After this unit you should be able to answer following questions A. Concept Questions B. Short notes 1. Containerization 2.

Nodal Points 3. Principles of transportation 4. Transportation policy 5. Freight rate structure 6. Inland Container Depots 7. Transportation infrastructure 8. Transportation modes 9. Material handling 10.Inter modal transport 11.Piggyback, fishy back, birdy back 12.TOFC, COFC 13.Unit train 14.Milk runs C. Section II descriptive questions [10 marks each] 1. What is transportation mode? Describe various modes of transportation, their advantages and cost elements. 2. Explain various pricing factors for transportation. 3. What is transportation performance? Distinguish between DRP & MRP.

What factors are required to be taken into account while selecting mode of transport to achieve minimum cost? Explain.

5. What is an inland container depot [ICD]? What type of coordination with transportation will be required?

Discuss principles and functions of transportation.


7. What is transportation environment and who are the participants in transportation decisions?
8. 9.

Explain transportation infrastructure. What are nodal points? What is their significance in transportation network? Explain how Selection of Carrier is done? Transportation


11. How transportation policy is chalked out for a company? Transportation functionality Transportation is the most visible of all functions of logistics and high contributor to logistics cost. We can see trucks, containers and wagonloads of material being moved from place to place as an activity directly associated with trade and business. We should also appreciate that this is an activity that adds highest amount of cost to the activity of making inputs and outputs available to consumers. Transportation function moves the products to meet customer expectations at minimum cost. Functions of transportation 1. Product movement: What is moved? Raw Material, Semi Finished items, WIP, Finished goods, packaging material, rejected material - movement is required up or down the supply chain. How is this done? What Resources are used? Resources used by transportation: A. Temporal - product is locked up during transit, hence inaccessible. We have to spend a positive amount of time in transporting the material. Time is a resource [temporal resource] that is expended in transportation. During the time the product is locked up costs are incurred in proportion to the time

B. Financial - several cost elements like administration costs, salaries, maintenance costs are expended. Loss on account of product loss and damage also needs to be accounted for. Fuel consumed is a big cost in transportation C. Environmental – this activity is a fuel guzzler, eats up natural fuels like oil, directly and indirectly. - 67% of all domestic fuel usage in the US is by transportation activity. Creates congestion, air pollution and noise pollution. Environmental cost is tangible and substantially intangible. As transportation utilizes temporal, financial and environmental resources items must be moved only when product value is enhanced 2. Product Storage: Temporary storage in stationary vehicles or Vehicles kept moving on a circuitous route - Product storage is expensive in a transport vehicle. But some times keeping overall cost in mind this is adopted. A. When unloading and loading is more expensive than storage B. When storage space is limited. [Situation when inventory levels are very high] Principles of transportation 1. Economy of scale It is common knowledge that per unit transportation cost comes down as the bulk of the items transported increases. Hence in order to gain benefits in terms of reduction in transportation costs logistician tries to consolidate the bulk and then ship the consignment rather than shipping half truck loads or half container loads. This benefit is Economy of scale 2. Economy of distance The transportation cost per kilometer comes down as the distance moved increases. Hence transportation is planned in a single long lap rather than

number of short laps to reach the destination. The fixed costs and costs like overheads of loading and unloading are spread over the distance through which the load is moved. When alternate transportation strategies are evaluated to meet customer service expectation, economy of scale and economy of distance are fundamental. Participants in Transportation Decisions Normal commercial transaction has limited number of parties to the business decision. They are seller, buyer and directly or indirectly government. But a transportation decision has number of parties to the decision. These parties have very important roles to play in transportation environment. Parties to a transportation decision are those who have a stake in the transportation. They are 1. Shipper: shipper is a party who wants to transport the goods to his customer in a business transaction 2. Consignee is the party to whom the goods are sent 3. Carrier is the service provider who carries the consignment from shipper to consignee. 4. Government has a role to play as they are keenly interested in transportation and have a stake in it. Transportation makes business happen which is fundamental to the economy of any society. Economic prosperity to the society is the objective of the government of the day. Government also collects tax on the transaction. Government represents general public whose interest they have to protect. 5. General public is another party who has a large stake in the transaction involving transportation. Public want goods produced at different parts of not only country but also world. Their demand cannot be met without transportation.

Roles and perspective of each party Shipper and consignee: Predictable and minimum transit time, minimum cost, minimum taxation, specified pick up and delivery times, zero loss and damage, timely exchange of information and invoicing. These are the needs of the above parties. They look at transportation from this angle. They are the basic elements of transportation. Business between them initiates the need for transportation Carrier: What does he want? Revenue maximization and cost [labor, fuel and vehicle costs, taxation] minimization. Flexibility in pick up and delivery times to consolidate movement. Carrier facilitates the business between shipper and consignee. He gets paid for his service. He adds value to the supply chain by moving the material from supplier to the customer. Carriers’ strike in our country is a repetitive phenomenon to protest against role of government. Government: government while playing their role exercise control on all the players. They want the business to flourish, at the same time benefits to reach uniformly all over the country. They also have to provide the necessary infrastructure to support transportation. It is said that one of the causes that expedited the break up of Soviet Union was the weak infrastructure on account of which products could not be transported to far-flung parts of the country. Hunger deaths in India in spite of self-sufficiency in food production are examples to illustrate the interest of the government. Government controls carrier rates and licenses. Government owned carrier service is probably the cheapest option for transportation available to business. Government supports transportation by providing a network of roads, Airports and ATC, Ports and Harbors. Government wants taxes to support above activities in national interest. Ultimately the consumer, general public, has to bear the burden of tax.

Public What do public want?

• Public as consumers trigger transportation activity by demanding products
and services of high quality from all over the world at minimum cost. They have concern for safety as accidents of various kind have been a bye product of transportation. Degradation of the environment is another threat about which public are concerned as transportation is at the root cause of many such concerns. Eg. Degradation of atmosphere and water, rise of noise levels, oil spills due tankers carrying cargo of crude oil. When these parties with separate and distinct interests interact transportation environment is created. Conflict of interests raises issues that interrupt smooth transport of goods in the country. Government as the main arbiter steps in to iron out these differences in the interests of business. What is transportation mode? Mode of transport identifies transportation method or form. The vehicle used indicates all other parameters of the mode. If ship is the vehicle used, then we know that it is associated with other parameters of transport like water, ports etc. There are several options available now for moving goods and services from one place to another. These modes have emerged over a period of time representing changes in technology and contemporary business environment. Science & Technology have played major role in development of these modes and relevant infrastructure. March of bullock cart mode to mode of aviation is the contribution of Science & Technology to logistics performance. Mode selection is an important decision in transportation strategy as it has an impact on cost transportation. Rail, Road, Water, Pipeline & Air are well known


modes of transport extensively used in logistics. Various important features of these modes like transportation time are discussed elsewhere in these notes. We can say such important features are, transit time, risk or liability, smoothness of passage & flexibility Impact of transportation mode on other costs associated with transportation

Movement costs: cost of power to drive the vehicle of transport depends on the mode selected

• Inventory costs: It is quite clear that inventory holding costs are temporal
costs and are directly proportional to the transit time. Longer the inventory is in transit larger are the costs. Transit capital remains blocked during transit time and unavailable for use. Mode of transport determines the transit time and thereby influences these costs

• Obsolescence: Specially, when the transit time is quite large the inventory
can become redundant when it arrives at the point of use. We know that in the changed environment, product life cycles are shrinking and hence this cost becomes highly relevant. Other situations are product deterioration time & expiration date of the product.

• Packaging: These costs are mode dependent as bad road condition needs
robust packaging and smooth transit does not need such packaging. This will also depend on handling system.

• Insurance: This cost obviously proportional to risk of damage and loss in
transit as this is the liability of carrier.


• Breakage: This depends on smoothness of transit and handling system
associated with the mode.

• Pilferage: This cost can be eliminated by switching to options like container

Customer Service Costs: Shortage of product when demanded by the customer leads to customer dissatisfaction and thereby loss of sale for the company. So customer service should be raised to be able to meet customer expectations. When we try to raise customer service level costs are incurred. Conventionally, companies stockpile to raise service level. But the current thinking is to reduce response time to customer need rather than increase the stock, as costs of inventory are well understood. This is done by improving information flow to anticipate demand and reduce transit time by changing to faster mode of transport. The second method is cheaper than the conventional. But rise in customer service beyond a certain level does not result into increased revenue. In other words it is only cost and not value.

Transport infrastructure Infrastructure is the main facilitator for any activity to take place. For transportation to take place a strong infrastructure is primary. If this infrastructure is inadequate transportation gets slowed down resulting into a major obstacle in the growth of trade and business in that area. Elements of transportation infrastructure

• Terminal facilities - well maintained loading unloading facilities, space for
movement of vehicles, platforms, railway yards


• Vehicles- trucks, ships or wagons depending on the mode. Their size, shape
& speed

• Right of way- passage to move on. Rails, roads, airways, limitations on
speed, weight, height etc. If we use this particular passage.

• Prime movers – the powerhouses moving the vehicle of transport shortage of
which seriously affect transportation. Shortage of good locomotives impairs the utility of railway as a mode of transport. • Carrier organizations – are the transportation service providers in business. Transportation is their core business. Good service provides a vital fillip to business and trade. Railways, roadways, airlines, shipping lines are service providers. What are various features of modes or modal characteristics? Modal characteristics are features of a particular mode that indicate the relative importance of that mode. By measuring these features one can determine the relative importance of each mode. How do we measure relative importance of each mode? We measure relative importance of each mode as of now or over a specific time span by measuring the modal characteristics. Importance is the popularity or wide spread usage of this mode in business. Modal characteristics are System mileage, Traffic volume, nature of traffic composition and revenue. System mileage: Mileage covered by the modal net work. Like total length of roads in the road network in miles or kilometers is System mileage for road as a mode. This measure explains to what extent road is being used or how popular in business as a mode of transport today.


Traffic volume: is the amount of ton kilometers moved by a mode. This is a better measure as this indicates the tonnage shipped by this mode as well. Revenue: is the amount of transportation business in rupees or dollars transacted by a mode. In simple terms how many rupees worth material is shipped in this mode. Nature of traffic composition: what variety of goods are moved by this mode is a measure to indicate the spectrum of goods handled. This speaks of the flexibility of the mode. RAIL NET WORK Rail network is fully owned and operated by the government in India. This a major step for facilitating movement of goods through out the country at a very low cost for promoting trade & business in the country. Rail net work stands for maximum tonne kilometers moved in India now, thereby being an important mode of transport in the country. Rail network accounts for 226 billion tonne kilometres and 55.8% of total tonne kilometers moved in 1982 in India. If we try to compare these figures with US a much more prosperous economy, we find that 37.4% of ton-miles moved were by rail in 1990. Post world war business experienced auto boom and rapid spread of road network in the US. As a result rail network is facing very stiff competition there. This trend is quite relevant in India too which has forced the railways to assume a friendly posture in terms of service offered to customers who were taken for granted by the administration until now. Rail network needs a high capital investment due to right of way, switching yards, terminals but it operates with low running costs. To capitalize on this basic advantage railways focus on specific products rather than on broad range. Wooing raw material extractive industries that are away from waterways is an example of this customer friendly policy. In the US, inter modal transport by

railways through alliances and acquisition is practiced to provide hassle free service to customers. We can see an example of this practice in courier business. Various modes of transport are used for taking the parcel to the addressee by this business. Development of Specialized Equipment: as a result of above change in thinking several special equipment are developed to attract customer in an environment of competition. All of these are in vogue in the US and some can be seen in India. It will not be very long before we see all of them here.

• Enclosed tri-level automobile car • Cushioned appliance cars • Unit trains - entire train carrying a single product that can go directly to the
customer without getting shunted off in marshaling yards.

• Articulated cars - flexible units with extended chassis that can hold ten

• Double stack containers- containers in two levels
Nodal points in distribution system [ref. KKK, pages [343 to 350] In the context of Indian economy, in spite of liberalization, state exercises immense influence on the national economy. Bulk of material transported is either produced or in some form controlled by the state. Such materials are coal, steal, fertilizer, cement etc that are to be made available at consumption centers. On the other hand, state also has the responsibility to distribute essential commodities through the public distribution system [PDS]. Hence the

responsibility for logistics of those items falls on the state. State also owns the network of railways that encompasses entire country. Rail network is the cheapest mode of transport for hauling bulk material in the country. In the value chain of such commodities, if the state develops some facilities or nodes, large amount of benefit may be derived by way of movement consolidation. State owned rail network could link these nodes to the best advantage of state and thereby to that of national economy. Problems of our distribution system are well known what is produced never reaches the consumer in time and in good shape. Hunger deaths in a country that is self sufficient in food production is the indicator of our national logistical performance. Some characteristics of nodal points are as under. 1. Nodal points should be closer to consumption points. 2. Number of nodal points would depend on volume of distribution. Too many would be costly and too less would not make the desired change. 3. Nodal points should be well connected by rail network. Terminal and shunting facilities are required at these places. There should be facilities for loading, unloading, necessary facility for inter modal handling. Shipments from the nodal points would be by road in trucks or bullock carts 4. Nodal points should be connected to consumption centers by roads 5. Normally, nodal points are district headquarters where necessary operational support can easily be available. 6. Nodal points service an area with a radius of 100kms. So, generally 200kms separate one nodal point from another. Development of such nodal points in the country would give a shot in the arm to logistical operations in the country for essential commodities and bulk materials.


ROAD TRANSPORT Road transport is rapidly pulling the carpet from under the feet of railways, as we saw earlier, post world war. Its popularity is growing everyday. In India, roadways moved 179.2 billion tonne kilometers in 1982. This is 44.2% of total tonne kilometres moved by all modes as against 55.8% by railways. Important features of this mode of transport are discussed below. High flexibility and speed: this is the strength of roadways. No other mode can connect any given pair of shipper & consignee as roadways. Nor any other mode can handle the variety as roadways do. As there is no need for shunting and waiting for, as in railways road transport reaches the goods to the consignee very fast. Ultimate mode of transport: irrespective of the mode chosen ultimately the consignment reaches the doorsteps of the customer by road Low capital cost as compared to railways: railways obviously need huge amount of capital for setting up the infrastructure needed for movement of goods by rails. This feature along with flexibility forms the formidable strength of this mode. Operating costs are higher: due to fuel requirement and higher labor requirement. This feature makes roadways ideal for small shipments over short distances. Occasional fuel shortages: as the fuel is not available in full measure in the country internally, scarcity is experienced once in a while. Disputes with government: on account of conflicting interests between the parties to transportation decision. We have experience of transportation contractors or carriers going on strikes to project their problems with the government.


Vehicle availability: limited availability of trucks poses a constraint. Now as more and more truck manufactures have come into business this difficulty is likely to be short lived. Maintenance and spares costs and availability of service facilities: as the road network is quite extended and reaches deep in the rural India nonavailability of such services is a problem. Octroi: is a long-standing grouse of carriers. Octroi posts are notorious for delays and harassment of carriers Old Motor Vehicles Act: the legislation that controls movement of vehicles on the roads is an important law for this business. There is a feeling that this law is now outdated and new legislation should made to tackle the challenge of current business environment Bad and unsafe road conditions: pathetic condition of our roads a major stumbling block for business which causes delays, accidents and damage. Restrictive permits: carriers resent restrictive regime of permits and licenses imposed by the government all over the country. Developments in this area Entry of several manufacturers of trucks and trailers is relieving the strain from this business. Construction of expressways and a national grid of highways is another important step in this direction. WATER TRANSPORT This mode is the link between countries separated by water. Business is known to have existed between far off lands for a long time in the past. Sailing vessels existed since far away times. Mechanized water transport came into being in the form of steamships since 1800, diesel driven ships came into existence since1920. Water transport is classified into deep-water transportation and navigable inland water transportation or domestic water transportation on

lakes, rivers or canals. Main advantage of water transportation is its capacity to move extremely large shipments at a very low cost. Inland water Transport is not used to its full potential in India although we have used mechanized Inland Water Transport [IWT] since early 1800. Lack of policy, lack of clarity in thinking receding water levels in rivers and tough competition offered by other modes of transport appear to be the hurdles. Main features of water transport are the following. • • • • • • • Low capital costs and low operating costs Low speed Capacity to carry huge bulk Limitation due to availability of harbor Maneuverability is low due to size Deep-water ships designed for ocean and lakes are limited to deep-water ports Shallow water vessels like diesel towed barges are flexible but are limited by their range of operations and speed PIPELINES What is transported in a pipeline? Generally liquids like oils, crude, petroleum products are transported in a pipeline. In India pipelines are extensively used for transporting crude and petroleum products. More than 5,000 km of pipeline exists in India for crude and petroleum products. In addition to the products above slurries, gases, vapors and solids in powder form are also transported in pipelines. Slurries - coal slurry, iron ore, lime, huge quantity of water is necessary which is a concern for environment, In India pipeline is used for transporting iron ore. Gases and vapors - natural gas, LPG, in India LPG pipeline is in existence.

Pulverized dry bulk material - cement by hydraulic suspension Main features of this mode of transport •
• •

Reliable all weather means of transport Low energy consumption Pipeline being under ground space occupation is minimal Pipeline operates all the time except when it is shut down for maintenance No empty container or wagon to be brought back Highest fixed costs, due to right of way and laying of pipeline, and lowest operating costs [not labor intensive].

• • •

• • •

Not flexible by nature. Pipe lines are stationary Physical state of the commodity to be transported is a limitation. This mode of transport can release capacity of other modes for transport for

essential commodities ROPE WAYS Used for transporting materials in hilly and otherwise inaccessible area. Fruits produced in hilly area are brought to the low land for further transportation to consumption centers. This mode is good when gradients are steep as road or rail would take a very long route to negotiate the gradient. Rope way causes minimum ecological imbalance. Rope way connects point of supply and demand by shortest route. AIR TRANSPORT Generally, this transport mode is used in emergency rather than in normal times.

Speed of transport is highest


• Fixed costs are lower than rail or road or pipe line. But operating costs are highest • Air transport brings distant markets closer - perishables market in gulf countries • Overcomes the hassle and cost of setting up depots and service centers overseas • Full potential of peak seasonal demand can be exploited. Moving entire facility to meet peek demand. • Test marketing is easy. Products can be shipped directly from the factory as time is of high importance Freight rate structure Freight rates are transportation rates charged by carriers for shipping the goods to the consignees premises. These rates are structured round some principles. Some of the principles are commercial nature and some of them are structured by the state. Principle of freight rates: 1. Should cover actual cost of transportation: fundamental principle is that the rate should cover the cost without fail. Factors influencing cost of transportation A. Fixed costs: • Interest on capital invested in the fleet • Depreciation • Insurance premium • Administrative overheads and expenses on fixed facilities


B. Semi fixed costs: • Salaries of the staff • Miscellaneous maintenance expenses directly related to running of the transport vehicle. C. Variable costs: • Cost of fuel and lubricants • Maintenance directly attributable to a particular trip. Damage to the vehicle and also the cargo. E.g. Hilly roads, bad roads, war effected sea routes 2. Vehicle utilization: Carrier likes to gain maximum mileage out of his vehicle. If vehicle is idle it is a big loss to the carrier organization. Hence the carrier would like to run his vehicle at top speed to cover max. Distance at min time. While structuring the rates carrier would like to charge more if opportunity for maximum utilization is limited. Quote higher rates if following are not conducive to the above • Road conditions are bad. Hence vehicle can not be driven fast. • Terminal detentions [congestion, formalities, for loading unloading (handling) etc.]: a delay at the terminal brings down vehicle utilization as the vehicle is idling. If the destination is known for this kind of delays carrier would charge higher rates. • Obtaining a return load [market factors]. If the destination does not offer opportunity for a return load carrier asks for a higher rate as would not be able to utilize his vehicle during return trip. Normally if the destination is a production center one would always find return trip to consumption center. But the other way round probability of return load is very low. O • Nature of goods, hazardous, corrosive[liability, insurance]. Such goods are detrimental to the safety of the transport vehicle and operating staff. Hence rates are high when such goods are shipped.

• Density, consignment light by weight: when the consignment is light by weight the truck becomes full without full load being loaded. Hence the carrier doesn’t get paid for the full load. So he hikes his rates when the consignment is light. • Stowability, shape and size of the product. When the load has an odd shape speed of the vehicle is reduced to accommodate the center of gravity. This brings down the utilization apart from being risky. 3. Traffic Bearing Capacity: transportation adds value by making the product available to the customer. But the cost incurred by the shipper while transporting should not outweigh the value added. The carrier structures rates keeping this principle in mind. 4. Public use: state introduces the principle that the transportation of essential commodities should be done at a lower rate. 5. Government Policy: freight rates are controlled by the state for promotion of certain type of trade and development of certain type of industry as per the industrial policy prevalent at that time. Freight rates are hiked or depressed by state the to meet the objectives of the policy. 6. Profit: Freight rate should cover costs of operation, capital investment and margin for reasonable return on investment. It should also compensate entrepreneurial time and efforts. Business should generate enough funds to provide for future development of business. The freight is expected to generate enough money to cover all these requirements. Selection of Carrier


Following care is to be taken while selecting a carrier for shipping the consignment to the consignee. ♦ Shipper should carefully see constitution of the carrier’s constitution to assess what kind of an organization he has to deal with. Is it professional? Family or proprietorial? ♦ Volume of business or business turns over, to get an idea of the infrastructure the company can afford to provide for business. ♦ Area of operation, the length and breadth of business, the extent to which the carrier can reach the goods in the country. ♦ Branch offices or associates’ office. Check if the carrier can manage his his operations at far away places through the network of own offices or the offices of associates. ♦ Strength of fleet. The size of fleet owned by the carrier which can be committed to business at any given time. ♦ Ask for up to date clients list for seeking the opinion of other clients of the carrier. ♦ Ask specifically for list current clients, for ascertaining reliability. ♦ Type of business the carrier is doing will indicate if the carrier is suitable for the shipper. ♦ The average transit time quoted by the carrier for some well known destination. ♦ Record of claims settlement by carrier to know how good or bad the carrier is whenever there is a claim settlement Reference from other shippers’ banks, carriers’ associations as a measure of confidence.

Transportation policy Before one tries to formulate transportation policy for his company one should understand components of transportation decisions. Transportation decisions weigh cost/benefit with respect to these components before finalizing the choice which would ultimately formulate the policy. Components of transportation decisions

• Mode of transportation
Air - most expensive, but very fast Road - relatively quick and inexpensive, highly flexible Rail - An inexpensive mode for large quantities Water - the slowest but most economical for large overseas consignments Pipeline - primarily for oil and gas Transportation decision here is selection of mode for transportation of goods from our company

• Route and network selection
Route is the path the product takes and network is locations and routes along which a product can be shipped. In this case, the transportation decision is selection of network.

• Carrier in house or out sourced
whether product owner performs the function or out sources it. Trade off - customer service efficiency & growth in business Improvement in customer service level cost money to the company. But improved service level ensures customer loyalty and growth in business. But improvement beyond a certain level may not result into benefits


proportionately. We have to identify this level and should not expend resources for improvement beyond this point.

• Trade off - cost of transportation and cost of inventory
Transportation decision is about establishing the trade off point between cost of transportation and cost of inventory. Increased transportation cost results in savings in inventory cost as increased transportation cost crashes transportation time. But the benefit ceases after a point if you go on increasing the transportation cost. This is the point of trade off which should be identified and we must stop increasing transportation cost beyond this. Above decisions form the core of transportation policy

Transportation network options
Supplier Supplier s Retail stores supplier Retail stores Supplier Retail stores

Retail stores














A logistics manager’s options for scheduling and routing decisions are –

Direct shipment network - From shipper directly to retailers.

Features: 1. Warehouses are eliminated, as the dispatch goes directly to retailer warehouses are redundant, inventory in the warehouse and warehouse costs are gone 2. Long route, hence low cost, as the distance is long cost per unit is expected to be low. 3. Simplicity of operation, as the network is simple as it consists of only shipper and retailer management of operation is simple. 4. Time of transportation is short, in the absence of warehouse product moves directly. 5. Decision points are quantity and mode, no other decisions are relevant. 6. Decisions are on dispatch to dispatch basis, directly connected to customer’s schedule. Mode and quantity decisions can be changed from dispatch to dispatch 7. Inventory costs and receiving costs are high, inventory will have to be held at customer’s place to cover transportation lead time. Customer also will have to receive consignments directly from the supplier.

• Direct shipping with milk runs:
1. Single supplier to a number of retailers - deliver like a milaakman. 2. From a number of suppliers deliver to a single retailer E.g. Toyota plant in US

Features: 1. Movement consolidation 2. Truck utilization 3. Transport cost reduction

•All shipments via Central Distribution Center
Suppliers send the supplies to Distribution centers and Distribution center caters to the needs of retailers. Features: 1. Supply to DC with movement consolidation results into supply chain costs reduction when distances are large. 2. DC stores inventory and acts like a transfer point for supplies to individual retailers 4. Economies of scale in inbound transportation to DC. 5. From DC Outbound transportation cost is low as retailers are close to DC

• Shipping via Distribution Center Using Milk Runs
Small lot sizes to large number of retailers from DC. Features: 1. Consolidation of small lots - reduction of outbound transportation cost

• Tailored Network
Tailor made to the company needs. This may be a new network synthesized from above models. Or for some logistical mission one model and for some other mission another model. Features: 1. Matches the needs of the company

2. Coordination is complex. As the tailored network is synthesized management may involve several decisions. Inter-modal transportation:In addition to the five basic modes of transport, a number of intermodal combinations are available to the shipper. The more popular combinations are TOFC [Trailer On Flat Car] and COFC [Container On Flat Car]. Intermodal movements combine the cost and/or service advantages of two or more modes in a single product movement. Benefits of long haul, short time & flexibility are optimized for achieving overall cost reduction














Containerization [kkk pages 350 to 362] Containers were introduced in US during 1955 and in India during 1960 Features of a container: 1. Robust but still light to ensure several handlings during unbroken transport of goods by several modes 2. Equipped with fittings to facilitate safe and easy handling 3. Easily be stuffed or unstuffed in a short time 4. Water tight and air tight outer shell 5. Internal lining that doesn’t buckle under temperature and can be easily cleaned 6. Watertight flooring, air tight door seals and locks 7. Insulation to protect refrigerated cargo. Interior washable to required hygienic standard 8. Construction to allow circulation of air around cargo. Potential areas for containerization are food stuff Universal advantages of container as a packaging unit 1. Reduction in loss, pilferage and damage of goods 2. Reduction in paper work 3. Expedites door to door pick up and delivery

4. Eliminates multiple handling of contents as this is shipped as a single unit 5. Consolidation of movement of small lots 6. Standardization of handling methods and equipment 7. Reduction in packaging cost as container itself acts like a package 8. Optimizes the services of various modes. Container can easily be transshipped. Benefits of owning containers by product owners 1. Ensures supply of containers 2. Product specific internal fittings can be provided 3. Reduction in transportation costs if the traffic is two way 4. Control of internal cleanliness as per product need 5. It can be used for delivery after arrival 6. Good storage system Major benefits of containerization to business 1. Integration of various modes of transport 2. Reduction in handling time and thereby turn around time of vehicles 3. Standardized size of containers reduces reduce capital as well as operational costs 4. Reduction in packaging cost as container itself is a robust packaging 5. Need for enclosed warehouses redundant 6. Regularity and reliability of transport service Infrastructure of containerization 1. Deep water ports 2. Mechanized handling equipment Roll On/Roll Off [RORO] High cost of lifting a container from the truck and loading on to a ship made logisticians look for a new idea. Concept of RORO is driving the truck loaded

with the container directly on to the deck of a ship and driving off the deck on reaching the destination. Truck loaded with container uses the ship as a mobile bridge! You may have seen passenger buses rolling on to ferries and rolling off after crossing the river. LASH [Lighters Aboard A Ship] All ports are not accessible to deep water vessels. The deep water ships stand a long way off on sea. Cargo from shallow ports is loaded on the barges, the barges are towed to the ship. The huge crane of the ship lifts the entire barge and places it on the deck. After reaching the destination barge is placed on shallow waters to reach the port. Inland container depots Inland Container Depots [ I C Ds ] ICDs are dry ports. Dry ports at a distance far away from the shoreline handle all the import export formalities. ICDs act like deep-water ports installed inland or interior where the natural benefit of shoreline is non-existing. This a large warehouse where containerized cargo is accepted for export. The exporter books his cargo at an ICD and completes all export formalities. Thereon ICD moves the containers by movement consolidation to natural port. Cargo crosses the dock and goes into the waiting ship. • connect major ports [able to handle container ships] to hinterland. Hinterland is deprived of natural deep water ports because of geography. This hinders exports. Congestion gets created at natural deep water ports when export cargo arrives from hinterland. Deep water ports being limited in number suffer congestion as deep water ships carrying export cargo dock only at deep water ports.


• facilitate customs clearance, export import formalities. ICDs ensure that businessperson does not have to go to the deep water ports with his cargo for clearing import/export formalities. • ICD to be located after ascertaining export import potential and good road network. One of the objectives of creating ICDs is to facilitate harnessing export potential of hinterland. Hence this location analysis is essential. • Serve as consolidation facility and should have handling equipment. Facility to group small consignments and create container loads needs handling equipment. • goods transfer from road to rail and otherwise. Inter modal transfer is a major operation in an ICD. ICD consolidates consignments arriving by trucks and transfer the cargo in containers to another mode, say rail for onward movement to a natural port. • increase the export potential of industries in the hinterland and also simplifies import of goods by hinterland. • Decongest major ports. This is another benefit provided by ICDs which is of immense importance for a country with weak infrastructure like ours.

Benefits of containerization can be fully exploited only when we have a good net work of ICDs [Inland Container Depots]

While most of the bulk goods are transported by rail, all other goods are transported by road. • Although Rajasthan is a land-locked state, four inland container depots (ICDs) at Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bhiwadi and Bhilwara, along with an air cargo complex at Jaipur's Sanganer Airport act as efficient and convenient gateways for outbound cargo. The customs department, shipping companies, handling agencies, surveyors for authentication of


stock, banks, customs house agents and clearing and forwarding agents are all based at the ICDs. • The infrastructure at the ICDs has been strengthened with the deployment of better equipment. This has resulted in the quicker handling of containers, reduction of transit time from ICDs to ports. Of the total export cycle time, the dwell time is down to 1.9 days, compared to three days at other ICDs. • Tariff at the Jaipur and Jodhpur ICDs has been reduced by 20 per cent, recently. • The air cargo complex provides facilities for customs inspection and shipment of non-bulk goods for exports by air. To overcome the problem of a limited lifting capacity of Indian Airlines, a scheme of bonded trucks has been started.

JNPT is directly connected to the following Inland Container Depots: Ludhiana Kerala Nagpur Mumbai (Wadibunder) Chinchwad (Pune) Bangalore Chennai Jaipur Jodhpur Baroda Mirage Kandla Mulund Delhi Sabarmati Pune Hyderabad Visakhapatnam Muradabad (U.P) Kolkata Pitampur (M.P) Aurangabad Kanpur Malanpur Agra --



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