United States Africa Command Public Affairs Office 10 March 2011

USAFRICOM - related news stories

TOP NEWS RELATED TO U.S. AFRICA COMMAND AND AFRICA Ham takes over command at AFRICOM (Stars and Stripes) (Germany) Gen. Carter F. Ham took over leadership Wednesday of U.S Africa Command, at a time when civil revolts and political instability rattle the continent for which he will oversee U.S. military engagements. US Military's Africa Command Gets New Chief (VOA) (Germany) The founding commander of the U.S. military's Africa Command has retired after a nearly 40-year military career, saying the role of militaries in the current North African unrest is evidence of the value of building the kind of relationships the command was established to promote. Ham assumes command of AFRICOM (US Army Africa) (Germany) Gen. William E. ´Kipµ Ward passed the colors of U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) to Secretary of Defense Robert Gates relinquishing command to his friend, Gen. Carter F. Ham, today in a ceremony at the Stadthalle in Sindelfingen, Germany. U.S. evacuation mission in Tunisia pauses (Stars and Stripes) Eight U.S. military flights have carried 640 Egyptians home as part of the international effort to repatriate tens of thousands of refugees who fled to Tunisia after violence broke out between government forces and rebels in Libya. `Strong institutions essential for effective disaster risk reduction` (IPP Media) (Tanzania) The United States African Command (Usafricom) in partnership with the government of Tanzania supported by the centre for disaster and humanitarian assistance medicine (CDHAM) and Usaid is holding a week-long conference to address the importance of readiness in combating disaster risks in Africa. On Libya, Obama willing to let allies take the lead (Washington Post) (Libya) President Obama is content to let other nations publicly lead the search for solutions to the Libyan conflict, his advisers say, a stance that reflects the more humble tone he has sought to bring to U.S. foreign policy but one that also opens him to criticism that he is a weak leader.

White House defends Libya stance, debates options (Reuters) (Libya) The White House on Wednesday strongly defended its response to the turmoil in Libya, insisting it has taken "dramatic action" and rebutting criticism that its consensus-based approach is too cautious. Gasoline Surges as U.S. Supplies Drop, Libya Unrest Escalates (Bloomberg) (Libya) Gasoline surged as U.S. supplies fell the most in 29 months and Libyan oil output was disrupted, increasing speculation that unrest may spread around the region and threaten global oil shipments. The Case for a No-Fly Zone (NYT Op-Ed) (Libya) For all the hand-wringing in Washington about a no-fly zone over Libya, that·s the verdict of Gen. Merrill McPeak, a former Air Force chief of staff. He flew more than 6,000 hours, half in fighter aircraft, and helped oversee no-fly zones in Iraq and the Adriatic, and he·s currently mystified by what he calls the ´wailing and gnashing of teethµ about imposing such a zone on Libya. Obama condemns 'abhorrent' violence in Ivory Coast (AFP) (Ivory Coast) President Barack Obama on Wednesday condemned "abhorrent" violence in the Ivory Coast, saying the United States was deeply concerned about escalating clashes that have left scores dead. African Presidents Facing Tough Decisions on Ivory Coast, Libya (VOA) (Pan Africa) Several African heads of state are meeting in Addis Ababa (Wednesday and Thursday) to consider responses to two of the continent·s most vexing challenges, Ivory Coast and Libya. The organization·s credibility, and a chunk of its financing, are on the line. South Sudanese Army Says 60 Died in Clashes With Rebel Militia in Jonglei (Bloomberg) (Sudan) Southern Sudan·s army said 60 people died when it captured the headquarters of a rebel militia in Jonglei state. U.S. condemns violence in contested Sudanese region (Reuters) (Sudan) The United States urged leaders in north and south Sudan on Wednesday to curb violence in the country's contested Abyei region and to meet as soon as possible to resolve its final status. UN News Service Africa Briefs Full Articles on UN Website y Parties to Western Sahara dispute conclude another round of UN-convened talks y Top UN aid official stresses need for civilian protection in DR Congo y Tanzania set to benefit from UN loan to boost rural economic activity

y Six high-ranking Kenyans summoned by International Criminal Court y UN steps up food distributions to drought-hit Somali capital ------------------------------------------------------------------------UPCOMING EVENTS OF INTEREST: WHEN/WHERE: Wednesday, March 16, 2011; 9:30 am to 4:00 pm; The Brookings Institute WHAT: Defense Challenges and Future Opportunities WHO: Peter W. Singer, Director, 21st Century Defense Initiative; Ted Piccone, Senior Fellow and Deputy Director of Foreign Policy; COL Timothy McKernan, ExxonMobile SC Corp Fellow and 13 additional DOD/Brookings panelists. Info: http://www.brookings.edu/events/2011/0316_defense_challenges.aspx ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------FULL ARTICLE TEXT Ham takes over command at AFRICOM (Stars and Stripes) By John Vandiver March 9, 2011 STUTTGART, Germany ³ Gen. Carter F. Ham took over leadership Wednesday of U.S Africa Command, at a time when civil revolts and political instability rattle the continent for which he will oversee U.S. military engagements. Ham, who commanded U.S. Army Europe in nearby Heidelberg, replaced Gen. William ´Kipµ Ward, who has led AFRICOM since its inception in 2007. ´I know we will face many challenges,µ Ham said during the ceremony, which was presided over by Defense Secretary Robert Gates, who flew in after his two-day visit to Afghanistan. ´Some of them we see very clearly today, while others will merge in unexpected ways and unexpected places. I remain wholly confident the AFRICOM team will meet each and every one of those challenges.µ Ham must deal with political turmoil across the northern part of Africa, including Algeria and Tunisia, where U.S. Africa Command maintains long-standing direct military relations. If the international community decides to take action in Libya and enforce a no-fly zone, AFRICOM would likely be a key player in the planning and execution of the mission. Meanwhile, trouble persists in the east around the Horn of Africa, most notably in Somalia, where al-Qaida linked Islamic insurgents and pirates offshore operate with impunity. In central Africa, menaces such as the Lord·s Resistance Army ³ a rebel group known for abducting child soldiers ³ continue to be a destabilizing force.

´There might be a few things on the plate right now,µ Marine Gen. James Cartwright, vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, joked during the ceremony. Ham will need to balance competing security interests while reassuring many in Africa that the U.S. does not seek to militarize foreign policy on the continent ³ an accusation that has hounded AFRICOM since its inception four years ago. ´Some feared the command represented the first steps to a major U.S. military presence in Africa,µ Gates said. ´As I said then and still believe, crime, terrorism, natural disasters, economic turmoil, ethnic fissures and disease can be just as destabilizing as traditional military threats. We need to fuse old concepts of security with new concepts of how security, stability and development go hand in hand.µ During much of his tenure as AFRICOM chief, Ward went to great lengths to explain his vision for AFRICOM to leery audiences across the African continent. During his frequent trips, Ward repeatedly made two points: AFRICOM will not set up military bases, and the command does not seek to dominate the countries with whom it works. While there are still critics, Ward has said he believes that some of the early skepticism has faded. On Thursday, Ward pointed to the current unrest in Libya as a justification for the work AFRICOM does. ´Where we·ve had those sustained relationships, we see the military behaving in a way that contributes to the stability of a society as opposed to not,µ said Ward, referring to nations such as Tunisia, which didn·t use a heavy hand during the recent political uprising. ´And where that has not been the case, militaries are contributing to that additional instability. ´To say it is not important for us to be engaged in a sustained way over time, look around,µ he said. ---------------------US Military's Africa Command Gets New Chief (VOA) By Al Pessin March 09, 2011 (Stuttgart) The founding commander of the U.S. military's Africa Command has retired after a nearly 40-year military career, saying the role of militaries in the current North African unrest is evidence of the value of building the kind of relationships the command was established to promote. It was an emotional ceremony for General William Ward as he completed more than three years at Africom. He told several-hundred people at the change-of-command

ceremony that his operation has expanded military cooperation with many African countries, including new joint military exercises. In recent weeks, Africom has been engaged in its first operational assignment, helping to evacuate foreigners from Libya and delivering humanitarian supplies to refugees in Tunisia. The command has also had a key role in preparing what officials call a "full range of options" in case President Barack Obama orders military intervention in Libya. But General Ward said the routine work in Africa by U.S. troops - training and humanitarian assistance - has convinced many African skeptics the new command would not be a threat. He said what he called "sustained engagement" has proved its value dramatically in recent weeks. "There is no greater evidence of that today than what's going on the northern tier of this continent. Where we have had those sustained relationships, we see militaries behaving in a way that contributes to the stability of a society as opposed to not,µ Ward said. ´And where that has not been the case, militaries are contributing to that additional instability." Ward was apparently referring to Egypt, where a military very close to the United States acted with restraint and facilitated a smooth transition, and Libya, where a military cut off from the United States has fractured, and some units are firing on their own people. U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates told the gathering General Ward and his team demonstrated the creation of Africa Command would not result in more U.S. military action on the continent or cause the militarization of U.S. policy toward Africa. He also referred to the uprisings in the North. "In North Africa, we see people fighting for political change from a revolution in Libya to Southern Sudan, a new nation coming into being. Throughout the region, nations are struggling to give their fast-growing populations liberty, basic necessities and greater opportunities while fighting the scourges of terrorism, corruption and piracy. Africom must continue its role in promoting this progress, preventing conflict and bolstering basic stability," Gates said. The new commander of Africa Command, General Carter Ham, said he intends to maintain the approach General Ward established. "The longer I serve, the more I believe relationships with our partners are what really matters and really enables us to achieve our objectives. I believe we are most successful when we help find African solutions to African security challenges. And I know we will face many challenges. Some of those we can see very clearly today, while others will emerge in unexpected ways and in unexpected places," he said.

General Ham has been the commander of U.S. Army forces in Europe for the past twoand-a-half years, and has had a variety of command and Pentagon assignments. Most recently, he co-led the defense department's analysis of the potential impact of allowing homosexuals to serve openly in the U.S. military. That process led to the approval of a law that is expected to lift the ban this year, once the military services have conducted a planned training program. Africa Command supervises all U.S. military engagement in Africa, except for Egypt, but it has no operational troops assigned to it, as other U.S. regional commands do. It borrows troops from other areas, particularly Europe, when it has training or other missions to perform. It is also responsible for the joint U.S. military task force in Djbouti. The command has a unique military and civilian structure, designed to enable multidisciplinary interaction with the continent's 53 countries. The command has about 2,000 people, half of them civilians, and only 100 stationed permanently at cooperation offices in African countries. -----------------------------Ham assumes command of AFRICOM (US Army Africa) By U.S. Army Africa Public Affairs Offuce ShareThis 9 March 2011 VICENZA, Italy ³ Gen. William E. ´Kipµ Ward passed the colors of U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) to Secretary of Defense Robert Gates relinquishing command to his friend, Gen. Carter F. Ham, today in a ceremony at the Stadthalle in Sindelfingen, Germany. Ward·s passing of the colors marks the completion of nearly 3 1/2 years of a noble and shared venture with the Nation's newest Combatant Command. Ham takes command of AFRICOM following 2 ½ years as Commanding General of United States Army European Command and 7th Army. Africa is important to U.S. national security interests, Ham said during a confirmation hearing with the Senate Armed Services Committee in November 2010. "These interests," Ham said, "include concerns over violent extremist activities, piracy, illicit trafficking, Africa's many humanitarian crises, armed conflict, and more general challenges such as the effect of HIV/AIDS." AFRICOM has a role in addressing each of these issues, Ham said, as the military component of a U.S. whole-of-government approach.

However, "the key remains that Africa's future is up to Africans," the general said. AFRICOM, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany, focuses on synchronizing hundreds of activities inherited from three regional commands that previously coordinated U.S. military relations in Africa. Ham·s career includes serving as an enlisted Infantryman in the 82nd Airborne Division before attending John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio. He was commissioned in the Infantry as a Distinguished Military Graduate in 1976. His military service has included assignments in Kentucky, Ohio, California, Georgia, Italy and Germany to name a few. He has also served in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Macedonia and Iraq. He has held a variety of positions to include Recruiting Area Commander; Battalion Executive Officer at the National Training Center; Advisor to the Saudi Arabian National Guard Brigade; Commander, 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry; Chief of Staff, 1st Infantry Division; Commander, 29th Infantry Regiment; commander, Multi-National Brigade, Mosul, Iraq; Commander, 1st Infantry Division; Director for Operations, J-3, The Joint Staff, Washington, D.C. His military education includes the Armor Officers Advanced Course, Naval College of Command and Staff, graduating with distinction, and the U. S. Air Force·s Air War College. Ham's awards and decorations include Army Distinguished Service Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal with three oak leaf clusters, the Legion of Merit with two oak leaf clusters, the Bronze Star Medal, and the Joint Service Commendation Medal. --------------------------------U.S. evacuation mission in Tunisia pauses (Stars and Stripes) By Seth Robbins March 8, 2011 Eight U.S. military flights have carried 640 Egyptians home as part of the international effort to repatriate tens of thousands of refugees who fled to Tunisia after violence broke out between government forces and rebels in Libya. On Saturday and Sunday, three Air Force C-130 transport planes and one Marine KC130 ferried the Egyptians from Djerba, Tunisia, to Cairo. By Tuesday afternoon, however, no more evacuation flights had been scheduled, though the cargo planes remained ready at Naval Support Activity Souda Bay on the island of Crete, said Lt. Col. Charles ´Docµ Schlegel, commander of the 435th Air Mobility Squadron.

´We are posturing ourselves to any changes in the humanitarian crisis,µ Schlegel said by phone. ´Things are changing rapidly and we are ready to respond to any requests that are made.µ Violence between rebel forces and those loyal to Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi has spurred an exodus out of the North African nation. About 100,000 people, a majority foreign workers, have fled to Tunisia. So far 40,000 Egyptians have returned home from Tunisia, with a few thousand remaining. But Tuesday, there were still as many as 10,000 Bangladeshis awaiting evacuation at refugee camps. According to the spokesman for the United Nations refugee agency, there is a severe shortage of long-haul flights to repatriate them. Schlegel said the Air Force·s C-130s had not been called upon to repatriate anyone other than the Egyptians, but they could do so if they were asked by the State Department or U.S. Africa Command, which is in charge of military operations. ´We would be postured to fly out other nationalities,µ he said, ´if we were requested to do that.µ Other nations with large foreign-worker populations in Libya, such as India and China, have completed successful evacuations. Since President Barack Obama outlined his plans to help those fleeing the conflict in Libya, U.S. Africa Command, the State Department, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance have been working to provide humanitarian assistance. Several Ramstein units have been tasked with air support and logistics, including the 37th Airlift and Air Mobility Squadrons, the 17th Air Force and the 435th Contingency Response Group. ´The president made the announcement Thursday, and we were out the door the next morning.µ Schlegel said. ´A lot of people have been working behind the scenes to make it all possible.µ -----------------------------`Strong institutions essential for effective disaster risk reduction` (IPP Media) By Khalfan Said 9th March 2011 Minister of State in the Prime Minister`s Office, William LukuviThe Minister of State in the Prime Minister·s Office, William Lukuvi, has said strong institutions are essential in realising the success of sustainable disaster risk reduction. The minister made a remark, when opening the 2011 Tanzania national government pandemic disaster response exercise in Arusha on Monday.

The United States African Command (Usafrico) in partnership with the government of Tanzania supported by the centre for disaster and humanitarian assistance medicine (CDHAM) and Usaid is holding a week-long conference to address the importance of readiness in combating disaster risks in Africa. ´It is only 20 days ago, when we had a very bad accident of explosions at a military base in Dar es Salaam. Every time we have disasters, our mechanisms for preparedness are tested. So, we have found out that there is still lack of requisite mechanisms for effective response,µ the minister noted. He said in order to address legal and institutional weaknesses the government had already taken some measures, which include the formulation of the Disaster Management Policy in 2004. Guest speakers spoke on how important disaster preparedness and response was to the security of Tanzania. During his welcoming remarks, the chief of Security Cooperation for the US Embassy to Tanzania, Lt-Col Kevin Balisky, said US Army discussed the critical importance of cooperation between national militaries and civil authority leaders, as well as international organisations, non-governmental organisations and other civil society groups, all of whom must work together to mitigate and recover from a pandemic disaster. He said the exercise itself was an example of the power of collaboration. It was hosted by the government of Tanzania, organised by the US Africa Command based in Stuttgart, Germany, supported by the Centre for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine. The five-day event brings together over 100 professionals from diverse organisations such as the World Food Programme, the National Disaster Operations Centre in Kenya, the National Emergency Management Agency of Nigeria, the World Health Organisation, the Ghana Ministry of Defence, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN and Unicef. ´This exercise is designed to strengthen the government of Tanzania·s national preparedness and response plan, which will be the guiding document during a severe pandemic complex emergency,µ Balisky said. --------------------On Libya, Obama willing to let allies take the lead (Washington Post) By Scott Wilson

March 9, 2011; 9:21 PM President Obama is content to let other nations publicly lead the search for solutions to the Libyan conflict, his advisers say, a stance that reflects the more humble tone he has sought to bring to U.S. foreign policy but one that also opens him to criticism that he is a weak leader. The tactic is anathema to many conservatives and worries some liberal interventionists, who believe that only overt American authority can assemble an effective opposition to brutal authoritarian governments such as that of Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi. Although Obama sees advantages in keeping Washington in the background, especially in a region where the United States is held in such low regard, he has exposed himself to Republican charges that he is absent at a time of crisis. Conservatives say his one-ofthe-team approach could also signal a decline in American fortitude after nearly a decade of war. Since the uprising began, Obama has devoted just one set of public remarks solely to the situation in Libya, where fighting has reached a harsh stalemate. European nations have taken the lead in drafting a no-fly zone resolution, and Obama has yet to say whether he favors one. He followed France in calling for Gaddafi's ouster. At a Wednesday meeting of Obama's senior national security officials, little support emerged for the immediate imposition of a no-fly zone, according to an administration official who spoke on condition of anonymity to describe internal deliberations. Jamming Libyan government communications and deploying U.S. naval assets to help deliver humanitarian aid were among the most favored near-term options, the official said, adding that "at any time facts on the ground could change, but the intelligence assessment now dispels the idea that a no-fly zone is the key here." Obama's caution has been dictated in part by the challenge in dealing with one of the world's most hermetic countries and the fluid situation on the ground. The administration knows little about Libya's well-armed rebels, cannot predict the political system that might replace Gaddafi's bizarre rule, and faces an array of military options to stop the fighting. Obama's advisers say his low public profile masks the administration's active private diplomacy, which has helped produce strong financial sanctions against Gaddafi's inner circle, and the central U.S. role in military planning underway at NATO, whose defense ministers meet Thursday to consider next steps. "This is the Obama conception of the U.S. role in the world - to work through multilateral organizations and bilateral relationships to make sure that the steps we are

taking are amplified," said Ben Rhodes, the deputy national security adviser for strategic communications. "Maybe this is a different conception of U.S. leadership. But we believe leadership should galvanize an international response, not rely on a unilateral U.S. response." For decades, U.S. presidents have been pressed to choose between intervening in foreign crises or ignoring them. Both paths have led to political risks for recent presidents, whose records are influencing Obama's response to the violence in Libya. Anthony H. Cordesman, who holds the Arleigh A. Burke Chair in Strategy at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, said that "there's always going to be a demand for the United States to take immediate action, but it is not always the right thing to do." "Unfortunately, as president, ultimately your reasons don't matter," he said. "It's whether you succeed or fail that does." Bill Clinton was criticized for standing by during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda and waiting for years to use force in the Balkans. He finally did so in Kosovo without a U.N. Security Council resolution, a case that is being examined by European countries and the Obama administration as they decide how to proceed in Libya. George W. Bush took that unilateral approach even further following the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks. The Bush administration failed to secure a Security Council resolution before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and generally found international institutions more confining than useful in addressing America's post-Sept. 11 problems. Obama, by contrast, is closely consulting his European counterparts and at times following their lead. French President Nicolas Sarkozy was the first leader of a major country to call for Gaddafi's ouster. Obama did so the next day in a phone call with German Chancellor Angela Merkel and spoke his position publicly five days later, clearly aligning the United States with Libya's opposition. "Having called on Gaddafi to leave, I think it would be hard for the administration to back away from the crisis if that goal remains unmet," said Tom Malinowski, the Washington director of Human Rights Watch, who said doing so would risk sending a message to other autocrats that they can use violence to maintain power. How Obama intends to use American power to achieve that goal has yet to be determined. Britain and France are drafting the no-fly zone resolution for possible consideration by the Security Council. But it remains unclear where Obama stands on the issue, which has only mixed support on Capitol Hill.

Sen. John F. Kerry (D-Mass.), the Senate Foreign Relations Committee chairman whose public statements often reflect administration policy,called Sunday for a no-fly zone, but White House Chief of Staff William Daley criticized advocates of the idea for referring to a no-fly zone as if it were a "video game." Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates has also stressed the difficulties in carrying out such an operation. "That seems to me to indicate an administration that has not yet made up its mind on what to do in Libya," said Elliott Abrams, who was a National Security Council director under Bush. He called Daley's comments "derisive." Obama inherited a pair of wars in Muslim countries, and his advisers argue that direct U.S. involvement in a third would do more harm than good to Libya's popular uprising. Abrams, who participated in the White House working group on Egypt assembled last year, said he "understands the point." "But I think they overdo it," he said. "I think they are being too timid here. And they are running the risk that there will be a bloodbath tomorrow and, by then, it will be too late for them to help the opposition." Senior administration officials say that regardless of whether the U.S. role is characterized as leading or following, it has been part of a swift international response to the Libyan crisis. The Security Council has imposed sanctions on Gaddafi's regime and referred Libya's case to the International Criminal Court. The Arab League and African Union, traditionally hesitant to rebuke a member, have done so in the case of Libya. "Remaining in the background and letting the Europeans take the lead can help build consensus with such countries as Russia and China," Cordesman said, referring to two veto-wielding Security Council members often suspicious of U.S. motives."If we'd presented a sudden initiative, you might have seen it be far more difficult for others to act in support of it." Given the United States' troubled history with Libya's erratic leader, a senior administration official said, the White House decided early that "what would be more persuasive to Gaddafi is not just the United States saying something, but having the United States, the European Union, the Arab League, the African Union, the United Nations all saying the same things that essentially left him nowhere to turn for legitimacy or support." "That's been done, essentially," the official said, adding, "It's not as if we're not on the side of change."

-----------------------White House defends Libya stance, debates options (Reuters) By Ross Colvin and Andrew Quinn Mar 9, 2011; 8:31pm EST WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The White House on Wednesday strongly defended its response to the turmoil in Libya, insisting it has taken "dramatic action" and rebutting criticism that its consensus-based approach is too cautious. As President Barack Obama's top advisers met to debate what to do next, Muammar Gaddafi's forces halted a rebel advance in the east of the oil-producing North African country and opposition forces suffered setbacks in the west. A range of options were on the table in the White House situation room, including a "no-fly" zone to ground Gaddafi's warplanes, although U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates has already warned of the difficulties of such an action. With Libyan rebels fragmented and disorganized and Gaddafi's forces successfully counter-attacking, the Obama administration has been struggling to craft a strategy that forces Gaddafi from power without entangling the United States in a new war in the Muslim world. Despite its fear that Libya could become what Secretary of State Hillary Clinton last week called a "giant Somalia," Washington is reluctant to intervene militarily in a messy civil war, especially since the United Nations, NATO and countries in the region are divided on what should be done. White House spokesman Jay Carney dismissed suggestions that Washington had failed to act with sufficient urgency. "There has never been a situation where the international community, with leadership by the United States, has acted as quickly as it has to respond to this kind of situation," he said. Clinton, CIA Director Leon Panetta, and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral Mike Mullen, attended Wednesday's meeting, but it was not expected to lead to any immediate change in U.S. strategy, Carney said. The White House session came ahead of Thursday's meeting of NATO defense ministers, including Gates, in Brussels. A U.S. official said Libya options were being "teed up" for discussion there. A top U.S. general said the United States military was prepared to quickly establish a "no-fly" zone over Libya if the international community decided on that option.

"I believe within a couple days, we would probably be able to implement a no-fly zone," General Raymond Odierno, commander of the U.S. Joint Forces Command told an audience at Harvard University in Massachusetts. Odierno said it was important that any response to the turmoil in Libya have international backing. LIBYA VERSUS BALKANS The United States, embroiled in wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, has been stressing the need for international support for any intervention in Libya. On Tuesday, Clinton said Washington would not act without a U.N. Security Council resolution. At the Security Council, where Britain and France are pushing for a resolution authorizing a no-fly zone, diplomats said the Americans had made clear they were not ready to press ahead with the measure. While the idea of a no-fly zone over Libya is popular among some politicians in Washington, Obama administration officials have voiced reservations about its effectiveness in stopping attack helicopters and ground troops. The White House has come under fire from some Republican and Democratic politicians, conservative commentators and others for what they say is its failure to match tough talk with action to help rebels force Gaddafi from power. "The Obama administration is throwing out so many conflicting messages on Libya that they are blunting any potential pressure on the Libyan regime and weakening American credibility," said an editorial in The New York Times, a newspaper that is often supportive of Obama's policies. The administration has frozen $30 billion in Libyan assets, backed U.N. sanctions, sent military transport aircraft to help evacuate refugees from neighboring Tunisia and put warships off the Libyan coast for possible humanitarian efforts. "It is very important for people to understand the kind of dramatic action that has been taken with the leadership of this president and will continue to be taken as we move forward," Carney said. He compared the international response to Libya with the reaction to the Balkan wars of the 1990s. It took three months to impose an arms embargo on Yugoslavia after Croatia declared independence, he said. In the case of Libya, just nine days.

On Capitol Hill, lawmakers like Republican Senator John McCain continued to call for U.S. military intervention. But others warned against it, especially unilateral action "I am of the opinion that it is not a good idea to give weapons and military support to people who you do not know," said Senator Jim Webb, a Democrat and former secretary of the U.S. Navy. -------------------------------Gasoline Surges as U.S. Supplies Drop, Libya Unrest Escalates (Bloomberg) By Barbara Powell Mar 9, 2011; 3:58 PM ET Gasoline surged as U.S. supplies fell the most in 29 months and Libyan oil output was disrupted, increasing speculation that unrest may spread around the region and threaten global oil shipments. U.S. gasoline stockpiles shrank 5.49 million barrels to 229.2 million last week, the biggest drop since September 2008, according to Energy Department data. Libya·s Ras Lanuf refinery, the country·s largest, was shut amid fighting between government forces loyal to Muammar Qaddafi and rebels, an official with the Libyan Emirates Oil Refining Co. said. ´It·s maintenance season right now and refiners are clearing inventory to take advantage of high wholesale prices,µ said Sander Cohan, an analyst with Energy Security Analysis Inc. in Wakefield, Massachusetts. ´The incentive is to pull product from inventory that was produced under cheaper crude prices.µ Gasoline for April delivery added 8.05 cents, or 2.7 percent, to settle at $3.0272 a gallon on the New York Mercantile Exchange. Futures have surged 22 percent since antigovernment protests began in Libya Feb. 15. Futures also advanced as Brent crude for April settlement rose $2.88 to $115.94 a barrel on London·s ICE Futures Europe exchange. Products futures are vulnerable to changes in Brent because refineries supplying fuel to New York Harbor, the delivery point for heating oil and gasoline futures, process crude grades priced relative to the European benchmark. ´Product gains are a combination of following the Brent move and the constructive numbers in theµ inventory report today, said Tom Knight, vice president of trading and supply at Truman Arnold Cos. in Texarkana, Texas. Brent Forecast Brent may trade at more than $140 a barrel in the next three months amid rising global demand and halts to production in Libya, Bank of America Merrill Lynch said.

Nymex April crude fell 64 cents to settle at $104.38 a barrel as supplies at Cushing, Oklahoma, the delivery point for the U.S. benchmark grade, expanded to the highest level since at least 2004, according to department data. Oil tanks at the Es Sider terminal were damaged by bombings today, according to Al Jazeera television. Qaddafi stepped up attacks on towns in western Libya and his forces carried out air and artillery strikes to stop a rebel advance along the coast from the east. President Barack Obama and U.K. Prime Minister David Cameron yesterday agreed to plan a ´full spectrum of possible responses,µ including the imposition of a no-fly zone. ´It·s really getting intense in Libya, and the risk to supply is extremely high so the oil market is very nervous,µ said Phil Flynn, vice president of research at PFGBest in Chicago. Gasoline Supplies Gasoline supplies slipped more than the 1.5 million barrel decline projected in a Bloomberg survey and the 3.74 million barrel drop reported yesterday by the industryfunded American Petroleum Institute. The largest fall was in the Gulf Coast, or PADD 3, where supplies dropped 3.57 million barrels to 73.1 million, the lowest level since June 25, as refiners shut units for unplanned and scheduled repairs. Gasoline demand, as measured by deliveries to wholesalers, rose 0.3 percent to 9.19 million barrels a day last week, the highest level since Dec. 24. ´I don·t think anybody really believes in increased end- user demand,µ Knight said. Refiners were moving winter grade gasoline out of inventories to ´make room for summer grade,µ he said. The summer-grade fuel is costlier because it requires more- expensive blending materials than winter grades to avoid evaporation. Distillate Supplies Stockpiles of distillates, including heating oil and diesel, dropped 3.98 million barrels to 155.2 million, the lowest level since June 4. Distillate demand jumped 14 percent to an average 4.21 million barrels a day, the most since Nov. 5. Heating oil for April delivery rose 5.96 cents, or 2 percent, to settle at $3.0707 a gallon. Heating oil has gained 13 percent since Feb. 15.

Regular gasoline at the pump, averaged nationwide, advanced 0.7 cent to $3.524 a gallon yesterday, AAA said on its website, the highest level since Oct. 5, 2008. ----------------------The Case for a No-Fly Zone (NYT Op-Ed) By Nicholas D. Kristof March 9, 2011 ´This is a pretty easy problem, for crying out loud.µ For all the hand-wringing in Washington about a no-fly zone over Libya, that·s the verdict of Gen. Merrill McPeak, a former Air Force chief of staff. He flew more than 6,000 hours, half in fighter aircraft, and helped oversee no-fly zones in Iraq and the Adriatic, and he·s currently mystified by what he calls the ´wailing and gnashing of teethµ about imposing such a zone on Libya. I called General McPeak to get his take on a no-fly zone, and he was deliciously blunt: ´I can·t imagine an easier military problem,µ he said. ´If we can·t impose a no-fly zone over a not even third-rate military power like Libya, then we ought to take a hell of a lot of our military budget and spend it on something usable.µ He continued: ´Just flying a few jets across the top of the friendlies would probably be enough to ground the Libyan Air Force, which is the objective.µ General McPeak added that there would be no need to maintain 24/7 coverage over Libya. As long as the Libyan Air Force knew that there was some risk of interception, its pilots would be much less motivated to drop bombs and more inclined to defect. ´If we can·t do this, what can we do?µ he asked, adding: ´I think it would have a real impact. It might change their calculation of who might come out on top. Just the mere announcement of this might have an impact.µ Along with a no-fly zone, another important step would be to use American military aircraft to jam Libyan state television and radio propaganda and Libyan military communications. General McPeak said such jamming would be ´dead easy.µ As he acknowledged, any intervention also has unforeseeable risks, and, frankly, it·s a good thing when a president counts to 10 before taking military action. But I hope that President Obama isn·t counting to a googolplex. The secretary of defense, Robert Gates, has said that a no-fly zone would be ´a big operation in a big countryµ and would begin with an attack on Libyan air defense systems. But General McPeak said that the no-fly zone would be imposed over those parts of the country that Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi doesn·t control. That may remove

the need to take out air defense systems pre-emptively, he said. And, in any case, he noted that the United States operated a no-fly zone over Iraq for more than a decade without systematically eradicating all Iraqi air defense systems in that time. If the Obama administration has exaggerated the risks of a no-fly zone, it seems to have downplayed the risks of continued passivity. There is some risk that this ends up like the abortive uprisings in Hungary in 1956, in Czechoslovakia in 1968, or in southern Iraq in 1991. The tide in Libya seems to have shifted, with the Qaddafi forces reimposing control over Tripoli and much of western Libya. Now Colonel Qaddafi is systematically using his air power to gain ground even in the east. As the International Institute for Strategic Studies, an arms analysis group in London, noted this week, ´The major advantage of the pro-regime forces at the moment is their ability to deploy air power.µ I·m chilled by a conversation I just had by phone with a Libyan friend with military connections who has been candid in the past. In our latest conversation, he sounded as if our conversation was being closely monitored, and he praised Colonel Qaddafi to the skies. I can·t tell whether he believed that or had a gun pointed to his head. Either way, his new tone is an indication that the government has the upper hand now in Tripoli. Senator John Kerry, the chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, told me that he tends to favor a no-fly zone ³ along with the jamming of communications ³ as soon as is practical. ´The last thing you want is a 20-year debate on who lost this moment for the Libyan people,µ Mr. Kerry noted. I was a strong opponent of the Iraq war, but this feels different. We would not have to send any ground troops to Libya, and a no-fly zone would be executed at the request of Libyan rebel forces and at the ´demandµ of six Arab countries in the gulf. The Arab League may endorse the no-fly zone as well, and, ideally, Egypt and Tunisia would contribute bases and planes or perhaps provide search-and-rescue capabilities. ´I don·t think its particularly constructive for our long-term strategic interests, as well as for our values, to say Qaddafi has to go,µ Senator Kerry told me, ´and then allow a delusional megalomaniacal out-of-touch leader to use mercenaries to kill his people.µ So let·s remember the risks of inaction ³ and not psych ourselves out. For crying out loud. -------------------Obama condemns 'abhorrent' violence in Ivory Coast (AFP) By Unattributed Author March 9, 2011

WASHINGTON ³ President Barack Obama on Wednesday condemned "abhorrent" violence in the Ivory Coast, saying the United States was deeply concerned about escalating clashes that have left scores dead. "I strongly condemn the abhorrent violence against unarmed civilians in Cote d'Ivoire," Obama said in a written statement. "I am particularly appalled by the indiscriminate killing of unarmed civilians during peaceful rallies, many of them women, including those who were gunned down as they marched in support of the legitimately elected president Alassane Ouattara. "Reports indicate that the women were shot to death by security forces loyal to former president Laurent Gbagbo." At least three men and a woman on Wednesday became the latest victims of an increasingly bloody post-electoral crisis, which the UN fears could become a full-blown civil war, when they were shot dead in Abidjan's Treichville neighborhood. According to medics and AFP correspondents at the scene, the four were killed in violence which flared following a rally by hundreds of supporters of Ouattara, who was Gbagbo's challenger in November's run-off. Several other people were wounded in the violence which comes only days after seven women were shot dead at a similar a rally last week. "The United States remains deeply concerned about escalating violence, including the deepening humanitarian and economic crisis and its impact in Cote d?Ivoire and neighboring countries," Obama said. "All armed parties in Cote d?Ivoire must make every effort to protect civilians from being targeted, harmed, or killed. "The United States reiterates its commitment to work with the international community to ensure that perpetrators of such atrocities be identified and held individually accountable for their actions." Gbagbo has refused to hand power to Ouattara, who is internationally regarded as the winner of the run-off election, despite mediation, sanctions and the threat of foreign intervention. "It is time for former President Gbagbo to heed the will of his people, and to complete a peaceful transition of power to President Ouattara," Obama said.

"The people of Cote d?Ivoire have extraordinary talent and potential, and they deserve leadership that is responsive to their hopes and aspirations." Ouattara is holed up in Abidjan's Golf Hotel under a blockade by forces loyal to Gbagbo. He is protected by troops of a United Nations mission and the New Forces armed group, which controls the northern half of the country. Fighting has intensified in recent days in Abidjan and the west of the country, where New Forces fighters allied with Ouattara wrested a town from Gbagbo's control at the weekend. ------------------------African Presidents Facing Tough Decisions on Ivory Coast, Libya (VOA) By Peter Heinlein March 09, 2011 (Addis Ababa) Several African heads of state are meeting in Addis Ababa (Wednesday and Thursday) to consider responses to two of the continent·s most vexing challenges, Ivory Coast and Libya. The organization·s credibility, and a chunk of its financing, are on the line. Alassane Ouattara attends AU meeting Internationally-recognized President Alassane Ouattara is attending; the defiant incumbent Laurent Gbagbo is absent as the African Union high-level panel on Ivory Coast holds two days of closed-door talks in the Ethiopian capital. The panel, including five African presidents, is struggling to settle Ivory Coast·s leadership dispute against a backdrop of political violence that has claimed nearly 400 lives since December. Gbagbo·s snub in staying away is a measure of the challenge African leaders face in persuading one of their own to leave office when his time is up. Following the panel·s deliberations Thursday evening, the AU Peace and Security Council, or PSC, will hold an extraordinary heads-of-state level meeting. The agenda will include Ivory Coast, as well as one of the most glaring examples of the continental body·s lack of commitment to democratic values, Libya. Security contain clients standing outside the headquarters of the Bicici bank as they came to withdraw money in Abidjan, March 3, 2011The challenge facing the heads of state on the Peace and Security Council is all the more daunting as both Libya and Ivory Coast currently hold seats on the 15-member body, though Ivory Coast·s membership is suspended.

Scholars and AU watchers say this is a defining moment for the organization. AU credibility is a bit on the line, says expert Laura Seay, an Africa specialist at Morehouse College in Georgia said the Peace and Security Council, whose other leaders include Zimbabwe·s Robert Mugabe and the current AU chairman, Equatorial Guinea·s Teodoro Obiang Nguema may be hesitant to take tough action against autocrats and dictators. "I think the AU credibility is a bit on the line," said Seay. "Whether they are going to be able to formulate effective and coherent responses, and saying that violence against civilians is unacceptable to the African Union. That·s going to make a big difference on whether they have credibility not only on the international scene, but also with their own people." Libya - a special challenge The Libyan case presents a special challenge, since Moammar Gadhafi has used his country·s vast oil wealth to become one of the AU·s most influential figures. Libya, along with north African states Egypt and Algeria, are among five AU nations that contribute nearly two thirds of the membership dues in the 53-member organization. Delphine Lecoutre, a researcher with the French Center for Ethiopian Studies, points to a weak statement issued last month as an example of the Peace and Security Council·s timidity in facing up to the behavior of its leaders. "There was a Peace and Security Council meeting on Libya, which resulted in a cosmetic communiqué hardly condemning the violence in Libya and putting it in a [clever] way, loss of human life and destruction of property, but nothing regarding the political situation in the country," said Lecoutre. "It is difficult for the AU to deal with that case." Lecoutre points out that until recently, when protests erupted in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, no North African country had ever been the subject of a Peace and Security Council meeting. In 259 meetings over seven years, the body had dealt only with crises in sub-Saharan Africa. Libyan rebel fighters run for cover as shells explode nearby during a battle with forces loyal to leader Moammer Gadhafi, just few kilometers outside the oil town of Ras Lanuf, March 9, 2011She says while AU leaders might worry about losing Libya·s financial support if they impose sanctions, sub-Saharan countries annoyed by the north·s financial and political domination of the organization might welcome the chance to bring a powerhouse like Gadhafi down a notch.

"It is an opportunity for sub-Saharan countries to tell, 'Yes, you in the north are also part of this continent, because we from the southern part, we can talk about your issues and have an opinion about it,'" she said. African leaders would welcome Gadhafi's departure Africa specialist Laura Seay says many African leaders are quietly fed up with Moammar Gadhafi·s antics, and would welcome his departure. "Some parts of Africa will change very little without Gadhafi," said Seay. "Several leaders, Zuma, Museveni and Goodluck Jonathan will be relieved to see him go." Western diplomats and AU observers are watching with interest to see how Africa responds to the hard questions posed by Ivory Coast and Libya. A senior diplomat, who asked for anonymity because he is not authorized to speak publicly, said the international community is looking for an unequivocal statement declaring Alassane Ouattara the winner of Ivory Coast·s presidential election. He said most western governments see no merit in settling Ivory Coast·s leadership question through a power-sharing agreement, as has been tried with limited success in Zimbabwe and Kenya. The diplomat also said the west is looking for a more determined statement on Libya. He said anything less than suspension of Libya from the organization and possibly endorsement of a no-fly zone would be viewed as a stalling tactic. But AU officials, speaking privately, said those were unlikely outcomes of these two days of meetings. ------------------------South Sudanese Army Says 60 Died in Clashes With Rebel Militia in Jonglei (Bloomberg) By Maram Mazen Mar 9, 2011 10:46 AM ET Southern Sudan·s army said 60 people died when it captured the headquarters of a rebel militia in Jonglei state. The fighting took place on March 7 between the army and forces loyal to renegade General George Athor, army spokesman Philip Aguer said by phone today from Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Athor, a former chief of staff in Southern Sudan·s army, denied his forces were defeated.

´Around 60 people were killed from both sides,µ Aguer said. ´Some civilians were killed.µ Twenty army soldiers were injured in the battle for Athor·s headquarters in the village of Kurwuai, he said. Athor, speaking today by satellite phone from Jonglei, said his forces killed 159 army soldiers and lost 19. ´We withdrew our forces maybe only because we weren·t able to supply our forces with reinforcements,µ he said. ´We have no headquarters, we are a guerilla.µ Fighting against Athor·s militia has intensified since Southern Sudanese voters chose in a January referendum to secede from the rest of Sudan. The oil-rich region is due to become independent in July. Oil Exploration Paris-based Total SA (FP), which owns 32.5 percent of a 118,000 square-kilometer (46,000 square-mile) concession in Jonglei and Lakes states, hasn·t started exploration due in part to security conditions in the region. At independence, Southern Sudan will assume control of about three-quarters of Sudan·s current oil production of 490,000 barrels a day, pumped mainly by China National Petroleum Corp., Malaysia·s Petroliam Nasional Bhd. and India·s Oil & Natural Gas Corp. Sudan had 5 billion barrels of proven oil reserves as of January 2010, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Almost 99 percent of Southern Sudanese voters chose independence in the referendum that was the centerpiece of a peace agreement ending a two-decade civil war with the north. -----------------U.S. condemns violence in contested Sudanese region (Reuters) By Unattributed Author Mar 9, 2011 10:47am EST WASHINGTON - The United States urged leaders in north and south Sudan on Wednesday to curb violence in the country's contested Abyei region and to meet as soon as possible to resolve its final status. "The United States deplores the recent violence in the Abyei region of Sudan and calls on northern and southern Sudanese leaders to take immediate steps to prevent future attacks and restore calm," the White House said. Violence has surged in the central, fertile Abyei region, claimed by both north and south Sudan. Ownership of the territory is one of the biggest bones of contention

between the two halves of the country in the build up to the secession of the oilproducing south, expected to take place on July 9. "This dangerous standoff is unacceptable for the Sudanese people, and we condemn the deployment forces by both sides," the White House said in a statement. Southerners, who mostly follow Christian and traditional beliefs, voted overwhelmingly to declare independence in a January referendum promised in a 2005 peace deal that ended decades of civil war with the Muslim north. Abyei's status was left undecided in the accord, stoking tensions between northern Arab Misseriya nomads and south-linked Dinka Ngok people who both use the area. The White House said Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir and Salva Kiir, president of southern Sudan, should "meet as soon as possible and demonstrate that they are serious about making urgent progress" to resolve Abyei's final status. ------------------------------------UN News Service Africa Briefs Full Articles on UN Website Parties to Western Sahara dispute conclude another round of UN-convened talks 9 March ² Representatives of the parties to the Western Sahara dispute, Morocco and the Frente Polisario, today wrapped up another round of talks, during which both sides continued to reject each other·s proposal as a sole basis for future negotiations, United Nations envoy Christopher Ross said. Top UN aid official stresses need for civilian protection in DR Congo 9 March ² The United Nations humanitarian chief today voiced concern over violence against civilians in parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) affected by conflict and stressed the need to continue to provide relief to those in need in the African country. Tanzania set to benefit from UN loan to boost rural economic activity 9 March ² The United Nations fund tasked with combating rural poverty has extended a $90 million loan to Tanzania to strengthen access to rural financial services and markets, and promote private sector development in the East African country, the agency announced today. Six high-ranking Kenyans summoned by International Criminal Court 9 March ² Six high-ranking Kenyan officials, including a deputy prime minister, two ministers and a police chief, have been summoned to appear before the International Criminal Court (ICC) in connection with possible crimes against humanity committed in post-electoral violence three years ago.

UN steps up food distributions to drought-hit Somali capital 9 March ² The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) and its partners this week began an emergency distribution of food aid to an additional 50,000 people in Somalia·s capital, Mogadishu, in response to the severe shortages caused by the prevailing drought.