Measurement and control (9096) Experiment No.

5

--------------~-~-----~------.--------------------------------.

EXPERIMENT No.5

1.0 Title:

To Measure the speed by using stroboscope.

2.0 Prior Concepts : ~ Unit of speed

~ Speed measuring devices .. Lightwave

.. Frequency

3.0 New concepts:

Proposition 1: Speed measurement

.. It is a measurement of linear movements and rotational movement. It is measured with the help of mechanical tachometers, electrical tachometers, contactless electrical tachometers.

Concept structure

Speed

l1li ..

Measured by

® ...

Measured by

E Mechanical Tachometer

Electrical Tachometer Contactless electrical Tachometer

Proposition 2: Contact less electrical tachometer

It produces pulse from a rotating shaft without being mechanically connected to it The types of contact less electrical tachometers are inductive pickup, capacitive pickup, photoelectric, stroboscope

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No. 5

concept Structure

Contact less electrical tachometer

Inductive Pickup

Capacitive Pickup

Photoelectric

Stroboscope

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Proposition 3= Stroboscope

The principle of stroboscope is to synchronise a flashing light with rotation of disc, making it appear standstill. The speed of oscillations of flash produced from stroboscope is a measure of rpm of rotating disk.

Concept Structure

4.0 Learning objectives:

Intellectual skills

• To understand principle of operation of stroboscope.

• To compare different types of tachometer.

• To select proper speed measuring device for a particular operation. Motor skills

• Ability to make connections of stroboscope setup.

• Ability to operate stroboscope for various frequencies.

• Ability to take stroboscope readings.

Measurement and control

Experiment No. 5

5.0 Apparatus:

., Speed measurement module using stroboscope ., Trainer kit

., Sensors

Q C.R.O .

., Digital multimeter

., Rotating body (shaft)

6.0 Diagram: Dark Mark
Flashes
Stroboscope tJ

t Shaft


7.0 Procedure: e Make the necessary connections of the setup . e. Make a dark mark on end section of the shaft.

., Connect required supply and switch "ON" the unit. See that the supply LED glows . ., Allow the shaft to attain its normal speed .

., Vary the speed and set the speed so that the display reads constant speed . .. Switch "ON" the stroboscope .

.. Adjust the flash of stroboscope to match the shaft speed, so that a single stationary image of dark mark seen.

e Note the displayed reading on the speed indicator and the stroboscope. o Tabulate the readings.

8.0 Observations :

<> Stroboscope readings

Sr. No. Actual speed of shaft Stroboscope reading Difference in readings
(rpm) (rpm)
01
02
03
04
05 9.0 Conclusion:

., In stroboscope frequency of flash light is (thrice 1 twice) the shaft speed .

., A single mark on the rotating shaft appears to be two standing marks .

( 90° 1180°) apart.

• Student has to write conclusion on the basis of observed difference in reading by the two methods and draw conclusion under the guidance of teacher.

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No, 5

10.0 Questions:

Write answers to Q ..... Q ..... Q ..... Q ..... and Q ..... (Teacher shall allot the questions)

1. Give the relation between speed and rotation, pulse rate and number of holes in the

disk.

2. State the principle of operation of stroboscope.

3, Name two contact type and contact less electrical tachometer.

4. What is gating period? How it effects the speed measurement accuracy?

5. State the working principle of digital tachometer.

6. Give four industrial applications where contact less electrical tachometers are prefered.

7. How speed is measured in air craft engines?

8. What is the relationship between rotational speed and flashing rate of stroboscope directed on to a single radial mark on the rotating wheel?

9. Suggest suitable instrument

• for the measurement of speed of a CD player

• for the measurement of speed of a sealed compressor unit.

• for the average speed measurement.

10. State working principle of drag-cup tachometer with sketch. Note :Teacher shall contribute by writing four questions

11 ..

12 ..

13 ..

14 ..

(Space for Answers)

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Measurement and control (9096)

(Space for Answers)

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No. 6

EXPERIMENT No.6

A.h. B v:

ls--s--1

1'1

1.0

Title:

To measure the Temperature by using thermocouple.

2.0

Prior Concepts :

• Measurement of temperature

• Scales lunits of Temperature measurement.

• Instruments used for temperature measurement. New concepts :

Proposition 1: Thermocouple

Thermocouple is a sensor for measuring temperature. It consists of two dissimilar metals joined together. When the junction of the two metals is heated or

cooled a voltage is produced that can be correlated back to temperature. It is related to Seeback effect, Peltier effect, Thomson effect.

Concept Structure

3.0

Proposition 2: Seeback effect

If a closed circuit is formed of two dissimilar metals and two junctions of the metals are at different temperatures, an electric current will flow round the circuit. Current flows from copper to iron at hot junction and it flows from iron to copper at cold junctions.

Concept Structure

Copper

Hot

Cold

Junction

Junction

Iron

4.0 Learning objectives:

Intellectual skills

• To know the principle and working of thermocouple.

• To know thermocouple types and their applications. Motor skills

• Ability to observe and note the readings of temperature on the calibrated scale of galvanometer.

• Ability to draw the circuit diagram for thermocouple.

• Ability to select the scale of measurement of temperature.

5.0 Apparatus :

• Thermocouple

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No.6

6.0 Circuit diagram of thermocouple:

Heater

Thermocouple

7.0 Stepwise procedure:

o Check the connections of thermocouple. " Connect the heater .

.. Connect the required supply and switch "ON" the unit.

e Allow the unit to warmup for 10 minutes (as per specifications) or upto 35° C . .. Release the switch and note the actual temperature as indicated by meters.

" Keep thermocouple sensor in the heating unit and observe actual temperature as indicated by the meters.

" Repeat above procedure with different set point temperatures. 8.0 Observations:

e Thermocouple readings

Sr. Thermometer Reading Indicator reading using
No. (Actual Temp.) °c thermocouple
01
02
03
04
05 9.0 Conclusion:

.. The thermocouple consists of two ( Simmilar I Dissimilar)

conductors joined together to form a closed loop.

o The maximum temperature measured during experiment is °c

.. Student has to write conclusion under the guidance of teacher, on the basis of comparision of thermometer reading and thermocouple reading.

10.0 Questions:

Write answers to Q ..... Q ..... Q ..... Q ..... and Q ..... (Teacher shall allot the questions)

1. State the laws on which thermocouple working depends.

2. Write the Peltier effect.

3. Write two industrial applications of thermisters.

4. Write one method of cold junction compensation in thermocouple.

5. List the commonly used four materials for thermocouple.

6. State the law of intermidiate temperatures and the law of intermidiate metals.

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No.6

7. Write two applications where bimetallic thermometers are used.

8. Write two industrial applications of radiation pyrometer.

9. Write working principle of radiation pyrometer. 10.Which metal has highest temperature range.

11.ls it possible to measure the temperature of exhaust gases of an I. C. engine by

thermocouple?

12.What are R, S, C and GB thermocouples.

Note :Teacher shall contribute by writing four questions

13 ..

14 .

15 ..

16 ..

(Space for Answers)

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment NO.6

(Space for Answers)

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No. 7

EXPERIMENT No.7

1.0 Title:

To Measure flow by using rotameter.

2.0 Prior Concepts : • Fluid flow

o Classification of fluid flow

o Flow meters

3.0 New concepts :

Proposition 1: Measurement of flow

It includes the measurement of fluid velocity. Flow rate and flow quantity with varying degree of accuracy

Concept structure

Measurement of flow

l,nctudes measurement of

l

Flow rate Flow quantity

~

Fluid Velocity

Proposition 2: Measurement techniques

8 Rate of flow: It is the quantity of liquid flowing per unit time. It is measured in cubic meters per second. Rate of flow meters consists of, constant area-variable head, constant head-variable area, vairiable head and variable area, variable velocity, variable force.

• Quantity of flow: Itis the total amount of liquid that flows past a given point in a definite period of time. It is expressed in m3

Concept Structure

~ l

Rate of flow (m3/sec) Quantity of flow (m')

~

Measurement techniq ues

i

- Variable velocity

Constant head-

C t t - Variable area

ons an area-

- Variable head

Variable head- Variable area

- Variable force

Proposition 3: Rotameter

It is the variable area flow meter where pressure drop at the inlet and outlet is kept constant by changing the annular area.

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment NO.7

4.0

5.0

6.0

Concept structure

Rotameter

~ is

Variable area flow meter

~ where Pressure drop is

By changing

~

Annular area

Learning objectives:

Intellectual skills

"To understand the principle and working of a rotameter .

., To select appropriate flow measuring method / technique for a specific application. "To differentiate rotameter from other flow meters.

Motor skills

e Ability to observe and measure the flow rate using rotameter.

"Ability to measure actual flow rate by using measuring tank and stop watch. Apparatus:

D Rotameter

D Hydraulic bench having fluid source, outlet pipe, valve, measuring tank . ., Rotameter scale

" Float (stainless steel or any non corrosive metal)

" Necessary inlet-outlet pipe connection with flow control valves.

Diagram:

_',9>di' -~)

..... :-.,.

-,70

'."$0;> .. '

...

~IJ<I:' :'4ii!' :~: -:2,i);

~1~.': '.R. ~(.>10)

7.0 Stepwise Procedure:

.. Make the necessary connection of the avialable setup. Ensure that the rotameter is in

vertical position .

.. Start flow by opening the flow control valve slowly. " Float starts to move upwards

e An annular space gets opened between taper glass tube and float.

.. Now close / stop the valve and observe that the float comes to dynamic equilibrium position, this position is reached the Iyling force of the fluid become equal to the weight of the float

" Rising and falling action (upward and downward movement) of float depends on the rate of flow .

e The float gives reading on calibrated scale in terms of flow rate. (i.e, m3/sec or lit/sec)

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Measurement and control...:.;<9_09_:6",-) Ex_p_en._·m_e_nt_N_o._7

8.0 Observations :

Reading No.

Flow rate (m3/sec or Lit/sec)

9.0 Conclusion :

• With increase of flow rate position offloat ( Changes/ remains unchanged)

• Maximum flow rate was m3/sec.

". Student has to write conclusion on the basis of average flow rate under teachers guidance.

10.0 Questions:

Write answers to O ..... O ..... O ..... Q ..... and Q ..... (Teacher shall allot the questions)

1. State inferential (rate meters) and positive rotameters(quantity meters)

2. How velocity of flow is measured? Draw labelled sketch.

3. List different types of flow.

4. How will you measure the flow of a water fall.

5. What is the function of convergent and divergent part of venturimeter.

6. List four factors on which accuracy of rotameter depend.

7. How rotameters are calibrated for flow rates.

8. Write four materials used for float.

9. Why should be rotameter installed vertically.

10.What is the effect of density of float material on rate of flow?

11.Drawa line/block diagram to show in line venturimeter to measure discharge.

12. How does buoyency effect help to move the float in upward direction?

13. What is the maximum flow rate that a rotameter can measure accurately? 14.Draw different shape of floats used in rotameters.

15.Can we use rotameter to measure flow rate of lubricant in hobbing machine.

Note :Teacher shall contribute by writing four questions

16 .

17 ..

18 .

19 .

8~" ..... ~.~ •• ~ ••• ~ •• ~ •• :'",4 ••• 4 •••••••••••••••••• ~ ••••••••••••••••••••••• ~ •••••••••••• ~ ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

(Space for Answers)

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No.7

(Space for Answers)

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No.8

EXPERIMENT No.8

1.0 Title:

To measure strain by using strain gauge

2.0 Prior Concepts : " Definition of strain

.. Types of strain gauges " Elastic constant

• Stress strain relationship

3.0 New concepts :

Proposition 1: Strain gauge

It is a device whose electrical resistance varies in proportion to the amount of strain in the speciman.

Concept structure

[

()

At r

Proposition 2: Wheatstone bridge

It is an electrical device used to measure the strain. It has two basic techniques. " Balanced (Null) condition

.. Unbalanced (deflection) condition.

Concept structure Wheat stone bridge

Proposition 3: Gauge factor It is the ratio of fractional change in electric resistance to fractional change in length (strain). It is a measure of sensetivity of strain gauge.

Concept structure AR/R

Null Mode

Quarter bridge

Gauge factor =

=

AR/R E

AL/L

Deflection Mode

Half bridge

Full bridge

... Ver_

=

Change in resistance

Strain

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Measurement and control (9~_9_.:.6) E_xp_e_rim_e_n_t N_o_.8

4.0 learning objectives:

Intellectual skills

e To understand working principle of strain gauge.

o To understand methods of strain measurements.

o To understand relationship between applied weight and strain. Motor skills

e Ability to use strain gauge for strain measurement. " Ability to use appropriate wheatstone bridge.

o Ability to plot the graph between applied weight and strain.

5.0 Apparatus :

~ Strain measurement kit (Strain beam, resistance bridge, strain gauge) o Dead weight.

" Mechanical stand.

S.O Diagram:

Draw [quater/half/full bridge] circuit which is used in laboratory

Gauge in tension RG+,1.R

F

Gauge in compression R -,1.R

G

Half bridge circuit

7.0 Stepwise Procedure:

• Make the necessary connection as shown in figure. D Connect sensor connector to the measuring unit.

e Switch "ON" the supply, the supply LED will glow.

• Wait till the display gets stabllsed.

" Adjust zero load on the meter by turning potentiometer knob.

• Add load of 500 gm 11000 gm to the pan and observe the reading after stability. " Increase in the load by 500gm /1000gm and record the readings,

" Plot the graph of strain Vs. weight.

8.0 Observations:

Applied weight and corrosponding strain.

Loading Unloading
Sr.
No. Weight Measured Weight Measured
(gm) strain (gm) strain
01
02
03
04
05 Stress F /A

Young's modulus =

Strain

=

dill

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment NO.8

9.0 Result:

"The calculated induced stress is " " .,N/m2

" The observed strain for 1500 gm weight is : .

10.0 Conclusion:

.. The relation between stress and strain from calculations is ., ..

(linear/Non linear) .

.. Maximum strain that can be measured by using given strain gauge is .

.. Student has to write conclusion on the basis of gauge factor from the observations under the guidance of teacher.

11.0 Questions:

Write answers to Q ..... Q ..... Q ..... Q ..... and Q ..... (Teacher shall allot the questions)

1. Wirte the utility of strain measurement.

2. Name main three types of strain gauges.

3. List five basic requirements of strain gauges.

4. What is gauge factor in strain gauges.

5. Give a strain gauge attachment for temperature compensation, zero drift and environmental changes compensation.

6. To measure. torsional strain in a torsion bar suggest and draw the mountings of

a. 2- strain gauges b. 4- strain gauges.

7. Write two limitations of resistance strain gauges.

8. What is the function of dummy gauge in a strain gauge load cell.

9. Suggest a suitable method for the measurement of strain induced in the spokes of a bicycle during running condition. Give reasons.

10.Four strain gauges are used on test speciman and gauges are connected in four arms. Speciman is subjected to tensile load. Show arrangement of gauges on test speciman and also in the bridge.

11.Show that F=1 +2 J..l where f is gauge factor and J..l is poisson's ratio. 12.Drawa null mode wheatstone bridge circuit.

13.Write two effects of temperature on strain gauges.

14. Give values of gauge factor for the foil and wire gauges and semiconductor gauges. 15.Write two methods which are used to elUminate the effect of temperature on strain

gauge.

Note :Teacher shall contribute by writing four questions

16. .. " .

17 , .

18 .

19 .

(Space for Answers)

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No.8

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Experiment No.8

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment NO.9

EXPERIMENT No.9

1.0 Title:

To measure the liquid level by using capacitive transducer.

2.0 Prior concepts :

G Capacitance. G Conductivity.

G Dielectric Material G Hydrostatic head.

3.0 New concepts :

Proposition1 : liquid level measurement

It is a type of sensor technology which is useful for measurement of liquid level at various work places.

There are different technologies like capacitive, conductive, hydrostatic gauging, radar and ultrasonic.

Concept structure

Capacitive

Conductive

Liquid level Measurement

Is r---------, Has further

......,. Type of sensor ...............

Technology types .........."...

Hydrostatic gauging

I Radar I

Ultrasonic

Proposition2 : Capacitive transducer

It is a device which works on the principle of parallel plate capacitor. Concept structure

C=

kA

d

Where,

C - Capacitance in Farad

k - Relative dielectric constant of insulation material A - Effective area of conductor

d - Distance between conductors

Proposition3 : Types of capacitive transducers

These types are further classified on the basis of change in capacitance by change in overlapping area, change in distance between plates and variable dielectric constant. Concept structure

By

~

... Change in
overlapping area

... Distance
between plates

... Variable
dielectric constant Capacitive transducers

classified On the basis of

......,. change in

capacitance

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No.9

.......

Capacitance Dreases

Fixed Plate

...

Capacitance increases

(Change in overlaping area)

(Change in distance between plates)

(Variable dielectric constant)

Max Capacitance _j

Max

Capacitance

Min

Max

Min Max

Displacement

(Change in overlapping area)

Displacement

(Change in distance between plates)

5.0

Learning objectives :

Intellectual skills

• To understand construction and working principle of capacitive liquid level system.

• To compare different methods of liquid level measurement. Motor skills

"Ability to measure liquid level by using capacitive transducer.

• Ability to use appropriate liquid level measurement system for different workplaces. Apparatus:

" Water level measuring tank with capacitive transducer.

Diagram'

.
1 [III! 111[1
t

... Insulated capacitance pro
~ ~ ~ ..
Insulator
:.a [L
- - - - _-
- - -
- -_ -- Lquid (as dielectric!)
- -- -
- - - - - -
- - - - .... Watertank Measuring instrument (Converts capacitance to Iquid level)

4.0

6.0

be

Capacitive liquid level indicator

7.0 Stepwise procedure:

In liquid level measuring system it is assumed that process material is insulating. When the process material is conductive the sensing probe is covered with an insulating sheath. Conductive, sensing electrode (probe) is inserted into the tank to act as one conductor

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No. 9

of the capacitor. the metal wall of the tank acts as other conductor. If the tank is nonmetallic a conductive ground referance must be inserted into the tank to act as the other conductor of the capactior.

o Locate the system of which liquid level is to be measured.

o Put the electrode probes in (glass) container with connecting wire ends on the top. e Add water slowely in the (glass) container.

o Connect electrode probes to the unit.

e Switch "ON' the unit.

o Repeat the procedure to measure different liquid levels.

B.O Observations :

e Table for readings of liquid level measurement.

Sr. Manually measured Liquid level indicated on dial
No. liquid level
01
02
03
04
05 9.0 Result:

o Initial liquid level shown by measuring instrument was (mm/cm/m)

Q At the end of experiment liquid level was (mm/cm/m)

10.0 Conclusion =

G As liquid level rises in tank capacitance (remains constant Ichanges)

during the conduct of experiment.

e In the conduct of experiment the capacitance is maximum when liquid level is ....................... (zero/full)

& Student has to write conclusion on the basis of limitations of liquid level capacitive transducer under the guidance of teacher .

. ~ " " ..

11.0 Questions:

Write answers to Q ..... Q ..... Q ..... Q ..... and Q ..... (Teacher shall allot the questions)

1. Wirte names of four liquid level measuring transducers.

2. Draw a sketch of ultrasonic level transducer and write its working principle.

3. Write working principle of capacitive liquid level measurement with neat sketch

4. Draw a sketch of radar level measurement, write any two applications.

5. Write two applications of capacitive liquid level gauge.

6. Name the liquid level gauge to measure o Level of corrosive liquid

G Level of thick viscous liquid

G Level of solid contaminated liquid

7. In the conduct of experiment on which parameter capacitance changes.

8. Which method of liquid level measurement is employed in following situations " Liquid level of fuel in automobile

e Liquid level in petrol storage tank o Water level in bore well.

" Water level in overhead tank

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No.9

9. Draw a sketch of float type water level measurement. Note :Teacher shall contribute by writing four questions

10 .

11 .

12 .

.- ••••••• ~ ,_ ,_ .. ,_ 8 .. 8 .. " " L"" ,_ , , .

13 .

(Space for Answers)

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No.10

EXPERIMENT No.1 0

1.0 Title:

To measure force or weight by using load cell.

2.0 Prior concepts : " Strain gauge.

" Temperature compensation. o Wheatstone bridge.

3.0 New concepts :

Proposition1: Piezoresistive effect

There is change in the value of resistivity of the conductor when it is strained and this property is called peizoresistive effect.

Proposition2: Secondary transducer (strain gauge)

It is a device which measures resistance change due to change in length and diameter of metal conductor.

Load cells utilises an elastic member as primary transducer and strain gauge as a secondary transducer.

Concept structure

Change in resistance

Due to

Change in length and diameter

Proposition3: Load cell

It is a force transducer, which can be used to measure force or weight through the deflection or strain of elastic member.

Concept structure

I Load cell

Is used to measure

... Weight or force

Proposition4 : Types load cell

Load cells are having different types such as mechanical load cell, hydraulic load cell, pneumatic load cell and strain gauge load cell.

Concept structure

load celiS!

I

+

Hydraulic

Pneumatic

Strain gauge

Mechanical

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No, 10

4.0 Learning objectives Intellectual skills

.. To understand the construction and working of load cell, .. To compare different types of load cells.

e To select proper load cell for specific application. Motor skills

.. Ability to make connections I arrangement of strain gauges on the load cell. .. Ability to use load cell for weight or force measurement.

.. Ability to draw circuit diagram of load cell.

5.0 Apparatus :

• Load cell (strain gauge type), different weights.

6.0 Diagram:

.. Load cells are force transducers as mey convert force or weight into an electric signal. Strain gauges are ultra thin heat treated metallic foils and chemically bonded to a thin elastic layer. "Gauge patches" are then mounted to the strain element with specially formulated adhesives. Ensure the precise positioning of gauges and mount properly on the strain element and also see the material used. Connect the cable and junction box summing up load signals upto one output. Check connections of indicators signal conditioners, arrange peripheral equipment.

Load cell consists of a steel cylinder which has four identical strain gauges mounted upon it, the gauges R1 and R4 are along the direction of applied load and gauges R2 and R3 are attached circumferentiaUy at right angles to gauges R1 and R4. These four gauges are connected electrically to the four limbs of wheatstone bridge circuit

7.0 Stepwise procedure:

• Make necessary connections of load cell setup .

.. Connect required supply and switch "ON" the unit. • Confirm that output voltage will be zero initially .

.. Put some load on the load cell (as specified)

.. Note the corrosponding output reading (voltage).

• Increase the load on load cell and note next successive four readings with specific loads.

• Tabulate the readings.

8.0 Observations :

.. Output readings due to the application of different loads.

Sr. Applied Load Output loadcell Reading
No.
01
02
03
04
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Measurement and control

Experiment No.1 0

9.0 Result:

e For applied load of 0.5 kg output reading was during the experiment.

• During experiment Maximum applied load was kg and corrosponding output (voltage)

reading ..

10.0 Conclusion:

• Load cell can measure the minimum kg and maximum kg.

o During the experiment to measure weight used load cell was (mechanicall

pneumatic/strain gauge)

o Student has to write conclusion on the basis of observed reading about accuracy of load cell.

11.0 Questions:

Write answers to Q ..... Q ..... Q ..... Q ..... and Q ..... (Teacher shall allot the questions)

1. Wirte the working principle of load cell.

2. Draw labelled sketch of construction and write working principle of hydraullic load

cell.

3. What is strain gauge? Write four advantages.

4. Explain with sketch bonded and unbonded type strain gauge.

5. Draw labelled sketch of load cell and show tensile and compressive strain gauge

arrangement.

6. To measure weight of road vehicle, select a load cell and draw its labelled diagram.

7. In turning operation how will you measure the tool force?

8. When load cell is used to measure force write the formulae for change in resistances due to compression and tension.

9. What is the function of temperature compensation gauge in bridge circuit? What is its effect on bridge sensetivity.

10.Explain with neat sketch construction and working of bonded and unbonded strain gauge.

Note :Teacher shall contribute by writing four questions

11 ..

12 .

13 .

14 .

(Space for Answers)

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Measurement and control (9096)

Experiment No. 10

(Space for Answers)

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