BRAND

A) General Sense
A brand is a collection of experiences and associations connected with a service, a person or any other entity. Brands have become increasingly important components of culture and the economy, now being described as "cultural accessories and personal philosophies". Some people distinguish the psychological aspect of a brand from the experiential aspect. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is known as the brand experience. The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people and consists of all the information and expectations associated with a product or service. Careful brand management, supported by a cleverly crafted advertising campaign, can be highly successful in convincing consumers to pay remarkably high prices for products which are inherently extremely cheap to make. This concept, known as creating value, essentially consists of manipulating the projected image of the product so that the consumer sees the product as being worth the amount that the advertiser wants him/her to see, rather than a more logical valuation that comprises an aggregate of the cost of raw materials, plus the cost of manufacture, plus the cost of distribution.
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A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition. When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand franchise. One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the name of the company present.

Consumers may look on branding as an important value added aspect of products or services, as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic (see also brand promise). From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services also command higher prices. Where two products resemble each other, but one of the products has no associated branding (such as a generic, store-branded product), people may often select the more expensive branded product on the basis of the quality of the brand or the reputation of the brand owner. One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the name of the company present. For example, Disney has been successful at branding with their particular script font (originally created for Walt Disney's "signature" logo), which it used in the logo for go.com.

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Consumers may look on branding as an important value added aspect of products or services, as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic (see also brand promise). From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services also command higher prices. Where two products resemble each other, but one of the products has no associated branding (such as a generic, store-branded product), people may often select the more expensive branded product on the basis of the quality of the brand or the reputation of the brand owner.

B) Marketing Sense

The American Marketing Association defines a brand as “A name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group and to differentiate them to those for competitors”. A brand is thus a product or service that’s adds a dimension that differentiates it in some way from other products or services designed to satisfy the same need. These differences may be functional, rational, or tangible- relate to product performance of the brand
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BRAND MANAGEMENT 4 .

Brand Managers often carry line-management accountability for a brand's P&L profitability in contrast to marketing staff manager roles which are allocated budgets. 5 . It seeks to increase the product's perceived value to the customer and thereby increase brand franchise and brand equity. HLL and Proctor and Gamble these companies concentrate on particular set of brands. For example. While forming a brand company has to go through certain procedures:• Establishing a set of Brand policies • Identifying Brand promise • Implement measurement of Brand equity Brand management has undergone a lot of development in recent times. Brand Management is often viewed in organizations as a broader and more strategic role than Marketing alone.Brand management is the application of marketing techniques to a specific product. The value of the brand is determined by the amount of profit it generates for the manufacturer. and reduced or more efficient marketing investment. It will be helpful in increased sales and price or to reduced COGS (cost of goods sold). or brand. It may also enable the manufacturer to charge more for the product. product line.

6 . actual.Developing the Brand -.Maintaining and Extending the Brand -. Brand management is necessary in all aspects of the brand that is:-.Protecting the Brand Marketers see a brand as an implied promise that the level of quality people have come to expect from a brand will continue with future purchases of the same product.When a firm position a brand by giving it someone cultural. ensuring that the brand never loses its shine. Brand never bored the audience and will keep its freshness for years together. and historical relevance people start looking at the brand with curiosity. Brand Management is often viewed in organizations as a broader and more strategic role than Marketing alone. In this regard.

IMPORTANCE OF BRAND MANAGEMENT The purpose of brand management is to create a powerful and lasting emotional connection with customers and other audiences. Brand management is the voice and image that represents your business plan to the outside world. products and services stand 7 . A brand is a set of elements or “brand assets” that in combination create a unique. unmistakable. and valuable relationship between an organization and its customers. The brand is carried by a set of compelling visual. written and vocal tools to represent the business plan and intentions of an organization. What your company. memorable.

and represented consistently throughout all your brand assets and in your daily marketing activities. The process of managing the brand to the business plan is important not only in “big change situation” where the brand redefinition is required. including both visual image assets and language assets.for should all be captured in your branding strategy. but also in the management of routine marketing variables and tactics. Rather it is more common that specific changes to the changes to the business plan are incremental and the work of the brand strategist and designer is to interpret these changes and revise the branding strategy and resulting brand assets and define their use in the full range of marketing variables. 8 . This does not have to be a “ground-up” situation where there are wholesale changes to the business. The brand image that carries this emotional connection consists of the many manageable elements of branding system.

The brand equity concept stresses the importance of the brand in marketing strategies. 9 .BRAND MANAGEMENT ASPECTS  Brand Equity:- It is defined in terms of the marketing effects uniquely attributable to the brand.

Parle-G has launched the atta under the same name to gain advantage from the brand equity of biscuits. Parle is selling atta under the same brand name as its biscuits. Some measurements approaches are at the firm level. patents. Parle-G. at the root of these marketing effects is consumers' knowledge. For example. The brand equity has five major determinates are awareness.It is the combination of assets and liabilities associated with a brand that enhances or depreciates the value of the brand. the biscuits major which caters to the mass market. is hoping the brand equity of biscuits in wheat flour (atta) market. And. some at the product level and still others are at the consumer level. consumers' knowledge about a brand makes consumers respond differently to the marketing of the brand. 10 . quality perception. loyalty. trademark. Brand equity refers to the marketing effects or outcomes that accrue to a product with its brand name compared with those that would accrue if the same product did not have the brand name. There are many ways to measure a brand. In other words.

Examples. a) Lux Soaps:This brand has maintained its unique features as “beauty soap bar of the film’s stars”. This brand is making good contribution in the marketing due to its popularity among consumers which is a result of various factors such as attractive packages. quality. price. 11 . easy availability.

b) Godrej Storewel:- The company is popular among consumer even when many identical cupboards and competitors in the market. pricing and so on. packaging. advertisement. Brand equity is the incremental value of business over and above physical assets resulted from bringing together various elements such as brand name. 12 . BRAND AS A TOOL OF MARKETING Brand development Effective brand development is merely impossible to execute in-house because it is difficult to be dispassionate and objective when evaluating the state of your business.

All to often we describe are brand by what we do and these obscures are marketing opposition and brand strategies. Your responsibility There a few important responsibilities in defining the business of your business. showing almost no differentiation. Your product must perform according to the standards set by the markets. and this are vastly different from the brand strategies that arise from the business of your brand.As a result companies often make a the mistake of confusing the business of their business with the business of their brand. 13 . This brand marketing simply defines the offering or presents a banal clain that is neither important nor believable in the eyes of the target audience. Strategically speaking . This is the reasoning behind the many companies with a marketing osition and / or brand identity that is merely a reflection category benefits. and be competitively priced. if you are selling soap powder. the business of your business is what you make and / or sell. For example. you product needs to clean clothing. has a pleasant fragrance.

not your brand identity. Here.If needs to be constant in quality and value [consistency]. and it needs to perform a function [efficacy]. consistently delivering the value your corporate identity promises. operations and ingenuity. They are how the customer remembers you. many companies [brand development companies as well] get confused. These values are about processes. Your logo. mark. You are also selling your brand identity and must preserve that brand identity with great care. Marks and equities are all about the recognition of you and your company. theme line. What your customers buy? 14 . and ‘look and feel’ are part of your corporate identity.

Purchasing decisions are all about positioning. you would see the beginnings of brand strategies. Brand identity strategy begins with a clear understanding of your target audience and this does not stop at a simple usage and attitudinal study. meaning and integrity. what could possibily be left? What is left is brand. BRAND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: 10 KEY POINTS BY MARY J.If you were able to take a dispassionate look at your customers and see them not as you imagine them or idealize them. How customers choose? How then does the consumers decide they want ( preference ) and what price they are willing to pay for that brand ( margins)? Considering that almost all products sell commodity benefits . but rather as they are. HILDEBRAND AND JACQUELINE KLOSEK 15 .

2.  Accomplishing an overall brand strategy requires close coordination between the licensor andlicensees in different markets.  Focus should also be placed upon prospective uses of brands.  Adopting an overall brand strategy alsorequires recognition that brands are significant to both the traditional retail and the online market. it will be extremely important to establish and maintain the brand. 16 .  Whendoing so. or an “overall brand strategy” is recommended.  Suchoverall brand strategy should be implemented with full recognition that the brand may traversenumerous different product lines and geographic regions.  This may includeidentifying brands that might be used in the future and identifying new products and services withwhich existing brands might be used. the adoption of a holistic approach.  There must be a consistent program for protecting brands and monitoringthe usage of brands.1. Establish and Maintain the Brand  As a threshold issue. Ensure Consistency Between the Brand Licensing Strategy and Overall Business Goals  Effective brand management strategies also necessitate emphasis on ensuring consistency between the brand licensing strategy and the enterprise’s overall business goals.

License Agreements: Exclusive or Non-Exclusive?  The exclusivity of the license agreement will be a key factor in brand management.  Companies should develop a profile of the ideal license partner but recognize that while many licensors and licensees may enjoy longterm relationships. in all circumstances. emphasis should also be placed upon licensee partners with similar cultures and business goals since doing so may help to reduce the amount of time that is expended on reaching the basis business terms. Efforts should beundertaken to ensure that the brand reflects positively on the company.  At the same time. 17 . few of such relationships will be permanent. 4. Focus on Maximizing Leverage of the Brand  Successful brand management will involve focus on the maximizing the leverage of the brand.  Of course. however. 5. 3.  Focus should surely be placed upon license partners that enjoy healthy businesses and that offer innovative products. a considered judgment regarding brand placement will be crucial. Select Profitable and Innovative License Partners  The importance of consistency should also be reflected in the selection of license partners. does not detract from otherproduct lines and remains profitable with other parts of company. However. this may mean different things in different context.

it is advisable to construct the license in such a way so as to maintain the licensee’s commitment licensee to the brand. proper attention and resources should also be devoted to constructing such non-exclusive arrangements and ensuring that they are profitable. it will be in the interest of the licensor to ensure that the licensee’s interest in the brand is and will stay as high as possible.  Accordingly.  While exclusive licensing arrangements will be extremely important. by requiring additional payments or some other form of compensation during the license term in order to maintain the exclusivity of the arrangement. Whether the license agreement will be exclusive or non–exclusive will have important implications for all of the business. particular scrutiny must be directed towards the strategies and business goals of potential exclusive licensees.  This can be done in a number of ways including.  In addition to understanding the current interests and strategies of the prospective exclusive licensee. it must be recalled that the license can only be granted once as an exclusive license. 18 .  Accordingly.  Clearly. it must be recalled that non-exclusive licenses can also play a role in the business. for example.  When considering the exclusivity of a license grant.

8.  The precise enforcement mechanisms that should be used will depend on the particulars of the licensing arrangement. the termination of exclusivity may be an effective remedy for the breach of certain contractual requirements. consumer interest can change over time so it will be essential to periodically monitor changes in demand for the licensee’s product and services. such standards and requirements will not be of much use without effective enforcement mechanisms to back them up.  Of course. Be Pro-Active on Products & Services  Licensors should be not adopt a “hands off” approach when dealing with the licensee’s products and services. 7.  Clearly.  However. Allocate Ownership & Control of IP Assets Equitably 19 .  Most license agreements will address extremely important issues including quality control standards and reporting standards. efforts should be undertaken to ensure that the licensee’s products are desirable and upto-date. it will be in the licensor’s interest to ensure that its brand will be affixed to the most popular products and services.6. however. in an exclusive licensing arrangement. Rather. License agreements Must Include Effective Means For Enforcing Key Provisions  All license agreements should include effective means of enforcement.  As an example.

Successful Brand Licensing Strategy Requires Dedicated Staff  The enterprise’s staff will play an extremely important role in the company’s overall brand licensing initiatives.  In all instances.  While this will be an important issue in all relationships. other relevant staff members should be trained and encouraged to take an active role in the efforts overall brand licensing efforts. the licensor will have the stronger interest in the brand and will likely desire to retain the maximum amount of control. it will also be important to allocate equitably ownership and control of the IP assets. 10. it will be particularly important when a long-term relationship is contemplated.  Such allocation should include consideration of each party’s business plans and innovations that impact power of the brand.  In addition to focusing on the key licensing staff. Selection of licensing staff should be undertaken with the recognition that such staff members will be required to organize control and coordinate all the activities of the licensees. Actively Integrate the Brand Licensing Strategy into Product Development and Launch Activities 20 . particular business issues may impact the ultimate allocation. However. When undertaking a brand licensing relationship.  The allocation should also be conducted with recognition of the fact that the association of the name with particular products or services will be key 9.

 Companies should be active – and not static – when undertaking efforts to integrate the brand strategy into product development and launch activities. PRINCIPLES OF BRAND MANAGEMENT A good brand name should: 21 .  A clear and proactive strategy is likely to generate the most reward.

distinguish the product's positioning relative to the competition.• be protected (or at least protectable) under Trademark law.) • • suggest the company or product image. • be easy to pronounce. • attract attention. • be easy to remember. • be attractive. ONLINE BRAND MANAGEMENT 22 . • suggest product benefits or suggest usage (note the tradeoff with strong trademark protection. • be easy to translate into all languages in the markets where the brand will be used. • be easy to recognize. • stand out among a group of other brands.

infractions. . Companies are embracing brand reputation management as a strategic imperative and are increasingly turning to online monitoring in their efforts to prevent their public image from becoming tarnished.  It can also mean monitoring for less malicious. 23 .  The red flag can be something as benign as a blog rant about a bad hotel experience or an electronic gadget that functions below expectations. And there are plenty of free web analytic tools available to help you analyze the data. although perhaps equally damaging. .  How to Monitor Your Brand Online There are many free ways to monitor what people are saying about your brand online. such as the unauthorized use of a brand logo or even for negative brand information (and misinformation) from online consumers that appears in online communities and other social media platforms. Here is a breakdown of what you’ll learn about . Online Brand Management Strategies This site is devoted to helping branding managers with their online branding management efforts.  Online brand reputation protection can mean monitoring for the misappropriation of a brand trademark by fraudsters intent on confusing consumers for monetary gain.

 How to Protect Your Brand Online Online Brand Managers need to know how to protect their brand within search results. The more optimized branded content online. And they need to know when and how to respond appropriately.Learn how to track what people are saying about your brand and/or products online with these online brand monitoring strategies. The simple way to find out what people are saying about your brand is to simply create a Google Alert so that you’ll get an email anytime your brand name is mentioned. Find out everything you should know about online brand protection strategies and best practices for online reputation management. Learn how companies are using social networking to improve their brand’s image — and find out about best practices for social media management. a vast majority of web users in the United States receive advice and information about various brands and products by tapping into their online social networks. Learn the nuts and bolts of search engine optimization.  Social Media Management Strategies As you know. the less chance that other websites will show up for the keyword phrases that are important to you.  Search Engine Optimization Tips for Brand Managers Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is an important strategy used by professional online brand managers. 24 .

However. Google Alerts are limited – and aren’t designed to be an online brand management tool. FACTORS IMPORTANT IN BUILDING BRAND VALUE Professor David Jobber identifies seven main factors in building successful brands. as illustrated in the diagram below: 25 . That’s why you need to use a variety of online tools to find out what people are saying.

Quality  Quality is a vital ingredient of a good brand. Remember the “core benefits” – the things consumers expect.  These must be delivered well, consistently. The branded washing machine that leaks, or the training shoe that often falls apart when wet will never develop brand equity.
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 Research confirms that, statistically, higher quality brands achieve a higher market share and higher profitability that their inferior competitors. Positioning  Positioning is about the position a brand occupies in a market in the minds of consumers.  Strong brands have a clear, often unique position in the target market.  Positioning can be achieved through several means, including brand name, image, service standards, product guarantees, packaging and the way in which it is delivered.  In fact, successful positioning usually requires a combination of these things. Repositioning  Repositioning occurs when a brand tries to change its market position to reflect a change in consumer’s tastes.  This is often required when a brand has become tired, perhaps because its original market has matured or has gone into decline.  The repositioning of the Lucozade brand from a sweet drink for children to a leading sports drink is one example.  Another would be the changing styles of entertainers with aboveaverage longevity such as Kylie Minogue and Cliff Richard. Communications  Communications also play a key role in building a successful brand.
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 We suggested that brand positioning is essentially about customer perceptions – with the objective to build a clearly defined position in the minds of the target audience.  All elements of the promotional mix need to be used to develop and sustain customer perceptions.  Initially, the challenge is to build awareness, then to develop the brand personality and reinforce the perception.

First-mover advantage  Business strategists often talk about first-mover advantage.  In terms of brand development, by “first-mover” they mean that it is possible for the first successful brand in a market to create a clear positioning in the minds of target customers before the competition enters the market.  There is plenty of evidence to support this.  Think of some leading consumer product brands like Gillette, Coca Cola and Sellotape that, in many ways, defined the markets they operate in and continue to lead.  However, being first into a market does not necessarily guarantee long-term success.  Competitors – drawn to the high growth and profit potential demonstrated by the “market-mover” – will enter the market and copy the best elements of the leader’s brand (a good example is the way that Body Shop developed the “ethical” personal care market but
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Long-term perspective  This leads onto another important factor in brand-building: the need to invest in the brand over the long-term.  This is particularly important in service businesses where a critical part of the brand value is the type and quality of service that a customer receives. perhaps at the expense of short-term profitability. 29 .  Building customer awareness.  By this we mean that the whole business should understand the brand values and positioning.  Think of the brands that you value in the restaurant. Internal marketing  Finally.  It is likely that your favourite brands invest heavily in staff training so that the face-to-face contact that you have with the brand helps secure your loyalty. management should ensure that the brand is marketed “internally” as well as externally. hotel and retail sectors.were soon facing stiff competition from the major high street cosmetics retailers.  This means that management must “invest” in a brand. communicating the brand’s message and creating customer loyalty takes time.

there is now a plethora of digital channels which can be used to hold a dialogue between a Brand and a Consumer.DIGITAL BRAND ENGAGEMENT  Due to the way the Internet is fast evolving. The Clue train Manifesto written by four visionaries in 1999 (which is now a very long time ago) predicted the 30 .  Digital brand engagement is brand engagement with a key focus on communication via the web. or groups of consumers. especially through the social web and social media.

and have the ability to communicate their thoughts and feelings globally. How right they were.  Such mediums on the social web including blogs. and they are doing just this in their thousands. bookmarking sites.  The Internet has evolved and people/consumers can now be very selective about which brands they choose to interact with. forums. imagery and video sites can all be utilized by consumers. and analyze its impact prior to engaging. social networks.  Brands can take notice of what is being said about them. through "buzz monitoring" tools and there are a number of tools to chose from. groups within social networks. their product or service by monitoring conversations taking place outside of their own website. The key elements to consider when listening and observing. It's important to listen and observe the buzz. before formulating a digital engagement strategy. are: People/Consumer Who are they? What are What How do they 31 .  The value of the information provided is proportional to the time and expertise dedicated to configuring and analyzing the data provided.Internet would evolve to a point where the consumer holds the "power" and no longer could the corporate world continue to communicate to their markets (the people they wish to interact with) in a push marketing or broadcast manner.  This value can be increased further when the buzz monitoring data is correlated with onsite web analytics data. micro-blogs.

negative. I. you are far better informed to create an engagement strategy. neutral)? Location Influence Reach of conversation? Authority of Volume and dialogue and site? Are they commit to the Brand? amount of buzz? Are they Brand Association looking for info? inquisitive and about to Are they loyal brand advocates? Are they brand opponents?  Once you have an overview of what the current brand/consumer situation is online.e. undertake some consumer testing prior to implementing and engagement approach. surveys and interviews. and traditionally this is carried out in a conscious level manner of research.  Typically.their values? Where are they? Are they just an Observer? motivates them? Are they a Participant? behave? Or are they Active Contributor? Sentiment (positive. 32 .  There is another level of research that can be carried out which adds a "Predictive" element.  The information above will provide a "Factual" position as it is based upon what people are actually doing and saying. such as focus groups.

it is becoming recognised that conscious level research on its own can be flawed.  In order to put some structure and process around this. as it is based upon the assumption that people are prepared to and are able to articulate what they are think on all levels. Create virtual Understand People/Consume representativ why they r e consumer groups Be present and available Location in the relevant online areas need your brand Create Outline what appeal to them content value to each group Engage Provide a m for interaction with them the right etiquette 33 aspects of the brand that has a Be visible and offer free information platform/mechanis observing .  Having obtained meaningful and valuable information from all the research and analysis. However.  Therefore a combination of research at the conscious and unconscious level is recommended. although there may be other methods which can be used. the time should now be right to start formulating the digital engagement strategy. the following approach is recommended.

 Encouraging people to communicate with the brand 34 . offline marketing can be used to drive online interaction. these need to be full synchronised and complementary.Prioritise the Influence key influences Stimulate inter consumer dialogue Encourage Provide status and recognition for influencers Address negative comments by helping Maximise Brand Association your advocacy into creating interest inter consumer minimise risk of commitmen t Reward your people loyal to your brand dialogue to advocates and Reduce brand opponency where possible  The other key area to consider is full integration with "offline" brand engagement/marketing strategy.  Typically.  To maximise the returns.

“EXAMPLES OF MANAGING BRANDS BY SAMSIKA ACADEMY OF BRAND MANAGEMENT” • CREATION OF THE LARGEST FOODSTORE CHAIN IN INDIA THROUGH FRANCHISING STRATEGY & REPOSITIONING OF THE MONGINIS CAKES BRAND Samsika's challenge was to extend the brand and reposition it in India. ad agency selection and sales & distribution. A strong campaign was supported by 35 . pricing. Samsika chose the franchising route and evolved a comprehensive marketing strategy including the launch. Monginis was given a customer orientation and positive perception management. Its advice was to focus mainly on cakes and go for an aggressive growth strategy.

Internally too.over 70% growth in the number of cake shops to 184 and an increase of manufacturing franchisees from 1 to 7. Children's books and stationery were two entirely new SBUs initiated by Samsika. Samsika initiated the Navneet Redemption Centres (NRCs) which today boasts of a healthy 162 members. The results led to a national brand presence .APPROVED CONSUMER FINANCE THROUGH THE LAUNCH OF KOTAK MAHINDRA K-VALUE BRAND 36 . Samsika advocated a complete overhaul.stationery (SBU 3) sales increased by 96% and children's books (SBU 2) sales went up by 30%. Samsika showed it was possible to post spectacular growth rates . • SUCCESSFUL BRAND EXTENSION STRATEGY FOR NAVNEET INTO STATIONERY.periodic promotions. • TOTAL MARKETING SOLUTION INPUTS FOR BUILDING A NEW CATEGORY OF PRE. dividing operations into distinct strategic business units and independent profit centres. CHILDREN'S BOOKS & A NEWSPAPER FOR KIDS THROUGH PROFESSIONAL MARKETING SYSTEMS Exploring new markets for new products was the challenge before Samsika as far as Navneet Publications was concerned. A new SBU 4 with a newspaper for kids was positioned with the help of a memorable ad campaign under Samsika's guidance.

K-value is in a position to finance a range of top brands and has a wide dealer network. The idea was to consolidate. it was to breathe fresh life into their sales and distribution systems. Membership of Kotak Mahindra K-value has grown at a steady 334% per month. positioning and pricing for K-value to capture the market. cautiously gathering intelligence and mapping the market with the Samsika Retail Barometer. Their premier product. targeting the middle class and developing a retail and channel partner network calls for finely tuned strategy and careful market planning. Samsika stepped in. to get closer to the customer and win over greater share of 37 . was an unchallenged market champion. Fevicol. Samsika strategised the branding.Charting the route for a finance product. • THE POWERFUL FEVICOL(R) BRAND AND RELATED PRODUCTS EMERGE WITH STRONGER BONDING THROUGH A NEW MARKETING & SALES THRUST When Pidilite Industries approached Samsika Marketing Consultants. Two needs were immediately identified: one.

to strengthen the mother brand.emotional equity. Samsika's objective was to elevate each of them to a brand. KAMANI OILS In a segment fraught with brand wars. more positive orbit. A cost-effective advertising and media strategy was developed and an overall marketing strategy was evolved to help launch new brands. Sehat Ka Sansar" 38 . Samsika suggested that Kamani Oil Industries focus primarily on its range of oils with one umbrella brand covering the entire range. Samsika suggested that Pidilite capitalise on its brand property of 'bonding' by extending it from the tangible benefit associated with Fevicol(R) to an intangible level where there would be a 'bonding' between the brand and the trade. Segmentation and positioning of the Fevicol(R) related products had to be precise so as to open up the exact niches that Samsika had identified. The Samsika Saleskit Module empowered the sales and distribution efforts. two. "Kamani Parivar. As a result of Samsika's efforts. the Fevicol(R) brand and all its satellite products have gone into a higher. The Samsika Retail Barometer was implemented. the brand and the customer. The problem was that Kamani's products were commodities. The Samsika Relationship Marketing Exercise was prescribed. • RESULT ORIENTED BRAND STRATEGY FOR A COMMODITY.

The result was that the brand grew by 68% and increased its distribution. advising on branding & pricing and helping institute the marketing & sales systems in 302 towns. Onjus today has a healthy 19% market share within a short span of just 16 months.THE CREATION OF A WINNING BRAND FROM ZERO BASE A textile and export company came to Samsika with a dream . Samsika made that dream a reality by making Onjus the second largest brand in the fruit drink/juice category. Samsika's involvement was complete.to develop a consumer brand in India. • FROM A DREAM TO REALITY . Kamani has made its presence felt significantly in the branded oil market and is poised for greater heights. 39 . from helping create the entire sales & distribution network to selecting the ad agency.was the brand positioning statement.

organization. 40 . person and symbol.AAKER’S FRAMEWORK • Brand identity as defined by aaker is the sum of the brand expressed as a product.

41 .KAPFERER’S FRAMEWORK • KAPFERER represents brand identity diagrammatically as a six sided prism as shown below.

its country-of-origin and the values it stands for.G.Physique according to him is the basis of the brand. dabur and zandu. the physique of Philips is “technology and reliability” while for the brand Tata it is “trust” • Personality is same as Aaker. • E. 42 . traditional brands like balsara.G. • E. it answers the question “what happens to this brand when it becomes a person?” • Culture symbolizes the organization.

G. E. • Reflection is the consumer’s perception for what the brands stands for. Do this with a professional who can assist you in new ways of looking at your business and yourself. Male a list of five to ten. E. • E.Relationship is the handshake between consumer and the organization. Clarity: Take the time to discover what makes you different. 43 .G. the relationship with “safola” is safety. SEVEN C’S OF BRAND 1. • Self-image is what the consumer thinks of himself. coke’s image more attract youth.G. Benz Car owner think that since he has bought the car he is Treating himself to one of the best car in the world.

When you know what makes you special you are able to move forward and build a platform for success based on these you-nique factors. it is much easier to speak to your audience clearly and in a way that they can hear you. 2. Your communications will become less stressful and more likely to hit your intended target. Consistency: With steps 1 & 2 complete you are now able to be consistent in your continuing campaigns to educate future prospects. Niche markets will be easier to identify. Practice with a mentor until you find the best one. 44 . 3. You will stand out from the crowd and increase your attraction quotient. A clear path will begin to unfold. Apply your new tag language to every piece of your promotional and/or collateral material. Create a tagline or ‘personal mantra’ to easily state your you-unique qualities and benefits. Communication: Once your you-nique qualities are discovered.

Formulate tangible business practices; review and plan your vision for developing business, so clients can rest assured that you will deliver in a reliable fashion. All visual communications should clearly link together as well. 4. Credibility: Consistency in product, delivery and communications will lead to credibility in the marketplace. This cornerstone to success stands firmly on the shoulders of the previous steps you have taken. Internal and external experiences of your business should align. Measure your effectiveness through client feedback. Gather client testimonials to integrate into materials for promotion. 5.Creativity: Another important element is your creativity in fulfilling and building a brand. It is a challenge to present your business in innovative ways that will continue to attract more potential clients.

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Utilizing the steps above, staying creative is much more likely to occur. Have fun and think out of the box. Enjoy this exercise and you will play the game to win! How can you stimulate your creativity? 6. Compassion: Always remember what it is like to be a consumer of your goods. Put yourself in your clients’ shoes at every juncture to test the viability of your choices. Will it serve the client in a way that they will appreciate? If not, how can you steer the ship in that direction? We do not operate in a void. Our audience must relate to us as we grow and develop. Client retention depends on it. 7. Competencies: In order to remain competent at our endeavors we must continue to grow and learn. To give our clients what they deserve we must evolve and educate ourselves to be on the cutting edge of innovation in our industries.

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Love to learn and think in new ways and your knowledge will keep you ahead of the crowd. Always look forward while measuring the past, and learn wherever you can. Join organizations, hire the best, find mentors and advisors to assist. Share these experiences with staff and colleagues to stay engaged and energized. Utilizing and reviewing these principles on a continuous basis can yield the results you desire. This information can also be an excellent method to review with your marketing professionals to insure correct application while building additional strategies for your business development. Finally, Strength in Branding is indeed a pivotal element for success.

BRAND MANAGEMENT AND THE CHALLENGE OF AUTHENTICITY

Brands have always been commercial agents and brand managers take pride in their ability to meet the needs of their target market.
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An initial realisation must be that brand managers are not the sole creators of brand meaning. Connection with time and place is also important for consumers because it affirms tradition. In this sense. there also exists a need for it to have moral legitimacy by pursuing prosocial actions. the early support offered to the gay community by the Levi’s clothing company ensures that the brand continues to have relevant meaning to gays.However. The dual problem for the firm is in creating images of authenticity while dealing with the challenge that authenticity presents for brand management.” emphasising the timeless values desired by consumers while downplaying apparent commercial motives. 48 . Brands that tried to exploit this segment when homosexuality became more generally accepted struggled because they were late to the party and were viewed as exploiting a community without paying the necessary dues. For example. these two desires are in conflict with the recent trend towards positioning brands as “authentic.

At the other end of the spectrum. hand-crafted methods.In retail. Managers must spend more time with their consumers listening to their needs and interests and how their brand can meet those needs. authenticity serves consumers as a form of self-expression for brands that represent a genuine expression of an inner personal truth or an expression of identity through community membership such as the ownership of a Harley Davidson motorcycle. So while consumers may identify with certain attributes of authenticity – links to past. 49 . whether those aspects are really authentic or not. or cultural links. Australian stores such as The Depot affirm older traditions by drawing on 1950s American style to convey a sense of authenticity and nostalgia. all of which downplay commercial motives – when they select brands. the makeup of these attributes will depend on the shared histories of a community of consumers. The important thing is that consumers perceive the aspects of authenticity as real. Marketing practice must continually craft together these disparate sources to create rich brand meanings for target consumers rather than seeing them as competing sources of authenticity. respect for traditions.

For example. though efforts also include some claims that are contrived.This means that instead of attempting to play up the authentic origins of a brand directly. Merely making an assertion that a brand is “authentic” probably will not be successful because of differing views on what such claims would mean – for some it could indicate a real (vs counterfeit) brand. This gives Dunlop a significant advantage over larger international rivals. Marketers will need to indicate authenticity by drawing on attributes that can be real. for example by becoming a member of a community. THE TOP 10 GLOBAL BRANDS Image Power Brand Share of Mind Esteem 50 . sponsoring newspaper columns and radio spots on local sports results. Dunlop in Australia sponsor local sporting events rather than high profile sports. while for others it could mean something much deeper. marketing efforts must take an indirect route.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Google Microsoft Coca-Cola IBM McDonalds Apple China Mobile GE Vodafone Marlboro 1 4 12 5 8 7 6 2 20 3 6 1 2 9 5 14 23 85 4 92  Brand positioning:- It is the act of designing companies the company’s offer so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the minds of customer. Brand positioning is a part of brand identity and value proposition that is to be actively communicated to the target audience and demonstrate an advantage over competing brands. 51 .

2. The consumer selects the product at different level of price. offering different quality and decided which is more suitable. For example.  Brand Sponsorship:- 52 .POSITIONING STRATEGY:1. Famous personalities are used to influences the consumers. Cadbury dairy milk came with the chocolate box as a gift. Positioning by price and quality: - Good quality costs little more. Positioning by user category:- The product is associated with the specific user class of people. Maggi two minute noodles position itself with “Two minute positioning”. this strategy commonly used in construction industry. For example. For example. “Fast to cook good to eat”. Positioning by Product class: Some advertisers use class associations which are seen substitute to satisfy needs of the customer. Positioning by benefit: Position on the basis of special benefit. 4. 3.

brand easily gets associated with the event. Third. First. 'Coca-Cola' is one of the top global sponsors of sport. Sponsorship of major events it’s a great opportunity for companies to gain publicity. which is done by supporting and linking the organization name with a particular event most commonly. from the option available the firm should choose the event that will help to achieve its sponsoring objective. sporting events or an activity that involves a large public gathering. it is better to have long term relationship with the event rather the sponsor a new event every time. For examples. The company should be cleared about the benefit it is trying to derive out of sponsoring a particular event. Second. creating awareness of the brand during the event and developing association and relationship with the brand. The rationale for sponsoring international and local sporting events is that it is "a natural fit". Fourth.It is form of publicity. 53 .

Godrej Fairglow soap brand was extended to its fairness cream. For example. coffee makers used its brand name strength to launch Mr. 54 . Equally by ensuring that local events are sponsored the brand is exposed exclusively to a local market and will thus be seen as a local brand. • To communicate the dynamic and leading attributes of the brand. it can be termed as Brand leverage.  Brand Leverage:When marketers leverage on brand equity by using the existing brand name for new products. 'Coca-Cola' meets its sponsorship objectives:• To connect with teens in an interesting and fun way. • To create unforgettable teen moments linked to 'Coca-Cola'. Marketers resort to this method so that consumers will perceive the new brand as having some of the characteristics of the existing brand.By matching the brand with world standard events 'Coca-Cola' benefits from the exposure and the associations made between it and the event being sponsored. For example. Coffee brand coffee. Coffee. the manufacturer of Mr. Lux used its brand name to move into the liquid soap and shampoo market. • To be seen as a national sponsor at a local level and global sponsor on an international level.

peanut butter and jelly. • A greater number of products increase efficiency of manufacturing facilities and raw materials. • The cost of introducing a brand leveraged product is less than introducing an independently new product due to a much smaller investment in brand development and advertising designed to gain brand recognition. • A full line permits coordination of product offerings. consumers maintain a consistent brand perception until disappointed – creating a risky advantage for established brands. Consumers enter retail outlets equipped with pre-existing knowledge of a brand’s level of quality and consistently relate this knowledge to new products carrying the familiar brand. potato chips and ranch dip. Additional advantages of brand leveraging include: • More products mean greater shelf space for the brand and more opportunities to make a sale. Generally. Brand leveraging communicates valuable product information to consumers about new products.While coffee machines and coffee beans are in different product categories. 55 . such as bagels and cream cheese. etc. there is a strong enough correlation between the two items that the brand name has a powerful impact on consumers of both categories. A brand leveraging strategy will not work in every situation.

Second. the type of person the brand represents. there is the relationship between the brand-as-person and the customer. There are important questions that should be considered in order to make the best decision for your brand: • Does the new product fit into the established product family? • Does the brand have attributes or features that easily and effectively carry into new categories? • Is the brand name strengthened or diluted by representing two (or more) differentiated products? • Does your company have facilities necessary to manufacture and distribute a new and differentiated product? • Will sales of the new product cover the cost of product development and marketing?  Brand Personality:- Two elements thus affect an individual's relationship with a brand.A brand leveraging strategy can be extremely successful and profitable if it is correctly implemented and provides new products with the right image. which is analogous to the relationship between two people. The brand personality provides depth. First. there is the brand personality--that is. 56 . feelings and liking to the relationship.

a brand-customer relationship can also be based on a functional benefit. interest. Effective personality of a brand to its prospective customers in an idealized sense. For example. It tends to create an identity of a brand with the person. action) it is a strategic weapon in a cluttered marketplace. It plays the role of a differentiator. Advantages of brand personality:     It creates favorable brand image of a product. It facilitates selection of an appropriate advertising media.Confident. effectively. desire. Advisor 57 . Apple : . just as two people can have a strictly business relationship. It facilitates psychological satisfaction in specific segment.Intelligent. IBM : .Of course. It is also called AIDA (attention. It helps the advertiser to face brand wars and market competition It acts as positive selling points. It create link between brand and customer. It is the description of a brand in the terms human characteristics. Expert. Creative.

Disney Google : . • Motorola:58 .simplicity Some famous Brand personalities • Pepsi. with a sense of humor. • MRF Tyres:- Up market. Cellular Phone Personality:- • Nokia:- The charming European.family fun entertainment : . Practical technology. sporty. A widely travelled global citizen.Brand Personality:- Pepsi built youth. and fulfill those expectations. Likes to interact with the people. and explore what they expect. powerful. spontaneity and irreverence as key elements of the brand personality. Sachin was shown smashing a windscreen and Azhar swiping a Pepsi. Coke has still a define a personality for itself.

Command over technology. It is only cleanness but freshness the mouth : . It is much more comprehensive than brand positioning which communicate to the consumer relevant value to the brand to distinguish from competitor’s brand. having bright colors. He believes in hard sell. These associations represent what the brand stands for and imply a promise to customers for the organization members.The live-wire America executives.It is a sweet gel.quality products from Lever Value Proposition : . Powerful as well as resourceful.  Brand Identity:Brand Identity is the unique set of brand associations that the brand strategist aspires to create or maintain. Brand Identity For Close Up Tooth Paste Core Identity come closer to each other Extended Identity : .Oral freshness which allows young people to 59 .

Make life comfortable. Such an association is more enduring than one based on product attributes 60 .Relief from prickly heat in tropical climate and summer. : . Value Proposition : . It is life style products. Tata Stands for quality.It is a sweat fighter.Brand Identity For Nycil Core Identity summer Extended Identity : .A powder which takes care of prickly heat in BRAND IDENTITY Perspective Brand as product • • Dimension Quality Users Organization attributes Remarks Quality price relationship is kept in mind Organization Johnson and Johnson are for babies.

In marketing. the coaches of which are the saloons of former Maharajas. It is aspects of marketers. Cognitive scientist states that brand loyalty is a problem solving behavior. Consumer loyalty towards a brand can be attributed to his perception about the brand that it provides the right mix of features and quality. 61 .Symbol • visuals imagery • Metaphor • Heritage Coca cola’s classic bottle Kodak and Yellow pages The journey in palace on wheels. Brand loyalty has been proclaimed by some to be the ultimate goal of marketing.  Brand Loyalty:It can be considered as conscious or unconscious decision of consumers that is reflected in his expressed intent or behavior to purchase and repurchase it on a continuous basis. Behavioral scientists argue that brand loyalty occurs because of reinforcement. brand loyalty consists of a consumer's commitment to repurchase the brand and can be demonstrated by repeated buying of a product or service or other positive behaviors such as word of mouth advocacy.

however. again. Soft Core Loyal .  BRAND IMAGE:- 62 . if Joe has brand loyalty to Company A he will purchase Company A's products even if Company B's are cheaper and/or of a higher quality. Shifting Loyal . For example. Switchers .with no loyalty they are switching their brand constantly. Philip Kotler. they may cost less to serve. Brand loyalty is more than simple repurchasing. at least on occasion. to put aside their own desires in the interest of the brand. True brand loyalty exists when customers have a high relative attitude toward the brand which is then exhibited through repurchase behavior.loyal to two or three brands. and can bring new customers to the firm. This type of loyalty can be a great asset to the firm: customers are willing to pay higher prices. a lack of viable alternatives. Such loyalty is referred to as "spurious loyalty". defines four patterns of behavior: Hard Core Loyal .moving from one brand to another. or out of convenience.who buy the brand all the time. Customers may repurchase a brand due to situational constraints.True brand loyalty implies that the consumer is willing.

It represents all internal & external characteristics. It is the best. For example. Brand image = the image of a good or service which is formed in the customer’s mind Company image = the valued customers. symbol. beliefs. packaging. sales materials. Ideas. That’s the brand image created by Vodafone on their customer. single marketable investment a company can make. lost customers and other groups of people connect with the organization The Importance Of Image:- 63 . advertising. name. when you listen to the song of U and I and when you see the red color you remember the brand Vodafone.A unique set of associations in the minds of customers concerning what a brand stands for and the implied promises the brand makes. potential customers. culture. values. It's anything & everything that influences how brand or a company is perceived by its target constituencies. The sum of all tangible & intangible traits.

2. These are: • Attractiveness • Trustworthiness • Expertise 64 . Image communicates expectations Image is a filter influencing perceptions of the performance of the firm 3.1. Image is a function of expectations and experiences Image has an internal impact on employees Research on image built through endorsement of celebrities show that there are three aspects that influence a consumer’s attitude of a brand. 4.

Contents of Advertisement:- The quality of contents i. the brand may get cheap image. the color combination.e. For example. the premium pricing for company but for brand. Reid and Taylor advertised in business. For example. Media used:- The quality of media or programmes aponsors also affects the brand image.FACTORS AFFECTING BRAND IMAGE I. III. II. words can give indented image to the brand. Price:Toyota has developed a rich image not only for The price factor can generate image for the brands. 65 . headlines. if cheap humor is used in the ad. For example.

For example.Targeted to high price elasticity market segment. Rin. BRAND TYPES • Premium:. For example. Generics brands are usually priced below those products sold by supermarkets 66 . companies enjoy goodwill in the market can generate favorable image for their brands. • Generic brand:.It is directly manufactured by manufacturers • • who have invested heavily on building them. Distribution:- The type of distribution by a company may affect the image of the brand. Packaging:- The package must be properly designed in order to give a rich image to the brand as package is the face of the product.It is consumer products (often supermarket goods) are distinguished by the absence of a brand name. Colgate.Cost more than other product in the category Economic:. V. Surf. Manufacturing:. Lux.IV.

this is referred to as individual branding. this is referred to as corporate branding. For example. this is referred to as family branding. for an 'economic' price." [2] When large retailers buy products in bulk from manufacturers and put their own brand name on them. These are sometimes referred to as 'top-shelf' products. this is referred to as "brand extension. store brand. white labelling. When a company's name is used as a product brand name. They generally position themselves as offering all the same benefits as a premium product. Rice. competing on price. Generally they imitate these more expensive brands. A number of different types of brands are recognized.under their own brand (frequently referred to as "store brands" or "own brands"). wheat. A "fighting brand" is a brand created specifically to counter a competitive threat. When a company uses the brand equity associated with an existing brand name to introduce a new product or product line. An "economy brand" is a brand targeted to a high price elasticity market segment. A "premium brand" typically costs more than other products in the same category. paper napkins. private label or own brand (UK). When one brand name is used for several related products. When all a company's products are given different brand names. this is called private branding. Doormats. 67 .

BRAND STRATEGY Branding in essence is effective brand strategy. When a company sells the rights to use a brand name to another company for use on a non-competing product or in another geographical area. It's the application of sound research into brand communications. this is referred to as "brand licensing." An "employment brand" is created when a company wants to build awareness with potential candidates. analytical techniques. When different brands work together to market their products.Private brands can be differentiated from "manufacturers' brands" (also referred to as "national brands"). such as Google. and the development of an improved strategy for your brand. In many cases. 68 . this brand is an integrated extension of their customer. this is referred to as "co-branding".

packaging. • LINE EXTENSIONS:- In this strategy company introduces additional item in the same product category in the same brand name. Line extensions work only if the sales are taken away from the competitors. 69 . This item may be different in size. It is available through different specific mix of trade channels e. Then can have introduced. It also allows company to command more shelf-space at the retail level. lower end products are available at general stores and higher end products. It identifies the key elements of product brand and develops a branding action plan to implement it. and 1 ltr. It offers a variety of products to the customer. For example.Strategy is all about brand positioning. Line extensions can be innovative. bottles it extended to 500 ml. Coke in India means 300 ml.g. color and so on.

brand name may not be appropriate for the new product category. The company used the same brand name for Electronics appliances. it might affect the reputation of the company’s other products. • BRAND EXTENSION:- Extending brand name is extended to a product being launched in a new product category. For example. Motor cycles. Brand extension advisable to see how the associations of the parent brand are consistent with the extended brand. Bajaj is a brand name in the field of Scooters. 70 .Godrej had face cream with the name Fair glow fairness cream and came out with the fair glow toilet soap to cater the people who wished to use soap bar rather than cream.Colgate is available in both toothpaste and toothpowder. If new product is not satisfactory in performance. Tempos. 1. Extending the brand:. Most of the times. Similarly Vim bar extended to the powder.

Reaching out to the new category: . For example.nineties it as Kwality Walls. but could not secure the expected benefit.additional product is added under same brand name. this form of extension is followed. Companies try to acquire a brand from other companies and relaunch it with necessary modification. HLL acquired Kwality ice cream in the mid. HLL extended its Flora brand of Sunflower oil to the gingelly oil segment of the edible oil category. Additional brands are introduced to cater to the different segment. Product line extension: . For example. • BRAND RELAUNCH:- It is the process of launching the brand after certain time gap.when the brand has potential of providing benefit in another category either through chosen brand name or through its wide acceptance in a category.2. Glaxosmithline acquired Viva a Maltova from Jagatjit industries in 2000. 71 . 3. • MULTIBRANDS:- This kind of strategy is employed to saturate the market.

• NEW BRAND NAME:- To make brand name more appropriate. 72 . For example. and this is quite expensive.Multibrands strategy may not allow company to focus on company’s resources. For example. When Manikchand atta were launched. Because of this profitability get affected. it did not succeed in the market. Limca brands. P&G’s tide is for solied clothes and dreft is for gentle clothes. Coco.Cola came with Thumps Up. Using same brand hamper the sale of mineral water. P&G products nine different brands of detergent. A new brand again has to be built up. a company puts a new brand name when it enters a new product category. It should be considered whether the sales and profit estimated from the new brand. Manikchand entered the mineral water segment with the brand name Oxyrich. Gold spot. Competitors brand get affected by the product and sometime own brand also get affected.

According to Keller (1998). It represents the consumer's ability to recall a brand name when given a product category (Aaker.COMPONENTS OF BRAND MANAGEMENT • Brand Awareness:Brand awareness is the starting point in the development of brand equity. Converse or Adidas than they are to name LA Gear or Spalding. they are more likely to mention Nike. when a person is asked to name a brand of basketball shoes. brand awareness is important to brand strategy for two reasons. 73 . 1991). Reebok. For example.

Airel and so on. it may be considered more favorably. Because it has been shown to drive financial performance (return-oninvestment). awareness can impact the development and salience of associations with the brand. when anyone says. perceived quality is often the focal point of corporate strategy. Second. • Perceiver Quality:Perceived quality represents a consumer's judgments of a product's overall excellence relative to its intended purpose. given its rich heritage with the sport of football Adidas is commonly perceived to produce a high-quality football shoes. If one brand has a larger presence through advertising. about detergent u remember popular brand like Tide. For example. Surf. awareness of the brand ensures the brand enters the consumer's consideration set when looking to make a purchase. For example. about Computer Company you remember about IBM.First. When anyone says. brand awareness can affect choices within the consideration set. 74 . Third.

Slogan based on 2 minutes it help mother with promise of ‘food to cook and great to eat’. Each organization has to carve a brand identity and develop it further to build strong brands. a celebrity endorser or a visual symbol. This slogan specifies u can prepare food within 2 minute and it will not harm to your health. pricing strategies may impact a consumer's perception of quality. Therefore. • Brand association:- It is associate brand with certain tangible and intangible attributes. Most of this association are derived from brand identity and brand image. higher price may connote higher quality. • Slogan:- For example. Maggi noodles. as in many other industries.Besides the actual make-up of the product. it positioned their products as healthy fast food with the slogan 2 minute noodles. in athletic footwear. 75 .

the logo represent the company’s outlook. and • Characters:- Brand characters typically are introduced through advertising and can play a central role in these and subsequent ad campaigns. Flags. graphical designs and alphabets are all used as logos. For example. 76 . interity. logo of the Aditya Birla group of companies in India is a Rising Sun. Some brand characters are animated where as others are live-action figures. Logo is a relatively permanent entity for a company. companies also use a logo for visual identification. It is the piece of creativity. which is positive thinking and also a stress on values such as performances.• Logo and symbol:- Along with the brand name. Brand characters come in many different forms. quality. A logo is pictorial symbol indented to communicate with the consumers. pictures. according to the company.

Characters often must be updated over time so that their image and personality remains relevant to the target market. In many towns of North India. by asking for the “bacha chaap paint”. When you look for Asian paints.the impish little boy with a paintbrush in one hand a dripping can of paints in the other. you catch sight of Gattu. For example. An Asian paint is another that has created a wining logo. 77 .Consequently brand characters can be quite useful for creating brand awareness. buyer asks for Asian Paints.

and another P&G brand becomes a valued and trusted member of the household. William Proctor and James Gambled started a small business and set up their business in Cincinnati.Proctor and Gamble "Our brand is our bond with consumers. 78 . President & CEO. we convert a trademark into a trust mark.CASE STUDY Company Name: . When we succeed." John Lafley. P&G. Background Note:Proctor and Gamble was established in 1937.

US. The strategy involved grouping of brands to appeal to similar consumer groups.000 worldwide. In 2003. 10. The company introduced the category management model in the 1980s. P&G constantly modified its brand management strategies as and when the company expanded its product & brand portfolio and its business operations globally. P&G introduced the 'cohort management strategy' for managing brands. the company was ranked 31st among the Fortune 500 companies. with an employee-strength of around 1. 79 .A pioneer in introducing a formalized brand management system way back in the 1930s. focused on the 'glocal' branding strategy in the early 1990s and made changes in its brand management system under the Organization 2005 restructuring exercise in the late 1990s. P&G encouraged the promotion of rival brands within the company to complete against one another. Introduction:Based in Cincinnati. Procter & Gamble (P&G) was one of the largest manufacturers of fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) in the world. In 2000. P&G had operations in 80 countries globally.

000 patented technologies and they can simply find the more number of innovative way to turn its best ideas into improved products that meet consumer needs better.P&G talks more than 5. The company’s goal is to continue to doing that better and more consistency that any other company in the world. The company has more than 27. 80 . In this way they discover new customer needs. P&G’s Competitive Advantage in Branding:P&G’s core strength is its ability to build big leadership brands. Understanding consumer needs: . Inventing new product technology: .5 million consumers worldwide everywhere. There are three factors on which P&G’S success based upon these are:a.P&G call “connecting what’s needed with what’s possible”. The companies use a variety of approach.They comprised full color print ads in national magazines. from in-home visits to concepts and product testing via the internet. b.

The plan was communicated to respective functional unit heads and the top management. Commercializing and expanding new products globally: - P&G marketing and distributing partnership. who reviewed the document and returned it back for necessary changes. They develop global manufacturing & sourcing strategic and gathered data about the country specific marketing strategies. These capabilities have helped it win consumers around the world. By the end of 1990. for each of its product categories. The brand manager of P&G were asked to offer their ideas. new ideas faster than ever before. business plan in just one page. the company can introduce big. P&G had established global strategic planning groups (GSPG) that constituted of 3 to 20 individuals. The global branding strategy:P&G was known as the “one page memo company”.c. Each GSPG was assigned several tasks. 81 . This process continued until the memo was finally accepted. suggestion.

The GSPG were also responsible to developing global and local brand policy that involved decision making on the element of brand strategy that had to be standardized across the world. the implementation of these strategies was carried out by a global category team (GCT) each of the product of P&G was handled by GCT which was headed by an executive vice president. it was tested in the other market also. marketing. 82 . When branding program was highly successful in the country. The GCT constituted the top management executive handling different line of responsibilities like production. GSPG were responsible for developing brand strategies. The country specific brand management implemented the branding strategy in local market. P&G encouraged branding team at the country level to develop their own brand building program. and research and development.

CADBURYS BRAND STRATEGY The 'glass and a half'. corporate purple and flowing script has become synonymous with Cadbury. Cadburys use a line extension brand strategy. Line extension is a strategy in which companies is introducing their new products in the same product category. 83 .

5star. This campaign built social acceptance for chocolate consumption amongst adults. The interactive campaign for "Pappu Pass Ho Gaya" bagged a Bronze Lion at the prestigious Cannes Advertising Festival 2006 for 'Best use of internet and new media'. And Cadbury Dairy Milk became the perfect expression of 'spontaneity' and 'shared good feelings'. usually a reward or a bribe for children. In the Mid 90's the category was re-defined by the very popular `Real Taste of Life' campaign. the 'Kuch Meetha Ho Jaaye' campaign associated Cadbury Dairy Milk with celebratory occasions and the phrase "Pappu Pass Ho Gaya" became part of street language. It has been adopted by consumers and today is used extensively to express joy in a moment of achievement / success. through the 'Khanewalon Ko Khane Ka Bahana Chahiye' campaign. to further expand the category. In the early 90's. It appealed to the child in every adult. The idea involved a tie-up with Reliance India Mobile service and allowed students to check their exam results using their mobile service and 84 .Cadbury came with the many chocolate like Dairy milk. gems. Temptation and one of the snacks is Bytes. Perk. More recently. shifting the focus from `just for kids' to the `kid in all of us'. the focus shifted towards widening chocolate consumption amongst the masses. by showcasing collective and shared moments. In the late 90's. chocolates were seen as 'meant for kids'.

Every time they are coming with the some new advertisement and in every advertisement are giving new reason to buy dairy milk. Cadbury Dairy Milk 85 . The 'Pappu Pass Ho Gaya' campaign also went on to win Silver for The Best Integrated Marketing Campaign and Gold in the Consumer Products category at the EFFIES 2006 (global benchmark for effective advertising campaigns) awards. About their cost strategy. from so many years their price has not changed only they are launching new products under the same brand name Cadbury.encouraged those who passed their examinations to celebrate with Cadbury Dairy Milk.

The Media: 86 . Cadbury Dairy Milk is its largest chocolate brand which accounts for a third of every chocolate bar consumed. Kuch Meetha Ho jaye" captured the thought of celebrating a moment of delight with Dairy Milk • A campaign was built around the idea of how "pappu" celebrated passing his exams with Dairy Milk. The Task: In 2005 the task before Cadbury Dairy Milk was to increase its consumer franchise. The Strategy: • The task was to get the youth audience to adopt Cadbury Dairy Milk in the sweet eating or " muh meetha karna" moments • The campaign of " Jab Pappu Pass Ho jaye.Background: Cadbury dominates the chocolate market in India with a 70% share of the market.

However in recent years the Cadbury 5 Star franchise was in decline. The Results: The activity contacted 20 MN students across the country and was awarded a Bronze Lion at the Cannes Media awards in 2005. Cadbury 5 Star which is unique bar of nougat and caramel enrobed in Cadbury Dairy Milk Chocolate provides one of the most distinctive and involving chocolate eat experiences. 87 . Cadbury 5 Star Crunchy Market Background: Cadbury is the market leader in the chocolates category. • The key was how do own the moment of " pappu passing his exams" in the media space. Radio and Outdoor. The Brand Cadbury 5 Star needed to introduce an element of surprise in its eat experience to gain share among lapsed consumers.• A multi-media campaign was launched on TV. with Cadbury 5 Star being its second largest brand. Competition The brand was under threat from other more offerings in the market. Internet.

Ab har bite main Arrey!" The campaign targeted at youth was executed in a lighthearted vein built around a boy-girl relationship.. This was creatively expressed as “Naya Five Star Crunchy. The Strategy The campaign was built around the proposition of an “unexpected surprise" which had a surprise in every bit.To do this the variant Cadbury 5 Star Crunchy was launched.. internet. outdoor and print media.which still had the richness of caramel. cheeriness of nougat but also contained rice crispies. 88 . In order to engage youth the campaign was executed across TV. radio.

The main advantages of a private branding strategy are enhanced loyalty to retail outlets. Although some of these advantages are potentially relevant to businesses in the service sector. private branding has not yet become a recognized component of service quality. better control over shelf-space. increased chain profitability.THE ROLE OF PRIVATE BRANDING IN IMPROVING SERVICE QUALITY Private branding has become a successful marketing strategy in the retail sector. The aim of the present study is to analyze the potential contribution of private branding to the service sector by: 89 . and improved bargaining power over manufacturers.

and reputations of medical staff and managers. (4) Empathy dimension: willingness to listen to customers’ needs. 90 . accuracy of diagnoses by doctors. skills. waiting times.• • • examining the capabilities of private branding as a strategic device. attentiveness by medical staff and managers to clients problems and requests. patience. For example:Role of private branding in improving healthcare service quality Improving service quality in the healthcare sector in accordance with the five dimensions of SERVQUAL involves attention to the following matters: (1) Reliability dimension: patient scheduling. nurses. (3) Assurance dimension: professional knowledge. (2) Responsiveness dimension: accessibility to medical staff. describing the role of private branding in improving service quality. and integrating a private branding strategy into the SERVQUAL model. and secretaries.

1.the name. medical equipment and instrumentation. 91 . PRIMARY DATA 1. psychographic. I think that strength and vice-versa is the weaknesses. and specific customer factors by segmentation can be used. demographic. companies name. From your point of view what is an ideal brand? • Something which emotionally connects to consumer. 1.(5) Tangibles dimension: aesthetic qualities of waiting rooms. goodwill. the logo. What factors one must consider before branding? • Geographic. • If the brand is true to what it stands for. What are strength and weaknesses related to brands? • See . etc. socigraphic. auxiliary items (such as information leaflets). it depends on the brand . general “atmosphere”.

92 . 7. 1.What is your core branding strategy? • I am extremely sorry due to official reasons I will not be able to disclose it. • But I can say in general that we focus on customers. • Also it tangibalises the intangibleness of the product. What role branding plays in today’s scenario? • Due to globalization there are numerous players in today’ scenario and so I think branding plays a vital role with respect to making brand distant from those of competitors. 6. What is brand positioning? • A brand which is distant and valued in the minds of the customers. • To customize as per needs and wants of the customers such it fits into their mind.What are the essential inputs in brand management? • The most important input for branding is the product itself.1. • You cannot use a specific branding strategy or any standard strategy for all products.

• Finally. Finally why brand management is vital in today’s world? • As I told you why branding is vital in today’s scenario I think in the same way brand management plays a significant role in today’s scenario.• Thus it is the product that matters a lot. 8. • It plays a strategic role in today’s scenario and not just marketing. 93 . proper brand management will lead to brand loyalty.

1 most trusted brand in Mumbai for the 2005 edition of Brand Equity's Most Trusted Brands survey.  Cadbury Dairy Milk emerged as the No. It differ one company’s product to other and it create value for the customer. 94 . In the 90’s Cadbury face many problems but they cope with the problem and now they are the leaders in the market.  Quality is the dominating aspect which influences consumer to purchase the product.CONCLUSION  Brand management play vital role for any company weather it is services or product industry. Cadbury is having maximum market share compare to other brand.

 The Cadbury brand has proven itself to be a leader in a highly volatile and competitive market because it has successfully established.COM 95 . BIBLOGRAPHY: 1] BRAND MANAGEMENT BOOK BY ‘DAVID AAKER AND PHILIP KOTLER 2] RITA CLIFTON 3] GOOGLE ENGINE 4] WIKIPEDIA. nurtured and developed its brand and growing portfolio of products.

96 .  Quality is the dominating aspect which influences consumer to purchase the product.  The Cadbury brand has proven itself to be a leader in a highly volatile and competitive market because it has successfully established. It differ one company¶s product to other and it create value for the customer.  Cadbury Dairy Milk emerged as the No. 1 most trusted brand in Mumbai for the 2005 edition of Brand Equity's Most Trusted Brands survey. In the 90¶s Cadbury face many problems but they cope with the problem and now they are the leaders in the market. Cadbury is having maximum market share compare to other brand.CONCLUSION  Brand management play vital role for any company weather it is services or product industry. nurtured and developed its brand and growing portfolio of products.

COM 97 .BIBLOGRAPHY: 1] BRAND MANAGEMENT BOOK BY µDAVID AAKER AND PHILIP KOTLER 2] RITA CLIFTON 3] GOOGLE ENGINE 4] WIKIPEDIA.