Initial Start. Starting a centrifugal pump for the first time can be a troublesome experience unless our plant crew has made a thorough check of the unit during and after installation. There are probably more unusual accidents and troubles during initial starting of a pump than at almost any other time. Factors to be considered in starting any centrifugal pump include pipe cleanliness, pump alignment, rotation, lubrication, position of valves, stuffing-box and mechanical seals leakage, effect of changes, bypass quantities, throttling of the discharge, and performance checks. Pipe Cleanliness. Multistage pumps, and many single-stage units, have close-clearance running parts which must be protected from Abrasive particles often found in new piping systems. In one subsidiary, Rust particles which lodge in the running clearance of a large barrel type feed pump caused the unit to seize, requiring expensive repairs and loss of pumping capacity during the ensuing shutdown.

Fig. 1. Temporary screen for pump inlet

This is but one example of damage caused by materials lodged in new piping. Many others could be cited because this problem is rather common. To reduce the possibility of larger abrasive particles from reaching the pump, install a flat or conical strainer made up of No. 20 or 30 mesh window screen backed with ¼ inch mesh screen. Place the screen in the suction line as close as possible to the pump suction nozzle. Install pressure gauges on each side of the screen so the pressure drop across it can be measured. When starting the pump for the first time, watch both gages and when a pressure difference occurs between the two, indicating the screen is clogged, stop the pump and remove the dirt and scale from it. When the screen is clean, replace it.

Check the alignment. Method of determining the direction of rotation as specified by the Hydraulic Institute (a) Horizontal pumps and (b) Vertical pumps. Fig. scraping. A counter-clockwise pump turns in the opposite direction when viewed from the same point. The pump shaft should turn in the direction of the arrow on the casing. or making any noise. Inspect the pump footings to see that any device for expension of the casing are free and in good working condition. as necessary. Rotation.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Continue cleaning and replacing. Figure 2a shows how to determine the direction of rotation of a horizontal centrifugal pump. When a polyphase driving motor is used. For a vertical pump (Fig. 2b) look down at the top of the pump. For most installations. If a point on the shaft revolves f rom left to right. the rotation is clockwise. Turn the pump over by hand. the screen should be used for at least 24 hrs before being removed. Stand at the driver end facing the pump. without binding. touch the starter button just long enough to make the motor turn a few revolutions. when viewed from this position. Bring the pump to operating temperature by admitting liquid to the casing. When the shaft turns in the opposite direction its rotation is counterclockwise. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . Check the driver and pump rotation. It should turn freely . until no further pressure drop occurs. If the top of the shaft revolves from left to right when viewed from this position the pump is said to rotate clockwise.2.. Alignment.

Figure 3 shows the steps in priming two designs of Kingsbury thrust bearings commonly used in centrifugal pumps. Remove the locking screw in the top of the thrust-bearing cap and pour a liberal amount of oil into the bushing (Fig. Watch for contamination and for dirt picked up during shipment.5mm) below the ring. In the bearing in Fig. Never start a pump equipped with Kingsbury-type thrust bearings without first pouring enough oil into the bushing to protect the thrust shoes. An over-greased bearing may overheat soon after the pump is started. The procedures given here apply to one make of Kingsbury thrust bearing. roller. In general. add oil until the level is ½ (12. check the pump instruction manual before flushing and filling thrust bearings of this type. Replace the drain plug. cleaned and lubricated. Watch the oil level in the gage glass after the main pump starts. do not add any grease unless the pump manufacturer gives specific direction to do so. The exact procedure may differ from that given here. It is. This will ensure removal of any dirt. however.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Pump Bearings.3a. Flush entire system with lubricating oil and allow it to drain to waste. Replace the locking screw. Extreme care must be exercised with all types of bearings on pumps to see that they have enough clean lubricant. So no lubrication may be necessary before starting the pump. 3b and 3c does not have an integral oil pump. fill the housing with the correct. or waste particles present in the bearings or lube sysem. caps. replace as directed later in this article. To be completely safe. Be sure to replace the locking screw tightly. carbon-tetrachloride or safety solvent such as Klenco. This resembles the gage shown in Fig. and other parts and fill the bearing as directed by the manufacturer or as given later in this article. Remove the vent plug at the top of the oil-pump body and pour in enough oil to wet the parts of the oil pump. and sump tank with kerosene. If the level stabilises too far below the marker. making sure it fits into the bushing. With Oil-lubricated shoes sleeve bearings. oil piping. The bearing in Fig. Check the condition of the grease by removing the bearing housing cover. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT .3a). if and drain plug. filled in a manner similar to that described above for Fig. to prevent the bushing from rotating. Grease-lubricated ball. grade of oil until the level reaches the ring on the oil-level gage. Before any pump is started its bearings must be carefully inspected.5mm) to ¼ in. (6. Wash the bearing parts throughly and reassemble them the housing. and needle bearings are usually packed with grease at the factory before the pump is shipped. to prevent it from rotating. cooler. See that there is grease in the bearing. 4a. pump. If it has. metallic. thrust shoes ( used). 3a. Flush out the housing. Thrust Bearings.


as shown. Two types of commonly used oil level indicators.4. Typical forced-feed lubrication system.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Fig. It consists of an integral gear-type oil pump mounted within the thrust-bearing housing and taking its suction from an oil reservoir mounted below the pump shaft. Sight Gage Glasses. Figure 5 shows a typical forced-feed lube-oil system for a horizontal multistage centrifugal pump.5. Figure 4a shows a bearing housing equipped with a typical sight gage glass. With this type of system.4b has a constant-level oiler. which is often used with large pumps having sleeve bearings for the main shaft. Fig. piping. The bearing in Fig. a tubular oil cooler. including PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . This device maintains a constant oil level in the bearing as long as there is oil in its reservoir (oil bottle). clean and flush the bearings as outlined above. Lube-oil Systems. and pressure and level gages.

5b. Fig. Cooled Ball Bearings. and angular contact types made in double-and single-row designs. or both. or more. A locknut and washer hold this bearing and the rotor assembly in correct position with respect to the rest of the pump.5b). Pour oil into each bearing bushing and fill the sump tank until it is ¾ full. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . with oil being popular for the arger sizes. Some pumps have a centrifugal-type impeller on the end of their shaft. Figure 6a shows a l typical double-type out-board bearing designed to take small axial thrust loads during pump starts and stops. double-row self-aligning. An advanced (Pure) oil mist lubrication system console Ball Bearings. Important: Fill the supply line to the bearings so it will be full when the pump starts and there will be no delay in the oil reaching the bearings.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 the sump-tank reservoir and the oil cooler.(fig. The types of ball bearings used for centrifugal pumps include single-row deep-groove. They may be greaseor oil-lubricated. It consists of two angular-contract ball thrust bearings mounted back to back. Where high temperatures are expected in bearing operation the race may be surrounded by a cooling jacket (Fig. Almost all modern pumps use ball bearings to carry radial or thrust loads. Water or another suitable liquid is circulated through the jackets during pump operation. (These are usually lubricated by an advanced pure or purge mist systems.6b). The system supplies oil to both the bearings of the main pump and its driver. double-row deep groove. instead of a gear pump.

Many manufacturers recommend a straight correctly refined turbine-type Petronas Jentram type neutral mineral oil for centrifugal pumps.. Oil characteristics Napthene-base oil Paraffin-base oil Flash point. Bearing linings are removable. Lubricants.5 min 65.... In horizontal pumps these resemble the bearing shown in Fig.6 max 75 sec max Table 2. C... C Greasing Interval 8 hour day: 7-day week 7-day week 24 hour day: 7-day week 7-day week Low High Low High Table 2. With the first type the liquid pumped serves as the lubricant and no supply from the surface is needed....1 Recommended lube-oil characteristics for centrifugal pumps Pump Service Ambient Temp. A spherical seat permits the bearing bushing to align itself with the shaft journal... sulfur. Saybolt Viscosity at 37. Vertical deepwell turbine pumps use either water-lubricated bearings (Fig.. Oil-lubricated bearings are inside a shaft-enclosing tube and are fed oil from the ground surface by a lubricator mounted on or near the pump drive.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Sleeve Bearings. the oil should at least have the physical characteristics given in Table 2-1. Based on tests by ASTM standard methods.6b) or oil-lubricated bearings (Fig.....5 SSU min -15 max 75 sec max 182... C. Steam Emulsion value 165. 3b. chlorine.7C Pour Point..2 min 60 SSU min 1. Normally it should not contain any free acid.. except that a thrust collar is not fitted. 6d).. or more than a trace of free alkali.2 Greasing Interval for Vertical ball-bearing Pumps PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT 6 months 3 months 6 weeks 3 weeks .

depending on the type of bearing. Time intervals for greasing bearings in horizontal pumps will vary somewhat. Fig. (b) Water lubricated bearing for deepwell turbine pump (c) ball bearing with cooling jacket (d) Oil lubricated bearing for deepwell turbine pump. lime. etc. become sticky. Check to see that the grease is free of abrasive particles (sand. decompose. harden. In addition. and mineral salts.8 C and The penetration at 25 C should be 275 to 330. resins. Note that this is for a vertical pump. and other factors. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . pump service conditions. dirt.6. nor should it form gum.7 C. The melting point must not be less than 148.). (a) Double type outboard bearing. or corrode. Table 2-2 gives the greasing-interval recommendations of one pump manufacturer.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Grease-lubricated ball bearings are generally packed with lubricant before shipment. Over-greasing must be avoided because it is probably the most common cause of overheating. the grease should not separate on standing. Many pump manufacturers recommend a sodium-soap grease carrying not less than 82 per cent of a high-grade filtered mineral oil having a viscosity of not less than 150 SSU at 37.

Pump Drive. the drive generally is not supplied by the pump manufacturer. check their operation by opening and closing the valves several times. Check the auxiliary piping and liquid supply by opening the cooling-water supply and discharge valves ( Fig. Where automatic valve operators are used. if used. Where an independent oil pump is used. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . Using a brush. If it turns smoothly. engine. use the manual controls to open and close the valves. Allow the oil to drain to waste. Check the motor. or other drive to see that it is lubricated and ready to operate. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for drive operation. wash the race. solo-run the drive independently of the pump to see that it is in good operating order. So directions for drive operation may. have a sufficient supply of clear cool water. Check the cleanliness of the bearing by rotating it slowly. Wash the bearing housing out with the same solvent.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Regreasing. Clean all external surfaces of The pump and its driver. Check the cooling-water and oil flow at the pump bearings. 9) and observing the liquid flow. It is important to have the pump spotless if accidents and other operating troubles are to be avoided. Soak the bearing in one of these solvents until the grease on it starts to dissolve. flusih both with clean mineral oil. Do not use kerosene or carbon tetrachloride at a temperature higher fhan 50 C when cleaning the housing and bearing. Check the suction and discharge piping to see that flanges and screwed joints are tightly made up and will not leak. Use an innert-air hose to blow the grease off the bearing parts. you can assume it is clean. See that the stuffing-box jackets and smothering glands. To be sure that the valve operating mechanism is working satisfactorily. dust. globs of grease. start it and check the pressure and flow in the various lube-oil lines. or may not. be included with the pump instruction manual. To replace the grease in a new or used antifriction bearing. and similar matter. balls. turbine. and other parts with warm kerosene or carbon tetrachloride. Remember. Use rags or waste to remove dirt. Auxiliary Piping. Pump Exterior. oil drippings. When both it and the bearing are clean. Whenever possible. remove the bearing from the shaft.

the discharge gate valve can be opened before the pump is started. This type of motor develops full-load torque without taking an excessive line current. With a medium. units driven by squirrel-cage induction motors having reduced-voltage starting control should always be started with the discharge gate valve closed. The remarks above on the starting methods for induction motors also apply to synchronous motors. Open the suction valve wide. At higher ratings and speeds below 500 rpm. Axial-flow-type centrifugal pumps almost always take more power when started with the discharge valve closed. and those having speeds of 500 rpm or higher at unity power factor. A d-c motor can also be PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT .CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Priming. This is because the pump requires less power input when primed and operated at full speed with the discharge valve closed. So it is common practice to start these two types with the discharge gate valve open. Specially built motors can. Mixed-flow-type centrifugal pumps often require greater power input when started with the discharge valve closed than when it is open. Reduced flow into the suction pipe of a centrifugal pump can lead to overheating and extensive damage to the pump. Prime the pump by one of the methods given by the manufacturer’s recomendation. be obtained to start under these conditions. except in the case of axial or mixed-flow pumps. Never use it as a throttling device for pump flow. use a wound-rotor induction motor where alternating current is available.8 Kw) at 80 per cent power factor. General-purpose synchronous motors of ratings up to 500 hp (372. have sufficient pull-in torque to start centrifugal pumps with the discharge gate valve closed. With this type of motor using across-the-line starting. however. standard synchronous motors do not have enough pull-in torque to start a pump when its discharge gate valve is open. Position the Valves. But to be certain. Take care to see that the suction pipe is full of liquid and that there is enough reserve in the supply system to keep the line full while the pump operates. But the length of time the electrical disturbance caused by the starting cycle lasts may be reduced by keeping the gate valve closed. Standard Motors.or high-head centrifugal pump it is best to start with the discharge gate valve closed. The Hydraulic Institute recommends that. Where a centrifugal pump must be started with the discharge gate valve open and the starting current must be held to a minimum. check with the pump manufacturer.

ings and other parts of the pump. (4) Close all the drains in the casing and suction and discharge piping. cannot economically be warmed up in this manner. (5) Prime the pump. should be allowed for pump to warmup. (2) Start the auxiliary lube-oil pump. and mechanical seals. Drainage through the leakoff is usually of sufficient quantity to keep the pump warm. and other parts must be brought to within a temperature of 10 to 38 C of the liquid before the unit is started. if these parts are liquid-cooled. Starting the Pump. The following steps are usually suitable for starting a centrifugal pump in good operating condition: (1) Turn on the cooling-water system for the pump bearings. This prevents unequal expansion. Hot liquid flows through this line. if a suitable power supply is available. depending on the starting procedure to be followed. Pump Warmup. It will develop full-load torque without the line current’s exceeding 125 to 200 per cent of the normal full-load current. (6) Open the warmup valve if the pump is not at the right temperature. when starting from a cold condition. Some long pumps actually bow or arch when the top half is hot while the bottom half is cold. thereby reducing the time required for warm-up. into the pump. a warmup flow of 37. Shorter intervals may be used when the pump is warm before heating is begun. a period of 3 to 4 hrs. if one is fitted. rotor. Use one or more casing drains to increase the liquid flow from the pump. In a 4. (7) Open the recirculating valve. (3) Open the suction gate valve. Open the vent valve on top of the casing and admit warm liquid to the pump. Instead. a jumper line around the discharge check valve is used. (8) Start the driver and bring the pump up to speed. With pumps handling hot water or other hot liquids. if the leakage is made up with hot liquid from the suction line.542 Cubic meter/minute feed pump.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 used. At liquid temperatures of 175 C or higher. and close or open the discharge gate valve. and units handling valuable or toxic liquids. Boiler-feed pumps. and out the suction pipe.8 liter/minute is enough to bring the pump temperature to within 38 C of the liquid handled. stuffing boxes. Pumps having labyrinth leakoffs in the stuffing box generally do not need a jumper line. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . and check the oil flow to the bear. the casing. with the possibility of contact between the moving and stationary parts.

(13) When there is sufficient flow through the pump. Some steps may be omitted with smaller units not having separate cooling and oil systems. Bearing temperatures generally should not exceed 65 C during pump operation. discharge. (12) Check the pump bearings for lube-oil flow. excessive vibration or noise stop the unit immediately. A flow of 3 to 7 liter/min to each stuffing box is usually sufficient. If the pump shows any signs of trouble while being started such as overheated bearings or packing. The above steps are suitable for almost all centrifugal pumps. (a) Internal seal used with clean liquid PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . Fig. cooling-water. and sealing-water pressures and temperatures. open the discharge gate valve slowly. Inspect the pump for the cause of the trouble and take corrective action before starting the pump again. lube-oil.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 (9) As soon as the pump is up to rated speed. 10. (10) Check the leakage from the stuffing boxes. (11) Adjust sealing-liquid flow to ensure packing lubrication. (14) Check the pump suction. close the recirculating valve.

Adjust until there is a slight but constant leakage of liquid from the stuffing-box glands. Then. The recirculation or bypass connections should be cut in whenever the pump must run at shutoff or at 20 per cent or less of its rated capacity.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Fig 10 (b) External seal for dirty liquids Stuffing Boxes. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . With an external seal-liquid supply ( Fig. Bypass Use. Be sure the recirculated or bypassed liquid flows to a lower-pressure area where it can release some of its heat before returning to the pump. When liquid is being discharged by the pump. 10a) close the sealing-liquid valves while the pump is being started on a suction lift. open the sealing valves. 10b) turn on the control valve before starting the pump. but not directly to the pump suction. there will be no danger of the pump’s overheating. On pumps using discharge liquid for the stuffing boxes (Fig. Figures 10c and 10d show two other sealing arrangements. The bypassed liquid is often returned to the source of suction supply.

5 Kw input to the pump at shutoff. over-heating. When only a small percentage of the rated flow is allowed to pass through the pump. But when the pump handles cold water a higher rise 15 to 38 C may be permitted. and shaft breakage are some of the operating troubles that may result.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Fig 10 (c) External grease seal for non-lubricating liquid. A rule of thumb often used is: To limit the temperature rise of the water in a boiler-feed pump. The exact rise allowable limits must be obtained from the pump manufacturer. or where water cannot be used. appears as heat in the liquid. The orifice is sized to pass the minimum safe-flow quantity for the pump. Noisy operation. do not reduce the capacity below 113 liters/min per 100 hp or 74. over that delivered by the liquid. In boiler-feed pumps the maximum allowable temperature rise usually recommended is 10 C. Excessive throttling of the discharge gate valve can also lead to overheating of a pump. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . Many centrifugal boiler-feed pumps have an orifice in the bypass line. the casing may be unable to radiate enough heat to keep the temperature constant. This is because the excess horsepower put into the pump.

When keeping a standby pump hot by circulating hot liquid. 10 (d) Seal cage next to impeller keeps abrasive liquid away from packing or mechanical seal. Standby Pumps. Be sure to have sufficient liquid in the suction well. bringing it up to full speed and operating it for 3 or 4 minutes if they are not in the RCM convention. packing boxes. Standby boiler-feed pumps are generally held in readiness with the suction and discharge gate valves open at all times. start the pump twice each 8-hr shift. When the pump is on hot-oil or other service where the liquid handled may coke or plug the passages. and lantern rings. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . tank. (2)Circulate oil to the bearings.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Fig. (3) Start the pump once each 8-hr shift. or pond when keeping a pump on standby. use the following operating methods: (1) Circulate cooling water through the bearings.

or higher Operating Checks. using a log sheet (Fig. While the pump runs. Typical boiler-feed pump log Fig. 11) developed for the particular installation. 12 Cooling jacket for stuffing box operating at 120 C. leakoff flow. stuffing-box leakage.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Fig. lube-oil temperature and pressure. discharge flowmeter. Keep an hourly record of all these readings. input to the pump driver and the oil level in the pump and driver bearings. suction and discharge pressure. 11. make the hourly checks listed below: bearing temperature. 12) shut off the quenching-water supply before PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . cooling-water suction and discharge temperature and pressure. When the pump is fitted with water-quenched glands (Fig.

Fig. 3 and 4) are taming freely and supplying enough oil to the bearings and shaft. Increased vibration and sudden changes in the bearing temperatures are other indicators of possible operating troubles.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 frying to determine the leakage from the stuffing box. This starts a flow of lube oil to the bearing surfaces. close all drains. Open all drain valves wide to remove all condensate from the casing and steam lines. 10). the gland handles cool liquids. the gland should not be too hot to touch. and the turbine casing. Check ring-oiled or ball sleeve bearings every hour to see that the oil rings (Figs. Otherwise. Rotate the shaft at least once by hand to see that it is free. listen to the sound it makes while running. the quenching-gland flow may be mistaken for leakage from the stuffing box (Fig. Checking stuffing-box temperature by hand. open the throttle valve. Steam-turbine-driven Pumps. When the pump handles cool liquids. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . Warm the turbine before starting by opening the steam exhaust valve and all drains on the steam inlet and exhaust. Prepare the pump driven by a turbine in the same manner as described earlier for other centrifugal pumps. The condition of the packing box can often be checked by feeling the gland while the pump is running (Fig 13). The governor will then take over control of the turbine speed. With hot liquids this test cannot be used because heat is transmitted from the liquid pumped to the gland. Allow steam to enter the casing until the unit reaches its operating temperature. With any pump having oil-lubricated bearings it is wise to rotate the shaft a few times by hand before starting for the first time when the oil is cold and the bearing surfaces dry. Any change in the sound should be carefully checked because it may be the first sign of impending trouble. and quickly bring the turbine up to rated speed. When the lines and casing are dry. 13. When making the hourly round of a pump. reducing the possibility of overheating of the bearings during starting. Heat the turbine casing by cracking the steam-inlet throttle valve and allowing a small amount of steam to pass through to the exhaust line.

tighten the shaft-sleeve nuts on packed pumps. Figure 15 shows the three steps to be followed in filling grease-packed gear-type couplings. do not connect the leakoff line to the pump suction nozzle or pipe. are used where the liquid is corrosive or abrasive. After tightening flange bolts. The small auxiliary pump circulates lube oil through the seals to lubricate and cool them.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Balancing-chamber Leakoff. Be certain to open any valves in these and the quench connections before starting the main pump. These are now used instead of packing in every pumps. Since this is at a lower pressure than in the chamber. In general. When the pump is used in boiler-feed service. some seals have a quench connection. Some gear-type shaft couplings must be filled with oil or grease before the pump is started for the first time. do so. connect the balancing-chamber leakoff to the nearest convenient liquid tank on the suction side of the pump. Before starting split-casing pumps for the first time. Do not over-fill oil-type couplings because the pack-oil may leak out while the pump operates. Couplings. Casing Gasket. Pumps handling clean cool liquids sometimes bypass a small portion of the discharge to the mechanical seals to cool and lubricate them. Mechanical Seals. damaging the pump room walls. This type generally has an auxiliary pump and reservoir. Be sure that the leakoff from the balancing chamber of a multistage pump is always open while the unit runs. Others. leakoff liquid will automatically flow while the pump operates. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . known as double seals. This will ensure that sufficient pressure is obtained on the paper or asbestos flange gaskets. severely damaging the pump. When applied to high-pressure high-temperature service. ceilings. tighten the casing bolts. Shutting off flow from the chamber may prevent the drum from functioning. Start the auxiliary pump and establish oil circulation before the main pump is started. If the manufacturer recommends using a torque wrench. or other fixtures. lights. Then the sleeve will rotate properly with the shaft.

On some small vessels the pump may be belt-driven from an electric motor or an engine shaft. (b) Draw up cover and fasten with bolts. Then the belts will last longer and will operate more quietly. Belt-driven pumps need not be aligned quite so accurately with the drive shaft as coupled pumps. align the shafts and sheaves as accurately as possible. (a) Pack grease over grid and teeth.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Fig. if the pump is driven by a d-c motor. 15. using a grease gun. the discharge gate valve can be left open.or turbine-driven. if desired. (c) Lubricate at least once every 6 months. Starting Marine Pumps. In general. For most other drives the discharge gate valve should be left in the position described above. This is because the belts can operate with some misalignment of the shafts without excessive wear. Use the same starting procedure given earlier. except that more than one valve may have to be opened in the suction line when the pump is connected to a manifold. Steps in packing a gear-type coupling. But to obtain best life from the drive belts. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . Centrifugal pumps in shipboard uses are usually motor.

helps show when to start or stop the second circulating pump. Figure 16.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Fig. In some services. With circulating-water pumps this condition usually occurs in the spring and fall of the year. Example: A turbine-generator unit operating at 100. Should the pump be left running or be stopped? Enter Fig. Prolong this line until it intersects reference scale K.000 kw and draw a straight line through the change in gross heat rate. running the second circulating pump reduces the overall plant efficiency because the input to the pump motor exceeds the additional generator output produced by the better vacuum. Scale PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT Solution: . there is a definite point at which it is economical to start a second pump to aid the first in delivering to the system they serve. if the plant is fitted with two. like boiler-feed. 16 at the left at a gross generation of 100.16. and others.3 per cent in the gross heat rate when its 600-hp second circulating pump is started. Chart for best operating scheme.000 kw shows a net change of 0. when used with the heat-rate correction chart furnished by the turbine manufacturer. Below a certain water temperature. When to Start Second Pump.3 per cent in this case. From this point draw a straight line through the circulating-pump horsepower. the reverse holds true the extra output from the generator is greater than the input to the pump motor and the plant efficiency is higher. condenser-circulating water. 0. Extend it to the right. But above this temperature.

Then there is no possibility of backflow causing the pump to turn in a reverse direction This procedure also prevents water hammer in high-pressure lines. So be sure to prime it before starting again. If the pump is not to be started. hang a suitable tag on it. (3) As soon as the power is off. When the pump is on standby service. Never run any centrifugal pump dry. (2) Shut off the power. Serious damage will almost always result. depending on whether it is idle or running. close the discharge gate valve. Shutoff the power immediately. start or stop the second circulating pump. close its valve before the pump stops. The discharge valve should be tightly closed by the time the pump stops rotating. Immediately after. stop the motor or turbine before closing the discharge gate valve. Solve as described above. Find the corresponding change in the unit heat rate from the turbine manufacturer’s curve. When the liquid supply is below the pump (suction lift). Open the warmup valve if the pump is to be kept warm. then the suction gate valve. Then note the change in the condenser back pressure (vacuum). PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . its suction and discharge gate valves should be left open. This procedure keeps liquid in the pump. an idle pump will partially drain through the glands while not operating. When a pump operates against a high discharge pressure it should be stopped in three steps: (1) Partially close the discharge valve. If the pump has a recirculating line. When the pump cannot be run against a closed gate valve. then the discharge gate valve. Remember. In actual operation. shut off the power or steam to the driver. Pump Shutdown. close the suction gate valve. Do not shut off the cooling and sealing liquid supply until the pump shaft has stopped turning. preventing damage should the unit be started before being primed.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Q shows the circulating pump should be stopped to secure the best net heat rate for this particular unit. Do not tighten the gland nuts to prevent leakage from the pump unless they can be loosened quickly when the unit is started. When the liquid supply is above the pump centerline. close the discharge valve rapidly.

stop the pump again. connect the air hose. (3) Remove the oil plug and fill the lube-oil reservoir with the same grade as in (2). This process serves two purposes it is a convenient way of cleaning any refuse or other matter from the new piping and it permits a good check of the performance of the pump. Before putting a unit of this type into service: (1) Blow out the air-supply hose to remove any water or dirt before it is attached to the pump.13). Pour a small amount of oil into the live-air inlet. inspect and repack it. (5) Connect the air-supply hose. shut the pump down immediately. Air-driven sump pumps are popular in our industrial and construction jobs. Some pumps use other pressures be sure that the pressure at the pump air inlet is not more than 5 per cent below the rated inlet pressure. Allow the box to cool and start the pump again. The end of the pipe is connected to the sewer or some other disposal point and water or other liquid is pumped through. and allow the pump to idle for about a minute. Mount the pump on a flat stone or board so that it is above any muck or settlings in the sump. above. it is mandatory to flush the piping with liquid discharged by one or more pumps (if used) . If the box continues to overheat. Check the packing box by feel as soon as the pump starts and regularly thereafter while the pump runs.5 Kg/Cm2 at the pump. Pneumatic Pumps.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Flushing Plant Piping. When the pump is taken out of service overnight. If the box overheats or begins to smoke. Maintain an air pressure of at least 6. Disconnect the hose. drain all water from it and disconnect the air-supply and exhaust hoses. If it overheats. (4) Check the air-exhaust pipe to see that its outlet is above the water level and free of dirt and other obstructions. It may be necessary to start and stop the pump several times before the packing is ‘worn-in’ and some of the liquid pumped can leak through to lubricate it. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT . If the liquid being pumped is extremely dirty. place the pump in a wire basket or screened box. (2) Pour a small amount of clean ISO #10 oil into the live-air inlet. Check its temperature as before (Fig. When flushing the piping a good opportunity is afforded for checking the stuffing-box packing (if used). At PP(T)SB.

(16) Institution of Diagnostic Engineers. stock a complete spare rotating element. (6) Allis-Chalmers Mfg.CENTRIFUGAL-PUMP OPERATION MYGAZEE ‘99 Spare Parts. as listed. and the name of the part. (7) Power. (10) Ebara Corporation. (15) Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. (4) Layne & Bowler. Ltd. one set of shaft sleeves. (11) Pacific-Hiro pump Div. (5) Westinghouse Electric Corp. aboard ship more parts are generally carried than in a stationary plant. The number of spare parts which should be kept on hand varies with the pump application. Co. the exact number of the part as listed in the pump instruction and parts manual. When ordering spare parts. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ References: (1) Hydraulic Institute. give the complete symbols stamped on the old part. size and type of pump as given on the pump name-plate. This is important information hence our pumps are not purchased off-the shelve. Borg-Warner Corp. (2) Ingersoll-Rand Co. (9) Falk Coupling Div. (3) Peerless Pump Div. On vital jobs where a standby pump is not installed. (8) Worthington Corp. Shin Nippon Machinery (12) EKK Eagle Industry Co. (13) Lubrication Systems Company. always remember to give the manufacturer the following information: serial number of pump. (14) American Petroleum Institute. and a supply of suitable set of packing or mechanical seals for the stuffing boxes. Thus. one set of wearing rings. Inc. Most manufacturers recommend that the minimum number of spares should be one set of shaft bearings. Where possible. PP(T)SB PROPRIETARY DOCUMENT .