TO IMPROVE THE DURABILITY OF FLAME RETARDANT FINISH ON POLYESTER COTTON BLENDED FABRIC.

By MUHAMMAD KASHIF HAYAT

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Textile Engineering

Department of Textile Processing National Textile University, Faisalabad March 2011

“This copy of the thesis has been supplied on condition that anyone who consults it is understood to recognise that the copyright rests with its author and that no quotation from the thesis and no information derived from it may be published without the prior written consent of the author”

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Abstract
This project was an effort towards improving the durability of flame retardant finish on polyester cotton blended fabric by using a compatible cross linker with the finish. The purpose was to check whether the addition of cross linker to the recipe of flame retardant improves the washing durability of the flame retardant finish on polyester cotton blended fabric. The fabric selected was Polyester Cotton (50/50) blend. In the practical work the samples were treated with different concentrations of both the cross linker and the Flame Retardant. From each recipe the samples were cured at three different temperatures. The purpose of cross linker was to improve the durability and the purpose of varying curing temperatures was to improve the fixation and washing durability. Although the Flame Retardant finish didn’t prove to be durable to washing but some interesting results and conclusions were obtained.

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Dedication

Dedicated to

The Mother Institute of Textiles
National Textile University Faisalabad.

AND
Those who love me for what I am.

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Acknowledgements
Selecting this project was not less than a challenge for me, as in the initial stages I got some discouraging comments from the people around. But after discussing it with the HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Dr. Rashid Masood, I was quite keen to do this project. Mr. Rashid really motivated me by explaining what research is and how brave you have to be without thinking about the results much. I would like to thank Dr. Rashid Masood as he was always very helpful when ever I went to ask for the right direction. As this project was carried out under the supervision of Mr. Qummer Zia, I really want to thank him as he explained me the steps and the guidelines to achieve the project. And last but not the least I would like to thank the Staff of Textile Processing Laboratory, as they were very helpful and polite.

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.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Burning behavior of textiles materials:.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................15 Blend benefits:.19 Experimental..............................................................................................................................21 Materials:.....................................................4 Hazards of textile burning:........................................28 Testing equipment:...................................................................................................................................................................................19 Objective and scope of the project:........16 Significant researchers and their findings:...............3 Theory:..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Area of research:...................47 vi ...................................21 List of chemicals and auxiliaries used:..............29 Methods:.................................................................................................................................Table of Contents Table of Contents.............................................28 Application equipment:.............18 Further identified areas of studies:............................3 The fire triangle:........................................10 History:...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................35 Results..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 Polyester cotton blend:.............................2 Significance of the project:.......................................................................vi Introduction:........................................................46 Summary:.........................14 Cotton:...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................31 Results and discussions:.........................................................19 Scope of the project:..............................6 Mechanism of combustion:.35 Results for tear strength:................................................................................19 Objectives:.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................29 Application methods:.................................................................................................................................16 Flame-retardants under study:...............................................................................................................................................................21 Machinery & equipment:.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Textile flame-retardants:........................................1 Background:....38 Results for Tensile Strength:...............................................................................................................................................................................................29 Testing methods:.................................................................21 Fabric specifications:......................................................................................10 Functioning of flame retardants:.........................1 Research problem:......14 Polyester:.....................................................................15 Blend cons:......................................................................30 Project work plan:................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................42 Overall discussion:............................................15 Literature review:.............................................................................35 Results for Flame Retardancy:..................................................15 Uses:............

....................................................................................................................47 Implications of the findings:.Key findings of the project:........................................................................48 Suggestions for the future work:......................................................................................................48 References:.................................................................49 vii ...............................

2 2. 1.2 3.2 3.1 3.3 Label The LOI values of some common textile fibers The ignition temperatures of some common textile fibers Compatibility Check Design of Experiment Results for Flame Retardancy Results for Tear Strength Results for Tensile Strength Page No 6 7 22 32 34 37 41 viii .List of Tables Table No.1 2.1 1.

1 2.3 3.5 3.2 1.1 3.7 3.9 3.List of figures Figure No.1 1. 1.15 Label Fire Triangle How Fire initiates Combustion cycle for fibers Recipes keeping Flame Retardant Concentration 400 g/l Recipes keeping Flame Retardant Concentration 350 g/l Recipes keeping Flame Retardant Concentration 450 g/l Effect of Flame Retardant on Char Length Effect of Cross Linker on Char Length Effect of Temperature on Char Length Effect of Flame Retardant on Warp wise Tear Strength Effect of Flame Retardant on Weft wise Tear Strength Effect of Cross Linker on Warp wise Tear Strength Effect of Cross Linker on Weft wise Tear Strength Effect of Temperature on Warp wise Tear Strength Effect of Temperature on Weft wise Tear Strength Effect of Flame Retardant on Warp wise Tensile Strength Effect of Flame Retardant on Weft wise Tensile Strength Effect of Cross Linker on Warp wise Tensile Strength Effect of Cross Linker on Weft wise Tensile Strength Effect of Temperature on Warp wise Tensile Strength Effect of Temperature on Weft wise Tensile Strength Page No 4 5 9 33 33 33 35 35 36 38 38 39 39 40 40 42 42 43 43 44 44 ix .13 3.2 2.6 3.8 3.3 3.12 3.14 3.4 3.2 3.11 3.3 2.10 3.

polyamide etc are essentially different from natural fibers like cotton and wool. synthetic fibers already have these easy-care criteria and require only a heat setting operation [3]. While cellulosic's require a resin finishing treatment to impart easy-care properties.Chapter 1 Introduction: Background: Area of research: Textile finishing: In order to impart the required functional properties to the fiber or fabric. Mercerizing. water proof. Hence the finishing sequence is different for both natural and synthetic fiber. The properties of synthetic fibers like polyester. water repellent. singeing. flame retardant. Special finishes for natural fibers: • • • • • • • • • Bio-polishing Mercerisation Raising Peach Finish Fulling Calendering Sanforizing Crease Resist Finishing Anti-Microbial Finishing Flame Retardant Finishing Special Finishes for Synthetic Fibers: • • Heat Setting Filling Process 1 . peach finish etc are some of the important finishes applied to textile fabric [3]. it is customary to subject the material to different type of physical and chemical treatments [14]. antistatic finish.

kids wear etc.e. Different flame retardant finishes work in a number of different ways to disrupt the combustion cycle. which does not propagate the flame. for fire fighters. In order to induce flame retardancy in a fiber or fabric the burning cycle must be interrupted in one or more of the three steps of burning cycle [12]. or fire or simply it does not burn. in space research. polyester fabrics. although it may burn or char when such a fabric is subject to any form of heat [1]. Basically this depends on the type of substrate on which the flame retardant is to be applied and then selecting an appropriate flame retardant for a specific substrate so that best flame retardancy is achieved [12]. This is due to the thermosetting properties of polyester. These stages are to be discussed in the next (Theory) section. The primary objective of giving a durable flame retardant finish on different fabrics i. There are a few stages in flame retardancy or modes of action of flame-retardants. it is absorbed only by cotton not by polyester. 2 . Also cotton is hydrophilic so when a flame retardant finish is applied.• • • • • • Hydrophilic Finishes Anti-Pilling Finish Anti-Static Finish Non-Slip Finishes Flame Retardant Finishing Anti-Microbial Finishing Flame retardant finishing: A flame retardant fabric can be defined as a fabric. The field of applications include defense. Research problem: The gains in textile performance obtained from blending polyester and cotton are not carried over into the flame retardant performance of the textile. industrial area. cellulosic fabrics. p/c blend fabrics etc is to attract various fields.

Now fire. And this is the order of the market. Also the effect of flame-retardants on different properties of pc-blended fabric can be identified in this RESEARCH. which in turn causes nearly all the world's air pollution [1]. Theory: For many years such finishes for textiles there.e. the comfort of cotton. which not affect the handle. which would not burn when exposed to flame or heat. are a growing problem. As mentioned in the RESEARCH problem section due to different natures of cotton and polyester it is quite difficult to induce brilliant flame retardant properties in pc blend fabrics. Also the need to produce effective durable finishes for textiles. comfort. Unwanted fires. provides most of our energy. Fire: Fire is our oldest technology and has been crucial to each step in our development. change in color etc Significance of the project: The main focus in this research is to achieve the same degree of flame retardancy properties in pc blend fabrics as achieved in 100% cotton or 100% polyester alone. through controlled burning. ranging from the burning of textiles to a major fire disaster resulting in hundreds of deaths. Such finishes are called flame retardant finishes. By achieving better flame retardancy properties in pc blend.Due to this better or durable flame retardant results are not achieved on pc blend fabric. The desire for textiles having 3 . Also by the application of flame retardant finish on pc blend certain properties of the fabric are affected i. After the Second World War the flame retardant finishes have become established. this due to the recognition of different hazards of burning of textiles. loss of strength. and aesthetics of the fabric rather impart good flame retardancy in the fabrics. strength of polyester and flame retardancy can be there in a single fabric.

2 Fire Triangle Air (O2) 4 . This is important in terms of how some materials may initially ignite but then form a ‘char layer’ that prevents the formation of further gases and further combustion. Fuel Ignitio n source (Heat) Figure 1. oxygen and heat. Fuel: There must be a source of fuel for any fire to take place. The use of asbestos as flame-resistant material has been recorded in Roman times [3].a reduced tendency to ignite and burn has been recognized for considerable time during man’s recorded history. The fire triangle: For combustion to take place three components are necessary. Oxygen: This is a basic component of combustion. In most cases the fuel does not itself burn (except if it is a gas) but breaks down under the influence of the applied or generated heat to produce combustible volatiles that are then burnt. suitable fuel. Ignition source: The ignition source is needed to heat up the fuel sufficiently to generate volatiles and then to ignite them. In the case of a gas the ignition source can act directly on the gas. These components form the ‘fire triangle’ and removing any one of these components will prevent or extinguish a fire [2].

Fires tend to grow in stages [3]. capable of reacting billions of times faster than ordinary molecules. This starts a chain reaction and the radical concentration increases. but once ignition is reached they grow very quickly. Once the fuel is consumed. This makes the reaction go faster still. the fire decays.2 How Fire initiates Hazards of textile burning: In 1997 a famous incident occurred in Saudi Arabia when fire erupted in a tent during HAJ and many pilgrims were burned due the fire as it was uncontrollable due the 5 .How does fire initiates? At first the fuel molecules react slowly with oxygen. forming even more radicals. Figure 1. As they react. they form unstable radicals. which warms the rest of the material [3]. increasing the radical concentration exponentially. The graph shows that fires start with a slow induction period. Flames contain high radical concentrations. until they are limited by the access of oxygen. reaching a steady state. ignition occurs. generating heat. Radicals are fragments of molecules that are capable of reacting with other stable molecules. When it reaches a certain value.

are widely used as a tool to investigate the flammability of different materials. which describe the tendency of a material to sustain a flame.O. Table 1.I. effectiveness of fire retardants is measured by the change in the critical oxygen 6 . frequently comparing the effectiveness of flame-retardants and flame-retardancy mechanisms. means of determining a numerical measure of flammability. reproducible. of the main textile fibers Textile fiber L.O.1 The LOI values of some common textile fibers L. These methods have been used to systematical investigate the The relative flammabilities of flame-retarded materials. it is clear that all fibers with an LOI lower than this level will burn easily. while those with a higher LOI will tend not to burn [6]. % Wool 25 Cotton 18 Viscose 20 Acetate 18 Triacetate 18 Chlorofibers 48 Acrylic 18 – 20 Modacrylic 22 – 28 Polyester 20 Polyamide 20 Oxygen index methods. So to avoid any hazards there is a requirement of flame retardancy on textiles made up of cotton or any other natural or synthetic material.I. Cotton and cellulosic materials are the mostly flammable but at the same time cotton is used almost in every other textile. Burning behavior of textiles materials: Limiting oxygen index (LOI): The limiting oxygen index is a measure of the percentage of oxygen that has to be present to support combustion of the material [2]. They provide a convenient. After that in 1998 fire retardant tents were used this worked very well [4].burning of tents. As the percentage of oxygen in the air is around 21%.

we may say that an open mesh fabric will burn very readily [7]. The LOI values of some main textile fibers are given in the table. From this difference arises the greater need to treat cellulose fiber materials with flame-retardants. cotton and most cellulose fibers ignite at a temperature about 350 OC while wool has a much higher ignition temperature. Knitted fabrics having air trapped in their loops catch fire more readily than woven fabrics. also called the critical oxygen index (COI) or oxygen index (OI). Fabrics with compact weave. The limiting oxygen index (LOI). high twist yarn and close structures are relatively less flammable. Ignition temperature (oC) 570 – 600 350 420 450 530 > 250 690 480 7 .6 Acrylic Modacrylic Polyester Construction of fabric: The flaming properties of fabric also depend upon its structure and nature of its surface as well. Wool has LOI value higher than the oxygen contents of normal air. Table 1. For example. For the rapid burning of a fabric its fibers must have ready excess to oxygen (air) to allow burning to continue after initial ignition. Generally.concentration that they induce as a function of their concentration. while in fact wool materials are seldom treated [7]. Nature of textile material: Each type of textile fiber will require its own particular form of flame-retardant treatment since various fibers differ in respect of their behavior when exposed to a flame. which suggests that wool fibers are inherently less flammable than most other textile fibers [4].2 the ignition temperatures of some common textile fibers Textile fiber Wool Cotton Viscose Nylon 6 Nylon 6.

carbonaceous char. the fiber undergoes irreversible chemical changes and produces non-flammable gases (carbon dioxide. is achieved. water vapours and higher oxides of nitrogen and sulfur).Also. TC. is reached. producing more nonflammable gases. Mechanism of combustion: In order to understand the mechanisms of flame-retardants. Due to the action of heat. Post. tars (liquid condensates) and flammable gases (carbon monoxide. hydrogen and many oxidisable organic molecules). the mechanism of combustion should be clarified first. It undergoes slow oxidation (also exothermic) and continues to glow until it has been completely burned up [3]. if the fabric surface has been brushed or otherwise given a pile character with a large amount of air trapped between the protruding fiber ends then this will much assist the fabric to burn rapidly. Eventually. the temperature at which rapid pyrolysis is triggered is 300oC [3].combustion: After the repeated cycles of pyrolysis ad combustion. Combustion: The temperature continues to rise and the tar also pyrolyse. the combustion temperature. The heat produced during combustion is used for further pyrolysis of the fiber [3]. Cellulose combustion is a process that occurs in stages: Pyrolysis: When heat is applied. a carbonaceous residue (char) remains [6]. 8 . These are highly exothermic reactions and produce large amount of heat and light. Cotton flannelette is of this type and it will allow the flame to spread exceptionally rapidly over its surface. The protruding fiber ends will burn before the real burning of fabric itself starts [7]. TP. the flammable gases combine with oxygen and a series of gas phase free radical reactions take place. the temperature of the fiber increases until pyrolysis temperature. For cotton. char and flammable gases. In combustion process.

NOX. • An intact zone. . • A carbonaceous zone. H2O.Classification of burning fabric into different zones: A fabric undergoing combustion will present the following zones [13]: • A zone in which there are no longer any flames and only combustion residue (ash) is present. Heat Radiation Non-flammable gases (CO2. SOX) Combustion (TC) Oxygen Flammable gases Liquid condensates.3 Combustion cycle for fibers 9 . glowing but flame-free. • A zone in which initial carbonization is possible to observe and cellulose is undergoing reactions of pyrolysis. Tars Non-flammable gases Char Pyrolysis (TP) Fibre Heat Figure 1. • A burning zone where violent oxidation of flammable gases (a series of reactions) taking place.

and boron [15]. In the plastics industry. moving away from traditional materials such as wood and metals. Functioning of flame retardants: Combustion is an exothermic process and requires three components. These can be separated into several categories: *Minerals such as asbestos.Textile flame-retardants: Flame retardants are materials that inhibit or resist the spread of fire. At this time. While these new materials provided many benefits. antimony trioxide. hydromagnesite. oxygen and suitable fuel. magnesium hydroxide. The effective fire retardants work in a number of ways to disrupt this cycle. heat. red phosphorus. it will continue until any of the three components is depleted. compounds such as aluminium hydroxide. brominated flame retardants were first used in cellulose nitrate which is extremely inflammable [15]. manufacturers of appliances and furniture began such as plastics for appliances and polyurethane foam and fiber-based fillings for furniture. In the early 1970’s.they were far more combustible than the materials they replaced. the increasing use of flammable materials such as plastics in electrical equipment or synthetic fibers in sofas and curtains led to the wider use of flame retardants. However. We broadly classify the working mechanisms of flame-retardants into following two classes [8]. History: Chemical flame retardants have been used since Roman times when they prevented siege towers from catching fire. 10 . Flame Retardants are able to contribute greatly to reducing the risk of fires providing safety in the home and in public places [15]. patented by Obadiah Wilde in 1735 to flame retard canvas for use in theatres and public buildings. they had one problem . various hydrates. Combustion is self-catalyzing and if left unchecked. the first patent on a flame retardant was the British Patent 551.

So. c) Decreasing the formation of Flammable volatiles. Providing heat sink on fiber: In this method we use such materials that thermally decompose through strongly endothermic reactions. no combustion takes place. glassy coating on fibers It’s suitable for cotton and wool and decreases the formation of burnable volatiles by dehydration and carbonization [8]. b) Coating insulating material. These endothermic reactions absorb enough amount of heat and as a result pyrolysis temperature of the fiber is not reached.1) 2) Condensed phase mechanism Gas / vapour phase mechanism Working mechanisms of flame-retardants 1) Condensed phase a) Providing heat sink on fiber. Flame-retardants perform actions on fiber like char formation and promotion. etc. Examples of such compounds are aluminium hydroxide or ‘alumina trihydrate’ and calcium carbonate [8]. Condensed phase mechanism: The condensed phase strategy includes the removal of heat and the enhancement of decomposition temperatures as in heat resistant fibers [13]. Al2O3. 2) Gas / Vapour Phase a) Decreasing access to oxygen / flame dilution.3H2O Al2O3 + 3H2O CaCO3 CaO + CO2 Endothermic decomposition reactions 11 . b) Interfering with flame Chemistry.

these phosphorous esters catalyse the dehydration and prevent the formation of undesired levoglucosan. 2H3BO3 2HBO2 Formation of foamed glass Decreasing the formation of flammable volatiles: The pyrolysis reaction is influenced in such a way that it produces less flammable volatiles and more residual char [4]. In this way fiber is insulated from the applied heat and oxygen [8]. most phosphorous and nitrogen containing flame-retardants work on these bases. boric acid and its hydrated salts are used in this capacity.Coating insulating material: In this approach. they release water vapour and produce a foamed glassy surface on the fiber. Generally. These are low melting point compounds and when heat is applied. This phosphoric acid either by cross linking or by single esterification with cellulose will alter the pyrolysis to yield less flammable volatiles. The phosphorous containing flame-retardants thermally decompose and produce phosphoric acid. a material is applied that forms an insulating layer around the fiber at temperatures below the fiber pyrolysis temperature. 12 . In case of cotton and wool. B2O3 Cross linking with phosphoric acid Actually. which is the precursor of flammable volatile.

350 oC Levoglucosan Thermal degradation of cellulose Gas phase mechanism: In the gas phase mechanism. MX HX + M* {MX is halogen-containing compound} * H + HX H2 + X* HO* + HX RH R* + X* + X* RX H2O R* + X* The materials that act in this mechanism include halogen-containing compounds often in + HX (not flammable) 13 . Halogen containing flame-retardants release halogen halide [4]. These radicals reduce the heat available for perpetuating the combustion cycle. Decreasing access to oxygen / flame dilution: The flame-retardants decrease the access to oxygen and dilute the flame density. and which decrease the oxygen content by flame gas dilution [8]. less reactive free radicals. These halogen halides form relatively long-lived. materials act with free radicals that generate heat for process continuation. combination with antimony oxides [8]. Flame-retardants dilute the flame density either by preventing oxygen access or by enhancing the ignition temperature of gaseous fuels.

made from fibers of both the natural cotton and the synthetic polyester. While both fibers have pros and cons. Halogen containing flame-retardants often in combination with antimony oxides are present in this category. therefore ironing polyester must be done at a cool temperature. a blend is often used in garments to give the consumer the benefits of both. if at all. Threads of polyester last for a long time and wear well. The fiber does not withstand medium to high temperatures and melts and burns at the same time. Sb2PO3 + 6HX SbX3 Sb SbOH SbO + + + + 3H* HO* H* H* 2SbX3 + 3H2O Sb + 3HX SbOH SbO + H2 SbOH SbX2 + X* X* R* + HX RX (not flammable) SbX3 RH R* + + X* Gas phase free radical reactions with antimony Polyester cotton blend: Fabrics made of a polyester cotton blend are exactly what they sound like. so are used for many 14 .Free radical reactions during combustion of halogen (X) containing material Interfering with flame chemistry: Flame-retardants interfere with flame chemistry and/or enhance the temperature at which gaseous fuel ignite. air. Polyester: Polyester is a manmade polymer material. Polyester is a strong fiber that keeps its shape and therefore resists wrinkling. It is made from coal. water and petroleum products.

garments and sewing projects. but also adds the strength. Uses: Polyester cotton blend is mostly used in the garment industry to make clothing that people want to be able to wash and wear without having to iron and that will be tougher than a 100 percent cotton blend and withstand more washing. though dyes do not hold as fast to natural fibers as to the synthetic fibers of polyester. as it most likely retains the coolness and lightness of the cotton fiber. Many people prefer pure cotton to a polyester blend cotton in clothing that they need to breathe. Polyester does not shrink like its natural counterpart and holds dye extremely well. Cotton can withstand high temperatures. A polyester cotton blend should only shrink slightly in comparison to a garment or fabric that is 100 percent cotton. Polyester was extremely popular in the 1950s but since then is used more as a blend than the main fiber used for garments or fabric [1]. It is the principal fiber used in making the world's clothing. cool. Blend cons: Adding polyester to cotton can cause unattractive pilling of the fabric and make the fabric not withstand high temperatures as well." It is also easy to dye and to clean. Blend benefits: A polyester cotton blend can be versatile. Cotton is known for being light. This blend is often preferred by at-home sewers and quilters as it is extremely easy to sew [1]. but bad for stain-removal from polyester items. a good thing for textile artists. but does wrinkle easily and shrinks with washing [1]. Many people describe cotton as a fabric that "breathes. Cotton: Cotton is an all-natural fiber made from the pod of a cotton plant. as the blend does not breathe or stay as cool as pure cotton [1]. Many home sewers 15 . comfortable and absorbent. durability and wrinkle-resistance of polyester.

facilitating processing of plastics containing the product) and for PBT. Dead Sea Bromine Group. ASDC. enabling the material to be self-extinguishing (ignition resistant) and also reducing smoke emissions [10]. thus being fixed into the foam matrix. presented developments in “reactive” brominated flame retardants for fire safety treatment of soft and rigid foams (PUR = polyurethane) for furniture. profiles the market for flame retardant chemicals. Thomas Paulini. Tests show zero leaching of the flame retardant out of the treated foam. CText.prefer polyester cotton blends as it is more forgiving and easy to sew than pure cotton. phosphore flame retardants 24%. Barton discusses the market share of different flame retardants. even with strong 16 . Literature review: Significant researchers and their findings: Peter J. Judi Barton.ati. based on melamine polyphosphate. OF Schill & Seilacher explains the criteria to be considered in the flame retardant treatment of textiles. The market share of Bromine flame retardants is 39%. Wragg CCol. as it wrinkles and shrinks less [1]. Found that FLAMMEX DS is a new. durable flame retardant that is specially designed for the flame proof finishing of polyester. Thomas Futterer. Topical flame retardant treatments will have an increasing role to play in the future [5]. Chemist Fabrik Budenheim Germany. chlorine 6% and melamine 4% [9]. building and other applications. inorganic flame retardants 27%. J. PET (polyamides and thermoplastic polyesters) used particularly in automotive parts. presented recent flame retardancy solutions for PP (polypropylene) based on ammonium phosphates (specially treated to improve thermal stability. There is much to be achieved by using topical treatments to FR treat textiles and Schill & Seilacher believe that they have a proper place in the textile industry. The requirement to control the hazard involved in using textiles must be reconciled with our natural desire to enhance our living and working environments. These flame retardants act by accentuating charring of the plastic surface in contact with a flame. Rudi Borms. If properly applied the product is durable up to 50 launderings or 10 chemical dry cleanings [6]. These molecules react with the foam polymer molecules themselves.

presented a new generation of flame retardants for polyamide polymers (PA66) based on phosphinates. Clariant GmbH. Reiner Saurwein. without “scorching” in application [10]. The most recent developments in such reactive molecules enable fire safety to be achieved whilst offering good material quality (foam flexibility. New ATH products without organic post-treatment but with good powder properties enable good product handling and improved treated polymer viscosity. enabling mineral loadings to be reduced and polymer properties to be improved [11]. durability). considering both natural and synthetic clays. but accelerate the reaching of the peak. being maintained. presented recent developments in mineral flame retardants. Dow Chemicals. The mechanism of fire retardancy of the nano clays is hypothesized as resulting from synergistic accentuation of base polymer charring [10]. The authors presented a new halogen-free V1 flame resistant polystyrene system for TV casings. Lambert of Atofina presented developments in TV fire safety specifications. These authors again indicated that nano clay addition could reduce peak heat release.chemical solvents. also discussed the use of nano particles of clay as a flame retardant additive to plastics. 17 . including electrical non conductivity. rheology and extrudability to be achieved. and also organically treated clays. Sebastian Haröld. These compounds enabled UL94-V0 classification to be achieved in glass fibre reinforced polyamides at relatively low flame retardant addition levels (15-18% by weight) with good mechanical properties. François Minec & P. The organo-clays offered somewhat better flame retardancy properties than either natural or synthetic untreated clays. and useable in manufacturers’ existing polystyrene (HIPS) processing equipment [11]. showing both the importance of quality/characteristics of aluminum hydroxide (ATH) and the potential of flame retardancy synergies with other minerals such as boehmite (aluminum oxide hydrate) and zinc borate. Alexander Morgan. vinyl acetate free polyolefin’s). Boehmite has proven an effective synergist for ATH in certain polymer (e. compatible with injection moulding for demanding applications in the electrical and electronics industries[11]. capable of achieving fire resistance comparable to V0.g. Nabeltec GmbH. but in no case were able to alone achieve UL94-V0 fire safety.

a carbon supplier and an expansion agent. INTUMESCENT SYSTEMS: These consist of an acid source. The effect of the system is based on the formation of a heat insulating. Here chemically bonded water is separated resulting in cooling of the polymer and diluting the combustible gases [7]. There are some other flame-retardants. This way further oxygen supply is stopped [7]. 18 . However the use of certain bromide containing flame retardants is prohibited.Birgit Östman. MINERAL BASED FLAME RETARDANTS: Aluminum or magnesium hydroxides are used as mineral based flame-retardants. They stabilize the bonding of phosphorus in the polymer. Further Cross linked structures are formed supporting carbonization during the combustion process [7]. Trite Sweden. presented ongoing developments in know-how concerning flame retardancy for wood and timber. carbon rich foam layer and on foam expanding or swelling the mixture [7]. Flame-retardants under study: Following basic flame retardant systems are studied: Halogen containing flame retardants: This is the most effective class of flame retardants. There principle of action is that they interfere with the radical chain mechanism that takes place in the gas phase of the combustion process [7]. which are nano composites or products containing borax. NITROGEN CONTAINING FLAME RETARDANTS: These are mainly used together with phosphorus containing flame-retardants. Phosphorus containing flame retardants: This class uses organic and inorganic phosphorus compounds. Ordinary untreated wood will generally achieve Euro Class D for reaction to fire performance [10]. In a fire dehydration takes place and these products form a vitreous layer.

To introduce an application procedure which has less waste. fire fighters etc so achieving flame retardant properties in such articles is of great importance.e. To manufacture such flame retardants. furnishing.e.PERMANENCE OF FLAME-RETARDANTS: Permanence can be achieved by reactant cross linker. in home textiles. 19 . which have little or no halogen. migration or ion-pair bonding [7]. military. gives good results and should be environment friendly. Objective and scope of the project: Objectives: The main and the basic objectives of this project include: • To get better flame retardant properties on P/C blend fabric. should withstand its cleaning and retain its flame resistant property after multiple washes. • The flame retardant PC fabric should have a soft handle after the application of finish. Further identified areas of studies: The main areas that can be studied or looked further in are: To manufacture such flame retardants that give durable flame retardancy on polyester cotton blended articles and also does not affect their properties. • The flame retardant fabric should be durable i. self-cross linker. content and are environmental friendly.e. no yellowing of the fabric • The flame retardant fabric should retain its strength. • The flame retardant PC fabric should retain its color i. Scope of the project: The main advantage attained from this project is there is a wide application of PC blended fabrics i. • The flame retardant should not shrink.

20 . As some of the flame-retardants are not environmental friendly i. Halogen containing flame-retardants. So there is a scope in this project to look into the chemistry and application of flame-retardants to avoid the environmental hazards. Also the properties of the substrate that get modified after the application of Flame retardant finish can be analyzed and compared.The flame retardant properties in pc-blended articles will avoid the hazards of burning.e. Also there is a scope to look into the application of flame retardant finishes.

(Softener) INVADINE PBN (wetting agent) Brief Description of the chemicals and their compatibility table is given on the next page: 21 . Weave: 1/1 Plain Woven Ends/inch: 80 Picks/inch: 56 Count of Warp: 30 Count of Weft: 31 GSM: 100 Width: 96” List of chemicals and auxiliaries used: The major chemicals used during the course of project were • • • • PYROVATEX CP (Flame Retardant) Knittex RCT (Cross Linker) TURPEX CAN. Fabric specifications: Type of Fabric: Bleached 50/50 Polyester-Cotton Bleached Fabric.Chapter 2 Experimental Materials: The substrate used for the application of chemicals was 50/50 polyester/cotton blended fabric.

Compatibility check: Table 2.0 Colorless to light yellow liquid Clear to opalescent liquid 7. Clear.5-6 Physical Form Compatibility Viscous.5-5. Modified dihydroxy ethylene urea Surface-active preparation of ethoxylated fatty alcohol and araliphatic ether alcohol Emulsion of polyalkylene 4.1 Compatibility Check Chemical Name PYROVATEX CP (FLAME RETARDANT) KNITTEX RCT (Cross linking Agent) INVADINE PBN (Wetting Agent) Chemical Constitution Organic phosphorus compound PH (100 g/l) 3.5-9.0-6. Can be used with other finishes to give good cross linking Compatible with different finishes ( as a wetting agent) TURPEX® ACN NEW can be used in combination with most Products commonly used in finishing. Colorless to Yellowish liquid PYROVATEX® CP NEW can be used in combination with Many other finishing agents.5 TURPEX CAN (Softner) 3.5 White to yellowish emulsion 22 .

• Cellulose cross linking agents. Decreasing the formation of Flammable volatiles. As this flame retardant is phosphorus based so it work as a condensed phase flame retardant. Ecology/toxicology: Toxicologically and dermatologic ally tested. The condensed phase strategy includes: a) b) c) USES: Piece goods of native and/or regenerated cellulose fibers and blends with synthetics. a homogeneous distribution in the bath must be guaranteed. (E. • Simple Application.g. Providing heat sink on fiber. Application: Dissolving/diluting: • PYROVATEX® CP NEW durable flame retardant is added to cold water with stirring. 23 . • Cost saving by single-bath application with water repellent finishing. • Textiles finished with PYROVATEX® CP NEW are flame retardant and does not cause initial burning. • Can be combined with other Finishing Additives. are added then.Pyrovatex CP: It is a fiber reactive organic phosphorus compound. for example KNITTEX® CHN or KNITTEX® RCT NEW. for work wear and curtains) Characteristics & benefits: • Effects fast to washing at the boil and dry cleaning due to a chemical bond of PYROVATEX® CP NEW. diluted in water. • After removal of the ignition source these textiles do not or scarcely afterglow or burn. • Under the influence of fire a carbon shield is formed that protects the skin and other parts from heat. Coating insulating material.

24 .• Softeners such as ULTRATEX® FSA NEW or TURPEX® ACN NEW are added diluted with an equal amount of water. • Phosphoric acid (80 or 85 %) serves as catalyst. area weight and construction of the goods as well as on a possible blend with synthetic fibers such as polyester. Process:  Impregnation: • • The goods are impregnated on a pad mangle. if possible. • If the goods are not cured immediately. be processed in a partial vacuum (air extraction).  Curing: • In the curing oven 5 min at 150 °C must be guaranteed. • The goods should. • Wetting agents such as INVADINE® PBN can be added in any dilution with water. Required amount: The required amount of PYROVATEX® CP NEW durable flame retardant depends on the standard to be met. Adequate liquor pick-up is essential (70-90 %). The catalyst is also prediluted with water before filling with cold water to the required liquor volume. they must be prevented from absorbing moisture from the air by being rolled up and wrapped in plastic film. The recommended drying temperature in the first zone is 110 °C The temperature in the other zones should not be higher than 130 °C to minimize migration. depending on weight and construction of fabric  Drying: • • • Drying on stenter should be carried out with maximum overfeed. the type of fiber.

or in a winch. they are washed off in an open width washing machine with not less than 5 boxes. With a continuous process using open width washing machines. they should be slightly alkaline and have a pH of 8–9. • They must be thoroughly rinsed with water to avoid fish odor. The phosphoric acid used as a catalyst for cross linking must be removed from the substrate. alkali must be added in proportion to the rate of fabric throughput. Usually. the goods must remain in the alkaline bath for at least 2 min.• • • In the case of curing on stenter 30 to 60 sec at 170 °C are sufficient. Knittex RCT: Well balanced and highly reactive cross linking agent with low formaldehyde content for easy care finishes with highest effect level at low curing temperatures. Smaller lengths of material can be washed off in a jig. • After neutralizing and rinsing. It is advisable to add 1-2 ml/l H2O2 to the last rinsing bath. • Alkali is added to the washing bath to neutralize the goods and to make the goods alkaline and therefore reduce hydrolysis of the finish during storage of the finished goods.  Washing off: • • The goods should be washed off after curing. • In order to achieve continuous neutralization. Characteristics & benefits: • Special cross linking properties • Very high reactivity • Very good wash-and-wear effects and shrink resistance • Extremely low content of free and releasable formaldehyde 25 . It is advisable to check the curing effect at regular intervals. washing off is indispensable. preferably within 24 h.

Dissolving/Diluting: KNITTEX® RCT cross linking agent can be diluted with cold water. Application: • • • • • • • • Padding with a liquor pick-up of 60–90 % Bath temperature approx. Dissolving/diluting: 26 . Application: The product is normally applied by padding.• The properties are retained even after several washes respectively dry cleaning cycles Application: The product is normally applied by padding. 20 °C On a baker/hot flue (after previous separate drying) Curing: 2–3 min at 130 °C (air temperature) Drying and curing (controlled by fabric temperature) on stenter Curing: 50–70 sec at 130 °C (fabric temperature) or 20–30 sec at 140 °C (fabric temperature) or 10–15 sec at 150 °C (fabric temperature) Curing conditions: Invadine PBN: Special wetting agent for finishing Characteristics & benefits: • Improves wetting speed and penetration of liquor into core of fibers • Higher liquor pick-up in case of synthetic and tight woven cotton fabrics • Improved and more uniform effect level • Despite of its slightly anionic character INVADINE® PBN special processing agent is compatible with products commonly used in finishing.

moist and wet cross linking processes To improve abrasion resistance. shrink proof. Required amount: 5–15 ml/l INVADINE® PBN Turpex CAN new: Softener and additive in resin finishes Uses: Additive and softener for crease-resistant. Dissolving/diluting: • • TURPEX® ACN NEW textile softener can be diluted with cold water. bursting strength. sew-ability on all fabric types Characteristics & benefits: • Increases fiber lubrication • Soft. non-iron.• INVADIN® PBN special processing agent is diluted with an equal amount of cold water. • Pre-diluted product is added first to the bath. 27 . surface smooth handle • Excellent durability to washing and dry cleaning • Improved tear strength. bursting strength and abrasion resistance of finished fabrics • Suitable for all type of resin finishes • Suitable for moist and wet cross linking processes as well FRfinishes with PYROVATEX® in strong acid medium Application: TURPEX® ACN NEW textile softener can be applied by padding. tear strength. wash and wear finishes on natural and regenerated cellulose fibers and their blends with synthetic fibers Suitable for dry. dip spin or minimum application techniques. Dilute TURPEX® ACN NEW textile softener during constant stirring with cold water before adding to the bath.

JAPAN DYEING MACHINE 28 . etc. these products must be pre-diluted. additives. filler.• If combined with cellulose cross linking agents. TURPEX® ACN NEW textile softener should be added last.. OSAKA. LTD. Required amount: Padding 5–60 g/l TURPEX® ACN NEW Application: • • • Padding with a liquor pick-up of 60–90 % Bath temperature: about 20 °C Drying at 110–130 °C Standby flame retardant: APYROL DGC (CHT CHEMICALS) (It is to be applied if a BINDER compatible with it is available in lab) Machinery & equipment: The following equipment and machinery were used: • • • • • • Beakers Stirrer Pippets Funnel Padder Stenter Application equipment: • Laboratory padder manufactured by TSUJI MANUFACTURING CO.

So that there 29 . OSAKA. The drying temperature was set at 130ºC and the time given for drying was 2 minutes for each sample. During the drying process water present in the fabric specimen was evaporated and specimen fully was dried at this stage. LTD. Drying: After padding the sample was taken to stentter for drying. OSAKA. The nip pressure was adjusted by the pressure gear system. JAPAN. JAPAN.• Laboratory stenter manufactured by TSUJI MANUFACTURING CO. LTD. the specimen was placed between the nips of rollers. The extra amount of the liquor was squeezed out of the fabric and required amount picked up. The prepared solution was taken in the trough of the padder and one complete length of fabric was passed through it. OSAKA. The pick-up on the padder was set on 75%. After dipping in the given recipe. Padding: Padding was done on the padder installed at NTU lab manufactured by TSUJI DYEING MACHINE MANUFACTURING CO. The liquor pick up at the padder was set from 70-75%. JAPAN DYEING MACHINE Testing equipment: • • • Flame retardant tester Elmendorf tear strength tester Tear strength tester Methods: Application methods: PAD-DRY-CURE Firstly the recipe was made according to the required concentrations of chemicals. LTD. The stentter installed at NTU LAB is TSUJI DYEING MACHINE MANUFACTURING CO.

Different samples were cured at different temperatures i. The discussion started with the application of FLAME RETARDANTS on polyester 30 . The washing recipe was made with 2 g/l detergent and 5 g/l soda ash.06. Curing: After padding the samples were cured at the stenter. After that another solution was made with 12 g/l soda ash and the same sample was immersed in it for 2 minutes. STRIP • METHOD) FLAME RESISTANCE TESTING METHOD (AATCC TEST METHOD 34-1969) Project Plan: This idea was taken from some of the seniors in NISHAT Textiles mills. Washing/laundering: The fabric samples were washed 5 times before doing the durability testing. 150ºC.D 1424 – 96) TENSILE STRENGTH TESTING METHOD (ASTM . A neutralization solution of liquor ratio with 35 g/l Na2CO3 was made and the fabric sample was immersed in that solution at 60ºC. cross linked with the substrate. Testing methods: • • TEAR STRENGTH TESTING METHOD (ASTM . The samples were cured for 90 seconds each. Then the fabric sample was washed with simple water and at last the sample was rinsed with a solution of 1-2 g/l H2O2 to remove the odor. The fabric was given 30 minutes at 60ºC.must not be any water or moisture during curing process which effect the cross linking of the resin. During the curing process the Finish with the help of cross linker.D5035 . 170ºC and 190ºC.e. Neutralization: After curing the samples were neutralized with in 24 hrs to remove the phosphoric acid used as a catalyst.

All three samples were given 90 seconds curing time. 130ºC. With all these variable concentrations. Concentration of Flame Retardant. The drying temperature was also kept constant i. After discussions with my supervisor and HOD I came to the conclusion that i will try to improve the durability of FLAME RETARDANT on PC blended fabric by using a suitable i) Cross linker and ii) Binder. Total number of recipes was 9.e. The concentration of Flame Retardant was varied from 350 g/l to 450 g/l. curing temperatures total number of samples treated were 27. At that time I was interested in comparing the durability of flame retardant on PC fabric by using cross linker and Binder. After neutralization wash the fabric samples were washed for durability and finally following tests were performed on the samples: • • • Flame Retardancy Tear Strength Tensile Strength 31 . But at the same time it has demand in the market i.e. Concentration of Cross linker was varied from 60 g/l to 80 g/l and the curing temperatures were 150ºC. Project work plan: In my project plan I had three variables i. second one at 170ºC and the third one at 190ºC. Concentration of Cross linker and Curing Temperature. only a suitable cross linker was available with which I carried out my experiments. because it is quite difficult to achieve the FLAME RETARDANT result on a PC blended fabric.e.e. But after searching for chemicals. After curing the samples were neutralized with in 24 hrs. Softener. Phosphoric Acid were kept constant.Cotton fabrics. Three samples were padded with one recipe and then dried at 130ºC for 2 minutes on the stenter. All the other chemical concentrations i. 170ºC and 190ºC. apart from protective clothing in apparel and children wear. After drying first sample was cured at 150ºC.

Design of experiments: Below is the design of the experiment (DOE): Table 2.2 Design of Experiment Flame Retardant g/l 450 350 450 450 400 350 450 350 400 400 350 400 400 350 400 450 450 350 450 350 350 400 450 350 400 400 450 Note: Cross linker g/l 80 70 70 60 70 80 60 70 60 70 80 80 60 80 80 60 80 70 70 60 60 70 70 60 60 80 80 Temperature C 170 190 190 190 150 190 170 150 150 190 150 190 170 170 170 150 190 170 150 150 170 170 170 190 190 150 150 Wetting Agent = 10g/l 32 .

Softener = 15 g/l Phosphoric Acid 25 g/l 33 .

3 Recipes keeping Flame Retardant Concentration 450 g/l 34 .Figure 2.1 Recipes keeping Flame Retardant Concentration 400 g/l Figure 2.2 Recipes keeping Flame Retardant Concentration 350 g/l Figure 2.

Chapter 3 Results and discussions: Results Results for Flame Retardancy: Unwashed: Table 3.1 Results for Flame Retardancy Flame Retardant g/l Cross linker g/l Temperature C Char Length unwashed (cm) After Flame 450 350 450 450 400 350 450 350 400 400 350 400 400 350 400 450 450 350 450 350 350 400 450 350 400 400 450 Note: 80 70 70 60 70 80 60 70 60 70 80 80 60 80 80 60 80 70 70 60 60 70 70 60 60 80 80 170 190 190 190 150 190 170 150 150 190 150 190 170 170 170 150 190 170 150 150 170 170 170 190 190 150 150 12 15 11 12 13 16 10 14 10 11 16 13 10 15 13 11 13 15 12 13 13 13 12 15 12 13 12 No Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Wetting Agent = 10g/l Softener = 15 g/l Phosphoric Acid 25 g/l 35 .

0 12.0 14. Main Effects Plot for Char Length unwash (cm) Data Means 13.e.5 350 400 F lame Retardant g/ l 450 Fig 3.5 12. We can see that by increasing the concentration of cross linker there is a slight decrease in the Flame Retardancy i. The Figure 3.5 Char Length (cm ) 13. Although the unwashed samples showed the Flame Retardancy in acceptable limits but in most of the samples an After Flame was there. less burning.1 Effect of Flame Retardant on Char Length Discussion: The unwashed samples that were tested after neutralization showed Flame Retardancy.2 the relation between the concentration of cross linker and char length is shown.5 13. So from this 36 .Main Effects Plot for Char Length unwash (cm) Data Means 15.5 60 70 Crosslinker g/ l 80 Fig 3.5 Char Length (cm) 14.2 Effect of Cross Linker on Char Length Discussion: In the Figure 3.0 11. increase in char length.0 12.0 13.0 11.e.1 shows that by increasing the concentration of Flame Retardant the char length is decreasing i.5 12.

but then increasing the temperature further more decreases the flame retardancy of the fabric i. Main Effects Plot for Char Length unwash (cm) Data Means 13. Note: The samples which were burnt for testing became more like a membrane after burning. char length increases slightly. Some of the samples were completely burnt.graph we can say that cross linker helps in fixation but at the same time reduces the Flame Retardancy.1 13.9 12. Washed: All the samples were given 5 washes and then tested for flame retardancy.8 12. The appearance of the sample after being burnt was like a mesh with polyester content being burnt and cotton content left. Discussion: Unfortunately not even a single sample turned out to be durable to washing. The above graph shows an irregular pattern where by increasing the temperature to 170ºC decreases the char length i.e. but samples with the higher concentrations of Flame Retardant burnt slowly due to the After Flame. increases the flame retardancy.3 shows the relation between the increasing curing temperatures and the char length.5 150 170 Temperature ºC 190 Fig 3.7 12.e. 37 .6 12.3 Effect of Temperature on Char Length Discussion: The Figure 3.0 Char Length (cm ) 12.

Weft = 2040 Note: Wetting Agent = 10g/l Softener = 15 g/l Phosphoric Acid 25 g/l 38 .2 Results for Tear Strength Flame Retardant g/l 450 350 450 450 400 350 450 350 400 400 350 400 400 350 400 450 450 350 450 350 350 400 450 350 400 400 450 Cross linker g/l 80 70 70 60 70 80 60 70 60 70 80 80 60 80 80 60 80 70 70 60 60 70 70 60 60 80 80 Temperature ºC 170 190 190 190 150 190 170 150 150 190 150 190 170 170 170 150 190 170 150 150 170 170 170 190 190 150 150 Tear Strength (g) Warp Weft 1480 1520 1480 1640 1820 1440 1520 1780 2000 1720 1640 1480 1840 1480 1560 1550 1200 1580 1440 2460 2020 1520 1440 1400 1380 1840 1920 1320 1180 1200 1040 1360 1100 1380 1340 1440 1300 1280 1160 1520 1140 1380 1100 900 1220 1240 1800 1620 1360 1260 1280 1160 1440 1520 * Untreated fabric tear strength: Warp = 2440.Although no significant results were obtained from the tests after washing but still the conclusions obtained from these tests can help in future studies on Polyester Cotton Flame Retardant fabrics. Results for tear strength: Table 3.

5 Effect of Flame Retardant on Weft wise Tear Strength Discussion: 39 .Main Effects Plot for Tear Strength(Warp) Data Means 1700 Tear Strength (g) 1650 1600 1550 1500 350 400 F lame Retardant g/ l 450 Fig 3. At higher concentrations of the finish the strength loss is high.4 shows the relation between the concentrations of Flame Retardant and Warp Tear Strength of the Fabric. Main Effects Plot for Tear Strength(Weft) Data Means 1340 1320 Tear Strength (g) 1300 1280 1260 1240 1220 1200 350 400 F lame Retardant g/ l 450 Fig 3. It can be seen in the above graph that on increasing the concentration of Flame Retardant there is a loss in the Warp Tear Strength of the Fabric.4 Effect of Flame Retardant on Warp wise Tear Strength Discussion: The Figure 3.

The Figure 3.6 Effect of Cross Linker on Warp wise Tear Strength Main Effects Plot for Tear Strength(Weft) Data Means 1375 1350 Tear Strength (g) 1325 1300 1275 1250 60 70 Crosslinker g/ l 80 Fig 3.5 shows the relation between the concentrations of Flame Retardant and Weft Tear Strength of the fabric. On increasing the concentration of Flame Retardant the Weft Tear Strength decreases and on higher concentrations the strength is the most. 40 .6 & 3. Main Effects Plot for Tear Strength(Warp) Data Means 1750 Tear Strength (g) 1700 1650 1600 1550 60 70 Crosslinker g/ l 80 Fig 3. All the values of Weft tear strength are less than the Warp Tear strength.7 shows the relation between the concentrations of cross linker and Warp and Weft tear strength respectively.7 Effect of Cross Linker on Weft wise Tear Strength Discussion: The Figures 3.

8 & 3.It can be seen in the graphs that Warp Strength values are much higher than the Weft strength values. Main Effects Plot for Tear Strength(Warp) Data Means 1850 1800 Tear Strength (g) 1750 1700 1650 1600 1550 1500 150 170 Temperature ºC 190 Fig 3. But in both the graphs on increasing the concentration of cross linker the tear strength of both warp and weft decreases. It can be seen in the graphs that on increasing the curing temperature from 150 to 170ºC.8 Effect of Temperature on Warp wise Tear Strength Main Effects Plot for Tear Strength(Weft) Data Means 1400 1350 Tear Strength (g) 1300 1250 1200 1150 150 170 Temperature ºC 190 Fig 3.9 shows the relation between the increasing curing temperature and warp and weft tear strength of the fabric respectively. the strength loss is more on warp of the fabric compared to the strength loss on weft of the fabric. But in both the cases on increasing the curing temperature 41 .9 Effect of Temperature on Weft wise Tear Strength Discussion: The Figures 3.

And on higher curing temperatures i. Results for Tensile Strength: Table 3.e.strength loss is lost. 190º C the strength loss is the most.3 Results for Tensile Strength Flame Retardant g/l 450 350 450 450 400 350 450 350 400 400 350 400 400 350 400 450 450 350 450 350 350 400 450 350 400 400 450 Cross linker g/l 80 70 70 60 70 80 60 70 60 70 80 80 60 80 80 60 80 70 70 60 60 70 70 60 60 80 80 Temperature ºC 170 190 190 190 150 190 170 150 150 190 150 190 170 170 170 150 190 170 150 150 170 170 170 190 190 150 150 Tensile Strength (kg) Warp Weft 36 22 30 21 34 22 31 18 36 18 31 20 34 20 34 23 34 22 31 23 33 22 33 22 32 21 32 21 34 20 33 22. Weft = 24 Note: Wetting Agent = 10g/l Softener = 15 g/l Phosphoric Acid 25 g/l 42 .5 33 21.5 * Untreated fabric Tensile Strength: Warp = 33.5 32 22 35 18 30 19 28 23 35 21 34 21 28 22 31 20 37 22 38 21.

0 20.0 31.9 20.5 32.11 Effect of Flame Retardant on Weft wise Tensile Strength Discussion: The Figures 3.8 20.0 350 400 F lame Retardant g/ l 450 Fig 3.11 shows the relation between the Flame Retardant concentration and Warp and Weft Tensile Strength of the fabric.2 21.10 & 3.Main Effects Plot for Tensile Strength (Warp) Data Means 34. 43 .4 Tensile Strength (kg) 21. It can be seen in the above two graphs that on increasing the concentration of flame retardant the Warp tensile Strength increases while the Weft tensile strength decreases.3 21.10 Effect of Flame Retardant on Warp wise Tensile Strength Main Effects Plot for Tensile Strength (Weft) Data Means 21.0 32.5 31.7 350 400 F lame Retardant g/ l 450 Fig 3.5 34.5 33.5 21.1 21.0 Tensile Strength (kg) 33.

9 20.0 60 70 Crosslinker g/ l 80 Fig 3.4 21.5 31.Main Effects Plot for Tensile Strength (Warp) Data Means 34.0 20. The increase in the Warp tensile strength is more as compared to the increase in Weft tensile Strength. It can be seen in both graphs that tensile strength increases with the increasing amount of cross linker.5 33.13 Effect of Cross Linker on Weft wise Tensile Strength Discussion: The Figures 3.0 32.3 Tensile Strength (kg) 21.5 34.5 32.12 & 3.0 31.1 21.0 Tensile Strength (kg) 33.2 21. 44 .8 60 70 Crosslinker g/ l 80 Fig 3.13 shows the relation between the concentrations of cross linker and Warp and Weft Tensile strength of the fabric.12 Effect of Cross Linker on Warp wise Tensile Strength Main Effects Plot for Tensile Strength (Weft) Data Means 21.

90 150 170 Temperature ºC 190 Fig 3.20 Tensile Strength (kg) 21.95 20.5 31.10 21. on increasing the temperature the weft tensile strength increases but on further increases the Weft tensile strength decreases.0 150 170 Temperature ºC 190 Fig 3. In case of warp tensile strength the tensile strength decreases by increasing the curing temperature.Main Effects Plot for Tensile Strength (Warp) Data Means 34. In case of Weft tensile strength an irregular graph is obtained.0 32.05 21.15 Effect of Temperature on Weft wise Tensile Strength Discussion: The Figures 3. 45 .5 33.5 32.14 & 3.5 34.15 21.0 Tensile Strength (kg) 33.00 20.25 21.15 shows the relation between the increasing curing temperature and Warp and Weft tensile strength of the fabric.14 Effect of Temperature on Warp wise Tensile Strength Main Effects Plot for Tensile Strength (Weft) Data Means 21.0 31.

The increasing curing temperatures do help in fixation but at the same time a lot of strength loss occur and even the fabric becomes yellow. higher finish concentrations and higher curing temperatures don’t help much in making the fabric durable to washing. This is because cross linking of the finish with the fabric makes the polymer chains brittle and hence they are easy to tear. But in case of tensile strength the surface coating due to the cross linking of finish increases the tensile strength of the fabric. values and graphs it has been observed that Flame Retardant applied to the Polyester Cotton blended fabric (50/50) gives some resistance to burning before washing. By increasing the Flame retardant concentrations the fabric Flame retardancy does improve but at the cost of loss in tear strength. The cross linker used also reduces the tear strength but at the same time both Flame Retardant and cross linker when fixed to the fabric increases the Tensile strength of the fabric.Overall discussion: From all the test results. But after neutralization wash this yellowness of the fabric reduces. Overall adding a cross linker to the Flame Retardant finish doesn’t help much in increasing its durability and at the same time gives strength loss 46 . The cross linker.

• The Finish applied to the Polyester Cotton blended fabric can give Non durable finish on the fabric. Pyrovatex CP can only help finish to crosslink with the cotton content of the fabric.Chapter 4 Summary: Key findings of the project: Though the Flame retardant finish didn’t prove to be durable on Polyester Cotton blended fabric after washing. 70g/l Cross Linker and 170 ºC curing temperature. The best results were obtained at 450 g/l Flame Retardant. but still there were some findings and conclusions made from this project: Addition of the cross linker to the Flame Retardant recipe i. • Overall the addition of a cross linker and raising the curing temperatures doesn’t really help in improving the durability of the fabric and also reduces the strength of the fabric. • The fabric when burnt gives a mesh like appearance. 47 . • • After the neutralization wash. • Increasing the Concentrations of both Flame Retardant and cross linker results in strength loss of the fabric. the fabric didn’t burn at once but due to the after flame. the yellowness of the fabric was reduced.e. • Increasing curing temperatures also reduces the strength of fabric and makes the fabric yellowish at higher curing temperatures. half of the content being burnt and half of the content remaining. • In some recipes where the concentration of Flame Retardant was high.

• The finish should be applied with a suitable binder to check if it improves durability.Implications of the findings: As polyester cotton blended fabric is mostly used in apparel and kids wear. But still work should be carried on to make the polyester cotton blended fabrics to make them durable to washing because there is a demand of such fabrics these days in apparel and kids wear industry. drying and curing it. can not withstand washing. Suggestions for the future work: As the two fibers Polyester and Cotton differ a lot in their properties and Nature. But this can only give a non durable finish. this finish can be applied on polyester cotton blended fabrics which are to be used for such purposes. I have the following suggestion for future work: • Instead of adding other auxiliaries with the finish. After curing the fabric should be padded again with the finish suitable for polyester and then giving the required drying and curing. Keeping these properties and the try I have made to make the Flame Retardant finish durable on Polyester Cotton Blended fabric. 48 . Though the process will prove to be an expensive one but it gives some acceptable results. • A two bath process can be done too. the chemistry of the finish should be looked into and work should be done to make a durable finish for Polyester Cotton Blended fabric. with first padding the fabric with the finish suitable for cotton. also the ignition temperature of cotton is 350ºC where as the ignition temperature of polyester is 480.

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