframes. select a channel. For those who are familiar with JavaScript. and the layer's motion path appears. Use the playback controls to move to the frame where you want to create a second keyframe. The Multi-line Editor is displayed and the expression script is selected.) to create a relative path. and then select another channel. add an expression to a channel to link its value to the target channel. select a channel. A keyframe is created. or write your own expression. The selected predefined expression is added to the selected channel.. 8. An expression is added to the selected channel linking its value to the target channel—the second channel selected. add a predefined expression.Explain about the Expressions in Combustion (5) ANS: You can also animate an object by adding an expression to its channels. You can either add an expression to a channel based on the channel's value.5. you can use the Expression Browser to add a predefined expression. An expression is added to the channel based on the channel's value. and in . click Link (/) to create an absolute path or Link (. right-click (Windows) or control-click (Macintosh) a channel and choose Add Expression. click the Exp. in the Expression browser dialog. 6. • In the Timeline. • In the Timeline. scale. drag the tangent handles at a keyframe. click the Exp. For those who are not very familiar with JavaScript. and click OK. 26. select a channel.

every element you draw and create in the Paint operator is non-destructive. 2. and brush strokes. Explain about the Paint tools in Combustion ? (5) ANS: Paint is an interactive. from simple retouching. text. to motion tracking. you can go back into the Paint operator and modify the objects. Draw a rectangle over the lower left portion of the image _______________________________________________________________ 28. You can output Paint objects to . Unlike other packages. click OK. text. A Paint operator is added to the layer. there are tools for creating paint strokes. we create a filled rectangle to use as a banner in the composite.the Expression browser dialog.Explain about the Lights and Cameras in Combustion ? (5) ANS: Composites in combustion can be 2D or 3D. vector-based and object-oriented drawing operator that you apply to a layer as you would other operators. As with all other operators in combustion. Select the layer that you want to "paint" and then choose Operators | Paint. In this example. and masks.swf file format for your web projects. Press the Home key to make sure you are positioned over the animation's first frame. and add realism to your . geometric shapes. 5. Click the Filled Rectangle tool or click-drag the filled tool and select the Filled Rectangle tool to create a filled rectangle. To create a Paint object: 1. Creating a Paint Object You use the painting tools to create Paint objects such as rectangles and ellipses. ____________________________________________________________ 27. An expression is added to the channel based on the channel's value. Use lights to illuminate the surfaces in your 3D composites. at any point in the compositing process. add depth with shadows and shading. As with other painting-type software packages. selections. to full cartoon animation. Click the Toolbar tab. 4. It allows you to perform a wide range of painting tasks. 3.

and intensity of the light. Use the camera to navigate through the 3D landscape. When you are viewing the scene in Perspective view. the clip will play at real-time playback speed. Choose File | Render. it is reflected and refracted. Adding Lights to a Composite You can use lighting to add realistic effects and texture to your composites. you must render it to create a finished movie that can be played back on the device of your choice. 2. You can add keyframes or expressions to the camera channels to animate the viewpoint of a composite or to produce cinematic effects such as dollies and truck shots. You can continue to work on your projects. Rendering to RAM for Real-Time Playback combustion provides two ways to render your work using your system RAM. When combustion light strikes a layer. and the results of your changes will dynamically update as the clip plays in the viewport. or press Ctrl+R (Windows. and it casts shadows in the scene.composites. The Render Queue dialog appears.What are the Rendering techniques in Combustion ? (5) ANS: Rendering the Finished Product Once you finish your animation project. The first method is to simply use the playback controls to preview your work in a viewport. The combustion lighting controls are versatile and can be animated using keyframes or expressions. Viewing the Scene Through a Camera The camera behaves like any other object in a 3D composite. depending on the performance of your graphics display card. ____________________________________________________________ 29. color. the camera appears as an element of your composite—you can see a visual representation of the camera and its field of view. To render your composite as a QuickTime movie: 1. Once combustion has buffered every frame in its memory once. The effect that light has on a layer depends on the surface characteristics of the layer as much as it depends on the type. You can move and rotate the camera to view your composite from a different angle without disturbing the elements within. To render to RAM: .

4. the proxy is inserted in place of the original footage (the footage is pixelated). 2. To use a custom frame size.How to create the Proxy Footage in Combustion ? (5) ANS: You can create a low-resolution version of the footage for quicker feedback and lower memory requirements. Select a file format from the Format list. 7. if you are working with a film-resolution workspace. Choose File | Render to RAM. You can then switch between the full resolution version and the proxy as needed. Select the Footage operator and show the Footage Controls panel. Select a frame size from the Frame Size list. you can open the film-size layers. and use the Make Proxy dialog to render an NTSC D1 or other-sized version to disk from the original footage. You can enter a file path. Click Process. When rendering is complete. In the Workspace panel. 6. 8. enter a value in the Width and Height fields. or click Browse and navigate to the location where you want to store the proxy. 5.1. Click the Make Proxy button. To make a proxy for a layer: 1. double-click the operator that you want to render. The system renders a proxy of the selected layer. Specify the filename and location for the proxy. 2. or press Ctrl+Shift+R (Windows) __________________________________________________________ 30. Click the Options button to set the compression options for the selected format. Set the bit depth if necessary. For example. __________________________________________________________ . Click the Lock button to maintain the footage aspect ratio when you enter custom height or width values. You do this in the Make Proxy dialog. 3.

You can distribute or align to left. the effect on the layer in relation to the entire composite is displayed only when you switch to the composite view. Aligning and Distributing Text Objects combustion offers the following text object alignment features: • • Align (justify) text objects horizontally or vertically to each other. Animating the Write On value creates a "type on" effect. or bottom (for Vertical). . Layout Type Options Use the Type list to select a type of animation for the text object. you can align objects to other objects. the Text operator works on the original footage of that layer. The Write On option is available with all text Layout settings. center. Write On—Animates the visibility of the characters in the text object. the text objects align to the first object. Aligning Text Objects You can align a text object to the top. A Write On value of 0% displays no characters. or center of the image. Distribute text objects evenly. Otherwise. Static—Enables the text to be animated by setting keyframes (just like animating Paint or other objects).Explain about the Text controls in Combustion ? (5) ANS : You can add text to a composite in several ways: • • • • Add a Text operator to a layer. When text is added to a layer. bottom.31. The character completion progresses in the direction set by the character Direction settings in the Text Basics controls. center. Use the Text tool in the Paint operator. To align to the image. or right (for Horizontal) or top. left. In addition. Like the Paint operator. Is is possible to generate timecode in combustion in the text controls. and a Write On value of 100% displays all characters. select one text object only. Create a new Text layer in a composite. Add a separate Text branch to a workspace. right.

The default Speed is 500 (pixels per second). Entering a lower value in the Speed field slows the animation. Roll Down—Scrolls the text block automatically down in the viewport. As you create composites and other branches (for example. By default. To show the Schematic view: 1. Crawl Left—Scrolls the text block automatically to the left in the viewport. For example. You can work directly with the process tree in the Schematic view.Roll Up—Scrolls the text block automatically up in the viewport. Do any of the following: o Choose Window | Schematic. when you add a Paint operator to a layer in the Schematic view. entering a higher number in the Speed field speeds up the animation. a Completion value of 0% means the text is offscreen. For example. The text automatically rolls or crawls when Speed is selected and the Layout Type is set to Roll Up/Down or Crawl Left/Right. press F12 . The same Paint operator appears in the layer in the Workspace panel. click the viewport in which you want to display the Schematic view. the Controls panel. and the viewports. and navigate easily between the operator controls.Explain about the schematic view in Combustion ? (5) ANS: The Schematic view uses nodes to represent all the operators in a workspace. Increasing the Completion value "rolls" or "crawls" the text (depending on the selected Layout Type). While each of these tools displays data from the process tree in a different way. the process tree is built automatically. The output of one node is the source for the next node. 2. you can add operators to a branch. and lines (connections) between nodes to indicate the flow of image data between the operators. a Paint node appears. ________________________________________________________ 32. changes in one tool are reflected in all the other tools. change the process order of the operators. The Schematic view complements the other navigation and editing tools—the Workspace panel. If more than one viewport is showing. the Timeline. Paint and Color Correction projects). Crawl Right—Scrolls the text block automatically to the right in the viewport. Completion/Speed—The crawl and roll animation types are controlled by the Completion or Speed sliders.

allowing the transparent (or blurred) areas to partially show through. The alpha channel is represented by a grayscale image embedded in the file. 8 bits). these layers form a composite. black pixels are transparent (0% opacity). and gray pixels represent varying degrees of opacity. smoke. If you are looking through a keyhole inside a room. or can contain many shades of gray. Each branch has three color channels. 34. including along a Bezier path of a layer. Apply the effect to a layer that contains a solid or an image. In video and film. one each for red. The alpha channel uses another grayscale image (with the same bit depth) to determine which pixels are opaque and which are transparent for each frame. The process of generating a matte (from blue screen. the keyhole is the alpha. not an audio effect." any imperfections in the matte can become glaringly obvious and ruin the illusion.Explain about the Channels in Combustion ? ANS: (5) Color channels show the amount of the corresponding color present in the clip using a grayscale image with a certain bit depth (for example. Alpha Channels You use alpha channels to determine how much of the front image shows over the back image(s). and the room is the back. mattes are rarely static. and it must be applied (5) . Getting as close as possible to the perfect matte is perhaps the most important part of compositing. Note: This effect is a visual effect. and that may contain audio. the door is the front. For more information. and are rarely pure black and white. and blue. This effect can display the audio spectrum in a number of different ways. The grayscale value determines the opacity: white pixels are opaque (100% opacity). Combined together. curly blond hair) or motion blur appear in the matte as gray areas. The following illustration shows the function an alpha channel performs when compositing If you render the contents of the alpha channel. Because you are superimposing layers on layers with the aim of creating a "reality.Explain about the Audio spectrum and Audio waveform in After Effects ? ANS: The Audio Spectrum effect displays the spectrum of an audio layer. A matte can be completely black and white (called a "hi-con" for high-contrast). green. for example) is also known as "pulling" a matte. Any areas of the front containing transparency (glass. you get what is called a matte. It displays the magnitude of frequencies in the range you define using Start Frequency and End Frequency.33.

including along a Bezier path created by an open or closed mask of a layer. Display Options Specifies how to display the audio waveform. or outof. The Audio Waveform effect displays the waveform amplitude of an audio layer. Analog Dots displays each sample as a dot representing either the minimum or maximum audio source sample. You can display the audio waveform in a number of different ways.to a video layer. Start Point. it describes the act of painting an element into. stretch. This option simulates the display used on digital equipment. Apply the effect to a layer that contains a solid or an image. Explain about the Rotoscoping ? ANS: (5) Rotoscoping can describe many different actions in the compositing process. Note: Audio Spectrum uses the audio source footage without timeremapping. To graph this information.but. Analog Lines displays each sample as a line connecting the previous and next sample from either the minimum or maximum audio source sample. 35. End Point Specifies the position at which the spectrum starts or ends if Path is set to None. Audio Spectrum Controls : Adjust the following controls for the Audio Spectrum effect: Audio Layer Specifies the audio layer you want to display as a spectrum. effects. or levels. making the . and that may contain audio. For instance. if you use wires to support a subject during shooting.you canrotoscope the wires out of the scene during post-production. Digital displays each sample as a single vertical line connecting the minimum and maximum source sample. a scene.incombustion. pre-compose the audio layer before applying the effect. This option simulates the retrace seen in the display of an analog oscilloscope.

the amount of cross-dissolve can be specified for each piece of matching geometries individually. the user can animate a picture into motion using a single set of geometry. more subtle effects are needed. the user can animate the geometries in order to achieve a non-constant speed of morphing By default. you can use selection objects to select the object to remove. Combustion is generally provide to different types of morph filters (5) AE RE:Flex Morph Use AE RE:Flex Morph to morph from still image to still image. the two images are linearly cross-dissolved. then try blurring it so it is no longer recognizable. In this situation.subjectappear to be flying. such as removing a logo from an object. Morphing gradually transforms an image in a front clip into an image in a back clip. Sometimes. You can also use a cloning tool to take one element and make it into many (such as making one tree into a forest). The AE RE:Flex Motion Morph includes the following: • Morph from one moving sequence to another . If only one key image is specified. For finer control. Explain about the Morphing Filters in Combustion ? ANS: By using this filter it is possible to transform one image into other or to morph moving video charater to another. The effect is achieved by warping the two images and dissolving between the front and back clips. Automatic alignment feature that can be used in conjunction with hand-alignment for a combination of user and automatic feature correspondence • • • • AE RE:Flex Motion Morph Use AE RE:Flex Motion Morph to create a moving morph. or you can use the Clone tool to copy a part of the image on top of the logo. You can use the Reveal tool to add an element to a scene that was not present during shooting. then moving the set to corresponding places on each of the successive key images In-between key images. The AE RE:Flex Morph includes the following: • • "Key images" are placed by the user along the timeline Morphing occurs by creating a set of geometry on the first key image. Rotoscoping also refers to the process of drawing over live action to create realistic looking animation 36.

Go to the frame where you want the transition to start. Leave the Amount field set to zero. Select the layer that you want to make disappear (the outgoing layer). To create a transition: 1. such as a human morphing into an alien. Morphing is a transition effect that matches the morphology of one clip gradually to that of another clip. In the Transition controls. Go to the frame where you want the transition to end (where the . 5. 2. and choose a transition from the menu. 3. such as elongating someone's nose. The Animate button is red when enabled. Explain about the Transition Filters in Combustion ? (5) ANS: Transitions Filters Animate Transitions filters to make one layer gradually disappear over a number of frames and reveal the underlying layers. Choose Operators | Transitions. This is the first keyframe for the transition. The AE RE:Flex Warp includes the following: • • • Warping is directed using sets of "from" geometries and "to" geometries at each frame The amount of warping can be specified and animated with one number Variable amount of shape blending between "from" and "to" geometries can be specified per-shape 37. adjust the filter parameters.• • • Speed of the warp for each matching geometry can be set individually Rate of dissolve can for each matching geometry can be set individually Automatic alignment feature that can be used in conjunction with hand-alignment for a combination of user and automatic feature correspondence AE RE:Flex Warp Use AE RE:Flex Warp to perform free-form distortion of images. 4. Click the Animate button to enable it. 6.

Adjust the in-between keyframes if required. you can move layers. you move it (and everything it contains) onto a singlelayer in another composite. in the same or a different layer. Venetian Blinds Use Venetian Blinds to apply a mask in the shape of linear strips. Radial Wipe Use Radial Wipe to apply a transition that rotates like the hands of a clock. add effects. revealing the underlying image. Gradient Wipe Use Gradient Wipe to gradually reveal or hide a layer based on the values of pixels in a separate channel.) Select a composite in the Workspace panel. with an important difference—you can still modify all of the elements in thenested composite. 8. 7. set the Amount field to 100%. and importfootage just as you would normally. Play the clip. For example. Horizontal Size—Determines the average horizontal size of the transparent blocks. This is the last keyframe for the transition. This in a sense "collapses" the composite onto thelayer.outgoing layer completely disappears). Circular Wipe Use Circular Wipe to apply a circular transition to the image. Feather Amount—Creates an opacity gradient at the edge of the transparent blocks creating a smoother effect. The layer to which you applied the filter gradually disappears. In the Transition controls. How to create the Nested composites in Combustion ? ANS: When you nest a composite. Block Dissolve Use Block Dissolve to create blocks of transparency. Linear Wipe Use Linear Wipe to apply a transition with a linear edge. Vertical Size—Determines the average vertical size of the transparent blocks. Amount—Determines the number of transparent blocks. 38. To create a nested composite: (5) 1. .

When you nest a layer. rolls. enter a name for the composite. For example. or press Ctrl+Y (Windows) or command+Y (Macintosh). 4. About Cameras You use cameras to define and "record" your viewpoint for rendering. and then click OK. click the Background Color box. and click OK. 5. 39. The camera behaves like any other object in a 3D composite. To look through the camera. into a new composite to organize them in the workspace. enter a duration in either frames or in SMPTE timecode. For more information 6. and frame rate) appear in the Format Options box.) In the Name field. and craneshots. set the viewport to Camera view. 8.Enable the 2D or 3D Mode button.The New dialog appears. nest several layers and then apply a Color Emboss effect to them all. The options are Operators or Selected Layers.) Choose Composite from the Type list. 7. pixel aspect ratio. 9. dollies. frame aspect ratio.2. The nested composite automatically becomes the current operator. all the operators on the layer (such as Footage and Box Blur) will be moved into the nested layer. 10.) To change the background color. Whether or not the layer properties.) Select Object | New Layer. move to the nested layer is determined by the option you choose when nesting.) The corresponding properties (output size.) A new layer is created in the original composite that contains the new composite. Organizing Layers You can nest a layer. pans. or multiple layers. . 3.) Select a bit depth from the Depth list.) In the Duration field. such as rotation or depth order. How to work with the cameras in Combustion ? (5) ANS: Working with Cameras Use the combustion camera to animate fly-throughs.) Select a standard format from the Format Options list or select Custom to create a custom format. select a color from the Pick Color dialog that appears. Matchmoving and the ability to work with RPF files make the camera a robust and indispensable element in 3D composites.

Note: There are no camera controls for 2D composites. Select the composite. if you create three null objects. Explain about the Nullobject use in Combustion ? (5) ANS: A null object is an invisible object. . Click a button to set the focal length and field of view. to see the composite from the top. This affects the Field of View. If you create multiple null objects. Camera Controls These controls determine the properties of the camera "lens".ase) file. For example. As the focal length increases. Choose Object | New Null Object. You can create a null object to use as the camera target. The greater the field of view. their default names are Null Object. Field of View—Controls the amount of space visible through the camera. move the camera above the objects. be sure to reset the camera as well. You can rename them at any time. 40. and is not rendered in the final output. otherwise your camera will not have the correct Field of View. Null Object(2). the farther away the scene appears. Note: When changing the footage and composite pixel aspect ratio settings. RPF Transform Layer—Selects the layer in the composite that has camera animation you want to use. it has no pixel information or dimensions. Aperture Width—Sets the size of the camera lens opening. Stock Lenses—Provides several standard focal lengths. and will not be set to produce the correct aspect ratio with non-transformed layers. You can keyframe the camera to animate the viewpoint of a composite or to produce cinematic effects such as dollies and truck shots. you can also control how to use the file's camera animation information. and Null Object(3). combustion appends an increasing number (in parenthesis) to the name of each. The camera will then focus on the null object wherever you move it in 3D space. If you import an RPF or RLA file from 3ds max. For example. Import Camera— Imports Ase file —target cameras from 3ds max that were saved to an ASCII Scene Export (*. the field of view decreases and vice versa. Focal Length—Sets the distance of the focal point. You can move and rotate the camera to view the composite from a different angle without disturbing the elements within. To target to a null object: 1. 2. Note: This option is also available in the context menu. and rotate it to point down.

3. Select the camera. 0. o __________________________________________________________ . 0.A null object is added at coordinates 0. select the null object from the Target list You can now move the null object. the camera changes rotation to point at it. 4. 5. If necessary. In the Composite Controls panel.