Characterization and Matching of Turbochargers for Producer Gas Engine Applications A Thesis submitted to Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Combustion, Gasification and Propulsion Laboratory INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE, BANGALORE Department Of Chemical Engineering Siddaganga Institute of Technology Tumkur Dr. S. M. Shashidhara Principal and Professor Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. SIT, Tumkur – Experiments and Analysis By H. V. Sridhar USN: 1 SI 03PGM01 Research work carried out at SUPERVISORS – 572103 2003-2008 Dr. N. K. S. Rajan Principal Research Scientist CGPL, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering. IISc, Bangalore Dr. K. Ramakrishnan Professor Dept of Chemical Engineering. SSN Institute of Chennai of Technology, I Siddaganga Institute of Technology Tumkur – 572 103 Department of Mechanical Engineering Certificate Certified that the thesis work entitled “Characterization and Matching of Turbocha rgers for Producer Gas Engine Applications – Experiments and Analysis” carried out by me, H.V. Sridhar, USN 1SI03PGM01 a bonafied student in the research center of the Mechanical Engineeri ng Department, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur in partial fulfillment for the award of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in Mechanical Engineering of the Visvesvaraya Technological Universit y, Belgaum during the year 2003-2009. To the best of my knowledge, the work reported in thi s thesis has not been submitted by me elsewhere for the award of the degree and is not the repetition of the work carried out by others. H.V. Sridhar To best of my knowledge, the above statement made by the candidate Mr. H.V. Srid har, USN 1SI03PGM01 is true. Dr. S.M.Shashidhara Dr. N.K.S.Rajan Dr. K. Ramakrishnan Guide & Co-Guide Co-Guide Principal, CGPL, SSN College of Engg,

Siddaganga Indian Institute of Science Chennai Institute of Bangalore Technology, Tumkur II C E R T I F I C A T E This is to certify that the thesis work titled “Characterization and Matching of T urbochargers for Producer Gas Engine Applications – Experiments and Analysis” submitted by Mr. H. V. SRIDHAR bearing USN 1SI03PGM01 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy in Mechanical Engineering of the Visvesvaraya Technological Universit y, Belgaum, Karnataka, is a bonafied record of the work carried out by him in the Combustion , Gasification and Propulsion Laboratory, IISc, Bangalore, from October 2003 to February 2009 under my supervision and guidance. Dr. N. K. S. Rajan Co-guide III ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The moment of penning the acknowledgements is a special moment in a researcher’s l ife. A feeling of satisfaction of nearing the completion of the undertaken task and also looking b ack with gratitude and explicitly acknowledging the help extended by many during the course of journey without which the journey would have been tedious. I would like to express my gratitude to my beloved guide Dr. S. M. Shashidhara, Principal and Professor, SIT, Tumkur who accepted to guide me from a mid stage and encouraged me with all his support for the completion of this dissertation. My special thanks and respect to him fo r his constant source of inspiration. I wish to express my deepest gratitude to Dr. N K S Rajan, Principal Research Sc ientist, CGPL, IISc, for his able guidance and for the tremendous support I have received from him. He has been a constant source of inspiration and encouragement for me by his methodical approach, frequ ent and deep scientific discussion as well as by his compassionate, pleasing interaction whose thoughts and guidance are reflected on every page of this report. I also thank him for providing an opportunity to c arry out this research work in CGPL. I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. K. Ramakrishnan, Professor and Head of Chemical Engineering, SSN college of Engineering, Chennai (Earlier HOD of Chemical Engg a t SIT, Tumkur) for his valuable guidance and all the pleasant interactions I had with him and the suppo rt received from him. I am very much grateful to Prof P J Paul, for helping me, by providing the labor atory facilities at CGPL and valuable suggestions I have received while carrying out the research wo rk. I am thankful to Prof H S Mukunda and Dr S Dasappa, CGPL, IISc, for their support and guidance during my research work. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr G Sridhar, Mrs. V Gayathri. M

r. D. N. Subbukrishna, Dr. T. R. Anil and Dr. Bhaskar Dixit for the encouragement and val uable suggestions I have received from them while carrying out the research work and also for the pl easant association I had with them during the best part of my career. I am thankful to Mr. G. S. Seshagiri, Mr. Suresh, Mr. Ravindrababu Yarasu, Mr. S . D. Ravi, Ms. Nisha, Ms. Anasuya and all the technical staff of CGPL, for their moral and technical support and encouragement during this work. My special thanks to Mr. Indrajit and Mr. Rupender for helping me in the experim ental work. Last but not the least, I would like to thank my wife Mrs. Srividya and my son C hi. Srujan and my parents for their patience, understanding and moral support without which, th e successful completion of this endeavor would not have been perceivable. IV Abstract The focus of the research carried out under this work is to characterize turboch arger for producer gas application and to arrive at a scheme for optimal matching of turbo charger with the engine. This work is found to bridge the gap in the technology, as currently there are n o engines developed and tuned for producer gas as a fuel. Producer gas is a product of sub-stoichiometri c combustion (gasification) of biomass. It is established to be fast gaining significance among renewable fu els which is also known to be carbon neutral and the solution to energy from this approach could be made av ailable in an on-demand condition for power generation. In one of the well recognized works [4] in this area, research and development at IISc on biomass gasification has resulted in open top downdraft g asifiers that would generate clean–gas for application in internal combustion engines. Power generation in IC Engines using producer gas is possible in diesel engines in dual fuel mode that require minor changes or in spark ignition engine with essential modif ications. The use of modified spark ignited engine meant for gasoline or natural gas is known to have resulted in de-rating of the engine with reduced peak power output as compared with its designated fuel. This de-rating is traced to be due to lower energy density of stoichiometric mixture of air and producer gas as compared with gasoline or natural gas [12]. In a turbocharged engine, one of the possible options to overcome the reduction in the peak power due to the lower energy density of the mixture of producer gas and air, is by ensuring a higher mass flow rate to the engine cylinder using an appropriately tuned compressor of turb ocharger. In such an option, the turbocharger compressor should handle the mixture of producer gas and air wh ich have different properties compared to its standard natural gas application, in addition to hand ling of higher mass flow rate. This essentially leads to having different characteristics of the compressor and turbine. Matching of the

turbocharger characteristics with this requirement is possible only by appropria te studies. The present study is aimed at this concept and involves analysis and evolution of a method of appr oach for establishing an optimal choice of a combination of turbocharger – engine for Producer gas applicat ion. The study involves a set of experiments in understanding the extent of de-rating of both naturally aspirated [40] and turbocharged engines designed for natural gas when used with the producer gas. The results from these experiments using the producer gas as well as the peak po wer reported by engine manufacturers with the standard fuel are used for establishing characteristics o f the engine and extent of the de-rating. The analysis of these experimental results has revealed a need for ma tching of the turbocharger. Literature indicates that for turbocharger matching, the compressor is more sens itive component than the turbine. Taking this lead, the study is focused on the modeli ng of the compressor more critically. For validating this model, a turbocharger has been experimentally ch aracterized on a test bench. The compressor modeling is based on the established energy loss models, reported in the literature. The model is further validated by comparing the predicted results with the standard published compressor characteristics of a Holset turbocharger. In a turbocharged producer gas engine application, the gas handled V by the compressor is a mixture of air and producer gas. The necessary changes in fluid parameters for this mixture are incorporated into the compressor model [41]. The established quasi steady modeling for spark ignited engines has been modifie d by incorporating necessary fuel characteristics of the producer gas. This model is validated with experimental results. An algorithm is developed for performing matching of the turbocharger by integra ting the compressor, engine and turbine models. The variable parameters of this model are the mass flow rate of the mixture to the engine, turbocharger speed and engine efficiency apart from the c ompressor and engine geometrical configurations. Based on these parameters, the compressor model pred icts the pressure ratio, temperature rise, efficiency and the work done – pertaining to the compressor. In the engine modeling, care is taken for correction of the pressure and temperature at the after-cooler. The engine model calculates the compression work, pressure and temperature rise with fuel combustion as well as the expansion work in the cylinder. This sequence of computations is used to predict the engine shaft powe r and further the work derived at the turbine. The estimated requirement of engine shaft power is input to arrive at mass flow rate at compressor that makes a closed computation loop and is solved iteratively til l the steady conditions are obtained and the match obtained for the combination of the set of the turbocharg er and the engine selected. The study made has looked at all the aspects in understanding of the interaction

of turbocharger and engine with producer gas as fuel. The results from experiments and predictions have shown a fair match. The approach of this study allows evaluating the peak power for an assigned combination of the turbocharger and engine leading to selection of optimal combi nation of commercially available turbocharger that can result in the engine to produce optimal peak pow er with producer gas application. VI CONTENTS CERTIFICATE 1 CERTIFICATE 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I PUBLICATION ARISING OUT OF THE PRESENT WORK III ABSTRACT IV CONTENTS VII LIST OF FIGURES XI LIST OF TABLES XV NOMENCLATURE XVII CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1-7 1.1. Statement of the problem 4 1.2. Objectives of the study 5 1.3. Scope and justification of the study 5 1.4. Methodology 6 1.5. Organization of the report 6 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 8-17 2.1. Producer gas engines 8 2.2. Turbocharged engines fuelled with Producer Gas 9 2.3 Modeling Studies on Turbocharger 10 2.3.1 Operating Characteristics of Compressor and Turbine 11 2.3.2 Modeling Studies of Turbocharger 12 2.3.3 Testing of Turbochargers 14 2.3.4 Quasi-Steady Modeling of a Spark Ignited Engine 14 2.4 Matching of Turbochargers to Engine 15 2.5 Conclusion 17 CHAPTER 3: THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 18-57 3.1 Introduction 18 3.2 Experiments on Small Power level (<100 kWe) Naturally Aspirated Natural Gas Engines fuelled with Producer Gas 19 3.2.1 Experimental Setup 19 3.2.2 Instrumentation Scheme 21 3.2.2.1 Instrumentation on the Gasifier 21 3.2.2.2 Air / Gas flow Measurement 22 3.2.2.3 Emission Measurement 22 3.2.2.4 Power Output Measurement 23 3.2.3 The Experimental Procedure 23 VII 3.2.4 Results and discussion 23 3.2.4.1 Performance of Kohler Engine 24 3.2.4.2 Performance of Cummins 6B Series Engine 25 3.2.4.3 Analysis of the de-rating 27 3.3 Experiments with Medium Power Level Turbocharged Natural Gas engines fuelled with Producer Gas 29 3.3.1 The Experimental Setup 30 3.3.2 Instrumentation Scheme 31 3.3.2.1Temperature Measurements 31 3.3.2.2 Pressure Measurements 32

3.3.2.3 Flow Measurements 32 3.3.2.4 Gas Composition Measurements 33 3.3.2.5 Exhaust gas composition measurement 33 3.3.3 Experimental Procedure 33 3.3.4 Results and Discussion 33 3.4 Characteristics of the turbocharger with PG 47 3.5 Creating a turbocharger test bench facility and testing of a turbocharger 48 3.5.1 Design of Turbocharger test bench 49 3.5.1.1 Design of Burner 50 3.5.1.2 Design and Calibration of Orifice 52 3.5.1.3 The Experimental Setup 52 3.5.2 Experimental Procedure 53 3.5.3 Results and Discussion 55 3.6 Conclusions from Experimental work 56 CHAPTER 4: FORMULATION OF ENGINE AND TURBOCHARGER MODELING 58-77 4.1 Introduction 58 4.2 The Properties of PG 59 4.3 The Properties of PG – Air Mixture 61 4.4 Modeling of Turbocharger Compressor 62 4.4.1 Compressor Modeling 64 4.4.1.1 Impeller 65 4.4.1.2 Ideal Energy Transfer 66 4.4.1.3 Incidence Losses 67 4.4.1.3a Impeller 67 4.4.1.3b Diffuser 69 4.4.1.4 Frictional Losses 70 4.4.1.4a Impeller 70 4.4.1.4b Diffuser 71 4.4.1.5 Efficiency 71 4.4.1.6 Pressure Rise 72 4.5 After-cooler 72 VIII 4.6 The engine modeling 72 4.6.1 Compression Stroke 73 4.6.2 Finite heat release 74 4.6.3 Fuel Combustion and Adiabatic Flame Temperature 74 4.6.4 Wall Heat transfer 75 4.6.5 Inputs for Numerical Engine Model 75 4.6.6 Outputs from the Numerical Engine Model 76 4.7 Exhaust Manifold and Turbine 77 4.8 Conclusion 77 CHAPTER 5: VALIDATION OF ENGINE AND TURBOCHARGER MODELING 78-91 5.1 Validation of Compressor Modeling 78 5.2 Predictions for Compressor Performance with PG and air mixture 83 5.3 Validation of Engine Modeling 85 5.3.1. Validation of Engine Modeling – Naturally Aspirated Case 86 5.3.2. Validation of Engine – Turbocharged Case 90 5.3.3. Components Other than Compressor and Engine 90 5.4 Conclusion 91 CHAPTER 6 MATCHING OF TURBOCHARGER FOR PRODUCER GAS ENGINE 92-108 6.1. Algorithm for Matching of Turbocharger 92 6.2. Matching of Turbocharger for the Engine for Use with PG 94 6.2.1 Case 1: PG calorific value = 4.5 MJ/kg 94 6.2.2 Case2: PG calorific value = 4.9 MJ/kg 100 6.3 Discussion 106 6.4 Conclusion 108

CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 109-110 7.1 Conclusions 109 7.2 Future work 110 ANNEXURE–1: BIOMASS GASIFICATION – AN OVERVIEW ON PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGY 110-118 ANNEXURE–2: COMPRESSOR MAPS OF TURBOCHARGERS USED IN THE STUDY 119-120 REFERENCES 121-125 IX LIST OF FIGURES Figure No Description Page No Chapter -2 Literature Review 2.1 Elements of a turbocharged engine 11 2.2 A typical compressor map 12 Chapter - 3 The Experimental Study 3.1 General arrangement of the experimental setup 20 3.2 (a) Maihak multi-component gas analyzer 22 3.2 (b) Exhaust multi-component gas analyzer 23 3.3 Scheme for instrumentation 23 3.4 Load vs. Exhaust Oxygen content 25 3.5 Load vs. Electrical output frequency for Kohler engine 25 3.6 Load vs. Exhaust CO content 26 3.7 Load vs. Air to fuel ratio 26 3.8 Load vs. Electrical output frequency 27 3.9 De-rating of producer gas engine with A/F ratio 29 3.10 Instrumentation scheme used in testing 32 3.11 (a) Specific gas composition with load for Engine 1 34 3.11 (b) Specific gas composition with load for Engine 2 34 3.12 (a) Engine fuel conversion efficiency with load for engine 1 37 3.12 (b) Engine fuel conversion efficiency with load for engine 2 37 3.13 (a) Engine 1 38 3.1.3 (b) Engine 2 38 3.14 (a) Compressor boost pressure vs. engine load for engine 1 39 3.14 (b) Compressor boost pressure vs. engine load for engine 2 39 3.15 (a) Compressor pressure ratio vs. corrected mass flowrate for engine 1 42 3.15 (b) Compressor pressure ratio vs. corrected mass flowrate for engine 2 42 3.16 (a) Compressor efficiency vs. corrected mass flow rate for engine 1 42 3.16 (b) Compressor efficiency vs. corrected mass flow rate for engine 2 43 3.17 (a) Compressor work vs. corrected mass flow rate for engine 1 43 3.17 (b) Compressor work vs. corrected mass flow rate for engine 2 43 3.18 (a) Turbine work vs. corrected mass flow rate for engine 1 46 3.18 (b) Turbine work vs. corrected mass flow rate for engine 2 46 3.19 (a) Turbine efficiency vs. corrected mass flow rate for engine 1 46 3.19 (b) Turbine efficiency vs. corrected mass flow rate for engine 2 46 3.20 (a) Compressor map showing engine load line with PG for engine 1 48 3.20 (b) Compressor map showing engine load line with PG for engine 2 48 3.21 Schematic of experimental setup of a turbocharger test bench 50 3.22 Schematic of the combustor 51 X 3.23 (a) Orifice calibration for primary air 52 3.23 (b) Orifice calibration for secondary air 52 3.24 Two views of the experimental setup 53 3.25 Compressor mass flow rate vs. compressor pressure ratio 55 3.26 Compressor mass flow rate vs. compressor efficiency 56 Chapter – 4 Formulation of Engine and Turbocharger Modeling 4.1 Sketch of a radially vaned centrifugal compressor with vaned diffuser 64 4.2 Velocity triangle at inducer 65 4.3 Velocity triangle at impeller tip 66 4.4 Incidence angles at inducer 68 4.5 Incidence angles at diffuser 69 Chapter - 5 Validation of Compressor Modeling

5.1 Flow chart of the compressor modeling process 78 5.2 (a) Comparison of experimental results of pressure rise and predicted value for KKK turbocharger 79 5.2 (b) Comparison of experimental results of efficiency and predicted value for KKK turbocharger 79 5.3 (a) Comparison of standard results of pressure rise and predicted value for 4 LGK turbocharger 81 5.3 (b) Comparison of standard results of efficiency and predicted value for 4 L GK turbocharger 81 5.4 (a) Comparison of standard results of pressure rise and predicted value for GT 4088 turbocharger 82 5.4 (b) Comparison of standard results of efficiency and predicted value for GT 4088 turbocharger 82 5.5 (a) Comparison of standard results of pressure rise and predicted value for GT 4508 R turbocharger 83 5.5 (b) Comparison of standard results of efficiency and predicted value for GT 4508 R turbocharger 83 5.6 (a) Comparison of predicted values for pressure rise for air and producer ga s – air mixture for 4 LGK turbocharger 84 5.6 (b) Comparison of predicted values for efficiency for air and producer gas – a ir mixture for 4 LGK turbocharger 84 XI 5.7 Plot of various losses for air and producer gas – air mixture 84 5.8 Flow chart for engine cycle calculation 86 5.9 Comparison of adiabatic flame temperatures for producer gas predicted from engine modeling and NASA code 87 5.10 Comparison of experimental and predicted result of peak shaft power for different naturally aspirated engines fuelled with producer gas for 1500 RPM 88 5.11(a) A typical T – θ plot for producer gas operated Cummins 6B series engine 89 5.11(b) A typical P – θ plot for producer gas operated Cummins 6B series engine 89 Chapter - 6 Matching of Turbocharger for producer gas engine 6.1 Flow chart for performing matching studies of the turbocharger 93 6.2 Operating characteristics of 4 LGK turbocharger with engine load line mapped 100 6.3 Operating characteristics of GT 4508 R turbocharger with engine load line mapped

100 6.4 Operating characteristics of 4 LGK turbocharger with engine load line mapped 105 6.5 Operating characteristics of GT 4508 R turbocharger with engine load line mapped 106 6.6 Comparison of Pressure – crank angle diagram for both the cases 107 6.7 Comparison of Temperature – crank angle diagram for both the cases 107 Annexure – 1 A1.1 Gasifier Types – (a) Updraft, (b) Cross draft 114 A1.2 Downdraft Gasifier – (a) Closed top, (b) Open Top Re-burn 115 A1.3 General Schematic of Open Top Re-burn Gasifier system with reactor of configuration (a) ≤ 75 kg/hr capacity, (b) ≥ 75 kg/hr capacity. The gas scrubbing / cooling and cleaning train are identical but scaled accordingly 117 Annexure – 2 A2.1 Compressor map of GT 4088 turbocharger - compressor 119 A2.2 Compressor map of GT 4508R turbocharger Compressor 119 A2.3 Compressor map of 4 LGK turbocharger 120 XII LIST OF TABLES Table. No Description Page No Chapter - 1 Introduction 1.1 Comparison of fuel properties of Producer Gas with other fuels 3 Chapter - 3 The Experimental Study 3.1 Specifications of engine used for testing 21 3.2 Power output at varying ignition timing 25 3.3 Experimental results with producer gas and standard fuel 27 3.4 (a) Factors for de-rating in peak power for Kohler engine 28 3.4 (b) Factors for de-rating in peak power for Cummins engine 28 3.5 Specifications of engine used for testing 31 3.6 (a) Experimental measurements on engine 1 34 3.6 (b) Experimental results on engine 2 35 3.7 (a) PG composition at various loads for engine 1 36 3.7 (b) PG composition at various loads for engine 2 36 3.8 (a) Calculated parameters of the compressor for engine 1 40 3.8 (b) Calculated parameters of the compressor for engine 2 40 3.9 (a) Gas mixture density before and after after-cooler for engine 1 44 3.9 (b) Gas mixture density before and after after-cooler for engine 2 44 3.10 Instrumentation detail 50 3.11 Readings for Combustor 54 3.12 Readings for Compressor 54 Chapter - 4 Formulation of Engine and Turbocharger modeling 4.1 Standard hydrocarbon notation for producer gas 60 4.2 Thermodynamic coefficients for producer gas 61 4.3 Properties of producer gas air mixture at Φ = 0.96 62 Chapter - 5 Validation of Engine and Turbocharger modeling 5.1 Adiabatic flame temperature comparison for different equivalence ratios 87 5.2 Comparison of Peak shaft power from Modeling and experimental results of different naturally aspirated engines fuelled with PG 88 5.3 Comparison of Peak shaft power from modeling and experimental results of different turbocharged engines fuelled with PG 90 XIII Chapter - 6 Matching of Turbocharger for Producer gas engine 6.1 Three different turbochargers used in present study 94

6.2 Output results from compressor modeling 95 6.3 Temperature and pressure drop in after-cooler 96 6.4 Output results from engine modeling 96 6.5 Output results from compressor modeling 97 6.6 Temperature and pressure drop in after-cooler 97 6.7 Output results from engine modeling 98 6.8 Output results from compressor modeling 98 6.9 Temperature and pressure drop in after-cooler 98 6.10 Output results from engine modeling 99 6.11 Output results from compressor modeling 101 6.12 Temperature and pressure drop in after-cooler 101 6.13 Output results from engine modeling 102 6.14 Results from turbine calculation 102 6.15 Output results from compressor modeling 103 6.16 Temperature and pressure drop in after-cooler 103 6.17 Output results from engine modeling 103 6.18 Results from turbine calculation 103 6.19 Output results from compressor modeling 104 6.20 Temperature and pressure drop in after-cooler 104 6.21 Output results from engine modeling 104 6.22 Results from turbine calculation 105 XIV NOMENCLATURE Abbreviations PG : Producer Gas NG : Natural Gas IISc : Indian Institute of Science CGPL : Combustion Gasification &Propulsion Lab Hz : Hertz kWe : kilowatt electric W : Watt kg : kilogram s : Second kJ : kilo Joule atm : Pressure in atmospheres RPM : Revolutions per minute A/ : Air-to-fuel ratio Symbols d : Diameter ρ : Density of the fluid μ : Dynamic viscosity h : Enthalpy U : Tip speed β : Blade angle σ : Slip factor α : Volute entry ngle m : M ss flow r te n : No. of strokes N : Revolution per minute (rpm) f : Frequency 0C : Degree Centigr de K : Kelvin A/F : Air to Fuel λ : Lambda XV Φ : Equiva ence ratio A : Area h c : Head oss coefficient : Length η : Efficiency

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T : Temper ture p c : Specific e t c p city P : Pressure γ : Ratio of pecific heat Re : Reynold number f : Friction factor Δho,ideal : Ideal enthalpy tran fer Δhlo : Total enthalpy lo Δhii : Enthalpy lo due to incidence at impeller Δhid : Enthalpy lo due to incidence at diffu er Δhfi : Enthalpy lo due to fluid friction at impeller Δhfd : Enthalpy lo due to fluid friction at diffu er WT : Turbine work WC : Compre or work Sub cript 1 : Impeller eye 2 : Impeller exit V : Volute 1b : Inlet 2b : Exit C : Compre or M : Mechanical T : Turbine 03 : Exit ta nation 01 : Inlet ta nation 1 Chapter 1 Introduction Ener y i a key drivin force for the ocial and economic development . A world without ener y i inconceivable and would be incapable of development, whether t he ource of the ener y i u tainable or otherwi e. A per the World Ener y Counci l report [1]*, the World primary ener y need are projected to row by 55% between 2005 and 2030, at an avera e annual rate of 1.8% per annum. The electricity u a e i proj ected to double with it hare in total ener y ri in from 17% to 22%. The predicted ener y rowth can al o lead to an increa e in reenhou e a emi ion that are already increa in at a rate nearin 2% annually ince 1990 due to burnin of fo il fue l. The e reenhou e a emi ion are found to be one of the major cau e for climate cha n e leadin to lobal warmin and it detrimental effect on the earth. The availabi lity of fo il fuel i al o predicted to be limited leadin to nece ity of exploration of alternate ener y ource that are u tainable. For u tainability, the alternate ener y o urce hould meet the three “a’ ” namely acceptability, availability and acce ibility. The accepta bility addre e eco-friendline , availability addre e quality and reliability and a cce ibility the a ociated co t. The alternate ener y ource that hold uch promi e for the future are the olar ener y, the wind ener y and the bioma ener y. Bioma i any plant derived li no-cellulo ic material and the ener y derived from thi i reco nized to have aided the mankind from the time of di covery of fire till

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date and i till playin a major role a an ener y ource in many part of the world. The bioma ener y i u tainable a it i available for rowin and harve tin . Bio ma i reco nized a a carbon neutral and eco-friendly fuel, a the carbon dioxide rele a ed on combu tion i the one that i ab orbed durin the photo ynthe i and there will be no net addition of CO2 into the atmo phere on a horter pan of time cycle, typically o f the order of couple of year . Ener y from bioma can be derived from many way – the mo t widely adopted i the conventional approach with the combu tion of bioma in boiler to rai e team and u e it in team turbine for power eneration at a required cale, mainly in ind u trie havin captive bioma like u ar indu trie . The direct combu tion of bioma i al o u ed in wider application that include combined heat and power eneration, dome tic and pace heatin . * The number in parenthe e denote the reference which i detailed in the end 2 Combu tible a , known a Producer Ga (PG), can be produced from olid bioma throu h a thermo-chemical proce called a ification, which involve bu rnin bioma in an enclo ed reactor, with controlled in ufficient air for full combu tion. The PG i a mixture of Carbon-monoxide (CO), Hydro en (H2), Methane (CH4), Carbondio xide (CO2) and Nitro en (N2). The typical a compo ition i around 20% CO, 20% H2, 2.5% CH4, 12% CO2 and re t N2 with a typical calorific value of 4.9 MJ/k . T hi a compo ition remain rou hly ame for mo t of the bioma with le than 5% a h c ontent and 1 k of bioma yield about 2.5 k of PG with a a ification efficiency of 80%. PG can ub titute fo il fuel in a lar e number of application , uch a (i) direc t heat application where the a i burned directly in a boiler, furnace or kiln to pr ovide heat; and (ii) haft/electrical power application where the a i u ed to run intern al combu tion en ine . There are two major type of bioma a ification technolo ie : (i) fixed bed a ifier , in which air pa e throu h a packed bed of fuel block ; and (ii) flu idized bed a ifier , in which the bioma i held in u pen ion. The a ification in fixed bed a ifier are reported to be the mo t viable option for bioma ba ed power ene ration for capacity of up to 5 MWe. For electricity production, PG can be u ed in a park i nited a en ine in a tand-alone operation or in die el en ine in a dual fuel mode of operation, whe re it can replace 70-80% of the die el fuel required. The bioma a ifier–en ine y tem hold promi e of upplyin motive power and electricity to i olated and remote area of developin countrie where rid connection are either unavailable or unreliable. Indu trie can al o u e the ab ove option

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for local power eneration at co t comparable to rid electricity. It i to be noted at thi ta e, that there are no internal combu tion en ine de i ned commercially for PG a fuel, all the development and the current u a e i with park i nited en ine meant for Natural Ga (NG) or with compre ion i nition en ine meant for die el or furnace oil. The toichiometric air to fuel ratio of PG and air mixture i around 1.3 to 1.4 which i very different from the petroleum ba ed fuel . Thi call for a chan e in carburetor when u ed on any park i nited en ine. The PG ha low ene r y den ity with clo e to 60% of inert a e in it mixture that lead to a ituatio n that tora e of PG i not an economically viable option. The PG ha to be enerated in a clo e vicinity of the en ine and u ed immediately for the power eneration. The earlier tudie on u e of PG in en ine for power eneration have reported a de-ratin in their delivered peak power, a compared to it de i nated fuel. Thi i 3 attributed to the fuel propertie of PG and a compari on of the fuel propertie of thi fuel with tandard fuel i provided in table 1.1. Table 1.1: Compari on of fuel propertie of PG with other fuel Propertie Producer Ga (PG) Natural Ga (NG) LPG Ga oline Chemical compo ition CO,CO2 CH4, H2 , N2 CH4 C3H8, C4H10 C8H15 Fuel, LCV, MJ/k 4.9 50.2 47 44 Fuel, LCV, MJ/Nm3 5.6 35.8 93 35200 Air-fuel ratio at φ = 1 (mass) 1.35 17.2 15.5 14.7 Energy density o A + F mixture, MJ/kg 2.10 2.76 2.78 3.0 Laminar lame speed at stoichiometry (cm/s) 50 35 44 35 Peak lame temperature (K) 1950 2210 2250 2200 Product-reactant mole change actor 0.87 1.0 1.0 1.0 As seen in table 1.1, the energy density o the air and uel mixture or PG is 2 5% lower as compared to NG and LPG, and 30% lower as compared to gasoline. Apart r om the air and uel mixture being less energetic, the PG also has lower peak lame temperatures by about 10%. The ratio o volume o products to volume o reactant s is termed as mole change actor. I the mole change actor is less than one then th e number o molecules o product that is generated will be less than the molecules o the reactants leading to pressure reduction. The lower peak lame temperatures and product – rea ctant

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mole change actor o 0.87 leads to lower peak pressures and thereby lower Brake Mean E ective Pressures (BMEP) in the engine cylinders as compared to petroleum base d uels. The net e ect would be an engine de-rating leading to lower peak power d elivery in any engine designed or above uels when uelled with PG. The literature also su ggests a varying de-rating o 20 – 40 % on di erent spark ignited engines used by di eren t researchers. The above actors also lowers the e iciency o the engines running on PG as compared to NG at stoichiometric conditions, the lower e iciency leads to highe r exhaust temperature. Turbocharging is known to be a better option to recover the power loss rom a given engine size. In the recent decades, the application o turbochargers to in ternal combustion engines has increased and o late, covers most o the stationary engi ne 4 applications. A turbocharger is an add-on component or the engine; it is a sepa rate entity which creates condition in the engine to produce more power without absorbing en gine power itsel . The turbocharger is a high speed rotating machinery with di erent characteristics as compared to an engine which is a slow speed reciprocating sys tem. The turbocharger and engine needs to be matched or achieving the optimum per ormanc e. I the end requirement is power generation through a stationary ixed speed engine then the turbocharger should be matched to operate at its best e iciencies near the rate d power conditions. The instantaneous power available rom an engine is a direct unction o the amount o air and uel available or combustion in the cylinders at that instant o time. Thus it is possible to overcome de-rating o an engine uelled with PG by turboc harging and achieve peak power closer to the standard uel. In accomplishing this, the turbocharger has to accommodate higher mass low rate o PG and air mixture, in order to overcome the loss o power due to lower energy density. This requirement o high er gas low rates would make the turbocharger compressor matched or the standard uel, to operate in a non-optimal condition. The turbine o the turbocharger is known to experience higher temperatures with PG operation, necessitating a di erent set o suitably matched turbocharger. The present work addresses this issue by understanding the extent o de-rating in a NG engine when operated on PG and per orming experimental stud ies on a turbocharged NG engine uelled with PG. Further, detailed modelling studies ar e made on turbocharger–compressor and spark ignited engine system and are validated by experimental results. An algorithm is developed or comparing the per ormance o the engine with di erent sets o turbochargers or making an optimum match or mini

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mizing the de-rating with PG. 1.1 Statement o the problem Biomass gasi ication based power generation is emerging as a renewable and viable alternative to conventional power and is gaining increasing acceptance in the industries or power generation. This route most o ten uses a spark ignited NG e ngine with changes in carburetion or PG, as currently there are no commercially avail able engines designed or this uel. The use o PG in a naturally aspirated NG engine results in a de-rating leading to reduction in peak power delivered. Literature shows that there have been no ocused studies on optimization o peak power generated by a turbocharge d 5 engine uelled with PG, but it is recognized that opportunity or reduction in d e-rating exists by optimal selection o turbocharger. The current work has been taken up in addressing this aspect by way o carrying out experiments and computational anal ysis o a turbocharged spark ignited engines, adopted to work on PG and aimed at develop ing an algorithm or suggestive matching o the turbocharger or use with the engine in compensating or the observed de-rating. 1.2 Objectives o the studies The objectives o this work are to: 1. Conduct experiments on spark ignited NG engines adopted to work on PG, to establish the de-rating in the delivered peak power both in naturally aspirated and turbocharged modes. 2. Setup a test bench or turbocharger testing and test a turbocharger or valid ating the compressor modelling. 3. Develop suitable numerical modelling or compressor, engine and turbine or predicting the behaviour. 4. Develop an algorithm or matching o a turbocharger and the engine or PG application. 5. Evolve a suggestive optimal combination o a turbocharger set or an engine w ith enhanced peak-power per ormance. 1.3 Justi ication o the research work This work is related to use o PG in stationary turbocharged spark ignited engin es with an engine speed o 1500 rpm and coupled to an alternator or power generati on. Most o the work that have been reported deal primarily with the suitability o PG in internal combustion engines, causes o de-rating and on optimization o engine parameters in naturally aspirated engines. Very limited work has been presented on turbocharged engine using PG as uel. The extent o de-rating in turbocharged mo de with options or improving the delivered peak power does not igure out in the l iterature. In view o this, it is considered that the task o conducting experiments with turbocharged gas engine to observe the de-rating in peak power and procedure or 6

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obtaining optimal power by matching o turbocharger using numerical model has be en taken up as the theme o this research work. 1.4 Methodology The main aim o this work is to study the suitability o the existing turbocharg er in a turbocharged spark ignited engine uelled with PG and explore a suitable alter native o the turbocharger i necessitated. To achieve this objective the existing and ava ilable literature is surveyed and the gaps identi ied or conducting urther work. The small (<100 kWe) and medium power level (100 to 300 kWe) naturally aspirated engines m eant or di erent gaseous uels are studied or their per ormance with PG or unders tanding the extent o de-rating and also to provide basis or validating the engine mode lling. The medium power level turbocharged engines are studied or their per ormance with r espect to both peak power reduction and the behaviour o the turbocharger with this con dition. The results o experiments are used in validating the modelling o the engine. A modelling o a turbocharger compressor is carried out that is urther used with the engine modelling or the complete prediction. Experiments with a turbocharger on a test bench are carried out to provide a primary basis or validation o the turbocharger co mpressor modelling. An algorithm is developed by integrating all the individual component s modelling to suggest an optimal match o turbocharger or a selected engine. The perceived limitation in this work is that no detailed CFD analysis is made a nd is limited to thermodynamic modelling o the components. 1.5 Organization o the report This report is organized into 8 chapters. The chapter 2 ollowing this chapter d eals with the literature review on PG engine in naturally aspirated and turbocharged modes, testing o turbocharger and modelling studies on compressor and engines. The cha pter 3 enumerates the scope o this work, chapter 4 presents the experimental work on s mall and medium powered gas engines operated with PG both in naturally aspirated and turbocharged modes. The chapter also describes experimental characterization o a turbocharger on a test bench which has been created or this study. The chapter 5 ocuses on the ormulation o numerical modelling o a turbocharger compressor and an en gine. The validation o the modelling by comparison with the experimental studies is p resented in chapter 6. The chapter 7 ocuses on an algorithm or suggesting an optimal ma tching o the turbocharger or a selected engine or PG operation. The chapter 8 summarize s the conclusion rom the present work and sets direction or uture work in this area . 7

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The principles and operation o a biomass gasi ier is described in appendix 1 an d the standard compressor maps used in this study is provided or re erence in app endix 2. Having selected a task on characterization and matching o turbocharger, or PG engine applications, literature available in the ield o PG engines and turboch arger matching has been reviewed and presented in the coming chapter. 8 Chapter 2 Literature Review The development o biomass gasi ication technology to harness energy has taken place in spurts. The most intensive o these was during the Second World War to meet the scarcity o petroleum resources or transportation both in civilian and military sectors. Some o the insight ul studies on wood gasi iers – basic as well as developmental, o this period have been well documented in the English translation o the Swedish work in SERI publication [6]. Literature survey in the ield o PG engines, primarily wi th spark ignition engines reveals limited scienti ic research accomplished since the ince ption o biomass / charcoal gasi ication systems. This could be attributed to two reasons , namely non-availability o standard gasi ication systems that could generate consistent quality o PG and the other relating to misconceptions about PG as a good uel or an inter nal combustion engine. The issues pertaining to gas quality are addressed and overco me due to ocused development in past two decades which is elaborated in the ABETS publication [4] and also proven with long duration tests as detailed by Sharan e t al [2]. The details o this development can be ound in appendix 1, which contains the description o the biomass gasi ication process along with the application o PG in reciprocating engines. The act however remains that this uel has not caught th e attention o engine manu acturers and a dedicated engine is yet to be designed or this u el. 2.1 Producer gas engines It is reported that Europe exploited most o the gasi ication technology during petroleum oil crisis o World War II. Among the European nations, Sweden account s or a large amount o work in the area o the wood and charcoal gasi ication. In an FAO report [7], extensive work on the design and development o closed top charcoal and wood gasi iers or use with the reciprocating engines are detailed. This report has mostly dealt with use o diesel engines in dual uel mode or transport applications. T he work conducted during this period on PG engines is either proprietary to the engine manu acturers or not available in public domain literature. In the recent times, Martin et 9 al [8] have reported work using charcoal gas and biomass based PG in SI engine w ith a

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de-rating o 50% and 40% respectively at a CR o 7. However, the same authors cl aim a de-rating o 20% with PG operation at CR o 11. In the American sub-continent, work relating to PG engine operation has been reported by Tatom et al [9]. The authors report working on gasoline engine with a simulated pyrolysis gas at a de-rating o 60 – 65%. In the Indian Sub-continent, air amount o work on dual uel as well as convert ed PG engines are reported rom IIT Bombay. Shashikantha et al [10] have reported u se o naturally aspirated two cylinders RBV2 – vertical water cooled engine and have rep orted operational experience in diesel alone, dual uel with PG, the same engine conve rted to operate as Spark Ignited Producer Gas Engine (SIPGE) and later operated on NG. T he operation on diesel and dual uel was at 17:1 compression ratio and gas operatio ns were at 11.5:1. The maximum brake load with diesel was in the range o 17 kW, in dual uel mode with PG, the load was around 14.2 kW at 67% diesel replacement, 15 kW with PG only and 14.4 kW in NG only operation. The authors concluded a de-rating in maxi mum brake power o 17% in dual uel operation, 12% in PG operation and around 15% in NG operation. The work done by Ramachandra [11] on converting a single cylinder diesel engine to operate on PG alone mode with spark ignition, and at high compression ratio o 17, reports a de-rating o 20%. The analysis o Dasappa [12], where in, actors or derating has been elaborated shows that or a naturally aspirated NG engine converted to work on PG, the peak power delivered would be lower by 30 – 35%. G Sridhar et al [13] have consolidated the experience on three naturally aspirated gas engines one converted rom a diesel rame and other two NG engines . In this the authors show a de-rating o 17% or high compression ratio engine and 2 8 to 30% de-rating or gas engines with PG operations. 2.2 Turbocharged engines uelled with PG Though re erences have been made by Kaupp [3] and other researchers that supercharging will increase the power delivered by PG engine, limited literature is available on operation o a turbocharged engine with this uel. Patrick P Parke [14] has operated a naturally aspirated Renault gasoline engine on PG and compared the re sult with NG and has recorded a de-rating o 33%. As a preliminary data, the author h as also 10 reported that with the engine mani old pressure o 1.4 atm, the engine power wou ld increase by 33% equalling that o NG power on a naturally aspirated engine. Howe ver no details o turbocharger or any optimization has been reported. In one o the recent EU projects, GE Jenbacher [15] has worked on installing and operating its NG engines with PG rom wood gasi iers. The authors has shown long duration operation o their power plants and ocused on maintenance o the plant

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s and deposits on engine components rom the use o PG. The literature also suggests t hat turbocharger and several other sub-systems were modi ied to increase the BMEP r om 1.1 MPa to 1.3 MPa and thereby increasing the e iciency by 0.4% as compared to NG. In one o the research work by G Sridhar [16], a 12 cylinder (V-con iguration), turbocharged, a ter-cooled biogas engine with a compression ratio o 12, was ope rated on PG. The engine was mounted with K-28 turbocharger designed or a pressure ratio o 1.5 – 1.6. The variations o net brake power with di erent ignition timings have been studied and the best net brake power o 182 kW at 12 – 14 ºCA is reported. This was with a mixture energy density o 1.9 MJ/kg and a boost pressure o the turbocharger o about 1.47 atm, the e iciency o the engine was around 30% and a de-rating o peak po wer as compared with biogas has been reported to be around 28%. G Sridhar et al [17, 18 ] have studied on per ormance o two biomass gasi ication based power plants or indust rial and grid-linked usage. The gasi ier reported in this study is open top down dra t ty pe and the engines are Cummins NG engine converted to work on PG. The authors bring out the economics and the reliability o the power plant and eco- riendliness with regar ds to low emissions. 2.3 Modelling studies on turbocharger The turbocharger is a turbine driven compressor, the high temperature o an engine exhaust is the working luid or the turbine to generate work. This is tr ans erred to a compressor mounted on a common sha t; the compressor compresses the incoming charge. The pressure and temperature o the charge rises upon compression, this is taken through an a ter-cooler which is a shell and tube heat exchanger. The high tempe rature and high pressure charge is cooled by water circulating in the engine to a tempe rature slightly above ambient. By the process o compression in the compressor the dens ity o the charge increases, and heat reduction by a ter-cooler urther increases the d ensity o the charge and thereby the mass low rate o the charge increases or a given cy linder 11 volume. This increases the peak power delivered by the engine which is given by Heywood [19] as =

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(2.1) where P is the power delivered, ηf is t e fuel conversion efficiency, ηv is t e volu metric efficiency, QHV is t e ig er c lorific v lue of t e fuel, ρai is the cha ge densi ty and (F/A) is the fuel to ai mixtu e atio. The schematic of the components a e shown in f igu e 2.1. Figu e 2.1: Elements of a tu ocha ged engine 2.3.1 Ope ating cha acte istics of comp esso and tu ine It is advantageous, if the ope ating cha acte istics of comp esso and tu ine c an e exp essed in a manne that allows easy compa ison etween diffe ent designs a nd sizes of devices. This can e done y desc i ing the pe fo mance cha acte istics in te ms of dimensionless num e . Comp esso pe fo mance can e ep esented in va ious ways. The commonly accepted p actice is to plot the speed lines as a function of the p ess u e atio and the flow. By pe fo ming an ene gy alance on the tu ocha ge , lines of cons tant efficiency a e plotted on the comp esso map. The actual mass flow ates and spe eds a e co ected y facto (√θ/δ) an (1/√ δ) respectively, where θ is the temperature correction factor an δ is the pressure correction factor, reflecting variation in inlet temp erature an pressure. The surge line joins ifferent spee lines where the compressor’s operat ion becomes unstable. A con ition known as “choke” in icates the maximum mass flow rate possible through a compressor at operating spee . After this point there is a ra pi rop in efficiency an pressure ratio. Similar plot are use for turbines. For any compr essor an 12 turbine combination, there is one point on the compressor characteristic at whic h the engine is esigne to operate at full loa . This is the engine esign or operati ng point. If the engine is running at stea ily at full loa , the compressor spee an mass fl ow will be stea y an the various pressures will be in e uilibrium. If loa is now re uce , the flow an pressure con itions will un ergo a change, an the operating point will move away from the esign point. Figure 2.2 shows a typical compressor performance map. Figure 2.2: A typical Compressor map, Heywoo [19] 2.3.2 Mo elling stu ies of turbocharger In turbocharger mo elling stu ies, the compressor an turbine are treate as two ifferent components an matche by energy balance. The turbine is the power pro ucer for the compressor to operate by expan ing the high temperature an high pressur e gas in a stator an rotor. Watson an Janota, has consi ere turbine as an e uivalent n ozzle for numerical treatment, Winterbone [20], has treate turbine as a series of two noz zles, one for stator an other for rotor with the pressure ratios roppe e ually in both

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the cases. To accommo ate pulsating flows, Payri et al [21] has treate turbine as two sets of i eal nozzles with interme iate storage chamber. The volume of the interme iate chambe r shoul match the actual volume of turbine an this is state to account for mass accumulation ue to pulsating flow. In one of the recent reporte stu ies, Katra snik [22] reiterates usefulness of an e uivalent nozzle approach for mo elling of turbine in treating 13 a twin entry turbocharger. The author has cautione that turbine chokes at a hig her pressure than a flow nozzle an hence for partial a mission con itions an approp riate correction factor to be intro uce for etermining mass flow rate. The compressor is riven by turbine; the compressor consists of an impeller an the casing. The impeller rotates at the same spee as that of turbine as it is m ounte on a common shaft, the impeller imparts kinetic energy to the incoming charge. The i ffuser an volute which are static components provi e a gra ually increasing area for r e ucing the kinetic energy of the flui an increasing its stagnation pressure. Signific ant amount of work is reporte in mo elling of the compressors for performance pre iction o f gas turbines an turbochargers. The component evelopment mo elling is generally of higher or er when compare to performance analysis. Swain [23] has compare three imensional CFD calculations for a centrifugal compressor with a one imensional pre iction an compare with experimental results. The author conclu es that one imensional pre iction agrees well with 3-D calculation an experimental results . Molinari et al [24] in his review paper on esign process of centrifugal compres sor from early evelopments to ate, suggests that lower or er mo els like one imensiona l mo el can pro uce preliminary esign to be iterate by CFD mo els. Xu [25] also states that one imensional esign process is still relie in the in ustry for preliminary esig n. One–Dimensional approach for mo elling of compressor is still popular among researchers because of the convenience it offers ue to faster calculations an results comparable to higher or er mo el. In the One-Dimensional mo elling approach, Oh et al [26], presents a set of loss mo els that pre ict the performance of a centrifuga l compressor with a best combination of internal an parasitic losses. Comparison of a two zone mo elling is performe an authors conclu e that two zone mo elling re uire s refinement. The same authors in a later publication [27] have presente on a refine two zon e mo elling for performance pre iction of compressor. The basic i ea of this mo el is that the impeller exit flow can be conceptually ivi e into a jet zone, an isentropi c core flow

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region with high velocities an a wake zone, a low momentum non-isentropic regio n having all the losses occurring in the impeller. The authors claim that by refin e two zone approach, the performance pre iction is fairly accurate. In the research work of Grava ahl [28], the author has suggeste an energy loss mo elling approach for performance pre iction of centrifugal compressor. The aut hor has consi ere the critical set of energy losses that affect the performance of comp ressor in the form of inci ence loss an frictional loss at impeller an iffuser. The rem aining 14 losses are mo elle as rop in efficiencies as suggeste by earlier researchers like Watson an Janota. 2.3.3 Testing of turbochargers The testing of turbochargers has special reference to test bench set-up an way of con ucting experiments. An elaborate test proce ure has been lai own by SAE J1 826 [29] where the test proce ure an ata presentation format has been ocumente . The test proce ures outline in this recommen ation is applicable to single rotor turboch argers having either fixe or variable geometry. Two types of test stan s have been recommen e : 1. 2 – Loop hot gas stan or open loop test bench: This is the most common type of test stan with two in epen ent flow circuits for turbine an compressor. 2. 1 – Loop (Boot strap) hot gas stan or close loop test bench: Here the compressor outlet is taken to turbine inlet with heat a ition. This type of tes t set up is less fre uently use for evelopment or performance testing an more fre uently use for exten e urability testing. Young et al [30] escribes all the aspects of creating an experimental test benc h. The authors have create a 2- Loop gas stan with NG being fire for hot air generat ion. The authors also speak on ata ac uisition, ata vali ity an iscrimination. Chapma n et al [31] presents gui elines for testing of large bore turbochargers. The authors he re escribe the instrumentation as re uire by ASME co e PTC 10 in a ition to SAE co e. 2.3.4 Quasi-stea y mo elling of a spark ignite engine Mo elling of an engine is often taken up to evelop a complete un erstan ing of the process un er stu y, i entify key controlling variables an to minimize on experimental effort [19]. It will also ai in stu ying engine behaviour an perf ormance over a wi e range of esign an operating variables for making ecision on har w are changes. The complexity in mo elling of the engine will epen on the en object ive an hence several mo elling approaches are practice like for air flow mo elling, u asistea y mo elling, filling an emptying techni ues an wave action metho as etaile by Horlock et al [20]. The uasi-stea y metho is the simplest approach where the components are connecte by air flow passing through them an by pressure ratios across 15 them. No mass accumulation is allowe between the various components. In ‘Filling

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an Emptying’ metho , the components can accumulate mass an will have finite volume. The ‘wave action’ techni ue involves the solution of compressible gas flow e uations an allows heterogeneous pressure levels to exist throughout the intake an exhaust manifol s. From uasi-stea y to wave action techni ues the egree of complexity increases. It has been reporte in Horlock et al [20] that for the purpose of tu rbocharger matching to a particular engine, uasi-stea y approach coul be faster an suffi cient to pre ict agreeable results. However, it is cautione that uasi-stea y mo elling relies on empirical ata an nee s to be vali ate . Eriksson et al [32] has presente a mo elling approach of a turbocharge SI engine an vali ate from experiments on Saab 2.3 litre SI engine. The approach followe by the authors are the in ivi ual components in th e air flow path starting from air filter, compressor of turbocharger, throttle, engine , turbine an exhaust are in ivi ually mo elle using appropriate thermo ynamic relations an integrate for comprehensive pre iction. Ferguson [33] an Heywoo [19] in their publications have suggeste relations for eveloping a zero- imensional mo ellin g of an internal combustion engines. Chow et al [34] in his review paper on various thermo ynamic mo elling techni ues of engines provi es an overview on first law an secon law analysis. It is state that first law analysis treats all forms of energy e ually without regar ing the ability of the system to utilize the energy to perform useful work. The secon l aw analysis, however, makes istinction between energy that is available an that w hich is unavailable for oing work. The authors have brought out many applications inclu ing performance analysis of a turbocharge spark ignite engine which have been eve lope by earlier researchers using first law analysis. 2.4 Matching of turbochargers to engine Turbo-matching may be efine as the science of combining the engine an turbocharger characteristics so as to optimize the performance of the combinatio n over the re uire operating range. The interaction between the two units is complex, because while the engine is a reciprocating machine, the turbocharger is basically a rot ary machine. The turbocharger will not be operating at its highest efficiency over t he complete working range of the engine, an conse uently the best match will be ob taine only at a particular point in the operating range of the engine. For matching at other 16 points, a compromise on the efficiency has to be ma e. Matching of turbocharger is suggeste for following con itions: 1. For ifferent applications of the engine – to provi e better transient response . 2. For ifferent fuels use in engines – for better air management.

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3. After a major engine overhaul – to ensure that the compressor esign point o not shift towar s surge. Chapman et al [35] has suggeste a scheme for matching of turbocharger an engine for optimum performance. The authors provi e a strategy which looks at fl ow ynamics of each component in the air flow path, inclu ing turbocharger, engine, aftercooler, intake an exhaust sub-systems along with turbocharger energy balance. The authors also suggest i entification of correct turbocharger esign operating poi nt as 5% increase in compressor efficiency can translate to aroun 12% increase in engine peak shaft power. Han a et al [36] reporte the benefits accrue by matching a turbocharger to a iesel engine so as to operate at high efficiencies. He has evelope a computer ize approach to turbo-matching by mo elling the compressor, engine an turbine, an then establishe a mechanical an thermo- ynamical link between them. Bozza et al [37] present a metho for turbocharge internal combustion engine analysis, base upon an unstea y non- imensional flow mo el. He has reporte the effects of two ifferent turbochargers on engine performance an turbo machinery operating con itions. The engine an turbocharger matching is consi ere un er b oth stea y an transient con itions. Noticeable fluctuations are etecte in both ma ss flow rate an pressure ratio an the turbocharger shaft rotational spee itself un er go oscillation. Hence, it has been conclu e that even turbocharger an engine matc hing con itions which seem to be stable, if evaluate in terms of average values, cou l correspon to unstable instantaneous compressor operations. Korakianitis et al [38] has reporte on matching of Garett turbochargers of ifferent compressor trims of MT – 9, MT – 13 an MT – 15 on Mitsubishi 4G63 gasoline engine. The authors have un ertaken experimental approach for character ization of turbochargers an matching with the engine. The tests inclu e esign point a n off esign point performance measurements. The authors highlight that theoretical matching is useful to approach a range of turbocharger frames but final testing is essent ial in making the right choice. The authors provi e an important conclusion that the tu rbine is not as sensitive to engine matching as the compressor. 17 Ugur Kesgin [39] has a resse effect of turbocharging on the performance of a NG engine. He has a resse effect of manifol pipings, turbocharger efficiency, location etc on V12 an V16 lean burn NG engines. In oing the turbocharger efficiency st u ies, the authors have hel the fuel supply an compressor pressure ratio constant. A 6% re uction in turbocharger efficiency has le to 0.58% ecrease in engine efficie ncy an 6% increase in turbocharger efficiency has le to 0.43% increase in efficiency. 2.5 Conclusion From the existing an available literature surveye , it can be conclu e that mo st of the work on the PG engine has been performe on iesel engines or spark ignit

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e engines converte from iesel frame. Due to these conversions involve in the en gine, ifferent authors have suggeste ifferent e-rating of peak power on the engine . Till the beginning of this research work, relatively small amount of work has been report e on commercially available NG engines leaving a gap for exploration. The other not s o well explore area in PG engine is on turbocharge gas engine, limite work has been reporte mainly focusing on performance an mo ifications foun necessary to accommo ate PG as fuel. The matching of turbocharger for an engine for its optimum performance is well ocumente by many researchers. This has not been a resse for PG as a fuel whi ch has provi e the genesis for this work. The aspects of mo elling of turbocharger-compressor an engine have been well un erstoo an a resse by various researchers. Mo elling stu ies provi e the necessary insight into the processes un er consi eration an also are economical alternate for impact stu ies of any changes. For matching of turbocharger compressor is a more sensitive can i ate than a turbine an hence nee s a careful approach in mo elli ng stu ies. Quasi-stea y approach for engine mo elling is foun suitable for provi ing re uisite results for optimal matching of turbocharger for a particular engine. The subse uent chapter etails on the experimental stu ies carrie out to un erstan an substantiate the research work. 18 Chapter 3 The Experimental Stu y 3.1 Intro uction This chapter eals with the experiments con ucte on small power level (< 100 kWe) spark ignite naturally aspirate gas engines an me ium power level (betwe en 100 kWe an 300 kWe) spark ignite turbocharge engine fuelle with Pro ucer Gas (PG ) an a turbocharger characterization on a test bench. The chapter covers the etails of the experimental set up, metho a opte , results obtaine an comparison of results with performance ratings establishe by the respective manufacturers. The instruments use in these experiments have been calibrate to have less than 1% error on full scale rea ing. The above experiments are necessitate ue to weak information base on pro ucer gas engines in the literature an varying perceptions of ifferent authors. Most of the ocumente work on engines operating on pro ucer gas as fuel is on naturally asp irate engines operating in ual fuel mo e ( iesel an PG) an iesel engines converte to work as spark ignite engines as reporte by Shashikantha et al [10]. The experiences of using spark ignite gasoline engines uring worl war times are mostly on charcoal gas ifiers as reporte by Kaupp [3] an are uite ifferent from the biomass gasification a r

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esse in the current work. Further, the available commercial natural gas engines are base on iesel frames an there has not been much ocumentation available on using a commercial natural gas engine to operate on PG an the extent of e-rating ue to this aspe ct, except the recent ocumentation by ABETS [4], Her in [16] an G Sri har et al [17, 18]. It summarizes to state that the experiments on commercial gas engine reporte as a part of this work woul establish the e-rating with PG operation an also provi e a pri mary ata for vali ation of numerical mo elling of the spark ignite engine fuelle with t his fuel. Not much work has been reporte in literature on turbocharge engines using PG as fuel an no focuse activity is foun on optimization of turbocharger for PG operation 19 an improving the elivere peak power. The experiments on turbocharge natural gas engines of 150 to 300 kWe range that was fuelle with PG woul establish the ext ent of e-rating an also provi e a reference ata for vali ation of the numerical mo e lling for the engine. For vali ating the mo elling of turbocharger-compressor, the compressor performance ata maps that are available from manufacturers was foun to be insu fficient as it woul not inclu e all the geometrical etails. A turbocharger test bench h as been built for the present work an a KKK make turbocharger meant for use with iesel engin e was characterize for the essential parameters to be ma e available for vali ation o f the mo elling. 3.2 Experiments on small power level (< 100 kWe) naturally aspirate NG engines fuelle with PG To establish the e-rating factor with change in fuel, experiments were carrie out on two natural gas engines of lower power level that coul be teste in the labo ratory con itions. The first one was a 3000 rpm Kohler make CH 740 mo el engine capable of operating with LPG or Natural gas. The secon engine was the Cummins make 6B ser ies engine operating at 1500 rpm, run on Natural gas. The reason for choosing these two engines of ifferent spee s was to stu y the e-rating effect at ifferent spee s. There were no mo ifications to the engine other then by-passing of the natural gas car buretor an intro ucing a PG carburetor. The changes ma e were a e uately careful enough in allowing at any point of time the engine to be ma e operable with its stan ar f uel. The experimental set up of both the engines was similar an the following sections escribe the etails of the same. 3.2.1 Experimental Setup The experimental setup consists of a gasification system, a spark ignite engine

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an a PG carburetor. The schematic of the experimental setup is shown in figure 3.1. 20 Gasification system - A well teste an in ustrially proven gasifier of In ian I nstitute of Science esign (open top, own raft, Re-burn) gasifier was use as the gas gene rator. This system has been proven for long hours of continuous operation in meeting th e in ustrial re uirements an establishe in terms of generation of consistent ua lity of gas. The gasification system consists of a reactor, an ash extraction system, cyclone , scrubbers an filters. The reactor is ma e up of two shells stacke one over the other. Th e bottom shell has outer mil steel casing with inner ceramic lining. This shell also has air nozzle re uire for the gasification process, gas exit an the bottom connecte to an a sh extraction system. The gas exiting the bottom shells passes through cyclone an recirculating uct, passes in to the annular chamber of the top shell. This helps in preheatin g the incoming biomass. The reactor use in testing me ium power level turbocharge

engine is a single shell version for in ustrial use. The reactor is ma e of oute r mil steel casing with inner lining of insulation an ceramic bricks. The gas that exits th e reactor is further coole in the scrubbers an cleane in the fabric filter before being al lowe into the engine in both the versions. The capacity of the gasifier that was use for testing of Kohler engine was 10 kg/hr an the Cummins engine was 75 kg/hr. Figure 3.1: General arrangement of the experimental set up Pro ucer gas carburetor - Carburetor is a evice which regulates the air/fuel ra tio to be at its optimally tune values at varying loa s. The carburetor of NG engines coul not be use for PG as the air/fuel ratio for this is 1.3 to 1.4 which is ifferent comp are to other Gas engine 21 petroleum base fuels which are aroun 15. The esign of carburetor for PG calls for matching the pressure rops at the mixing zones so that if the pressure in both the streams is constant, then the ratio of flui s entering remains constant for a fixe area ratio. A zero pressure regulator is use in gas stream with a reference from the air line such that the upstream pressures of the air an the gas at the inlet of the carburetor are i e ntical irrespective of the loa changes on the engine. Spark ignite engines - Experiments were con ucte with two ifferent engines me ant for power generation as mentione earlier. The engine intake was mo ifie to accept air an PG mixture. The specifications of the engines are given below in table 3.1. Table 3.1: Specifications of engine use for testing

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Description Cummins 6B series engine [42] Kohler LPG engine [51] Make Cummins Kohler Mo el 6B CH740 Fuel Natural gas LPG/Natural gas Engine type 4 – stroke, SI, 6 cylin ers 4 – stroke, SI, O.H.V, 2 cylin ers Displacement, liters 5.9 0.721 Bore X Stroke, mm 102 X 120 83 X 67 Compression Ratio 10.5 : 1 9.0:1 Max AC output at 50 Hz for fossil fuel 40 kWe 10.5 kWe 3.2.2 Instrumentation scheme 3.2.2.1 Instrumentation on the gasifier The PG constituents were measure using on-line gas analyzers on a continuous basis. The sample gas was analyze using a multi-component analyzer comprising s ensors for measuring carbon monoxi e (CO), carbon ioxi e (CO an hy rogen (H2). The measurements of CO, CH infrare sensing techni ue, H chemical cell. A stan ar mixture of gases of similar compositi for calibrating the gas analyzer prior to start an close of every test run. The ata obtaine from gas analyzers in terms of gas composition was further use for estimation o f calorific value of PG an this provi e an input for mixture. The photograph of the gas analyzer is shown in figure 3.2 (a). Figure 3.2 (a): Maihak multi 3.2.2.2 Air / gas flow measurement The air an gas flow were separately measure using The venturimeters were subjecte to primary calibration by a opting stan ar pit ot tube measurement proce ure. 3.2.2.3 Emission measurement The emissions from the engine exhaust were measure in the exhaust manifol . A e uate provision was ma e to con ition the flue gas sample prior to measuremen ts. The flue gas composition was analyze using another multi base on infrare an chemical cell techni ue. The components measure were nitr ogen oxi e (NO), carbon monoxi e (CO) an oxygen (O photograph of the gas analyzer is shown in figure 3.2 (b). CO2), methane (CH4), oxygen (O ). CH4 an CO2 fractions were base on H2 on thermal con uctivity base techni ue an the O composition to that of estimation of energy ensity of multi-component gas analyzer the calibrate venturimeters. e multi-component analyzer, which are O2) on an intermittent basis. The 22 ), O2) O2 on a on PG was use PG – air )

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23 Figure 3.2 (b): Exhaust multi-component gas analyzer 3.2.2.4 Power output measurement The engine output was measure by recor ing the voltages across the three phases of the alternator an the current rawn by the resistive loa bank. Digital fre uency meter was employe to recor the fre uency of the output. The schematic of the experim ental set-up an measurement scheme is shown in figure 3.3. Figure 3.3: Scheme for instrumentation 3.2.3 The experimental proce ure The gasification process was initiate by igniting the charcoal be in the react or with an open flame at the air nozzles. The necessary suction for in ucing the ai r an flame into the nozzles an further rawing away the gas generate from the reactor was provi e Pro ucer gas from gasifier plant Gas Engine Air flow rate Gas composition an gas flow Alternator Power output 24 by the raft in uce by the water scrubber. After the charcoal be was ignite , within about 10 mins, a combustible gas was generate , with oxygen level in the PG stre am falling close to zero. This event marke the completion of gasification process, further to which the gasifier was operate in flare mo e until the system reache a stea y state of operation. The time that was re uire for the stabilization of gasifier was typi cally 30 minutes to 60 minutes (this is known to epen on the size of the reactor). The gas was then le to the engine an engine starte on PG irectly. The engine was initial ly operate un er no-loa con ition for a few minutes. The electrical power generate from e ngine alternator was connecte to a resistive loa bank. The loa on alternator an he nce the engine was increase in steps an peak power was recor e . The exhaust oxygen concentration an fall in the fre uency of the electrical power generate were t aken as the basis for fixing the peak power in PG. 3.2.4 Results an Discussion 3.2.4.1 Performance of Kohler engine The Kohler engine was teste on LPG for base-line operation an further teste with the PG for measuring the performance. The exhaust gas an PG composition wa s analyze uring the experiments. The PG composition was foun to be in the range of CO - 20%, H2 – 20%, CH4 – 2%, CO2 – 12% an remaining nitrogen. The calorific value for this composition is foun to be 4.9 MJ/kg. The results of exhaust oxygen concent ration for Kohler engine using both the fuels are shown in figure 3.4. It was observe that at 9kWe 

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loa on the engine with LPG as the fuel, the exhaust oxygen content reache to i ts limiting low level of 2%, an a much similar limiting of oxygen of 2.9% at the exhaust oc curre at 6 kWe uring the operation with PG. The plot of output electrical fre uency with loa for Kohler engine is shown in figure 3.5, any further increase in loa beyon 9 kWe in LPG an 6 kWe in PG mo e, ma e the engine unstable an fre uency to ip below 50 Hz an eventually lea ing to engine stoppage. Hence it was inferre that the achievable power at laboratory con itions with LPG an PG for Kohler CH 740 engine was 9 kWe an 6 k We with LPG an PG respectively. 25 Figure 3.4: Loa vs. Exhaust Oxygen content Figure 3.5: Loa vs. Electrical output fre uency for Kohler engine 3.2.4.2 Performance of Cummins 6B series engine The Cummins engine was teste with PG only an the establishe rating set by the manufacturer for the natural gas was taken up in the calculation of the e-ratin g. The experiments with Cummins 6B series engine was con ucte in two steps. The first step was to vary ignition timing by changing the setting in the istributor for a van cing or retar ing with respect to Top Dea Center (TDC) an recor the correspon ing pow er output. . The results of varying ignition timing are shown in table 3.2. Table 3.2: Power Output at Varying Ignition Timing Ignition Timing, BTDC Power output, kWe Remarks 15 25.4 20 27.2 Optimum 50.5 51 51.5 52 52.5 53 53.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 Out put Fre uency, HZ Loa , kWe LPG mo e PG mo e 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Exhaust Oxygen, % Loa , kWe LPG mo e PG mo e 26 The secon step was to con uct experiments at varying loa s, with the establishe

optimum ignition timing. The PG composition, exhaust composition, A/F ratio an fre uency were the measure parameters. The PG composition was foun to be i ent ical as reporte in previous tests. The result of exhaust CO content for 6B series en gine is shown in figure 3.6. The CO content ha shown up an increasing tren . The air to fuel ratio with loa is shown in figure 3.7, the air an fuel flow rate measurements were one in the respective streams an A/F ratio was compute . During varying loa con it ions, though there appeare to be a slightly fuel rich con itions at higher loa s, the mixture ratio remaine close to stoichiometry. The fre uency measurements with loa are shown in figure 3.8 an it remaine stea y with loa . Beyon 27 kWe, the fre uency roppe rastically lea ing to unstable operation an was inferre to be the limiting lo a for the engine with PG. Figure 3.6: Loa vs. Exhaust CO content 22 25.5 28 25.7 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 CO, % Loa , kWe 27 Figure 3.7: Loa vs. Air to fuel ratio Figure 3.8: Loa vs. Electrical output fre uency for Cummins 6B series engine The results are tabulate in the table 3.3 an compare with the power achieve with stan ar fuel. Table 3.3: Experimental results with PG an stan ar fuel Description Kohler LPG engine Cummins 6B series engine Max power achieve in stan ar fuel at stan ar con itions, kWe 10.5 40 1.14 1.16

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1.18 1.2 1.22 1.24 1.26 1.28 1.3 1.32 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Air to Fuel Ratio Loa , kWe 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Fre uency, HZ Loa , kWe 28 Max power achieve in pro ucer gas mo e at stan ar con itions, kWe 6.6 29.7 De-rating in comparison to stan ar fuel 37% 26% 3.2.4.3 Analysis of the e-rating The analysis of e-rating for the Kohler engine was performe base on the measure PG composition an exhaust oxygen concentration in the engine. The exha ust oxygen concentration at peak elivere loa in PG was 2.9%, amounting to the exc ess air factor of 13.8%. The stoichiometric A/F ratio for PG woul be aroun 1.3 an wit h this excess air concentration the A/F of the mixture entering the engine woul work o ut to be 1.48. The energy ensity of the mixture of pro ucer gas an air in this case wou l be 1.98 MJ/kg. The summary of the factors for e-rating are shown in table 3.4 (a). Table 3.4 (a): Factors for e- rating in peak power for Kohler engine Details LPG PG Ratio of change Energy ensity in the mixture (MJ/kg) 2.77 1.98 0.715 Mole change factor 1.0 0.87 0.87 The effective re uction in power in case of Kohler engine operating in LPG compare to PG operation is (1 – (0.715 X 0.87)) X 100 = 37.8%. This is matching closely with the experimental observation of 37% e-rating compare with the sta n ar fuel. A similar analysis on 6B series Cummins engine has been performe . The mixture energy ensity for A/F ratio of 1.15 was 2.28. The summary of the factors for e -rating are shown in table 3.4 (b) 29

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Table 3.4 (b): Factors for e-rating in peak power for Cummins engine Details NG PG Ratio of change Energy ensity in the mixture (MJ/kg) 2.76 2.28 0.83 Mole change factor 1.0 0.87 0.87 The effective re uction in power in case of Cummins engine operating on NG compare to PG operation is (1 – (0.83 X 0.87)) X 100 = 27.8%. This is matching cl osely with the experimental observation of 26% e-rating compare with the stan ar fu el. These observations in icate that the e-rating is ominantly influence by A/F ratio an the gas composition than by the rate engine spee . A plot of e-ratin gs at ifferent A/F ratios for a typical gas composition of CO = 20%, H2 = 20%, CH4 = 2%, CO2 = 12% an remaining nitrogen with calorific value of 4.9 MJ/kg is plotte in figure 3.9. For a stoichiometric A/F ratio of 1.3, the e-rating woul work out to be 3 3% as shown in the figure. Figure 3.9: De-rating of PG engine with A/F ratio 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.33 0.35 0.37 0.39 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 De-rating, % A/F ratio De-rating of PG fulle engine compare with NG operation at stoichiometry is 33% 30 Sri har et al [13] has reporte on the tests con ucte on naturally aspirate Cummins G- 743 G engine with pro ucer gas from IISc gasifier an this result is use for the vali ation of the engine mo elling in the current stu y, the etails of whic h are presente here for clarity. The G- 743 G engine is esigne for NG as fuel, it i s an in-line, 6 cylin er engine with cylin er volume of 12.1 liters, 4 stroke, naturally aspir ate an rate at 84 kWe. The a aptation an experiments with pro ucer gas is well ocume nte in ABETS publication [4]. The net electrical power achieve in pro ucer gas operati on at A/F ratio of 1.26 is 55 kWe. This translates to 60.6 kWe at stan ar operating c on itions an the e-rating is 28%. Base on these points, it can be conclu e that roughl y the erating in elivere power with pro ucer gas operate close to stoichiometry is aroun 30%. This e-rating of the engine will shift the operational zone of the turbocharger compressor to non-optimal region in a turbocharge NG engine fuelle with pro uc

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er gas. To estimate this impact experiments have been performe on a me ium power level turbocharge NG engine fuelle with PG. 3.3 Experiments with me ium power level turbocharge natural gas engines fuelle with pro ucer gas Though statements are ma e from Kaupp [3] an other researchers that supercharging will increase the power elivere by PG engine, limite literature is available on operation of a turbocharge engine with this fuel. Patrick P Parke [14] has operate a naturally aspirate Renault gasoline engine on PG an has compare th e result with NG an has reporte a e-rating of 33%. As a preliminary ata, the author h as also reporte that with the engine manifol pressure of 1.4 Bar, the engine power wou l increase by 33% e ualing that of NG power on a naturally aspirate engine. Howev er no etails of turbocharger or any optimization has been reporte . As there are no establishe ata on performance of a turbocharge engine operating on PG, experiments were con ucte to establish e-rating of a turbocha rge stan ar NG engine operating with this fuel. 31 3.3.1 The experimental setup The experimental setup consiste of a gasification system, an engine an PG carburetor. The experimental setup is similar to that shown in figure 3.1. Gasification system – The gasifier system use was that of IISc esign as escribe in previous section. The capacity of the gasifier is higher at 850 kg/hr for GTA 17 10G engine (referre to as Engine1) an 150 kg/hr for GTA 855G engine (referre to as Engin e 2). The tests on the engine 1 have been con ucte on a 1.5 MWe biomass base power generating station where two streams of 850 kg/hr gasifier was connecte to 5 nu mbers of engines, further etails of this is provi e by G Sri har et al [18]. The experi ments have been con ucte on operating one gasifier of 850 kg/hr with one engine. The test on engine 2 is on a single gasifier an single engine setup with 150 kg/hr gasifier an on e engine, further etails of this is provi e by G Sri har et al [17]. PG carburetor – The PG carburetor is same as escribe in previous section except that this was of higher capacity to han le higher mass flow rates. Spark ignite engine – Experiments were con ucte with PG as fuel on two power lev el engines of Cummins make meant for power generation using NG. In both the engines , turbochargers use are of same make, mo el an specifications. The only ifferen ce is that on Engine 1 (GTA-1710G), it is twin turbocharger whereas on Engine 2 (GTA-855G), single turbocharger. The turbochargers use on both the engines are of HOLSET ma ke with 4 LGK/557 Compressor. The engine intake was mo ifie in both the cases to b e run with air an PG mixture. The specifications of the engines are given in table 3. 5. Table 3.5: Specifications of engine use for testing [42]

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Description Engine 1 Engine 2 Make Cummins Cummins Mo el GTA 1710 G GTA 855G Fuel Natural gas Natural gas Engine type ‘V’ configuration, 4 – stroke, SI, Inline, 4 – stroke, SI, 6 cylin ers, 32 12 cylin ers, turbocharge with after cooler turbocharge with after cooler Displacement, L 28 14 Bore X Stroke, mm 140 X 152 140 X 152 Compression Ratio 10.0:1 10.0 : 1 Max AC output 305 kWe 151 kWe 3.3.2 Instrumentation scheme To stu y the performance characteristic of the turbocharger the thermo ynamic properties influencing the performance were measure an e uce in the present work. The instrumentation inclu e various temperature an pressure measurements for turbocharger as per ASME stan ar s [31], gas an air flow rates, gas an exhaust composition an electrical parameters. The block iagram of the instrumentation setup is as shown in figure 3.10. The subscripts use for pressure an temperature at var ious location on the engine in this thesis are as per this iagram, an subscripts 1 in icates compressor inlet, 2 compressor exit, 5 after-cooler exit, 3 engine exit an 4 tu rbine exit. 3.3.2.1 Temperature measurements In or er to measure the temperature at compressor inlet, an alcohol thermometer was use , with a least count of 1°C. This is for a better rea ability in compariso n to that of mercury thermometer. At all other locations of the turbocharger an after-cooler , thermocouples were use an a igital temperature in icator system was use to c onvert the analog signals to rea out temperature in egree Celsius. The K type thermoc ouple was prepare from 24 gauge Chromel – Alumel wires with a bea size of 1.5 mm. 33 Figure 3.10: Instrumentation scheme use in testing 3.3.2.2 Pressure measurements Pressures were measure using U-tube manometers. Since the compressor inlet an turbine outlet pressures are fairly low, water use as the flui for the man ometer, while all other pressure measurements were ma e by mercury manometers. 3.3.2.3 Flow measurement Gas an air flow measurements were measure using pitot tubes that were connecte to igital pressure gauges. The range of igital pressure gauge use w as 0 – 600 mm of water column with a resolution of 1 mm of water column. The air an gas fl ow rate measurements were obtaine from the ifferential hea rea ing isplaye on the igital gauge. 3.3.2.4 Gas composition measurement The gas composition measurement is same as that escribe in section 3.2.2.1. 34 3.3.2.5 Exhaust gas composition measurement The exhaust gas composition measurement is same as that escribe in section 3.2.2.3.

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3.3.3 Experimental proce ure The experimental proce ure is similar to that etaile in section 3.2.3. The eng ine was starte with pro ucer gas an allowe to warm up in no-loa con ition. The l oa on the engine was increase in steps of 10 kWe an measurement of various parameter s was recor e after 10 min of engine stabilization. 3.3.4 Results an Discussion The measurements on the engine have been performe with increasing loa in steps of 10 kWe till the engine reache its maximum achievable loa . The maximum achievable loa was eci e by the steep rop in fre uency than the rate 50 Hz an the exhaust smoking heavily. The measure pressure, temperature at various points an gas an air flow rates to the engines 1 an 2 are shown in tables 3.6 (a) an (b) re spectively. The gas flow rates an the correspon ing loa s are use to obtain specific gas consumption, kg/kWh an are shown in figures 3.11 (a) an (b). The specific gas consumption at the peak achievable loa s was 3.0 an 2.7 kg/kWh. This correspon ingly translates to specific biomass consumptions of 1.2 an 1.1 kg/kWh (1 kg of bioma ss yiel s 2.5 kg of pro ucer gas). The biomass consumption was foun to be matching with t he long uration tests reporte on this engine as reporte by Sri har et al [17, 18]. 35 Figure 3.11 (a): Specific gas consumption for Engine 1 Figure 3.11 (b): Specific gas consumption with loa for Engine 2 The air to fuel ratio at the highest loa for engine 1 is 1.2 an that of engine 2 is 1.3 which is close to stoichiometric mixture of pro ucer gas an the exhaust oxygen conten ts were 1.5 an 0.8, respectively. This in icates a consistency in the measurements ma e . Table 3.6 (a): Experimental measurements on Engine 1. Loa P1 P2 P5 P3 T1 T2 T5 T3 Gas Flow Air Flow A/F kWe Bar Bar Bar Bar K K K K kg/s kg/s 40 0.97 0.75 0.62 1.69 311 326 306 471 0.07 0.12 1.7 70 0.99 0.81 0.76 1.17 310 331 305 512 0.10 0.12 1.2 85 0.98 0.91 0.89 1.15 310 332 303 515 0.10 0.13 1.3 100 0.98 1.11 0.93 1.14 309 334 303 520 0.10 0.14 1.4 110 0.98 1.13 1.10 1.19 309 336 303 522 0.12 0.15 1.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Specific gas consumption, kg/kWh Loa , kWe 0 2 4 6 8

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10 12 14 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Specific gas consumption, kg/kWh Loa , kWe 36 125 0.98 1.17 1.11 1.23 309 339 303 523 0.12 0.16 1.3 140 0.97 1.18 1.17 1.23 308 340 303 526 0.14 0.16 1.1 150 0.97 1.19 1.18 1.27 308 342 303 534 0.14 0.18 1.3 170 0.97 1.20 1.19 1.30 306 342 305 577 0.16 0.20 1.2 180 0.97 1.22 1.19 1.31 310 347 306 578 0.16 0.20 1.2 190 0.97 1.27 1.26 1.32 310 348 308 585 0.16 0.21 1.3 200 0.97 1.29 1.28 1.33 310 352 310 591 0.17 0.22 1.2 210 0.97 1.29 1.28 1.34 309 351 308 593 0.17 0.21 1.2 220 0.97 1.32 1.31 1.35 307 347 304 597 0.20 0.24 1.2 230 0.97 1.34 1.33 1.36 308 352 306 605 0.20 0.24 1.2 240 0.97 1.35 1.33 1.37 308 351 307 606 0.21 0.25 1.2 Table 3.6 (b): Experimental measurements on Engine 2 Loa P1 P2 P5 P3 T1 T2 T5 T3 Gas Flow Air Flow A/F kWe Bar Bar Bar Bar K K K K kg/s kg/s 50 0.96 1.22 1.03 1.21 305 336 312 585 0.07 0.09 1.4 50 0.96 1.20 1.03 1.20 306 337 314 578 0.07 0.09 1.4 78 0.98 1.36 1.28 1.33 307 353 316 597 0.08 0.10 1.2 80 0.98 1.37 1.23 1.32 307 353 317 592 0.07 0.10 1.3 75 0.98 1.28 1.15 1.26 306 343 318 559 0.07 0.10 1.3 80 0.98 1.25 1.18 1.21 306 341 317 561 0.08 0.10 1.2 90 0.98 1.31 1.12 1.24 306 343 315 594 0.08 0.10 1.2 90 0.98 1.31 1.13 1.28 306 342 316 585 0.08 0.10 1.2 90 0.98 1.32 1.28 1.27 306 343 317 574 0.08 0.11 1.3 100 0.98 1.35 1.22 1.32 306 348 318 603 0.09 0.11 1.2 105 0.98 1.36 1.25 1.32 305 351 318 608 0.09 0.11 1.3 110 0.98 1.41 1.34 1.32 305 350 317 606 0.09 0.11 1.3 105 0.98 1.37 1.23 1.31 307 352 319 589 0.08 0.10 1.3 108 0.97 1.40 1.29 1.36 308 357 321 585 0.08 0.12 1.4 75 0.97 1.41 1.28 1.34 308 357 320 594 0.08 0.10 1.3 85 0.98 1.34 1.21 1.30 309 351 319 579 0.09 0.11 1.2 80 0.97 1.39 1.23 1.32 310 357 320 594 0.09 0.11 1.3 60 0.98 1.28 1.09 1.24 310 344 317 553 0.07 0.10 1.3 50 0.98 1.24 1.05 1.22 310 341 316 542 0.07 0.09 1.4 45 0.99 1.24 1.04 1.21 309 338 317 552 0.07 0.09 1.4 The composition of PG at various loa s is shown in tables 3.7 (a) an (b). The average calorific value of PG uring the experiments for both engines 1 an 2 we re aroun 37 4.5 MJ/kg. The average calorific value an PG flow rate at various loa s were us e to compute engine fuel conversion efficiency at various loa s an is shown in figur e 3.12 (a) an (b) for both the engines. Table 3.7 (a): PG composition at various loa s for Engine 1 Loa CO CO2 CH4 O2 H2 N2 Mol wt Cal Value kWe % % % % % % kmol/kg MJ/kg 40 18.55 10.88 1.00 0.48 19.25 49.84 24.64 4.32 70 18.74 11.63 0.79 0.99 19.69 48.16 24.69 4.31 85 18.79 11.59 0.80 0.99 19.72 48.11 24.67 4.32 100 18.91 11.52 0.66 1.00 19.78 48.13 24.66 4.30 110 18.71 11.6 0.75 1.02 19.45 48.47 24.75 4.26 125 19.09 10.53 0.93 0.61 19.02 49.82 24.65 4.33

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140 19.48 10.37 0.90 0.54 19.33 49.38 24.55 4.42 150 19.47 10.36 0.91 0.55 19.30 49.41 24.55 4.42 170 19.89 12.50 1.17 0.57 18.59 47.28 25.05 4.39 180 19.81 12.52 1.16 0.56 18.44 47.51 25.09 4.35 190 19.95 12.47 1.21 0.57 18.74 47.06 25.00 4.43 200 20.32 13.27 1.40 0.98 18.96 45.07 25.06 4.54 210 17.91 12.36 1.86 0.58 18.17 49.12 25.05 4.34 220 20.13 13.26 1.37 0.98 18.82 45.44 25.10 4.49 230 19.81 11.11 1.27 0.64 18.49 48.68 24.84 4.44 240 19.8 11.12 1.28 0.63 18.50 48.67 24.84 4.44 Table 3.7 (b): PG composition at various loa s for Engine 2 Loa CO CO2 CH4 O2 H2 N2 Mol wt CV kWe % % % % % % kmol/kg MJ/kg 0 20.82 7.80 1.52 0.33 17.65 51.88 24.49 4.64 20 20.85 7.90 1.55 0.39 17.77 51.54 24.47 4.67 50 20.87 7.72 1.24 0.40 17.62 52.15 24.52 4.55 80 21.23 7.81 1.18 0.55 17.56 51.67 24.56 4.56 75 20.73 7.89 1.56 0.42 17.85 51.55 24.45 4.67 38 80 20.81 7.81 1.56 0.41 17.92 51.49 24.42 4.70 100 23.61 6.82 0.32 0.47 17.15 51.63 24.61 4.50 100 23.07 7.08 0.35 0.47 17.12 51.91 24.66 4.44 110 23.66 6.82 0.33 0.46 17.19 51.54 24.60 4.52 The engine efficiency increase with increasing loa an was aroun 26 % for engine 1 an 30% for engine 2 at the highest achieve loa of 240 kWe an 110 kW e respectively. One stream of the compressor of engine 1 han le 0.231 kg/s of the mixture, a higher mass flow rate as compare 0.203 kg/s to that of engine 2. This can be seen to have reflecte in the elivery of higher peak power with engine 1 with 240 kWe ( 120 kWe for one stream of the turbocharger) as against 110 kWe of engine 1. The e-ratin g foun were 21% for engine 1 an 27% for engine 2 respectively. It is inferre as possi ble to minimize these e-ratings an increase the elivere peak power if the compresso r can be suitably chosen to eliver higher mass flow rate. Figure 3.12 (a): Engine fuel conversion efficiency with loa for engine 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Efficiency, % Loa , kWe 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Efficiency, %

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Loa , kWe 39 Figure 3.12 (b): Engine fuel conversion efficiency with loa for engine 2 The thermo ynamic characterization of turbocharger was performe for further un erstan ing the compressor characteristics with pro ucer gas an air mixture. The measure parameters of the turbocharger are reporte in table 3.6 as P1 which is pressure at entry of the compressor; T1 is temperature at entry of compressor; P2 is pres sure at the exit of the compressor; T2 is the temperature at the exit of the compressor; P3 is the pressure at the entry of the turbine; T3 is the temperature at the entry of the turbine; P5 is the pressure at the exit of after-cooler; T5 is the temperature at the exit of a fter-cooler; the mass flow rate han le by compressor an turbine is the total of air an gas mas s flow rates. The limitations that were pose for the complete characterization of turb ocharger were (a) spee measurements coul not be ma e as the compressor inlet was close by pipe carrying air an pro ucer gas mixture (b) the turbine was water coole an hence the correct rop in the temperature across the turbine bla es were not measurable. Compressor The compressor boosts the pressure of incoming charge an elivers the same to engine at higher pressure. The measure ata were analyze for un erstan ing the compressor behavior with air an pro ucer gas mixture instea of air alone as it happens in stan ar engine. For engine 1, the measure flow an loa ata is halve as t he total flow for two turbochargers were measure in a common line an ata is presente for a single turbocharger. The turbochargers mounte on the respective engines are sho wn in 3.13 (a) an (b). Figure 3.13 (a): Engine 1 Holset 4 LGK/557 Comp Turbocharger (Twin Turbo) Holset 4 LGK/557 Comp Turbocharger (Single Turbo) 40 Figure 3.13 (b): Engine 2 The boost pressure (P2/P1) in the compressor as a function of flow rate is shown in the figure 3.14(a) an (b) for engine 1 an 2 respectively. In engine 1, it is s een that the highest loa of 120 kWe is achieve on pro ucer gas with a compressor boost pres sure of 1.39 an in engine 2, the highest achieve loa of 110 kWe with boost pressure o f 1.44. It is also seen that the compressor of engine 2 is eveloping higher pressure ratio an also elivering lower flow rates to the engine an this coul be attribute for the o bservation of carbon eposits in the after-cooler lea ing to higher pressure rop. Figure 3.14 (a): Compressor boost pressure vs. engine loa for engine 1 0 20

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40 60 80 100 120 140 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 Loa , kWe Compressor boost pressure 41 Figure 3.14 (b): Compressor boost pressure vs. engine loa for engine 2 Calculation of compressor efficiency an work To calculate the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, the isentropic tempera ture rise is to be calculate . This is calculate as: = ×

(3.1) !" # $%& % $% % (3.2) The work one by the compressor an correcte mass flow rate are calculate as: (" = )* × +, × $ − ' (3.3) )"*./ = )* × 0 1 % 22 3 456 7 (3.4) The T1 and P1 va ues that are used in equation 3.4 are the measured va ues that are reported in tab e 3.6. The ca cu ated quantities based on equations 3.1 – 3.4 are shown in tab e 3.8 (a) and (b). Tab e 3.8(a): Ca cu ated parameters of the compressor for engine 1 Load Pr. Ratio Corrected T2s ηc Work kWe Turbo Flow, kg/s K kW 20 0.77 0.11 288.69 - 1.59 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 Lo d, kWe Compressor boost pressure 42 35 0.82 0.12 293.18 - 2.57 43 0.93 0.12 303.62 - 2.71 50 1.13 0.13 319.99 0.44 3.32 55 1.15 0.15 321.59 0.47 4.05

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63 1.19 0.15 324.49 0.52 4.55 70 1.21 0.17 324.93 0.53 5.27 75 1.23 0.17 326.14 0.53 5.92 85 1.24 0.19 324.87 0.52 6.93 90 1.25 0.19 330.40 0.55 7.16 95 1.31 0.20 334.35 0.64 7.58 100 1.33 0.21 335.80 0.61 8.85 105 1.33 0.21 335.14 0.62 8.75 110 1.36 0.24 334.85 0.70 9.51 115 1.38 0.24 337.44 0.67 10.48 120 1.39 0.25 338.10 0.70 10.61 T ble 3.8(b): C lcul ted p r meters of t e compressor for engine 2 Lo d Pr. R tio Corrected Turbo Flow T2s ŋc Work kWe P2/P1 K KW 0 1.02 0.14 305.82 0.36 0.74 20 1.11 0.15 313.93 0.69 1.91 25 1.15 0.16 317.13 0.71 2.77 50 1.28 0.17 327.00 0.71 5.27 50 1.25 0.17 325.93 0.64 5.27 78 1.39 0.19 337.11 0.65 8.73 80 1.40 0.18 337.85 0.67 8.45 75 1.30 0.18 329.95 0.65 6.79 80 1.27 0.20 327.80 0.62 7.07 90 1.33 0.20 332.13 0.71 7.48 90 1.34 0.19 332.37 0.73 6.84 90 1.34 0.21 332.84 0.73 7.70 100 1.38 0.21 335.50 0.70 8.97 105 1.39 0.22 334.82 0.65 10.09 110 1.44 0.22 338.50 0.74 9.87 T e pressure r tio incre se cross t e compressor, s function of corrected m ss flow r te is plotted in figures 3.15 ( ) nd (b) for bot t e engines. Simil rly efficiency of t e compressor s function of m ss flow r te for bot t e engines is plotted i n figures 43 3.16 ( ) nd (b). T e pressure r tio c ieved by t e compressor t ig est flow r te for engine 1 w s bout 1.39 nd t e corresponding m ximum efficiency w s found to be 0.7. T e simil r qu ntities for engine 2 were 1.44 nd 0.74 respectively. T e compressor work required for c ieving t is is found to be 10.61 kW nd 9.87 kW for engine 1 nd 2 respectively. T e ig er work dem nd from t e compressor of engine 1 is ttribut ed to t e ig er m ss flow r tes delivered by it. T e plot of compressor work s functio n of corrected m ss flow r te for bot t e engines re s own in figures 3.17 ( ) nd (b). Figure 3.15 ( ): Compressor pressure r tio vs. corrected m ss flow r te for engi ne 1 Figure 3.15 (b): Compressor pressure r tio vs. corrected m ss flow r te for engi ne 2 0.6 0.7

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0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 Pr r tio (P2/P1) Corrected m ss flow r te, kg/s 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24 Pr r tio (P2/P1) Corrected m ss flow r te, kg/s 44 Figure 3.16 ( ): Compressor efficiency vs. corrected m ss flow r te for engine 1 Figure 3.16 (b): Compressor efficiency vs. corrected m ss flow r te for engine 2 Figure 3.17 ( ): Compressor work vs. corrected m ss flow r te for engine 1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 Compressor efficiency Corrected m ss flow r te, kg/s 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24 Compresor efficiency Corrected m ss flow r te, kg/s 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 Compressor work, kW Corrected m ss flow r te, kg/s

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45 Figure 3.17 (b): Compressor work vs. corrected m ss flow r te for engine 2 After-cooler T e fter-cooler is g s to w ter e t exc nger to cool t e mixture of ir nd g s fter t e compression. T e compressor incre ses t e pressure s well s temper t ure of t e ir nd g s mixture, t e ig er temper ture lowers t e density of t e g s nd e nce it is benefici l to cool t e g s before sending to t e engine cylinder. T e density b sed on pressure nd temper ture before nd fter t e fter-cooler is s own in t ble 3.9 ( ) nd (b) for engine 1 nd engine 2 respectively. T ere w s n incre se in density fter t e cooling of t e g s mixture in t e fter-cooler. T e density of t e g s prior to entering t e engine w s round 1.5 kg/m3 t t e ig est lo d in bot t e engines. T ble 3.9 ( ): G s mixture density before nd fter fter-cooler for engine 1 Actu l flow r te ρ2 ρ5 kg/s kg/m3 kg/m3 0.12 1.15 1.04 0.14 1.16 1.23 0.14 1.19 1.24 0.15 1.20 1.32 0.16 1.21 1.33 0.18 1.22 1.34 0.18 1.23 1.34 0.18 1.28 1.41 0.19 1.28 1.43 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24 Comp esso wo k, kW Co ected mass flow ate, kg/s 46 0.19 1.29 1.44 0.22 1.32 1.49 0.22 1.33 1.50 0.23 1.34 1.50 Ta le 3.9 ( ): Gas mixtu e density efo e and afte afte -coole fo engine 2 Actual flow ate ρ2 ρ5 kg/s kg/m3 kg/m3 0.14 1.11 0.14 1.17 0.15 1.19 0.16 1.27 1.17 0.16 1.25 1.16 0.18 1.33 1.39 0.17 1.34 1.34 0.17 1.28 1.25 0.19 1.26 1.28

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0.19 1.31 1.23 0.18 1.31 1.24 0.19 1.32 1.38 0.20 1.33 1.33 0.20 1.32 1.36 0.20 1.38 1.45 Tu ine The tu ine is the p ime move of the tu ocha ge , the high tempe atu e and p essu e exhaust gas f om the engine expands and moves the tu ine lades and ge ne ates wo k. The tu ine mounted in the engine unde study is wate cooled fo p otecti ng the lades f om high tempe atu e; this has posed limitation in measu ing the co ect tempe atu e d op in the tu ine. The p essu e measu ement also will e slightly alte ed as the tempe atu e of the gas will e lowe . The measu ed values of the tu ine inl et tempe atu e (T3) and p essu e (P3) a e shown in ta le 3.6 (a) and ( ) fo engine 1 and engine 2 espectively. The tu ine is mounted on a common shaft with the comp es so and 47 will e di ectly d iving it. Hence the wo k gene ated y tu ine is fully utiliz ed y the comp esso except fo ce tain losses facto ed as tu ocha ge mechanical efficie ncy (ηm). M clnnes [52] suggests t t t e f ctor ηm for turboc rgers in gener l is of t e o rder of 0.92. Hence t e turbine work is deduced by dividing t e compressor work by compr essor efficiency nd turboc rger mec nic l efficiency. T e plot of turbine work s function of corrected m ss flow r te is s own in t e figure 3.18 ( ) nd (b) for engine 1 nd engine 2 respectively. T e power b l nce of turboc rger is st ted s in Heywood [19]: 8" = !" !9!:89 (3.6) Using equ tion 3.6, t e turbine efficiency is furt er deduced s r tio of compre ssor work by turbine work s t e ot er two efficiency f ctors re lre dy f ctored in dedu cing turbine work. T e figure 3.19 ( ) nd (b) s ows t e turbine efficiency wit corr ected m ss flow r te for engine 1 nd engine 2 respectively. Figure 3.18 ( ): Turbine work vs. corrected m ss flow r te for engine 1 Figure 3.18 (b): Turbine work vs. corrected m ss flow r te for engine 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 Turbine work, kW Corrected m ss flow r te, kg/s 0

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2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24 Turbine work, kW Corrected m ss flow r te, kg/s 48 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 Turbine efficiency Corrected m ss flow r te, kg/s Figure 3.19 ( ): Turbine efficiency vs. corrected m ss flow r te for engine 1 Figure 3.19 (b): Turbine efficiency vs. corrected m ss flow r te for engine 2 3.4 C r cterisitics of t e turboc rger wit PG T e experiment l d t is m pped on t e compressor m p to provide n indic tion of t e oper tion l lo d line of t e engine. T e engine lo d line for engine 1 is s own in figure 3.20 ( ) nd t t for engine 2 in figure 3.20 (b). T e oper ting point t t e delivered pe k power in bot t e c ses is close to best oper ting r nge nd difference in flow r te in bot t e c ses ve slig tly s ifted t e engine lo d line. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24 Turbine efficiency Corrected m ss flow r te, kg/s 49 Figure 3.20 ( ): Compressor m p s owing engine lo d line wit producer g s for e ngine 1 Figure 3.20 (b): Compressor m p s owing engine lo d line wit producer g s for e ngine 2 T e best oper ting points on compressor m p would be t e points t t connect t e efficiency isl nds of lowest m ss flow nd pressures r tios, for ex mple t e best oper ting point for 75% efficiency curve from t e figure 3.20, would be for m ss flow r te of 0.22 kg/s nd 1.35 pressure r tio. From figure 3.20 (b) for engine 2, t e m ss flow r tes wit PG oper tion is slig tly skewed to left of best oper ting regime. Sim

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il rly from figure 3.20 ( ) for engine 1, t e m ss flow r tes wit PG is ig er re tending tow rds t e rig t side of t e best oper ting regime. T e engine 1 s delivered pe k power of 120 kWe per turboc rger stre m t PG c lorific v lue of 4.45 MJ/kg, nd if t e c lorific v lue would ve been 4.9 MJ/kg s seen in ot er experiments, t e delivered pe k power would ve been 132 kWe per turboc rger stre m. T is still would be lower by bout 13% s comp red to t e N G r ting 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 0.05 0.15 0.25 0.35 0.45 Pressure r tio, P2/P1 Corrected M ss flow r te, kg/s 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 0.05 0.15 0.25 0.35 0.45 Pressure r tio, P2/P1 Corrected M ss flow r te, kg/s 50 of 151 kWe. Hence it c n be inferred t t t is engine needs different turboc rger to be m tc ed for PG oper tion, in offsetting t e rem ining 13% of t e de-r ting obser ved. T e ppro c considered for t e m tc ing of turboc rger to engine in t is t esi s is t e modelling studies on engine nd turboc rger specific to PG. To v lid te t e turboc rger-compressor modelling, n v il ble turboc rger w s tested by cre t ing suit ble test f cility. 3.5 Cre ting turboc rger test benc f cility nd testing of turboc rger A turboc rger test benc is f cility for testing nd c r cteriz tion of diff erent turboc rgers. T e test benc s ould simul te engine conditions w ere t e ot ex ust g ses from engine cylinders gener te work in t e turbine w ic will be utilized by t e compressor for compressing ir from tmosp eric conditions. To c ieve t e engin e exit condition, ot ir s ould be gener ted nd supplied to t e turbine t ereby en bl ing t e turbine to gener te work. Society of Automotive engineers s recommended turboc rger

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g s st nd code [29] long wit t e instrument tion sc eme for me surements nd t est procedures on turboc rger mounted on test benc . T e code lso discusses on open loop nd closed loop test benc es w ere in t e open loop test benc set up, t e compressed ir is left open nd in closed loop test benc , t e compressed ir is looped b ck into turbine entry stre m. Sever l rese rc ers like Young et l [30], C pm n et l [ 31] ve reported on testing of turboc rgers on open loop test benc f cility using n tu r l g s s fuel for gener ting ot ir. T e current work lso focuses on open loop test ben c set up cre tion nd testing using LPG s fuel for gener ting ot g s. 3.5.1 Design of turboc rger test benc A KKK m ke turboc rger me nt for diesel engine (ALU 680) w s used for testing on t e test benc . T e test benc setup sc em tic is s own in t e figure 3.21 w ic is s per t e recommend tions of SAE J1826. T e setup consisted of combustor f or producing ot ir by combusting Liquefied Petroleum G s (LPG) s fuel. A LPG cyl inder w s used s fuel source nd in order to c ieve ig fuel flow r tes; t e cylind er w s e ted using e ting p d. T e fuel flow r te w s me sured by recording weig t of t e cylinder. T e ot ir w s pressurized to overcome t e b ck pressure offered by t e turbine. To c ieve t is, t e entire burner w s pressurized by supplying ot ir from 51 reciproc ting compressor. Instruments were provided for me suring pressure nd temper ture t v rious loc tions in turbine nd compressor stre m, fuel nd ir g s flow r tes nd compressor speed. T e me surement points nd instruments used re det iled in t ble 3.10. T e turboc rger w s mounted on mounting t ble nd cooling oil w s circul ted using ge r pump. T e design of combustor nd orifice pl tes me nt f or ir flow me surements re det iled below. Figure 3.21: Sc em tic of experiment l setup of turboc rger test benc T ble 3.10: Instrument tion det il Point of Me surement P r meter me sured Instrument used Inlet to compressor Pressure W ter g uge m nometer Inlet to compressor Temper ture T ermometer Outlet of compressor Pressure C libr ted digit l pressure indic tor Outlet of compressor Temper ture K type t ermocouple wit digit l indic tor Prim ry ir to ot ir gener tor Flow r te C libr ted Orifice meter Second ry ir to ot ir gener tor Flow r te C libr ted Orifice meter Fuel flow r te to ot ir gener tor Flow r te Weig t of LPG cylinder Inlet of Turbine Temper ture K type t ermocouple wit digit l indic tor Inlet of Turbine Pressure C libr ted digit l pressure indic tor

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Outlet of Turbine Temper ture K type t ermocouple wit digit l indic tor Outlet of Turbine Pressure W ter g uge m nometer Compressor Speed Digit l T c ometer 3.5.1.1 Design of burner T e m ximum power delivered by t e engine w en turboc rged using KKK turboc rger wit diesel s fuel nd t l bor tory conditions wit tmosp eric p ressure t 696 mmHg nd temper ture of 300 K w s round 92 kWe s per e rlier tests. T is w s 52 used s t e reference for designing t e combustor. For diesel engine, typic l SF C is round 3.3 kW/l. Hence to produce 92 kWe, t e diesel requirement would be roug l y 23.8 kg/ r w ic is 6.6 g/s. For turboc rger only ex ust p rt of energy needs to be provided. As per e t b l nce for diesel engine t is would be 33% nd t e fuel requireme nt for t is would be round 2 g/s. LPG ving ne rly s me c lorific v lue s t t of diesel, s me LPG flow r te w s used for furt er c lcul tions. T e stoic iometric ir to fuel r tio for LPG is 16 nd ence t e ir flow required for complete combustion would be 32 g/s. T e c iev ble fl me temper tu res would be round 1500 K. T is s to be diluted wit furt er ir for reducing t e temper ture to 750 K to protect t e turbine bl de. T e temper ture could be redu ced by dilution wit second ry ir dded fter complete combustion of fuel nd prim ry ir. By energy b l nce, twice t e mount of prim ry ir is required s second ry ir for dilution w ic would be round 64 g/s. A fuel jet w s designed wit nozzle size of 2 mm for LPG wit supply pressure t 6 tm (full pressure from t e cylinder w s m de v i l ble t t e nozzle using industri l regul tor typic lly used for br zing). A sp rking r r ngement w s set to ct s ignition device for t e fuel. T e prim ry ir d t ngenti l e ntry inducing swirl, ensuring better fl me st bility nd s orter lengt for complete combu stion. T e second ry ir w s supplied gr du lly in st ges kin to g s turbine combustor. B ffles were provided to ensure t t t e mixing w s omogeneous nd t t t ere were no l oc l otspots. T e end of t e combustor w s directly connected to turbine inlet. T e sc em tic of t e combustor is s s own in figure 3.22. Figure 3.22: Sc em tic of t e combustor 53 3.5.1.2 Design nd c libr tion of orifice Orifice pl tes were designed for me suring t e m ss flow r tes of prim ry ir n d second ry ir. T e design w s b sed on Bernoulli’s equ tion for m ss flow r tes n d pipes sizes of prim ry nd second ry ir. T ese orifices were c libr ted by prim ry me t od using Pitot tubes nd re – velocity integr tion met od. T e c libr tion curves nd

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const nts for prim ry nd second ry ir re s own in figure 3.22. Figure 3.23 ( ): Orifice c libr tion for prim ry ir Figure 3.23 (b): Orifice c libr tion for second ry ir 3.5.1.3 T e Experiment l Setup T e experiment l setup w s m de by integr ting ll t e sub-elements nd instruments. Figure 3.24 s ows t e completed experiment l setup. 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 10 20 30 40 Disc rge, g/s √Δh, mmw y = 0.707 x R2 = 0.965 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Di char e, / √Δh, mmw y = 3.679 x R2 = 0.995 54 Fi ure 3.24: Two view of the experimental etup 3.5.2 Experimental Procedure The experiment wa tarted by witchin on the hi h pre ure reciprocatin compre or meant for upply of primary and econdary air and then allowed to fil l in the re ervoir. A the air re ervoir reached a pre ure of 2.5 atm, the primary air upply to the combu tor wa e tabli hed. Then the i nition coil wa witched on o that the ne ce ary park required for combu tion could take place. The fuel from LPG cylinder wa m ade to flow into the combu tor, which wa controlled with the help of ate valve and th ere by the combu tion in the combu tor wa initiated. By knowin the ma of fuel flowin f rom LPG cylinder the required upply of primary air which wa nearly equal to toich iometric ratio wa et. Secondary air for dilution of product a e wa opened, there by controllin the turbine inlet temperature. By ettin all the e parameter the combu tor wa allowed to attain the teady tate condition. A combu tor reached the teady tate the tur bine inlet and outlet temperature and pre ure , compre or inlet and outlet temperature and pre ure , ma flow rate of fuel, primary air and econdary air and the compre

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or peed were noted. The turbine inlet condition were chan ed by chan in the econdary air. Increa e in the econdary air cau ed the temperature at turbine inlet to decrea e and vicever a. All the readin were taken after attainin table operation. Similar procedure wa followed for different fuel ma flow rate. The compre or wa choked at the exi t to et different boo t pre ure . The re ult of the experiment are hown in table 3. 11 and 3.12. Table 3.11: Readin for combu tor Fuel ma flow rate, / Primary air flow rate, / Secondary air flow rate, / Total flow rate, / combu tor temperature 0C 55 0.83 13.61 81.76 95.36 350 0.83 13.61 81.76 95.36 350 0.83 13.61 81.76 95.36 350 1.03 17.94 65.81 83.75 440 1.03 17.94 65.81 83.75 440 1.03 17.17 89.78 106.95 348 1.03 17.17 89.78 106.95 348 1.03 17.17 89.78 106.95 348 1.07 17.69 75.55 93.24 436 1.07 17.69 75.55 93.24 436 1.07 17.69 75.55 93.24 436 1.07 17.94 94.07 112.01 349 1.07 17.94 94.07 112.01 349 1.23 19.64 66.22 85.85 437 1.23 19.64 66.22 85.85 437 1.23 19.64 66.22 85.85 437 1.77 88.19 108.89 197.08 449 1.77 30.14 85.04 115.19 361 1.77 30.14 85.04 115.19 361 1.03 29.68 163.51 193.20 357 Table 3.12: Readin for compre or Ma flow rate compre or / P2, bar P1, Bar P2/P1 Compre or peed, RPM T2, K Efficiency 107.19 1.04 1.01 1.03 21582 305 0.34 88.00 1.07 1.01 1.06 20818 306 0.61 72.15 1.09 1.01 1.08 20590 308 0.68 103.06 1.04 1.01 1.03 23301 306 0.30 90.14 1.07 1.01 1.05 22466 306 0.57 130.43 1.05 1.01 1.04 25641 307 0.40

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124.29 1.07 1.01 1.06 25273 308 0.51 110.40 1.10 1.01 1.09 24937 309 0.69 116.64 1.04 1.01 1.03 23291 308 0.23 81.25 1.08 1.01 1.07 21645 310 0.48 63.24 1.11 1.01 1.10 21375 312 0.56 94.16 1.12 1.01 1.10 25000 313 0.57 76.97 1.15 1.01 1.14 23437 316 0.62 94.72 1.05 1.01 1.04 23310 307 0.37 75.87 1.08 1.01 1.07 21352 308 0.55 41.91 1.13 1.01 1.12 20876 313 0.63 100.15 1.21 1.01 1.20 25075 327 0.55 110.02 1.14 1.01 1.12 23475 318 0.50 76.42 1.20 1.01 1.18 22514 322 0.61 108.27 1.08 1.01 1.07 25125 314 0.38 56 Holdin the turbochar er peed table wa much difficult, ince the varyin compre or flow rate by controllin the valve down tream of compre or varied th e compre or peed. A variation of 500 rpm are rouped and the re ult are di cu ed. 3.5.3 Re ult and Di cu ion The compre or pre ure ratio variation with ma flow rate for varyin compre or peed i hown in fi ure 3.25. Fi ure 3.25: Compre or ma flow rate v . Compre or pre ure ratio The efficiency variation with ma flow rate for varyin compre or peed i hown in fi ure 3.26. Fi ure 3.26: Compre or ma flow rate v . compre or efficiency 1.00 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.10 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.20 1.22 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 Compre or Pre ure Ratio Compre or ma flow rate, k / 25000 500 RPM 21000 500 RPM 23000 500 RPM 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.04 0.09 0.14 Compre or Efficiency Compre or ma flow rate, k / 25000 500 21000 500 23000 500 57

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From fi ure 3.25 and 3.26, it i evident that a the turbochar er peed increa e , the ma flow rate increa e and pre ure ratio and efficiency i in the ame ba nd. For a iven compre or peed, increa e in ma flow rate exponentially decrea e the p re ure ratio and efficiency which i a typical character of a compre or. Some catter in data i een a the compre or peed varied. The turbine could not be characterized a the heat lo e from turbine urface reflected in lower readin of temperature and un-re ali tic turbine efficiencie . Hence, the experiment were limited to characterization of turbochar er u ed in validation of modellin of turbochar er compre or. 3.6 Conclu ion from experimental work The experimental work wa planned to upplement the requirement of the validatin data et of requi ite information that wa not found in the literatur e. The conclu ion from experimental work are that a commercial NG en ine when operate d on PG would have a de-ratin in peak delivered power, ba ed on mixture ener y den i ty in the ran e of 26% to 34%. For a typical a compo ition of 20% CO and H2, 2% CH4, 12% CO2 and re t N2 with a calorific value of 4.9 MJ/k and for toichiometric mixtu re ratio, the de-ratin would be 33%. The de-ratin can be reduced if hi her ma flow rat e are provided to the en ine. Thi i found to be po ible with a turbochar ed en ine and experiment on turbochar ed NG en ine operatin with PG have hown that with hi her ma flow rate the de-ratin i reduced to 21%. Further reduction in the de-rati n require a matchin of different turbochar er. The matchin of a turbochar er can be made experimentally by te tin a ran e of turbochar er on the en ine or alternately by modellin tudie of en ine and turbochar er combination . The latter approach i known to be more exhau tive and i pur ued in the current work. To obtain validatin d ata for the modellin of turbochar er-compre or, an exi tin turbochar er i adequately te ted and characterized by creatin a turbochar er te t bench. 58 Chapter 4 Formulation of En ine and Turbochar er Modellin Thi chapter di cu e the formulation of uitable numerical modellin to imula te the operatin cycle of a turbochar ed SI en ine. Concept of modellin of a turbochar er compre or, en i ne and turbine are di cu ed. The method adopt the behaviour and variation in the a propertie for mixture of PG and air that are u ed in the modellin and the e a pect are brou ht out in thi chapter. 4.1 Introduction In the hi tory of en ine modellin a detailed by Chow et al [34], the early app roach ha been, ideal cycle calculation in 1950’ to imple component matchin model in 1960’ . The advent of computer parked full thermodynamic calculation in 1970’ and multi-zone and multi-dimen ional combu ti

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on analy i in 1980’ and 1990’ . The pecialized and expen ive analy i tool for en ine modellin in the r ecent time have facilitated different fluid-dynamic and other in-cylinder proce e tudie in-depth a a po ible option. En ine modellin involve lar ely the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic and they can be cate orized ba ed on the equation u ed. The thermodynamic modellin i ba ed on ener y con ervation and i popularly known a zero-dimen ional (0-D), phenomenolo ical or qua i-dimen ional model . The flu id-dynamic modellin require complete analy i of fluid flow and hence i a multi-dimen ional analy i . The m ulti-dimen ional modellin i enerally u ed for any pecific de i n chan e which require critical under tand in of fluid tran port proce . The thermodynamic or 0-D modellin provide a quick e timate of the en ine behaviour with a cho en fuel. One uch work for PG ha been performed by G Sridhar [16] to under tand the in-cylinder b ehaviour. Thi re earcher ha u ed a zero-dimen ional modellin u in wrinkled flame theory for flame propa ation. The major focu of thi work wa to e tabli h the fact that the internal combu tion en ine could work with PG a fuel even at a Compre ion Ratio (CR) of 17 without trace for knockin . In hi work, he ha obtained from di cre te computational tudie the nece ary input for laminar burnin velocity and turbulence parameter . The dat a on laminar burnin velocity at different pre ure and temperature for the unburned mixture of an SI en ine h a been obtained from one dimen ional flame calculation . The turbulence parameter have been obtained by conductin a 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) tudy on a bowl-in-pi ton eometry imulatin motored condi tion . The modellin and validation of thi work ha been confined to naturally a pirated en ine of vary in CR from 11 to 17. The pre ent work, thou h i clo er to the e a pect in the analy i , the approach u ed i di fferent and i oriented toward thermodynamic modellin of the en ine with turbochar er that can have applicatio n for different fuel with a impler witch for chan e of fuel. The approach to thi numerical modellin i o utlined in Fer u on et al [33] for internal combu tion en ine and pro rammin to work under Matlab environment a detailed by Butt worth [44]. 59 In a tudy by Korakianiti et al [38] on matchin of turbochar er for Mit ubi hi 4G63 a oline en ine with Garret turbochar er , the author have conducted teady flow performance of comp re or and turbine on en ine with three different turbochar er . They have evaluated en ine performance at bo th de i n point and off de i n point , with the e turbochar er for makin a choice. The author after electin the ri ht match have concluded that turbine i not a en itive a compre or, to the matchin of the en ine. Ba ed on thi ob ervation, in the pre ent work, the compre or modellin i taken up in more detail than for the turbine. The compre or modellin i ba ed on ener y lo model a detailed in the literature by Oh et al [26] and Gravdah l [28]. The propertie for PG are obtained to meet the requirement of the modellin . 4.2 The propertie of PG

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For the purpo e of modellin the PG compo ition i taken to be CO = 20%, H2 = 20 %, CH4 = 2%, CO2 = 12% and N2 = 46%. Thou h certain variation around thi compo ition i een in reality dependin on the bioma and it moi ture content, for the pre ent tudy the above compo ition i con idered frozen. The above compo ition i denoted in the form of a hydrocarbon fuel notation CαHβOγNδ as etaile b y Ferguson [33] for further calculations as shown in table 4.1. Table 4.1: Stan ar hy rocarbon notation of PG C H O N CO 0.2 - 0.2 CO2 0.12 - 0.24 CH4 0.02 0.08 - H2 - 0.4 - N2 - - - 0.92 α β γ δ 0.34 0.48 0.44 0.92 The generic e uation for stoichiometric fuel combustion is given by: CαHβOγNδ + $; + = > − ? '(O2 + 3.76 N2) → α CO2 + β/2 H2O + (δ/2 +3.76 (; + = > − ? ''N2 or PG, the subscripts are α = 0.34, β = 0.48, γ = 0.44 and δ = 0.92. The stoichiometric reaction for this fuel is written as: C0.34H0.48O0.44N0.92 + 0.24(O2 + 3.76 N2) → 0.34CO2 + 0.24H2O + 1.3624N2 (4.1) The stoichiometric air to fuel ratio (As) is calculate as: @ = A.AC $>.DE F& $.G HI.GGA =IE.GG ?I>.G J (4.2) 60 Where K = ; + = > − ? (4.3) This works out that the stoichiometric air to fue requirement for PG is about 1 .345. The gas engines operate c oser to stoichiometry but a owing for s ight excess air, eads to the fue to air equiva ence ratio (Φ) of 0.96. A discussion of the choice of this equiva ence ratio is brought out in det ai in chapter 5. The air to fue ratio for this Φ works out to be 1.4. With the mo ecu ar weights of air (Ma) = 28.97 kg/kmo and of PG (Mf) = 24.5 kg/kmo , the mo e fraction of fue (yf) for the fue –air ratio xfa of 0.71 (corresponding t o Φ = 0.96) on mass basis, is worked out as: LM = N1 + P Q Q R S = 0.46 (4.4) Corresponding y, the mo e fraction of air (ya) is: ya = 1 – yf = 0.54 (4.5) The mo ecu ar weight of fue –air mixture is ca cu ated as: Mfa = ya Ma + yf Mf = 26.9 kg/kmo (4.6) The thermodynamic properties of fue , the specific heat at constant pressure (cp ), entha py (h) and entropy (S) are

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required for mode ing of engine processes. These are obtained by a curve fit of their behaviour and are given by Heywood [19] as: "W X = K + K + KY + K>Y + KC Z (4.7) [ XZ = K + + \ Y + ] > Y − KC Z + KE Z (4.8) X = K^_ + K + + ] Y Y − `

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Z + KD (4.9) The coefficients a1 to a7 are avai ab e for temperature ranges of 300 < T < 1000 K and 1000 < T< 3000 K. The coefficients for the fue are chosen for ower temperature range. The va ues are isted for major chemica species in NASA equi ibrium code cpdt data [45], the va ues for species present in PG are s hown in tab e 4.2. The va ues for PG are obtained by mu tip ying mo e fractions with the coefficients for differen t species and summing it up for the mixture. The coefficients obtained for PG is a so shown in tab e 4.2. Tab e 4.2: Thermodynamic coefficients for PG a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 CO 3.7101 0.0016191 3.6924E 06 2.032E 09 2.3953E 13 14356 2.9555 H2 3.0574 0.0026765 5.8099E 06 5.521E 09 1.8123E 12 988.9 2.2997 CH4 2.9400 0.0025150 7.9E 06 4.75E 09 1.4E 13 10050 4.5000 CO2 2.4008 0.0087351 6.6071E 06 2.0022E 09 6.3274E 16 48378 9.6951 N2 3.6748 0.0012082 2.324E 06 6.3218E 10 2.2577E 13 1061.2 2.3580 PG 3.3908 0.0007542 1.0688E 08 5.5226E 10 4.1553E 13 9563.49 2.4692 61 Using equation 4.7, the cp of PG at ambient is obtained as 1.15 kJ/kg K. The oth er transport properties for PG is based on ca cu ations as out ined in Bird et a [46] and are μ = 3.02 X 10-5 kg/m/s and ρ = 1.01 kg/m3. 4.3 The p ope ties of PG-Ai mixtu e The p ope ties of inte est fo modelling is the p ope ties of PG-ai mixtu e at Φ = 0.96 (A/ = 1.4). The properties for this mixture are as shown in tab e 4.3. Tab e 4.3: properties of PG Air mixture at Φ = 0.96 Composition of producer gas and air mixture (unburned) CO = 8.3%, H2 = 8.3%, CH4 = 0.83%, CO2 = 5%, O2 = 12.25%, N2 = 65.25% Mo ecu ar weight, kg/mo 27 Specific heat at constant pressure at 300 K, kJ/kg K 1.09 Dynamic viscosity (μ), kg/m/s 1.77 X 10-5

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Density at 300 K (ρ), kg/m3 1.08 4.4 Modelling of Tu ocha ge –Comp esso Cent ifugal comp esso s that used as pa t the tu ocha ge s a e widely studied a s a pa t of gas tu ine component and as well as a tu ocha ge component of ecip ocating engine. Flaxi ngton et al [47] have suggested that fo a tu ocha ge on smalle and medium powe level engines, a cent ifugal comp esso is a ette choice whe e a wide ange of flow is e ui ed fo ope ation at possi le high efficienci es. Came et al [48] suggests that the p elimina y design of a cent ifugal comp esso is done pe fo ming a one-dimensio nal analysis and late checked fo specific design aspects using highe end models that cove 2-D and 3-D CFD model s. Swain [22] suggests that, as fa as pe fo mance p ediction of an existing design of cent ifugal comp esso is conside ed, the p edictions f om 1-D model a e found to match well with the 3-D CFD p edictions. The p esent 1-D app oach fo p ediction of pe fo mance of a cent ifugal comp ess o is focused on estimating the enthalpy losses at va ious components and ased on this analysis, the p essu e and tempe atu e gain a e p edicted. The enthalpy losses that have een accounted y va ious esea che s a e – incidence loss, skin f iction loss, clea ance loss, mixing loss, vaneless diffuse loss and disc f iction loss as summa ised y Oh et al [26]. Incidence loss: At off-design conditions, flow ente s the induce at an incidence angle that is diffe ent f om the inlet vane angle of the impelle and could e eithe positive o negative. A positive incid ence angle causes a eduction in flow. 62 Fluid app oaching a lade at any nonze o incidence angle suffe s a change of vel ocity at the lade inlet to match with the lade inlet angle. A flow sepa ation at the lade can c eate an ene gy loss associated with this phenomenon. Skin F iction loss: Skin f iction loss is due to the shea fo ces on the impelle wall caused y vis cous f iction. This loss is dete mined y conside ing the flow in the passage in an e uivalent ci cula c os s section of an e uivalent hyd aulic diamete . Then, loss can e easily computed ased on the pipe flow p essu e loss e uations. Disc F iction loss: This is the loss esulting f om f ictional to ue on the ack su face of the ot o due to ci culation of fluid etween the otating disc o sh oud and the stationa y casing. Clea ance loss: A p essu e g adient exists etween the casing and the impelle sh oud which caus es leakage f om tip towa ds the hu . The a ove fou losses a e elated to the oto losses. The othe losses a e stat o losses that a e: Mixing loss: The sudden expansion at vaneless diffuse inlet f om impelle exit causes mixing loss. Vaneless diffuse loss: This loss is expe ienced in the vaneless diffuse and is a esult of f iction an d a solute flow angle. The Modelling of the a ove losses a e complex and the e a e seve al studies aime d at p edicting the a ove

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losses. One such app oach that has een followed f om 1960’s is two zone modelling whe e the impelle exit flow is conceptually divided into a jet zone, an isent opic co e flow egions with hi gh velocity, and a wake zone, a low momentum non-isent opic egion accounting fo all the losses occu ing in the im pelle . Oh et al [26] summa ises the ea lie esta lished set of e uations fo the two–zone modelling analysis fo c ent ifugal comp esso . The autho points out that the ea lie app oach did not explicitly p ovided empi ical model fo the jet-wake flow deviation and this has een fu the imp ovised y efining the classical jet-wake models. This app oach howeve e ui es a detailed flow field analysis. The othe app oach is to p edict ene gy losses at each component and lump up ce tain efficiency losses that cannot e easily p edicted. This app oach is p esented y G avadahl [28] in his study on modelling and the cont ol of su ge and otating stall in comp esso s y using ene gy t ansfe and ene gy l osses at va ious components to p edict the comp esso cha acte istics a e ought out. G avadahl’s wo k conside s the p evious analysis y othe 63 esea che s in accounting fo the majo losses like incidence and fluid f iction losses in the impelle and diffuse . The othe losses like clea ance loss, ack flow loss, volute loss and diffusion loss a e accounted as d op in efficiency. The p esent wo k is ased on this app oach due to the following conside ations: 1. The app oach has een validated fo the tu ocha ge comp esso modelling 2. Conside s the c itical losses fo pe fo mance p ediction of a cent ifugal comp esso 4.4.1 Comp esso modelling The calculation on the p essu e ise is conside ed ased on ene gy t ansfe and ene gy losses in the va ious pa ts of the comp esso . The comp esso essentially consists of a otating impel le which impa ts high velocity to the gas. A fixed set of dive ging passage will su se uently decele ate the gas esulting in static p essu e inc ease. A schematic d awing of a comp esso is shown in figu e 4.1. Figu e 4.1: Sketch of a adially vaned cent ifugal comp esso with vaned diffuse . The inne most pa t of the impelle is known as induce o the impelle eye, whe e the gas is ent ained into the comp esso . The pa t of the comp esso consisting of dive ging passages is k nown as the diffuse . The diffuse can e vaned o vaneless, and a vaned diffuse is shown in figu e 4.1. The vanel ess diffuse also known as annula diffuse is a simple annula channel with inc easing a ea. Beyond the diffuse , the gas is collected in a volute cham e . 4.4.1.1 Impelle The incoming gas ente s the impelle eye (the induce ) of the comp esso at velo city C1 as shown in figu e 4.2. 64 Figu e 4.2: Velocity t iangle at induce . Section th ough induce at adius 1 = D1/2 The mass flow m and C1 a e given y + = :

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6 (4.10) whe e ρ01 is the constant inlet stagnation density and A1 is the a ea ased on D1. The tangential velocity U1 at diamete D1 of the induce is calculated as a = c = d e f (4.11) whe e ω is the angular velocity of the impeller and N is the number of revolutions per second. The diameter D1 is defined as e = $e9 + e[ ' (4.12) here Dt1 and Dh1 are the tip and hub diameter at the inducer section. The circl e ith diameter D1 and area A1 divides the inducer into t o annuli of equal area. From figure 4.2, it can be seen that the relative gas velocity at the inlet W1 i s ( = + + a − 2 a +h (4.13) here Cθ1 is the tangential gas velocity. The gas leaves the impeller at the impel ler tip at velocity C2 as shown in figure 4.3. The iameter of the impeller tip is D2 an impeller tip velocity is U2. Figure 4.3: Velocity triangle at impeller tip 65 4.4.1.2 I eal energy transfer For turbo-machines, applie tor ue e uals to the change in angular momentum of t he flui . The angular momentum is calculate as pro uct of ra ius an tangential gas velocity. Hence, i" = )$j kh − jkh' (4.14) here τc is he compressor orque, r1 = D1/2, r2 = D2/2 and Cθ2 is the tangential co mponent of the gas velocity C2. Power elivere to the flui is pro uct of tor ue an angular velocity (" = c i" = c ) $j kh − jkh' = ) $a kh − akh' = ) Δ G",opqFr (4.15) where Δh0c,ideal i the pecific enthalpy delivered to the fluid without accountin for the lo e . The equation 4.15, i known a Euler’ pump equation. For implicity the followin two a umption ar e made: a. A radially vaned (no back weep) i con idered with β2 = 900 where β2 is he a ck sweep angle . There is no pre whirl, implying α1 = 900 => C θ1 = 0 Hence, the e uation 4.16 re uces to Δh0c,ideal = U2 Cθ2 (4.16) The ifference in the velocity between impeller tip an the exit gas is efine as slip an this is state as Stanitz slip formula as: s = tu v = 1 − o (4.17) Where i is he num er of impeller lades. From equa ion 4.16 and 4.17, he speci fic en halpy delivered is Δ G",opqFr = a

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(4.18) From equation 4.18, it can be een that pecific enthalpy Δh0c,ideal i independen t of ma flow and ideally we hould have ame ener y tran fer at all the flow rate . However, due to variou lo e , the ener y tran fer i not con tant. A con idered by Gravadahl [28], the two major lo e expre ed a pecific enth alpie are: 1. Incidence lo e in impeller and diffu er, Δhii and Δhid 2. Fluid friction lo e in impeller and diffu er, Δhfi and Δhfd Other lo e uch a back flow lo , clearance lo and volute lo e are con id ered while computin efficiency of the compre or. 4.4.1.3 Incidence lo e The lo e due to incidence onto the rotor and diffu er play an important role i n hapin the compre or curve. There are everal method in modellin the e lo e and the approach foll owed here i a reported in Gravadahl [28] and propo ed by Wat on, called a “NASA Shock lo ” theory which i b a ed upon the tan ential component of kinetic ener y bein de troyed. Dependin on whether the ma flow i lower or hi her than the de i n flow, po i tive or ne ative tall i aid to occur. It ha been reported by Gravadahl [28] that incidence lo in pra ctice increa e more rapidly with 66 reduction of flow below the de i n flow, than with increa e of flow above the de i n flow. Thi lead to teeper compre or characteri tic below the de i n point than above. 4.4.1.3a Impeller The velocity of the incomin a relative to the inducer i denoted a W1 a ho wn in fi ure 4.4. Fi ure 4.4: Incidence an le at inducer In off-de i n operation there will be a mi match between the fixed blade an le β1 and he direc ion of he gas s ream β1 which is a func ion of incoming gas veloci y C1 and he lade speed U1 a inducer. The angle of incidence is defined y wo ≅ wy − w (4.19) As he gas hi s he inducer, i s veloci y immedia ely changes i s direc ion o c omply wi h he lade inle angle β1 . The direc ion is changed from β1 o β1 , and he kine ic energy associa ed wi h he angen ial componen Wθ1of the velocity is lost. That is, the inci ence loss can be expresse as Δ o = zu (4.20) From fi ure 4.4, it can be ea ily een that +{ w = $vS tu } K_~ _ w = t } (4.21) Al o, (h = o $= S = o = ( = $+{ w − +{ wy _ w' ( (4.22) Su s i u ing for Cos β1 and Sin β1 from equa ion 4.21 o 4.22, gives (h = $a − +h − +{ wy +F' (4.23) And he incidence loss in equa ion 4.20 can e wri en as 

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Δ o = $a − +h − +{ a − .9 = : 6

wy +F' =

(4.25) From fi ure 4.5, it can be een that Δ op = $+h − +{ ;y +F' = $sa − +{ ;y +F' (4.26) For simplici y choice Ca1 = Ca2 is made. This leads o diffuser inle angle α2b su c t t t ere is minimum incidence loss in bot impeller nd diffuser for s me m ss flow r te m. For βi = 0, we have a = +F +{ wy → +F = a an wy (4.27) From figure 4.5 and equa ion 4.27, an ;y = u = v = v (4.28) and ;y = a an = e wri en as

6 (4.30) 4.4.1.4 Frictional Lo e The e are the kin or urface frictional lo e due to hear force on the impel ler or diffu er wall cau ed by turbulent friction. Thi lo i determined by con iderin the flow a an equiva lent circular cro ection with a hydraulic diameter. 4.4.1.4a Impeller 68 The impeller friction lo can be calculated a

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(4.29) and he diffuser incidence loss in equa ion 4.26 can Δ op = b v b – : t.9 H

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(4.24) 67 4.4.1.3 Diffuser The annular diffuser is rea ed here as one single vaned diffuser wi h an inle angle of α2b. Simil r to t e inducer incidence loss, it is ssumed t t t e velocity of t e fluid entering t e diffuser is inst nt neously c nged to comply wit fixed diffuser inlet ngle α2b. T e direction is c nged from α2 to α2b, nd t e kinetic energy ssoci ted wit t e t ngenti l component C2i of t e velocity is lost s s own in t e figure 4.5. Figure 4.5: Incidence ngles t diffuser T e incidence loss c n be expressed s Δ op = t

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Δ Mo = +[ r b } (4.31) Where Δhfi i the enthalpy lo due to fluid friction in the impeller, Ch i the urface friction lo coefficient, l i the mean channel len th, D i the mean hydraulic channel diameter and W1b i the vel ocity component of the a at inlet blade an le of the inducer. The friction lo coefficient i defined a , Ch = 4f (4.32) Where the friction factor f i ba ed on Reynold number and can be calculated by Bla iu ’ formula a f = 0.3164 (Re)-0.25 (4.33) where Reynold number Re i calculated a = 6 v y (4.34) where, b i the impeller tip width. From fi ure 4.4, it i een that } o = = } o = (4.35) and u in , _ w = t } (4.36) we et, (y = t o = (4.37) where pre-whirl i a umed to be ab ent. Sub titutin for C1 from equation 4.10 and further ion 4.31, we et Δ Mo = t r : b 6 o = (4.38) 4.4.1.4 b Diffu er A imilar approach for diffu er friction lo Δ Mp = t r : b 6

ub titutin

for W1b in equat

o H (4.39) 4.4.1.5 Efficiency The i entropic efficiency of the compre or for any iven ma flow rate and imp eller peed i defined a the ratio of pecific enthalpy tran ferred to the fluid to the total enthalpy e nerated includin lo e . Thu , !o = [6 , [6 , I [ && (4.40) where, Δ r. = Δ oo + Δ op + Δ Mo + Δ Mp (4.41) To the above i entropic efficiency there are other efficiency lo e which are d educted to obtain the compre or

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efficiency. Thu , !" = !o − Δ!yM − Δ!"r − Δ! − Δ!p (4.42) The additional lo of efficiency factor are determined a 69 Clearance lo (Δηcl) T e loss in efficiency due to cle r nce losses re determined s Δ!"r = 0.3 r y (4.43) where, lcl i the axial clearance and b i the impeller tip width. Back flow lo (Δηbf) T e b ckflow loss occurs bec use t e compressor s to reprocess t e fluid t t s been re-injected into t e impeller due to pressure gr dients existing in t e impeller tip region. Due to l ck of ccur te modelling, s suggested by Gr vd l [28], t is loss is f ctored s Δηbf = 0.03 (4.44) Volute loss (Δηv) T e volute loss occurs due to in bility of t e volute to use t e r di l kinetic energy out of t e diffuser. T is loss will be ig er for v ned diffuser s comp red to v neless diffuser s t e l rger p rt of t e kinetic energy t t e outlet of t e v ned diffuser is in t e r di l direction. T e reported numbers fo r t is loss by S um et l [49] is 0.02 ≤ Δηv ≤ 0.05 (4.45) Diffusion loss (Δηd) T e purpose of t e diffuser is to convert kinetic energy into pressure energy by deceler ting t e flow. T e efficiency of t is conversion depends on t e design of t e diffuser. T is is ow ever tre ted s const nt nd tuned by t e experiment l results. 4.4.1.6 Pressure rise T e compressor efficiency is defined s ctu l ent lpy tr nsferred to fluid to ide l ent lpy tr nsfer b sed on isentropic conditions. From t is definition, t e pressure rise in t e compres sor c n be derived s = 1 + [6 , Z6 "W $ G (4.46) T e ot er t ermodyn mic p r meters like temper ture nd density rise is c lcul t ed b sed on st nd rd t ermodyn mic equ tions. 4.5 After-cooler T e fter-cooler being g s to w ter e t exc nger is m de of number of tiny p ss ges to incre se t e e t tr nsfer re . T e compressed g s mixture would g in temper ture in t e tur boc rger compressor nd bringing down t is would incre se t e density of t e g s to en nce t e induction to t e engine. T e effectiveness of e t remov l is defined s = $ZS Z` $ZS Z (4.47) w ere, ε is th ff ctiv n ss of h at xchang r, T2 is th t mp ratur at th comp r ssor xit which is sam as aft rcool r inl t, T5 is th t mp ratur at xit of th aft r-cool r and Tw is th wat r t m p ratur . 70 Th aft r-cool r also off rs a r sistanc to th gas flow r sulting in pr ssur

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drop. This discharg co ffici nt for this is assum d constant in this study. 4.6 Th ngin mod lling Th ngin mod lling b gins with a tr atm nt that th piston is locat d at th nd of suction strok (-1800) and th pr ssur and t mp ratur of th gas and air mixtur insid th cylind r is tak n as thos at th nd of aft rcool r. Th volum tric ffici ncy for turbocharg d ngin can b gr at r than 100% as su gg st d by Chapman t al [35] and in th pr s nt study it is assum d as 100%. Th volum tric ffici ncy is xpr ss d as ! = :F o p "9qp :F F9 o rq9 Z & = : (4.48) wh r , ηv is t e volumetric efficiency w ic is equ l to 1, m is t e m ss flow r t e inducted, ρi is the density at intake which is same as ρ5 at the afte -coole exit, Vd is the volumet ic displacement of the piston and N/2 is the num e of intake st okes fo a typical fou st oke engine. 4.6.1 Comp ession st oke The comp ession st oke egins at Bottom Dead Cent e (-180º, BDC) with piston movin g towa ds Top Dead Cent e (0º, TDC), the e will e g adual volume eduction and the cha ge inside the cylinde s sta ts getting comp essed as the inlet and exit valves a e closed. The change in volume with e spect to c ank angle is dete mined as p ph = Sin ¢ £1 + +{ ¢ $ − _¢'S ¤ (4.49) where, Vd = displacemen volume, R is he ra io of connec ing rod leng h o half s roke leng h and θ is the crank angle. The isentropic change in pressure is etermine as p ph = −¥ p ph (4.50) The a ove equa ion is in egra ed numerically for pressure using four h order Run ge Ku a in egra ion me hod. The in egra ion s ar s a BDC, wi h ini ial inle condi ions P1, V1, T1, he charge molecular weigh M and specific hea ra io, γ. Once the pre ure i computed a a function crank an le, the work and cy linder temperature are determined a , ¦( = ~§ and the ideal a law, = § ) . The e calculation for compre ion troke proceed till θ = θs, where θs is an angle before TDC representing the start of heat release. 71 4.6.2 Finite heat release In the finite heat release mo el, the heat a ition ue to fuel combustion is co nsi ere as a function of the crank angle. The heat release calculations begin at θs an en at θs + θ where, θ is t he uration of the heat release ue to the combustion process. A typical heat release curve for this span have a n initial region with specifie raising rate triggere by the spark ignition correspon ing to ignition elay, followe b

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¤ (4.51) where, x (θ) is the cumulative heat release fraction, a, the Weibe efficiency fac tor an n, the Weibe form factor are a justable parameters which can fit well with experimental ata. Heywoo [19], h as suggeste a value for a = 5 an n = 3 that was shown to have matche well with the experimental ata an the sam e are use for the present stu y. From the expression 4.51, the starting of the heat release at θ = θs, works out as f (θs) = 1 – exp (0) = 0. Since, the cumulative heat release curve approaches 1 asymptotically, the en of combustion is efine by an operational limit of 99%, i.e. xb = 0.99. The rate of heat release as a function of crank angle is obtaine by ifferentia ting the cumulative heat release Weibe function p ph = o pP ph = _ K « h $1 − ¨y' hS h& h S (4.52) where, Qin is he o al hea addi ion. 4.6.3 Fuel com us ion and adia a ic flame empera ure To es ima e he empera ure rise due o he com us ion of fuel, several me hods are availa le – he me hod used in he presen s udy is ased on minimiza ion of Gi s free energy. This me hod is ased on equili rium cons an me hod applied y Olikara and Borman [44] o he gas phase produc s of com us ion of hydrocar on fuels. This me hod adop ed y Ferguson [33], considers res ric ed lis of produc speci es which are CO2, H2O, N2, O2, CO, H2, H, O, OH and NO. In addi ion o considering he equili rium chemical reac io n, he o her reac ions included are dissocia ion of H2, O2, H2O, CO2 and equili rium of OH and NO forma ion. For any given pressure and empera ure, he equili rium cons an s are solved o de ermine he produc mole frac ions. Applying firs law of hermodynamics o fuel air com us ion processes, he energ y in erac ions can e compu ed. By es ima ing pressure and en halpy, he o her hermodynamic proper ie s like empera ure, specific volume, in ernal energy can e de ermined. In he adia a ic com us ion wi h no h ea ransfer o sys em, he resul an produc would have he highes achieva le empera ure and ermed as adia a ic fl ame empera ure. 72 4.6.4 Wall hea ransfer A cons an wall hea ransfer is considered where for an assigned area ased on  

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y a region of rapi growth rapi burning region an a of burning. This S-shape is analytically arrive at ¨y$¢ = 1 − ¨© £−K hS h& h 

 

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signifying region with gra ual ecay correspon ing to completion curve using Weibe function as  



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pis on posi ion, which includes exposed cylinder wall, engine head and pis on crown area deno ed as Aw(θ) , a convective heat loss for engine is efine as, p ph = ". MM @z$¢ ¬$¢ − z⁄f (4.53) H r a constant wall h at transf r co ffici nt, hco ff and cylind r wall t mp ra tur , Tw is tun d bas d on xp rim ntal r sults. 4.6.5 Inputs for th num rical ngin mod l Th inputs that ar r quir d for th mod lling ar : 1. Th ngin g om trical param t rs that includ ngin bor and strok dim nsi ons, half– strok –to–conn cting rod ratio, compr ssion ratio and th numb r of cylind rs. 2. Th th rmo-fluid param t rs such as piston blow-by constant, r sidual fractio n of th xhaust gas, quival nc ratio, start of burning and burn duration angl s, ngin rpm, h at transf r co ffici nt and wall t mp ratur . 3. Th inl t conditions of pr ssur and t mp ratur . 4.6.6 Outputs from th ngin mod lling Th outputs from th mod lling ar 1. Pr ssur – Th pr ssur variation with crank angl accounting for th h at addi tion and h at transf r is mod ll d as p ph = ?S p ph − p ph − ¥ p ph (4.54) where, he local hea addi ion, he hea ransfer and volume changes are de ermi ned using equa ions 4.52, 4.53 and 4.49 respec ively. 2. Tempera ure – The empera ure varia ion wi h crank angle is o ained ei her y considering isen ropic pressure change or y fac oring hea release as men ioned in sec ion 4.6.2. 3. Work – The ins an aneous work is calcula ed as δW = P V , the net work that is a vailable for transfer is the ifference in expansion an compression work as the compress ion work 73 is the work spent on the flui for its compression an expansion work is the wor k one on the piston by the expan ing flui . The In icate Mean Effective Pressure (IME P) is the pro uct of net work an the cylin er volume. There are certain losses in thi s net work that are practical of a sustaine engine operation. These are the mechanical los ses in crank shaft, piston an valve–train, pumping losses in the intake an exhaust mani fol s an valves. These are factore by Frictional Mean Effective Pressure (FMEP) whic h is

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etermine as ‾° = 94.8 + 2.3 GGG + 4.0 GGG

(4.55) where, N is the engine spee The Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) which is the elivere power is express e as, BMEP = IMEP – FMEP The shaft power that is generate is etermine by {8 j = y: , ³ (4.56) Where Power is the generate shaft power is expresse in kW, with V is the tota l isplacement volume an nR (normally half) is the number of crank revolutions fo r each power stroke. 4.7 Exhaust manifol an turbine The exhaust valve is treate as a flow nozzle for the purpose of analysis. The c ylin er pressure an gas temperature before the exhaust valve is treate as constant an e ual to that at the en of the expansion stroke. One of the matching re uirements of the turboch arger is that the exhaust manifol pressure shoul be lower than the inlet manifol pressure as su ggeste by Chapman [35]. Taking the note on the complete scavenging, the exit manifol pres sure is set to be 0.86 times the pressure at the exit of the compressor as suggeste by Chatter ton [20]. The exhaust manifol gas temperature is estimate using isentropic relation as: Y = Z 3 3\

(4.57) where, Tc an T3 are cylin er an exhaust manifol temperatures respectively an Pc an P3 are cylin er an exhaust manifol pressure respectively. 74 The turbine having chosen as an e uivalent nozzle, the pressure at the turbine e xit is chosen as 1.038 bar which is sufficient to overcome the exhaust uct pressure an exit into the atmosphere. A relation similar to e uation 4.57 is use for calculating the temp erature at the exit of the turbine. The turbine work available is calculate from temperature rop a cross turbine, mass flow rate an specific heat of exhaust gas. 4.8 Conclusion The compressor, engine an turbine analytical mo els have been built with specia l focus on pro ucer gas an air mixture for the performance pre ictions. The compressor mo elling has

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a special focus in comparison to turbine as also recognize in the literature fo r matching of turbocharger to an engine. The compressor mo elling is base on energy loss esti mation at various stages. The engine mo elling is a thermo ynamic mo el (also referre to as zero imensional mo el) with uasi stea y approach that has been use by earlier researchers as w ell, for ifferent aspects of performance pre ictions. The turbine is treate numeric ally as a nozzle in the mo elling an the available work extracte from the energy of engine exhaust is estimate . These mo els are vali ate base on the experimental results an reporte in the next chapter. 75 Chapter 5 Vali ation of Engine an Turbocharger Mo elling This chapter iscusses on the vali ation of the turbocharger compressor an engi ne mo elling that has been escribe in the previous chapter. The vali ation has be en one with the experimental results that are iscusse in chapter 3. 5.1 Vali ation of Compressor mo elling Inputs: Mass flow rate (m), inlet stagnation pressure (P01), inlet stagnation temperature (T01), Compressor spee (N), Number of compressor bla es (n) Geometry inputs: Inlet tip iameter (D1) Inlet hub iameter (Dh1) Outlet tip iameter (D2) Inlet bla e angle (β1 ) Casing inner diame er (Dc) Blade ip wid h ( ) Volu e exi diame er (Dv) Calcula ed values: Inle ip speed (U1) Ou le ip speed (U2) Slip (σ) Outlet blade an le (α2b) C lcul ted ent lpies: Specific ent lpy (Δh0c,ideal) Incidence enthalpy lo e (Δhii, Δhid) Frictional enthalpy lo e (Δhfi, Δhfd) Tuned parameter : Clearance lo (Δηcl) B ck flow loss (Δηbf) Volute loss (Δηv) Diffusion loss (Δηd) Output: Compressor efficiency (ηc) Pressure rise (P2/P1) Compressor exit temper ture (T2) Compressor work (Wc) 76 Figure 5.1: Flow c rt of t e compressor modelling process T e compressor modelling w ic is described in section 4.4 is progr mmed in M tl b environment. T e inputs nd logic flow of t is model is s s own in t e flowc r t in figure 5.1. T e output of t is modelling re comp red wit t e experiment l results for pres sure rise

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nd efficiency t different m ss flow r tes nd compressor speeds nd re s own in figure 5.2 ( ) nd 5.2 (b). Figure 5.2 ( ): Comp rison of experiment l results nd predicted v lue of pressu re rise for KKK turboc rger Figure 5.2 (b): Comp rison of experiment l results nd predicted v lue of effici encies for KKK turboc rger T e v ri nce of predicted v lues from experiment l results is expressed s RMS devi tions in figure 5.2 ( ) nd (b). T e RMS devi tion is c lcul ted s: 1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.2 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 Pressure r tio, P2/P1 M ss flow r te, kg/s Model Expts RPM = 21000 RMS devi tion = 1.6% RPM = 23000 RMS devi tion = 1.8% RPM = 25000 RMS dev tion = 2.7% 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 Efficiency M ss flow r te, kg/s Model Expts RPM = 21000 RMS devi tion = 5.8% RPM = 23000 RMS devi tion = 4.4% RPM = 25000 RMS devi tion = 5.5% 77 ‾ ~ ´ K {_ = Σ 1P, P, P, o # ¶ 100 (5.1) here, x1,i is the experimental value and x2,i is the predicted value and n is t he number of values

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in the series. The variance of predicted values in pressure rise is in the range of 2.1 ± 0.6% an d the efficiency is in the range of 5.1 ± 0.7 %. The reason for these deviations could b e that during the experiments the compressor speed varied by ± 500 rpm, since these deviations are f ound to be in acceptable range, it is inferred that the modelling predictions are matching clo sely ith experimental results. Further validations are done on the compressor maps ith a ir as fluid as established by the turbocharger manufacturer. The compressor maps that are chosen for validation in the present study are (a) Holset make 4 LGK turbocharger mounted on GTA 855 G engine, (b) Garret make GT 4088 turbocharger and (c) Garett make GT 4508R turbocharger. The Garret turbocharger compressor maps are from the Garett catalogue [50]. The chosen Garret turbocharger series a re of special interest in the present study as the impeller size of GT 4088 is marginally lo e r than 4LGK and that of GT 4058R is marginally higher than 4LGK and provide the right trims for comparison. These predications ill be further utilized in the matching studies. The geometr ical details for the 4LGK turbocharger is measured and that of Garret turbochargers are taken fro m the data provided in the Garett catalogue [50]. The comparison of the modelling results and the published technical data for pre ssure rise and efficiency for 4LGK turbocharger at different mass flo rates and compressor speeds is sho n in figure 5.3 (a) and (b). The deviation of predicted values in pressure r ise is in the range of 1.6 ± 0.8% and the efficiency is in the range of 5.2 ± 1.2%. These deviations are similar to the comparison ith experimental results as sho n in figure 5.2, and hence it can be inferred that the efficiency loss factors that are tuned based on the experimental results are val idated and compares ell ith standard data. 78 Figure 5.3 (a): Comparison of standard results and predicted value of pressure r ise for 4LGK turbocharger Figure 5.3 (b): Comparison of standard results and predicted value of efficienci es for 4LGK turbocharger Further comparison is done ith Garret turbochargers, the available geometrical data are the impeller diameters and A/R ratio and major dimensions of casing, the remaini ng data are estimated using the corresponding patterns of 4 LGK turbocharger. The comparison of the modelling results and published data for pressure rise and efficiency for GT 408 8 turbocharger at different mass flo rates and compressor speeds is sho n in figure 5.4 (a) and ( b). The variance of predicted values in pressure rise is in the range of 3.2 ± 0.8% and the efficie ncy is in the range             

of 6.0 ± 2.0%. The higher deviations of the predicted values are attributed to cer tain estimated dimensions of clearance, diffuser length etc. of GT 4088 compressor using the pa tterns of 4 LGK compressor, the deviation is ithin acceptable limits and are considered as vali d for further use in the matching studies. 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Pressure ratio, P2/P1 Mass flo rate, kg/s 30000, map 30000, model 40000, map 40000, model 50000, map 50000, model 60000, map deviation = 0.7% 60000, model deviation = 2.0% deviation = 2.4% deviation= 1.9% 4 LGK compressor 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Efficiency Mass flo rate, kg/s 30000, map 30000, model 40000, map 40000, model 50000, map 50000, model 60000, map 60000, model deviation = 6.4% deviation = 4.2% deviation = 4.4% deviation = 4.0% 4 LGK compressor  



79 Figure 5.4 (a): Comparison of standard results and predicted value of pressure r ise for GT4088 turbocharger Figure 5.4 (b): Comparison of standard results and predicted value of efficiency for GT4088 turbocharger The modelling results and published data comparison for pressure rise and effici ency for GT 4508R turbocharger at different mass flo rate and compressor speed is as sho n in figure 5.5 (a) and (b). The variance of predicted values in pressure rise is in the range o f 1.8 – 7.4% and th ffici ncy is in th rang of 6.2 to 8.6%. Th d viation at high flow rat s in th rang of 0.4 to 0.6 kg/s is found high r l ading to high r varianc . This is consid r d as no t s rious, as th flow rat s in this rang ar not of int r st in th pr s nt study. Th d viation s on both pr ssur ris and ffici ncy pr dictions in oth r rang s ar within th acc ptabl limits and consid r d valid to b us d in furth r studi s. 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Pr ssur ris , P2/P1 Mass flow rat , kg/s 45000, map 45000, mod l 60000, map 60000, mod l 75000, map 75000, mod l d viation = 2.4% d viation = 2.8% d viation= 3.9% GT 4088 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Effici ncy Mass flow rat , kg/s 45000, map 45000, mod l 60000, map 60000, mod l 75000, map 75000, mod l 

 

 

    

  

     

    

  

 

     

       

            

    

 

d viation = 4.1% d viation = 6.6% d viation = 8.0% GT 4088 80 Figur 5.5 (a): Comparison of standard r sults and pr dict d valu of pr ssur r is for GT4508 R turbocharg r Figur 5.5 (b): Comparison of standard r sults and pr dict d valu of ffici ncy for GT4508 R turbocharg r 5.2 Pr dictions for compr ssor p rformanc with PG and air mixtur Subs qu nt to validation of th turbocharg r compr ssor mod lling with air as wo rking fluid, th n xt point of study is th p rformanc with PG and air mixtur , as th is mixtur would b op rating in th ngin . Th prop rti s of this gas mixtur r l vant to compr ssor mod lling ar d tail d in tabl 4.3. Th s prop rti s ar plugg d into th mod l and th p r dict d p rformanc is compar d with air as fluid. Th figur s 5.6 (a) and (b) compar s th p rformanc 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Pr ssur ratio, P2/P1 Mass flow rat , kg/s 33012, map 33012, mod l 44702, map 44702, mod l 54000, map 54000, mod l d viation = 1.8% d viation = 4.7% d viation = 7.4% 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8         

                           

      

    

          

  

 

           

     



0.9 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Effici ncy Mass flow rat , kg/s 33012, map 33012, mod l 44702, map 44702, mod l 54000, map 54000, mod l d viation =6.2% d viation = 8.6% d viation = 7.8% 81 of 4 LGK compr ssor for both th cas s for pr ssur ris and ffici ncy at diff r nt mass flow rat s and compr ssor sp ds. From figur 5.6, it can b s n that for any giv n compr ssor sp d, th pr ssur ris is high r for air at high r flow rat s in th rang of 1 – 3% and similarly ffici nc y is also high r at high r flow rat s in th ord r of 4 - 5%. To und rstand this b haviour, various loss s ar plott d for both th cas s at 50,000 rpm compr ssor sp d that ar shown in figur 5.7. Figur 5.6 (a) and (b): Comparison of pr dict d valu s for pr ssur ris and ff ici ncy for air and PG and air mixtur for 4 LGK turbocharg r compr ssor Figur 5.7: Plot of various loss s for air and PG and air mixtur Th frictional los s ar lin arly varying and ar marginally high r for PG. Th s loss s vary inv rs ly as d nsity at th inl t and as th mixtur of PG and air will hav low r d nsity, th frictional loss s will b corr spondingly high r. Th incid nc loss s ar varyi ng in a parabolic fashion and ar r sponsibl for th pr ssur ris and ffici ncy tr nd that woul d drop b yond c rtain flow rat . In a similar way, it is found that th incid nc loss s ar m arginally high r for 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Δh, J/k Ma flow rate, k / Δhii-air Δhid-air Δhfd-air Δhfi-air Δhii-PG Δhid-PG Δhfd-PG Δhfi-PG n = 50000                 

 

   

                   

                  

        

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4 LGK 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Pre ure ratio P2/P1 Ma flow rate, k / Model Air Model PG n = 30000 n = 40000 n = 50000 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Efficiency Ma flow rate, k / Model Air Model PG n = 30000 n = 40000 n = 50000 4 LGK 82 air at lower flow rate and i lower at hi her flow rate due to the difference in den ity at the inlet. To con ider the effect of the e lo e for a typical PG en ine where (a) The mixture flow rate required to be handled by the compre or for deliveri n a imilar power a compared to any other petroleum ba ed fuel would be hi her due to lower ener y den ity. (b) If ame compre or i u ed then there may be a po ibility that the efficien cy and pre ure ri e at the ame compre or peed may be lower a compared to air alone due to hi her incidence and frictional lo e . It may be required to choo e a compre or in which the en ine flow rate demanded at variou load would lie in the centre to lower portion of the trend curve uch that the lo e would be equal to or lower than that of air alone. The under tandin of thi behaviour i u eful and form an additional check for matchin tudie . The model with chan ed fluid parameter for PG and air mixture i u ed further in matchin of turbochar er for PG en ine. The en ine modellin i further validate d for

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facilitatin thi tudy. 5.3 Validation of en ine modellin The en ine modellin i coded in Matlab environment. The formulation of thi mod el i detailed in ection 4.6, and the input , the output and lo ic flow are hown in fi ure 5 .8. The naturally a pirated en ine that are con idered for validation of en ine modellin are the Kohler Natural a en ine, Cummin 6B erie en ine and Cummin G 743G en ine. For the turbocha r ed ca e, the en ine that i con idered for validation i Cummin GTA 855G en ine (e n ine 2) and GTA 1710G en ine (en ine 1) with the analy i con idered on a in le turbochar e r tream that would be equivalent to a GTA 855G en ine (Plea e ee table 3.5 for detail ). The compari on of the predicted haft power with experimental re ult i performed. The ba eline f or compari on of haft power for PG a fuel for the e en ine i from the experiment that have b een conducted earlier and detailed in chapter 3. 83 Fi ure 5.8: Flow chart for en ine cycle calculation 5.3.1 Validation of en ine modellin – naturally a pirated ca e The model formulation i ba ed on et of equation a de cribed in chapter 3, th e adaptation i for PG with fuel propertie uch that the chemical equilibrium com po ition and adiabatic flame temperature are predicted correctly. To en ure thi , the model prediction for ca e of Cummin 6B erie en ine i compared with NASA-Glenn Chemical Equilibriu m Analy i output. The adiabatic flame temperature i predicted by comparin the e nthalpy of the equilibrium product of combu tion with the enthalpy of the unburned mixture and iteratively adju ted until the burned and unburned enthalpie are equal. The temperature and pre ure at the end of compre ion i.e. before tart of combu tion i taken a the initial condi tion for prediction from NASA Chemical Equilibrium Analy i Code. The adiabatic flame temperature f or Input: Cylinder Inlet pre ure (P1), cylinder inlet temperature (T1), fuel type, tart of burnin (θs), burn uration angle (θb), e uivalence ratio (Φ), engine speed (N) Geometry parameters: Cy inder bore (b) Stroke (s) Compression ratio (r) Number of cy inder Stroke to connecting rod ratio Ca cu ation of pressure, temperature, work and heat transfer for every crank ang e during: Compression stroke ( π to θs) Fuel combustion (θs to θb) Ex ansion stroke (θb to π) Tuned arameters:

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Unburned zone heat transfer coefficient (hcu) Burned zone heat transfer coefficient (hcb) Engine surface tem erature (Tw) 84 different e uivalence ratios are com ared at eak ressures from code and modell ing redictions. This com arison is shown in figure 5.9 and the details of conditions used and re sults obtained are tabulated in table 5.1. The engine modelling is redicting a difference in adiab atic flame tem erature by an average of 0.4% indicating that it is close to standard calcul ations, thus the calculated curve coefficients for roducer gas rovides a good estimate of flame tem erature as well as the e uilibrium chemical com osition of the roducts. The engine heat tr ansfer arameters that are chosen for these redictions are constant unburned and burne d gas heat transfer coefficient of 550 J/kg K and engine surface tem erature of 400 K as su ggested in Ferguson [33]. These values are considered fixed for further analysis made. Table 5.1: Adiabatic flame tem eratures com arison for different e uivalence rat ios E uivalence ratio (Φ) Initia Pressure (Bar) Initia temperature (K) Mode ing predicted temperature (K) NASA Code predicted temperature (K) Deviation, % 0.93 15 660 2452 2421 1.28 0.95 15 660 2462 2440 0.90 0.96 15 660 2465 2449 0.65 0.97 15 660 2465 2457 0.32 1.0 15 659 2473 2476 0.12 1.05 15 659 2473 2487 0.56 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1 Adiabatic f ame temperature Equiva ence ratio Engine mode NASA Code  

 

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85 igure 5.9: Comparison of adiabatic f ame temperatures for PG predicted from eng ine mode ing and NASA code. The engine mode ing is first va idated for natura y aspirated case and then th e turbocharged case is addressed. The resu ts of measurements for the engine outpu t are obtained at the a ternator termina s for a 50 Hz e ectrica power. This factor is taken c are by converting to shaft power of the engine by dividing with a ternator efficiency which is 0.92. The mode ing resu ts a so provide engine shaft power. However for natura y aspirated case th e vo umetric efficiency is not considered in mode ing, as f ow through intake va ve is not d ynamica y mode ed. To inc ude this effect, the predicted shaft power is mu tip ied by vo umetric efficiency which is considered to be 0.85, in the range suggested by Heywood [19]. To provi de a common p atform for comparison of mode ing resu ts, 5% excess oxygen is assumed in the exhaust gas stream for ensuring comp ete combustion; this wi trans ate to an equiva ence r atio of 0.96. igure 5.10: Comparison of experimenta and predicted resu t of peak shaft power for different natura y aspirated engines fue ed with producer gas for 1500 RPM. The cy inder vo umes of Koh er engine, Cummins 6B and G 743G engines are provide d in chapter 3 and is used for comparison, the same is provided in tab e 5.2 for s ake of c arity. Tab e 5.2: Comparison of Peak shaft power from Mode ing and Experimenta resu t s of different natura y aspirated engines fue ed with PG S . No. Engine make Engine Vo ume, Experimenta y measured Peak Peak shaft power predicted through Deviation in Prediction, 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 5 10 15 Peak Shaft power, kW Engine vo ume, itres Experimenta resu ts Predicted resu ts + 1.6%

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+ 6.3% + 3.9% 86 itres shaft power, kW mode ing, kW % 1 Koh er 0.725 7.64 7.76 1.56 2 Cummins 6B 5.9 29.35 31.20 6.29 3 Cummins G743 g 12.1 65.22 67.77 3.9 igure 5.10 shows the comparison of experimenta and predicted resu ts for diffe rent natura y aspirated engines which is p otted as peak power de ivered for differe nt cy inder vo umes with PG as fue . The deviation in prediction is ca cu ated as ratio of d ifference in shaft power to experimenta resu t. The deviation is shown in figure 5.10 for each va ue of experimenta resu t, the predicted va ue is found to be higher than the measured va ue and the maximum deviation is in the range of 6%. This is attributed to untraced osses i n physica process and this deviation considered being within acceptab e range and the engi ne mode ing is treated as va id. A typica predicted T – θ and P – θ lots for Cummins 6 B series engin e is as shown in figures 5.11 (a) and (b). Figure 5.11 (a): A ty ical T – θ lot for PG o erated Cummins 6B series engine 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 -200 -100 0 100 200 Tem erature, K Theta 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 -200 -100 0 100 200 Pressure, Bar Theta 87 Figure 5.11 (b): A ty ical P – θ lot for PG o erated Cummins 6B series engine 5.3.2 Validation of engine – turbocharged case The inlet conditions are changed for a turbocharged engine, the rest of the ara meters of the inlet gas related to their thermo ro erties are maintained same as that of naturally as irated engine. The redictions from the modelling studies are com ared with the ex erim ental results for o en–throttle condition as shown in table 5.3. The modelling studies redict t he eak shaft ower on a lower side about 4% for engine 1 and higher side by about 4% for engi ne 2. This deviation range is similar to the naturally as irated engine results; therefore the engine modelling is considered valid for the turbocharged case and is used further in matching st

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udies with turbocharger modelling. Table 5.3: Com arison of Peak shaft ower from Modelling and Ex erimental result s of different turbocharged engines fuelled with PG Com ressor ressure ratio Peak shaft ower redicted from modelling, kW Ex erimentally measured eak shaft ower for engine 1, kW Ex erimentally measured eak shaft ower for engine 2, kW 1.32 125 130 (Error = -3.84%) 120 (Error = 4.1%) 5.3.3 Com onents Other than Com ressor and Engine The other com onents that influence the system erformance that are used in the modelling of the turbocharged engine are: 88 (1) An after cooler modelled as a heat exchanger using the rinci les of heat tr ansfer. (2) The turbine treated as an isentro ic nozzle and modelled using gas dynamic rinci les. Since these working of these com onents are modelled based on sim le basic relat ions, no se arate validations are considered for these cases. 5.4 Conclusion The data from the studies erformed on turbocharger–com ressor using the ex erimen tal results and the standard ma s of the com ressor rovide a clarity that the varia nce found from the redictions from the modelling is well within acce table limits, indicating the validation of the modelling. The ex erimental results conducted for naturally as irated and tu rbocharged engines rovide the validating com arisons for the modelling of the engines. The redictions of the modelling show marginally higher shaft ower than ex erimentally observed va lues and taking note of the assum tions and a roximations in the modelling these deviati ons of the redicted values are found to be acce tably close to the ex erimental data indic ating that the modelling is uite acce table. Other com onents of the engine like the after-coo ler and the turbine are sim lified and treated as an e uivalent single element using the bas ic hysics of the henomena and no se arate validation is made for them. However, the overall erf ormance characteristics of the system that includes these elements have been verified to be within acce table limits of deviation from the ex erimental results. Taking note of the se as ects, the  

modelling of the individual sub-system are considered validated and fit to be fu rther integrated to redict the erformance characterization of a turbocharged engine for a selectiv e set of com ressor and engine geometry and can be used for matching studies with differe nt turbocharger models. This a roach is further detailed in the next cha ter. 89 Cha ter 6 Matching of Turbocharger for PG Engine The engine chosen for matching studies is the Cummins GTA 855G series turbocharg ed engine which is designed for NG as fuel. The com ressions ratio of this engine i s 10:1 and the rated eak ower delivered by the alternator is 151 kWe. This translates to a e ak shaft ower of 164 kW by the engine. The same engine when o erated with PG in the ex eriments c onducted has delivered a eak ower of 110 kWe for a gas calorific value of 4.5 MJ/kg. Th e same translates to eak shaft ower of 119 kW. The de-rating in the eak shaft ower is found to be in the range of 27%, this is mainly due to fact that NG and air mixture at stoichio metry has an energy density of 2.76 MJ/kg, and that of PG and air mixture at stoichiometry fo r the calorific value of 4.5 MJ/kg, has an energy density of 1.96 MJ/kg, which is about 29% lowe r as com ared to natural gas. This means that higher mass flow rate of PG and air mixture is n eeded by the engine for overcoming the shortfall. The resent turbocharger is not able to han dle this higher mass flow rate as found by the ex eriments. It needs a different turbocharger to be mounted on this engine for PG a lication to deliver an ex ected eak shaft ower close to the designed eak shaft ower of 164 kW. This cha ter discusses on the methodology develo ed for m atching of turbocharger to an engine with PG as fuel. 6.1 Algorithm for matching of turbocharger The turbocharger matching methodology is arrived based on the fact that for im r oving the eak shaft ower in roducer gas mode, an existing natural gas engine with t he eak shaft ower rating fixed by the res ective engine manufacturer. This will be the refer ence for achievement by evaluating different sets of turbocharger com ressor in roducer gas case. The roducer gas com osition is fixed and mass flow rates are increased till the ea k shaft ower in roducer gas mode matches with the eak shaft ower in natural gas mode. 90 • Com ressor modeling Calculate the re uired ressure ratio (P2/P1) based on cylinder volume P4, T4, Wt Fix a com osition for roducer gas and calculate its 

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calorific value 1. Calculate the re uired mass flow rate of the roducer gas for the desired eak shaft ower to be achieved assuming 27% engine efficiency. 2. Calculate the total Air and fuel mass flow rate )*F + )*Mby assuming suitable Φ. Compressor geometry )* + )* M In et stagnation pressure (P1) and temperature (T1) Drop in pressure and temperature in the after coo er P2, T2, Compressor speed, ηc, Wc Engine modeling P5, T5 Geometry p r meters: Cylinder bore (b) Stroke (s) Compression r tio (r) Number of cylinder Stroke to connecting rod r tio Tuned p r meters: Unburned zone e t tr nsfer coefficient ( cu) Burned zone e t tr nsfer coefficient ( cb) Engine surf ce temper ture (Tw) Turbine C lcul tion P3, T3 If, (9 < } ¸ 1 N Y C oose different compressor nd st rt from 1. If Pe k s ft power is ≤ Pe k s ft power to be c ieved N Rec lcul te wit ig er m ss flow Y r te from 1. Stop 91 Figure 6.1: Flow c rt for performing m tc ing studies of t e turboc rger T e compressor perform nce is comp red wit different sets of compressors. T e c ompressor w ic c n ndle t e required flow r te nd dem nding lowest work for c ieving t is, nd lso ving c p city for ndling ddition l flow r te, is tre ted s t e optim l m t c for t e p rticul r engine. T e sc em tic w ic depicts t e bove met odology is s own in figure 6.1. 6.2 M tc ing of turboc rger for t e engine for use wit PG To study t e m tc ing of turboc rger for t e GTA 855G engine, t e turboc rgers t t re selected re s own in t ble 6.1. T e Holset 4 LGK is tre ted for reference nd two ot er G rett compressors wit one ving lower impeller size t n Holset nd t e ot er

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ig er re c osen for m king n optim l c oice. T ble 6.1: T ree different turboc rgers used in present study Sl. No Compressor M nuf cturer Rotor exit di meter, mm 1 GT 4088 G rett 88 2 4 LGK Holset 100 3 GT 4508 R G rett 108 T e predictions of pressure rise nd efficiency from t e compressor modelling n d from t e st nd rd compressor m ps re comp red in c pter 5 nd t e devi tions re fo und to be less t n 5 nd 8.5% respectively. T e engine modelling is lso v lid ted using exper iment l results nd t e devi tion is less t n 6%. T e bove sub-models long wit c lcul tions for ot er elements re used to predict t e optimum turboc rger fit for two c ses, c se 1 wit PG c lorific v lue of 4.5 MJ/kg s found during experiments nd c se 2 wit typic l g s composition of 4.9 MJ/kg s reported in ABETS public tion [4]. 92 6.2.1 C se 1: PG c lorific v lue = 4.5 MJ/kg T e working met odology is s per t e flow c rt in figure 6.1, t e steps re id entified in sequence in t e ppro c det iled below. Step1: T e PG composition for c lorific v lue of 4.5 MJ/kg is fixed s CO = 20%, H2 = 18.7%, CH4 = 1.5%, CO2 = 13.5 % nd N2 = 46.3%. Step 2: T e m ss flow r te required for c ieving 164 kW s ft power wit 27% efficiency ( s found during experiments) is round 0.135 kg/s. T e A/F r tio for Φ = 0.96 is 1.4. The t ota mass f ow rate required is 0.324 kg/s. The density of the mixture is ca cu ated based on c y inder vo ume which is 1.85; the compressor exit pressure is taken to be same as the density r atio for initia guess. The pressure drop in the after coo er is assumed to be 0.025 atm, to acco unt for drop in the after coo er the required pressure ratio wou d be 1.875 atm. These and the other geometry parameters form the input to compressor mode ing. Step 3: The output of the compressor mode ing for different compressors is summarized i n tab e 6.2. Tab e 6.2: Output resu ts from compressor mode ing S . No Compressor P2, atm T2, K Compressor speed ηc (" !"!: , kW 1 GT 4088 1.875 401 83200 0.66 45.6 2 4 LGK 1.875 379 60600 0.76 31.2 3 GT 4508R 1.875 372 51400 0.81 25.9 Step 4: T e drop in temper ture in t e fter-cooler is c lcul ted by ssuming t t t e e

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ffectiveness of t e fter-cooler is 0.7. T e pressure drop is ssumed s const nt of 0.025 tm irres pective of t e flow r te. T e w ter temper ture is ssumed to be 30 0C or 303 K wit t e premise t t t e w ter will 93 be dr wn from sump in re-circul tion mode wit cooling tower. T e output f rom ftercooler c lcul tion is summ rized in t ble 6.3. T e initi l conditions input to t e engi ne modelling re c osen s 1.85 tm pressure nd n ver ge temper ture of 325 K of t e tr pp ed m ss. T ble 6.3: Temper ture nd Pressure drop in fter-cooler Sl. No P2, tm T2, K 1 1.85 332 2 1.85 325 3 1.85 323 Step 5: T e ot er fluid p r meters re m int ined s me s described e rlier in c pter 5 . T e output from t e engine modelling is summ rized in t ble 6.4. T ble 6.4: Output results from engine modelling Pe k s ft power prediction for engine, kW 157 Cylinder pressure t end of exp nsion stroke, tm 7.35 Burnt g s temper ture t t e end of exp nsion stroke, K 1395 Step 6: For proper sc venging t ere s ould be some pressure drop in t e engine. C ttert on [20] suggests t t P2/P1 s ould be equ l to 0.86 times P3/P4. In t is c se P2/P1 is k nown to be 1.875 nd turbine downstre m pressure, P4 is rbitr rily fixed s 0.025 tm bove mbi ent s 1.038 tm to overcome t e silencer nd rel ted piping pressure drop. T is results into tur bine upstre m pressure P3 v lue s 1.67 tm. T e temper ture t turbine upstre m, T3 c n be c lcul ted isentropic lly ssuming t t t e ex ust v lve is n equiv lent nozzle wit γ = 1. 31, which i found to be 977 K. Similarly, the turbine i a umed a another nozzle and the t emperature down tream of the turbine i found u in i entropic relation with γ = 1.339. The t emperature at 94 the down tream of turbine T4 i found to be 867 K. The turbine work ba ed on ma flow rate of 0.324 k / and cp value of 1.347 i found to be around 41 kW. Step 7: Comparin the turbine work with that of the compre or work and factorin in efficiencie of compre or and tran mi ion, it can be een that the available p ower from turbine will not be able to drive the compre or of GT 4088 for deliverin a ma flow r ate of 0.324 k / and 1.875 boo t pre ure. The power required by 4 LGK compre or and GT 4508R ca n be met with the available turbine power. Step 8: Comparin the achievable peak haft power of 157 kW with de ired peak haft powe r of 164 kW, there i horta e of 5% and hence there i a cope for improvement. Iteration - 2

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The calculation are reworked with hi her ma flow rate of 5% which i 0.34 k / . To achieve thi , the den ity ratio and pre ure ratio hould al o increa e, and hen ce the pre ure ratio i fixed a 1.925 (a ma flow rate increa e a quare root of pre ure) . The output of the compre or modellin for different compre or i ummarized i n table 6.5. Table 6.5: Output re ult from compre or modellin Sl. No Compre or P2, atm T2, K Compre or peed ηc (" !"!: , kW 1 4 LGK 1.925 383 62225 0.76 34.5 2 GT 4508R 1.925 375 52600 0.81 28.5 T e temper ture nd pressure fter t e fter-cooler is summ rized in t ble 6.6 T ble 6.6: Temper ture nd Pressure drop in fter-cooler Sl. No P2, tm T2, K 1 1.9 327 2 1.9 325 95 T e initi l conditions in t e engine modelling re set s 1.9 tm pressure nd 3 25 K temper ture. T e results from t e engine modelling re summ rized in t ble 6.7. T ble 6.7: Output results from engine modelling Pe k s ft power prediction for engine, kW 162 Cylinder pressure t end of exp nsion stroke, tm 7.6 Burnt g s temper ture t t e end of exp nsion stroke, K 1402 T e turbine power from t e v il ble ex ust energy is 44 kW, w ic is sufficien t to meet t e needs of t e compressor. T e pe k s ft power is still m rgin lly lower in t e p redicted c se, b sed on t e r tio of power to be c ieved nd predicted from t e next iter tion , t e m ss flow r te is set s 0.345 kg/s nd t e pressure r tio s 1.95. Iter tion - 3 T e output of t e compressor modelling for different compressors is summ rized i n t ble 6.8. T ble 6.8: Output results from compressor modelling Sl. No Compressor P2, tm T2, K Compressor speed ηc (" !"!: , kW 1 4 LGK 1.95 385 63000 0.76 35.9 2 GT 4508R 1.95 377 53300 0.81 29.7 T e temper ture nd pressure fter t e fter-cooler is summ rized in t ble 6.9 T ble 6.9: Temper ture nd Pressure drop in fter-cooler Sl. No P2, tm T2, K 1 1.925 327 2 1.925 325 T e initi l conditions in t e engine modelling re set s 1.925 tm pressure nd 325 K temper ture. T e results from t e engine modelling re summ rized in t ble 6.10. 96

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T ble 6.10: Output results from engine modelling Pe k s ft power prediction for engine, kW 165 Cylinder pressure t end of exp nsion stroke, tm 7.7 Burnt g s temper ture t t e end of exp nsion stroke, K 1393 T e turbine power from t e v il ble ex ust energy is 45.6 kW, w ic is suffici ent to meet t e needs of t e compressor. T e pe k s ft power is m rgin lly ig er t n t e desi red v lue, bot t e compressors re ble to deliver t e requisite flow, but t e optim l c oice w ill be m de from plotting t e oper ting point on t e compressor c r cteristics for t e different compressor speed nd m pping t e oper ting points. T e oper ting c r cteristics for bot 4 LGK nd GT 4508 R re plotted for t ree different RPMs w ic re used ere nd for different flow r tes, t e m ss flow nd pressure b sed oper ting points re connected for t ese t ree curves in figure 6.2 for 4 LGK nd figure 6.3 for GT 4508 R. As c n be seen from t e figure 6.2, t e oper t ing line for t e 4 LGK is on t e descending p rt of t e c r cteristic curve nd simil rly from f igure 6.3, t e oper ting line for GT 4508R is on const nt c r cteristic curve. It is expecte d t t t e curve s ould be on scending p rt or on const nt p rt of t e c r cteristic curve to ndle t e request of ny ddition l m ss flow r te. T is is not possible in 4 LGK, it is expected t t t e compressor speed s ould incre se for ccommod ting ig er m ss flow r te. T e se cond benefit t t is seen in GT 4508R over 4 LGK is t t t e compressor work dem nd is lower. Hence for t is c se of producer g s composition, GT4508R wit n impeller di meter of 108 mm is t e optim l m tc . 97 Figure 6.2: Oper ting c r cteristics of 4 LGK turboc rger wit engine lo d lin e m pped Figure 6.3: Oper ting c r cteristics of GT 4508R turboc rger wit engine lo d line m pped 6.2.2 C se 2: PG c lorific v lue = 4.9 MJ/kg Step1: For c lorific v lue of 4.9 MJ/kg, t e PG composition is fixed s CO = 20%, H2 = 20%, CH4 = 2%, CO2 = 12% nd N2 = 46%. 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 2.05 0.2 0.24 0.28 0.32 0.36 0.4 Pressure r tio, P2/P1 M ss Flow r te, kg/s 60600 RPM 62225 RPM 63000 RPM 1.82

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1.84 1.86 1.88 1.9 1.92 1.94 1.96 1.98 0.2 0.24 0.28 0.32 0.36 0.4 Pressure r tio, P2/P1 M ss Flow r te, kg/s 51400 RPM 52600 RPM 53300 RPM 98 Step 2: T e m ss flow r te of PG required for c ieving 164 kW s ft power wit 27% efficiency ( s found during experiments) is round 0.124 kg/s. T e A/F r tio for Φ = 0.96 is 1.4. The tota mass f ow rate required is 0.298 kg/s. The density of the mixture is c a cu ated based on cy inder vo ume which is 1.7; the compressor exit pressure is taken to be same a s the density ratio for initia guess. The pressure drop in the after coo er is assumed to be 0.025 atm, to account for drop in the after coo er the required pressure ratio wou d be 1.725 Atm. These and the other geometry parameters form the input to compressor mode ing. Step 3: The output of the compressor mode ing for different compressors is summarized i n tab e 6.11. Tab e 6.11: Output resu ts from compressor mode ing S . No Compressor P2, atm T2, K Compressor speed ηc (" !"!: , kW 1 GT 4088 1.725 387 77050 0.66 36 2 4 LGK 1.725 368 56100 0.76 24.6 3 GT 4508R 1.725 362 47650 0.81 20.5 Step 4: T e output from fter-cooler c lcul tion is summ rized in t ble 6.12. T e initi l conditions input to t e engine modelling re c osen s 1.70 tm pressure nd n ver ge temper ture of 322 K of t e tr pped m ss. T ble 6.12: Temper ture nd Pressure drop in fter-cooler Sl. No P2, tm T2, K 1 1.70 328 2 1.70 322 3 1.70 321 99 Step 5: T e output from t e engine modelling is summ rized in t ble 6.13. T ble 6.13: Output results from engine modeling Pe k s ft power prediction for engine, kW 160 Cylinder pressure t end of exp nsion stroke, tm 6.96 Burnt g s temper ture t t e end of exp nsion stroke, K 1415

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Step 6: T e results of t e turbine c lcul tion re summ rized in t ble 6.14. T ble 6.14: Results from turbine c lcul tion Turbine inlet Pressure, P3 1.52 Turbine inlet Temper ture, T3 982 Turbine exit Pressure, P4 1.038 Turbine exit Temper ture, T4 892 Turbine power, kW 30.5 On comp ring t e v il ble turbine power, t e power need of compressor GT 4088 c nnot be met. T e pe k s ft power predicted is found to lower by round 2.5% nd ence t e m ss flow is fixed s 0.305 kg/s nd compressor exit pressure 1.75 tm f ctoring in drop i n fter-cooler for iter tion 2. Iter tion-2 T e output of t e compressor modelling for different compressors is summ rized i n t ble 6.15. T ble 6.15: Output results from compressor modelling Sl. No Compressor P2, tm T2, K Compressor speed ηc (" !"!: , kW 1 4 LGK 1.75 368 56310 0.76 25.4 2 GT 4508R 1.75 364 48310 0.81 21.5 100 T e temper ture nd pressure fter t e fter-cooler is summ rized in t ble 6.16 T ble 6.16: Temper ture nd Pressure drop in fter-cooler Sl. No P2, tm T2, K 1 1.725 322 2 1.725 321 T e initi l conditions in t e engine modelling re set s 1.725 tm pressure nd 322 K temper ture. T e results from t e engine modelling re summ rized in t ble 6.17. T ble 6.17: Output results from engine modelling Pe k s ft power prediction for engine, kW 162.5 Cylinder pressure t end of exp nsion stroke, tm 7.07 Burnt g s temper ture t t e end of exp nsion stroke, K 1417 T e results of t e turbine c lcul tion re summ rized in t ble 6.18. T ble 6.18: Results from turbine c lcul tion Turbine inlet Pressure, P3 1.54 Turbine inlet Temper ture, T3 983 Turbine exit Pressure, P4 1.038 Turbine exit Temper ture, T4 890 Turbine power, kW 32.3 T e turbine power is sufficient to drive bot t e compressors. T e pe k s ft po wer is still lower by round 1%. T e m ss flow r te is re djusted to 0.31 kg/s nd compressor exit pressure s 1.775 tm ccounting for fter-cooler pressure drop in iter tion 3. Iter tion-3 T e output of t e compressor modelling for different compressors is summ rized i n t ble 6.19. 101 T ble 6.19: Output results from compressor modelling

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Sl. No Compressor P2, tm T2, K Compressor speed ηc (" !"!: , kW 1 4 LGK 1.775 372 57770 0.76 27.1 2 GT 4508R 1.775 365 48970 0.81 22.5 T e temper ture nd pressure fter t e fter-cooler is summ rized in t ble 6.20 T ble 6.20: Temper ture nd Pressure drop in fter-cooler Sl. No P2, tm T2, K 1 1.75 324 2 1.75 322 T e initi l conditions in t e engine modelling re set s 1.75 tm pressure nd 323 K temper ture. T e results from t e engine modelling re summ rized in t ble 6.21. T ble 6.21: Output results from engine modelling Pe k s ft power prediction for engine, kW 167 Cylinder pressure t end of exp nsion stroke, tm 7.4 Burnt g s temper ture t t e end of exp nsion stroke, K 1465 T e results of t e turbine c lcul tion re summ rized in t ble 6.22. T ble 6.22: Results from turbine c lcul tion Turbine inlet Pressure, P3 1.56 Turbine inlet Temper ture, T3 1008 Turbine exit Pressure, P4 1.038 Turbine exit Temper ture, T4 909 Turbine power, kW 34.7 102 T e turbine power is dequ te to support t e compressor. T e pe k s ft power is m rgin lly ig er t n t e desired pe k s ft power; ence bot t e compressors qu lify for t e m tc . T e const nt speed-pressure curves re plotted for different m ss flow r tes for com p ring t e rel tive perform nce. T e figure 6.4 s ows suc curve for 4 LGK compressor nd f igure 6.5 s ows t e plot for GT 4508R compressor. Figure 6.4: Oper ting c r cteristics of 4 LGK compressor wit engine lo d line m pped Figure 6.5: Oper ting c r cteristics of GT 4508R compressor wit engine lo d li ne m pped 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 Pressure r tio, P2/P1 M ss Flow r te, kg/s 56100 RPM 56310 RPM 57770 RPM 1.68 1.69 1.7 1.71 1.72

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1.73 1.74 1.75 1.76 1.77 1.78 0.2 0.24 0.28 0.32 0.36 0.4 Presure r tio, P2/P1 M ss Flow r te, kg/s 47650 RPM 48310 RPM 48970 RPM 103 From t e bove figures it c n be seen t t for t e requisite m ss flow, t e c r cteristic curve for GT 4508R is in t e scending p rt of t e curve nd ence wit t e s me compresso r speed c n ccommod te v ri tions of flow r te in t e ig er side. T e power required by t e compressor is lower in c se of GT 4508R, t is will be benefici l w en t ere is pressure drop down stre m of compressor like t rottle v lve requiring ig er pressures to be developed by t e compressor for t e s me m ss flow r te. Hence it c n be concluded t t in bot t e c ses t t G T 4508R is t e optimum m tc for t e engine under consider tion. 6.3 Discussion T e Pressure-cr nk ngle nd temper ture-cr nk ngle di gr ms for bot t e c ses re s own in figures 6.6 nd 6.7. Figure 6.6: Comp rison of Pressure-cr nk ngle di gr m for bot t e c ses 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 -180 -150 -120 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 Pressure, B r Cr nk Angle Series2 Series1 104 Figure 6.7: Comp rison of Temper ture-cr nk ngle di gr m for bot t e c ses T e pressures developed is predicted to be round 100 tm in bot t e c ses, t e BMEP in bot t e c ses is found to be in t e r nge of 10.5 tm. Heywood [19] indic tes t t typic l utomotive four stroke sp rk ignited engines ve BMEP r nging between 9 to 14 tm. T e BMEP wit incre sed m ss flow r te nd incre sed boost pressure for producer g s is wit in t is ccept ble r nge. T e re son for t is c n be ttributed to lower pe k pressures due to lower pe k fl me temper ture nd re ct nt to product mole c nge f ctor of 0.89 for produce r g s. Hence t e incre sed m ss flow for c ieving ig er pe k power wit PG c n be ndled b y t e NG engine.

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experiment l results in c pter 5 is used for suggesting n optim l m tc for in cre sing t e delivered pe k power for GTA 855G engine oper ting wit PG. T e experiments ve indic ted t t wit PG oper tion in t is engine, t e pe k power will be lower by 27%. T is s to be compens ted by ig er flow r tes of ir nd fuel, t e experiments ve lso i ndic ted t t t e present 4 LGK compressor mounted on t e engine is not ble to deliver t is ig e r m ss flow r tes. T eoretic l studies for suggesting n optim l m tc s been conducted in t is study by comp ring t e perform nce of t e engine nd turboc rger power b l nce for t ree sets of 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 -180 -150 -120 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 Temper ture, K Cr nk Angle Series2 Series1 105 compressor. T e first compressor GT 4088 w ic s lower impeller di meter s comp red wit t e present mounted compressor is not ble to ndle t is flow r te nd pow er b l nce of t e turboc rger will not be c ieved. T e ot er two turboc rgers n mely 4 LGK nd GT 4508R re ble to deliver t e necess ry flow r te for t e engine to produce t e requisite pe k s ft power s delivered in NG. However, comp ring t e requirements of t e work required by t e compressor nd lso m pping t e engine lo d line on const nt speed – pressure curves, it is found t t GT 4508 R is f vour ble s t e engine oper ting point is in t e scen ding region of t e curve. Hence it is concluded t t GT 4508 R w ic s ig er impeller di met er t n t e present compressor would be better c oice for boosting t e engine power. 106 C pter 7 Conclusions nd Future Work 7.1 Conclusions T e contribution of t e present work is rel ted to underst nding t e qu ntum of de-r ting in pe k s ft power of turboc rged sp rk ignited NG engine fuelled wit PG n d option for overcoming t is. Experiments nd n lysis on n tur lly spir ted engines ve s own t t on NG engine fuelled wit PG, de-r ting of 33% occurs t stoic iometric mixture. T is is l rgely due to lower energy density of stoic iometric PG nd ir mixture s comp red to

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6.4 Conclusion T e modelling of engine nd turboc rger-compressor w ic

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s been v lid ted wit

simil r mixture of NG nd ir. T e only option wit fixed composition of PG to overcome t is s ortf ll in pe k s ft power is to provide ig er m ss flow r te w ic c n ppen only by incre sing t e density of t e mixture t t e inlet. Hence, t e de-r ting in n tur lly spir t ed engine is un void ble nd c n be only ddressed in turboc rged engine. T e experiments nd n lysis on n engine wit its origin l configur tion of t e turboc rger optimized for NG oper tions ve indic ted t t it will deliver low er pe k s ft power by 21 – 27% b sed on t e composition of t e PG. To c ieve t e pe k s ft po wer close to NG r ting, provision for ig er flow r te of PG s to be m de w ic c n pp en by optim lly m tc ing t e turboc rger compressor. T e liter ture lso suggests t t compressor is more sensitive to m tc ing t n turbine. Hence det iled modelling study of compressor is performed nd v lid ted by experiments nd st nd rd d t t t re v il ble. T e model is found to predict t e pressure rise nd efficiency re son bly ccur tely. A qu si ste d y, t ermodyn mic modelling of sp rk ignition engine s been performed for predicting t e perfo rm nce wit PG s fuel. T e modelling is v lid ted wit experiment l results of n tur lly spir ted nd turboc rged engines. T e pe k s ft power w ic is vit l inform tion for m tc i ng studies is well predicted by t e modelling study. T e compressor modelling nd t e engine m odelling re 107 combined nd fter-cooler nd turbine re modelled using b sic rel tions to comp lete t e predictions of turboc rged producer g s engine. A met odology is developed fo r m tc ing turboc rger by comp ring t e perform nce of t e engine wit different sizes of t e compressor. T e im is to m tc closely t e pe k s ft power developed using PG wit t t pr oduced by n tur l g s. T e pe k s ft power fixed by t e engine m nuf cturer wit NG is us ed s t e reference in t e m tc ing studies. T e modelling studies predict t t compress or of ig er size t n t e one mounted on t e engine presently would be ble to deliver ig er pre ssure r tios t ig er m ss flow r tes consuming lower compression power. T e c r cteristic cur ves of t is compressor provide scope for providing ig er m ss flow r tes t s me pressure r tio nd t s me compressor speed. Hence t is proves to be n optimum m tc for t e engine. 7.2 Future Work A different turboc rger wit compressor of ig er size impeller or t e s me turboc rger wit ig er compressor trim s ould be mounted on t e engine nd t e perform nce needs to be ev lu ted using PG. T e compressor nd engine modelling studies c n be extended to CFD studies using suit ble CFD p ck ge. 108 Annexure – 1

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Biom ss G sific tion – An Overview on Process nd Tec nology Introduction Biom ss is n org nic m tter resulting from t e process of p otosynt esis. T e t ermoc emic l conversion process ( lso termed g sific tion) of biom ss yields mixture of g s collectively termed s ‘Producer Gas’. This gas can be used for fuelling com ression ignition engines in dual-fuel mode or a s ark-ignition (SI) engine in gas alone mode. Har nessing of energy from biomass via gasification route is not only roving to be economical but also environmentally benign. Though there has been a s oradic interest in biomass gas ifiers whenever there has been an oil crisis, sustained global interest develo ed only in the re cent times for reasons like Green House Gas (GHG) emission reduction and carbon-trading through clean develo ment mechanisms. In addition, a stee rise in the oil rices has had a se vere im act on the industrial economy and this has forced many oil-im orting countries to recon sider gasification technology and initiate im rovements in them. Combustion, Gasificat ion and Pro ulsion Laboratory (CGPL) at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) has been addressing issues related to biomass gasification for over two decades. The outcome of this sustained effort is the design of o en to , twin air entry, re-burn gasifier and its uni ueness i n terms of generating su erior uality roducer gas which has a definite edge over other ga sification technologies [4]. The Gasification Process Biomass is basically com osed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen re resented a roximately by CH1.4O0.6. A roximate analysis of biomass indicates the volati le matter to be between 60% - 80%, carbon in the range of 20% – 25% and the rest is ash. Gasificat ion is a two109 stage reaction consisting of oxidation and reduction rocesses. These rocesses occur under substoichiometric conditions of air with biomass. The first art of sub-stoichiometric oxidation l eads to the loss of volatiles from biomass and is exothermic; it results in eak tem eratures of 1400 to 1500 K and generation of gaseous roducts like carbon monoxide, hydrogen in some ro ortions and carbon dioxide and water va or which in turn are reduced in art to carbon m onoxide and hydrogen by the hot bed of charcoal generated during the rocess of gasification . De ending u on the tem erature gradient the biomass gasifier, the reactor is div ided into four distinct zones. Ty ically in a downdraft gasifier four distinctive zones ar e as follows [3]: Drying Zone: In drying zone the moisture content of the biomass is removed. The tem erature range of drying zone is 120 – 200°C. Pyrolysis Zone: As the dried biomass moves down it is subjected to strong heatin g by the

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radiation heat from the oxidation zone. At tem erature above 200°C biomass starts losing its volatiles. Liberation of volatile continues until it reaches oxidation zone. Onc e the tem erature reaches 400°C a self sustained exothermic reaction starts, where in the natural st ructure of wood and other organic solids brake down into volatiles. In case of wood, 50 % or mor e of the original weight is given off as volatiles and tar. By the time the biomass reaches oxidat ion zone and what remains is only char i.e. fixed carbon. The tem erature range of this zone is 20 0 – 600 0C. Oxidation Zone: The moisture va orized in the drying zone and a suction blower d raws the volatiles released in the yrolysis zone towards the oxidation zone. Here, in th e oxidation zone a calculated uantity of air is su lied through the air nozzle. This zone is also called as combustion zone. A ortion of yrolysis gases and char burns in this zone. This raises the tem erature to about 900 – 1200 0C. The reactions that take lace in this zone are C + O2 CO2 + 393800 kJ The yrolysis gases when asses through this high tem erature zone, tar is crack ed down. The roduct coming from oxidation zone are high tem erature gases containing ro ducts of combustion, cracked and un-cracked yrolysis roducts and water va or. These ro ducts are then assed through reduction zone. Reduction zone: Reduction zone is a acked bed of charcoal. Reduction reactions that take lace in this zone are highly tem erature sensitive, therefore it is necessary t hat, this zone must 110 be maintained well within close tem erature limits of 600 – 900 0C. The reactions, which take lace in the reduction zone, are as follows: 1. Boudouard’s Reaction: CO2 + C = 2CO – 172600 kJ 2. Water gas Reaction: C + H2O = CO+ H2 – 131400 kJ C+ 2H2O = CO2 + 2H2 – 88000 kJ 3. Water Shift Reaction: CO + H2O = CO2 + H2 + 41200 kJ 4. Methane reaction C + 2H2 = CH4 +75000 kJ In Boudouard reaction carbon dioxide reacts with carbon to give carbon monoxide. It is an endothermic reaction. Another im ortant reaction is between water va or and c arbon, which is also an endothermic reaction. CO2 and H2 are roduced as a roduct of this re action and this reaction is called as water gas reaction. Due to the above endothermic reactions the tem erature dro s rogressively. Under lower tem erature condition a different set of reacti on takes lace, which roduces H2 and CO2. When excess water is resent in the reduction zone, water shift reaction takes lace. This reaction is not considered favorable because calorific value of gas is adversely 

affected by it. Most of the hydrogen roduced in the reduction zone remains free, only some of i t combines with carbon to form methane. Ty ical com osition of the gas after cooling to amb ient tem erature is about 18-20% H2, 18-20% CO, 2-3% CH4, 12% CO2, 2.5% H2O and rest, N2. The lower calorific value of the gas ranges is about 5.3 + 0.3 MJ/Nm3, with a stoich iometry re uirement of 1.2 to 1.4 kg of air for every kg of roducer gas. Gasifier Ty es Conventionally, gasifiers can be classified as fixed bed and fluidized bed gasif ier. In a fixed bed gasifier, the charge is held statically on a grate and the air moving through the fuel bed leads to gasification in the resence of heat. In a fluidized bed system, the ch arge is sus ended using air as the fluidizing media. The fluidized bed system generates excessivel y large tar-laden 111 gas and external cracking using dolomite bed is necessary to bring down the tar to acce table levels and hence the a roach is limited to large ower level systems (in MWe cl ass). There are again variations in fluidized bed system known as the circulating fluidized bed system designed to make the system more com act. Fixed bed systems offer excellent erformance a t ower levels of 1 MWe or less, and at lower ca ital costs Fixed bed gasifiers are classified de ending u on the flow ath of feedstock (bi omass) and the generated gas ( roducer gas) as u draft, cross-draft and downdraft syste ms. The u draft system is of counter current design, wherein the biomass and resultant gas flow ath are in o osing directions as shown in Figure. A1.1a. In this case, the volatiles relea sed from biomass in the u er region of the reactor do not ass through the hot char bed and ther efore exit the reactor without cracking along with the roducer gas. This gas is therefore less amenable for engine o eration than thermal a lications. In a cross-draft system the flow at h of biomass and resultant gas are normal to each other as shown in Fig. A1.1b. Even this system roduces tarladen gas and is therefore not amenable for engine o erations. Fig. A1.1 Gasifier Ty es – (a) U draft, (b) Crossdraft The downdraft system shown in fig. A1.2 below is a co-current design wherein bio mass and the resultant gas flow ath are in the same (downward) direction. It is known from literature that among the fixed bed gasifiers, the downdraft design generates less of tar-laden gas and is amenable for thermal and engine a lications. This ha ens by design wherein tar cracking occurs within the reactor (the gases gene rated in the u er regions of the reactor ass through the hot bed char). These allow for sim ler gas clean-u sys tem for usage of gas in internal combustion engines. Gas Exit to burner / Cooling - cleaning system 

Biomass Biomass Combustion Zone Ash it Ash it Grate Grate Air Air (a) (b) Combustion Zone Gas Exit to burner / Cooling - cleaning system Feed Moisture out 112 In the design shown in Fig.A1.2a, the reactor to is normally ke t closed and he nce referred as ‘closed to ’. This design has a barrel sha ed reactor with a rovision for o ening the to for feedstock charging and a narrow region called the ‘throat’ for tar cracking, a feature very vital for wood based sys tems. The gasification media i.e. air is drawn through the air nozzles/tuyres located at the oxidation zone. The o en to re-burn design (shown in fig. A1.2b) ursued at IISc has conce ts t hat can be argued to be hel ful in reducing the tar levels in the resultant gas. This design has a long cylindrical reactor with air entry both from the to and the oxidation zone. The rinci al feature of the design is rela ted to residence time of the reacting mixture in the reactor so as to generate a combustible gas with low tar content at different through uts. This is achieved by the combustible gases generated in the combustion zone located aroun d the side air nozzles to be reburnt before assing though a bottom section of hot char. Also the reacting mixture is allowed to stay in the high tem erature environment along with reactive char for such duration that ensures cracking of molecules with higher molecular weight. Fig. A1.2 Downdraft Gasifier – (a) Closed To , (b) O en To Re-burn O en To Re-burn Gasifier The o en to , re-burn down draft gasifier consists of reactor, cyclone, scrubber s, flare and filters. The ca acity or volume of the gasifier is generally decided based o n the biomass (a) (b) Air Hot gases Grate Ash it Storage bin for biomass Ash extraction Char/ash exit Air Char Biomass Air Annular Shell Recirculating Duct

Gas Exit Gas exit system Reactor 113 density and the eak gas consum tion rate. This gasifier could be fed either man ually or using some automatic biomass feed system [4]. Reactor The reactor is the com onent wherein the thermo-chemical reactions occur and ro ducer gas is generated. This sub-system is com osed of two elements namely the ceramic shell and the ash extraction unit. However, for systems with through ut u to 75 kg/hr, the re actor has additional two elements in the form of annular shell and a re-circulating duct a s shown in Fig. A1.3(a). These additional elements are re uired at lower through uts, as they ha ve been found to be beneficial in terms of erformance. The manner in this is achieved is as foll ows. The hot gas exiting at the reactor bottom is assed through the stainless steel annular shel l, which is essentially a double wall shell isolating the charge (biomass) and the roducer gas. A art of the heat recovered during the hot gas flow through the annular shell is um ed into the reactor – essentially utilized for drying of biomass. The estimated heat recovery is of th e order of 5-10% of the in ut energy. The re-circulating duct forms the conduit between the react or bottom and the annular shell. However, for system through ut >75 kg/hr the benefit of system si m licity and life far outweigh the heat recovery, and therefore the reactor is built as a single i ntegral shell. The ceramic shell/ art of the reactor is built of refractory bricks with an innermos t lining of high alumina tiles. This art of the reactor is ex osed to highest tem eratures and i ncludes both oxidizing and reducing environment. The ash extraction system consists of a scre w that is intermittently o erated to discharge ash from the reactor bottom into a containe r, for later dis osal. 114 Fig. A1.3 General Schematic of O en To Re-burn Gasifier System with Reactor of Configuration (a) < 75 kg/hr Ca acity, (b) > 75 kg/hr Ca acity. The Gas Scrubbing/Cooling and cleaning Train are identical but Scaled accordingly. Air, which is the gasification medium, enters the reactor at two levels. The fir st level of air entry is rovided at the reactor to , wherein the feedstock i.e. biomass is char ged into the reactor. The second level of air entry occurs at the oxidation zone level, wherein the vo latiles released in the u er zone of the reactor oxidize along with some char. Cyclone Large art of the contaminant, mainly the articulate matter is se arated in the hot 

cyclone. In this, the gas is made to take a continuous swirling ath and then ri se u . This leads to Reactor a/b Cyclone Scrubber-1 (a) (b) Ash extraction Ash extraction Reactor Reactor Air Air Annular Shell Recirculating Duct Air Air Gas exit Gas exit system system Scrubber-2 Scrubber-3 Suction Blower Measurement Point Gas Quality Flare Fabric filter Pa er filter To Engine 115 centrifugal se aration of the articulate matter from the gas. It is seen that n early 80% of the articulate matter is se arated from the hot roducer gas in this unit. Gas scrubber-I The scrubbing section consists of series of scrubber wherein the gas is brought in contact with finely distributed scrubbing medium. Generally water at ambient tem erature is used as the scrubbing medium. Due to this the gas is not only cleaned but is also cooled to a great extent. Water-soluble tar and some articulate matter are removed in this section. Gas scrubber-II In case of large installations, a second scrubber is also used this is basically the chilled water scrubber. In this, the rocess of agglomeration eliminates fine sized art icles. When the gas leaves the chilled scrubber it would be at around 100C having articulate an d tar matter less than 2.0 mg/Nm3. Flare A swirl design flare is rovided with a central o ening for air intake. The init ial uality of the flame is established by flaring the gas rior to su lying it to the end dev ice namely, engine or turbine. It is im ortant to note that gas uality for the first 15-20 minutes is very oor with  

high tar and smoke and cannot be directly used for the engine. Once the flame in the flare is stable; it is an indication that uality gas is being generated. Fabric Filter The ur ose here again is to tra any articulate matter that may have come alon g with the gas esca ing the revious cleaning sections. The fabric has around five micr on ore size. With the above cleaning and cooling, the gas is sufficiently clean to ualify fo r use in a turbocharged gas engine. 116 Annexure - 2 Com ressor Ma s of Turbochargers used in the study Figure A2.1: Com ressor Ma of GT 4088 turbocharger-com ressor Figure A 2.2: Com ressor Ma of GT 4508R turbocharger Com ressor 117 Figure A 2.3: Com ressor Ma of 4 LGK turbocharger