10/03/2011

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM)
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Block Diagram of OFDM
Transmitter
Serial to Parallel IFFT Add CP Parallel to Serial Channel Remove CP Serial to Parallel

— OFDM: A form of Multicarrier Modulation — Different data is transmitted over different subcarriers. — The main concept in OFDM is orthogonality of the

Receiver
Parallel to Serial FFT

subcarriers

— The orthogonality allows simultaneous transmission

OFDM Transmitter and Receiver

on a lot of subcarriers in a tight frequency space without interference.

The Multipath Channel
— The transmitted signal reflects off of several objects. — Multiple delayed versions arrive at receiver — This causes inter-symbol interference. — Cyclic prefix is added to solve this problem.

Cyclic Prefix
— A copy of the signal tail (length TG) is inserted at the

beginning of each OFDM symbol.

— Absorbs multipath components.

Advantages of OFDM
— Spectral efficiency, also called bandwidth efficiency. — More data can be transmitted faster in a given

Disadvantages
— The Peak to Average Power Ratio is the main

disadvantage.

bandwidth in the presence of noise. — The cyclic extension, is the simpler way to eliminate ISI than the time-domain pulse-shaping mechanism used in single carrier systems. — Equalisation is much easier than with single carrier systems which use adaptive filtering. OFDM equalisation is done in the frequency-domain after the FFT.

— The large amplitude variation increases in-band noise

and increases the BER when the signal has to go through amplifier nonlinearities.

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a frequency offset is inevitable and multiple access interference occurs as users’ power leaks into subcarriers bands. in the sense that it has an additional DFT processing preceding the conventional OFDMA processing 2 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.com . combines the low peak-to-average ratio (PAR) of single-carrier and flexible subcarrier frequency allocation offered by OFDM.10/03/2011 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) — (OFDMA) is a multi-user multi-carrier modulation OFDMA — OFDMA employs multiple closely spaced sub-carriers. The sub-carriers that form a sub-channel need not be adjacent. the power allotted to each channel is raised. However. — Different users perceive different channel qualities. — SC-FDMA can be interpreted as a linearly precoded OFDMA scheme. The modulation scheme could gradually shift from 16 QAM to Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) (four channels) and even binary phase shift keying (BPSK) (two channels) at longer ranges. The data throughput drops as the channel capacity and modulation change. As the user moves farther away. but the sub-carriers are divided into groups of subcarriers. but the link maintains its strength. technique. each with their own estimates of the subcarrier frequencies. a deep faded channel for one user may still be favorable to others OFDMA Transmitter and Receiver — A user close to the base station would normally be assigned Xn Subcarrier Mapping Serial to Parallel M-Point IFFT Add CP Parallel to Serial Channel Detect M-Point FFT Remov e CP Subcarrier De-Mapping Parallel to Serial Serial to Parallel a larger number of channels with a high modulation scheme such as 64 QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) to deliver the most data throughput to that user.pdffactory. maintaining orthogonality of the subcarriers is relatively easy. since many users transmit simultaneously. — Each group is named a sub-channel. — OFDMA distributes sub-carriers among several users so that all of them can simultaneously share one OFDM channel. OFDMA Downside — A problem with OFDMA is its high sensitivity to Single-carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) — SC-FDMA is a hybrid modulation scheme that frequency offset . the number of sub channels is re-assigned dynamically to fewer and fewer sub channels. — In OFDMA. — In OFDM since all the frequencies of the subcarriers were generated by one transmitter.

this arrangement reduces considerably the envelope fluctuations in the transmitted waveform. — Therefore. SC-FDMA — There are two approaches to apportioning subcarriers rather than in parallel. — Distributed SC-FDMA: in which the subcarriers used by a user are spread over the entire signal band. mainly due to the fact that they map their input bits to time symbols. Relative to OFDMA. SC-FDMA signals have inherently lower PAPR than OFDMA signals. among users.com . as opposed to OFDM and OFDMA which map them directly to frequency symbols. Localized and Distributed Subcarriers User 1 User 2 SC-FDMA N-Point DFT Subcarri er Mapping Serial to Parallel M-Point IFFT Add CP Parallel to Serial Channel M-Point FFT Remov e CP User 3 N-Point IDFT Subcarrier DeMapping Parallel to Serial Serial to Parallel User 4 Distributed Sub-carriers Localized Sub-carrier Allocation OFDM and OFDMA — SC-FDMA signals PAPRs achieve lower values on average. 3 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. — Localized SC-FDMA (LFDMA): each user uses a set of adjacent subcarriers to transmit its symbols.10/03/2011 SC-FDMA — They transmit the subcarriers symbols sequentially.

10/03/2011 OFDMA and SC-FDMA 4 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.com .pdffactory.