Paper Number

Chheda Electricals & Electronics Pvt. Ltd, Pune (India)

Copyright © 2008 SAE International

Self-Start Two-Wheelers, including motorcycles and scooters between 50 - 200 cc capacity, use standard Lead Acid battery of 5, 9 and 12 Ah rating as energy source. Battery is a well-known energy source but cannot supply large amount of power in short time. The size of the battery is decided based on the starter motor requirement. Deep discharge at the time of cranking reduces the life of the battery drastically as compared to normal use. Extra factor of safety is provided for cold weather cranking performance, poor maintenance and end of life performance in view of deep discharge. Hence it is heavy and bulky. On the other hand, Ultracapacitors can supply large burst of power for short time but can not store much energy (hence limited number of starts). It is seen that in Hybrid Power pack (Ultracapacitor + down sized Battery) the major power requirement at the time of cranking is taken by Ultracapacitor resulting in reduced load on the battery thereby making it possible to be downsized. This paper describes how a Hybrid Power Pack utilize the strengths of both, resulting in a unit which is economical, maintenance free, low in weight with good cold start capability.

Figure 1: Vehicle distribution in India (for 2007-08) The production of Two-wheelers in India, in the year 2007-08 is 8 million and expected to grow at the rate of 8% in the coming decade [1]. 75% of the two-wheelers manufactured in India are of ‘Kick-Start’ type, that is, they are without Starter Motor. They are fitted with 2.5 Ah battery to meet the safety related loads, such as Horn, Direction Indicator and Brake Lamp etc. Our first paper published at SIAT2007 [2] describes how Ultra capacitors can be used successfully to replace lead-acid battery on ‘Kick-Start’ vehicles, ensuring the safety features operational at all times throughout the life of the vehicle without maintenance hassles and cost of periodic replacement of Battery. This product, as shown in Fig. 2 & 3, (called as ‘BSU’, in short for ‘Battery Substitute Unit’), was launched in Indian market and is well received.

Two-wheelers are an integral part of life in developing countries like India, China, SE Asia, etc. The usage & function of two-wheeler is similar to car in developed countries. The traffic and road conditions, the short travel distances involved, moderate weather conditions, high fuel costs and the limitation of consumer spending power is the reason for the popularity of the Two-wheelers (Motorcycles, Scooters/Scooterette, Mopeds) in India, as shown in Figure 1.


For this the battery has to be maintained in working condition.7 21. Typical loads on a 5 and 9 Ah lead-acid battery fitted on a two-wheeler with starter motor are as shown at Table 1. two-wheelers of more than 150cc are fitted with starter motor as kick-starting such engine is physically demanding on the part of user. as their ability to deliver such currents drops-off sharply under adverse freezing environment. that is about 2 million two-wheelers manufactured in 2007. More than 25% of the two-wheelers manufactured.7 Indication 150 216. Ultra capacitors can supply large burst of power for short time but cannot store much energy and hence can give limited number of starts. with the increase in purchasing power of Indian customer. we have to increase the battery capacity by 10%. The Ampere-Hour (Ah) rating of the battery used on twowheelers depends mostly upon the engine capacity. Further. Figure 3: BSU fitted on Two-wheeler This paper describes how Hybrid Power Pack (Ultra capacitor + Battery) can replace the bulky 5 or 9 Ah lead acid battery used on two-wheelers fitted with Starter Motor. It may be noted that the Battery (or any on-board energy storage device used) should be able to meet the Starter Motor load right in the beginning. Hence they become bulky. the ‘Cycle Life’ of Lead Acid battery depends upon ‘Depth of Discharge’ (DOD). On an average the cycle life of a starter battery is about 1000 cycles. when subjected to deep-discharges. horn and brake light etc. On the other hand. Thumb rule says.4 Functional Total All the above loads are intermittent in nature. as compared to battery.TABLE 1: TYPICAL LOADS ON BATTERY ON 5Ah BATTERY (W) 24 ON 9Ah BATTERY (W) 24 Load Remarks Horn Direction Indicator Brake indicator lamp Figure 2: Battery Substitute Unit (BSU) Dash Board Neutral indicator Starter Motor Safety feature Safety feature Safety feature 21. such as. Battery is a well-known source of energy but must be over-sized to deliver current rapidly enough for acceptable starting performance.7 1. even under worst environmental conditions. maintenance free. . the battery has to take care of normal loads like turn signal. for worst-case low-temperature operation. preference for two-wheelers fitted with Starter Motor is on the increase.7 20 20 1. INTRODUCTION In the recent past. at the time of cranking the engine. at all times. are with starter motor.4 350 417. for every 10° (16° C F) below room temperature. This paper describes how Ultra-capacitor along with a small maintenance free VRLA (Valve Regulated Lead Acid) 2 2. An effort made to utilize the strengths of both has resulted in a unit. which is economical. Any how. low in weight with good cold start capability. They can be charged and discharged quickly over thousands of time without appreciable deterioration in capacitance. Apart from cranking the engine. as. the rating of the starter motor needed goes-up with the engine capacity.

is ideally suited for the intermittent loads. to convert electrical energy in to potential chemical energy and back. no electrochemical reactions are involved in its energy storage mechanism. [3] Starting with the introduction of ‘Coin/Button Cells’ in the ‘80s to the present mega-ultra-capacitor units. to ignite the fuel mixture in the IC engine of the vehicle. Though an electrochemical device. Ultra capacitors store energy electro-statically. Table 2 shows the comparison of Ultra capacitor and Battery. With the advance in technology. along with ‘pulsar coil’. 3. ULTRA CAPACITOR 10 As the name suggests it is a capacitor with large capacitance. Thus. This is a device in which permanent magnets. Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (Ultracapacitor/Ultracaps/Super capacitor). with the help of ‘Regulator & Rectifier Unit’ (7). costs have decreased substantially. There are two types of coils on stator. 1 2 Parameter Expected life.No. with its short charging & discharging time. such as Head Lamp. In the ‘80s and ‘90s.1 COMPARISION BETWEEN ULTRA CAPACITOR & BATTERY A Lead Acid Battery is an electrical storage device that uses a reversible chemical reaction to store energy. namely ‘Source coil’ (2) used for generating the spark in spark plug (3). 8 9 Flat discharge curve Maintenance free Weight Damage proof against short circuit Environmental friendly Operating temperature range No Yes Less Yes Yes No More No 3.000 cycles Power density. the industry has come a long way.battery can adequately replace the 5 or 9 Ampere-hour bulky lead-acid battery used on two-wheelers resulting in obvious advantages. at all vehicle speeds & 3 11 12 Yes No 13 Wide Narrow 4. loads. CDI unit (4). W/Kg Energy density. which maintains the output voltage. Wh/Kg Charge control Ability to discharge completely Self discharge 4000 3 300 4 5 6 7 3 to 5 Not needed Yes High 80 to 100 Needed No Low . help in advancing the spark with speed and load. They can be charged or discharged very fast. it is slow in charging and slow in discharging.1 TWO-WHEELER ELECTRIC CIRCUIT Any typical electrical circuit diagram of two-wheeler fitted with Starter Motor and powered by magneto is as shown in Figure 4 Charge – discharge More than 500. As a result. This mechanism is highly reversible. without any appreciable loss in its capacitance. fitted on rotor are used as field to generate electric power in coils placed on stator. for achieving better fuel efficiency The Lamp-coil (5) is designed to meet the vehicle’s A. automated assembly techniques have replaced the labour-intensive aspects of manufacturing. Lamp coil output is also used for charging of Battery (6). Rear Combination lamp etc. [5] TABLE 2: COMPARISON OF ULTRA-CAPACITOR & BATTERY Sr. It uses a combination of lead plates/ grids and dilute sulfuric acid as electrolyte. and allows the Ultra capacitor to be charged and discharged hundreds of thousands of times. years Ultra-Capacitor More than 20 Battery 1 to 3 1000 Figure 4: Typical electrical circuit diagram of a Twowheeler with starter motor The magneto (1) is the power source of the system. in seconds. HYBRID POWER PACK (HPP) 5AH 4.C. manufacturing of Ultracapacitors was primarily an art. It polarizes an electrolytic solution to store energy electro-statically.

resulting in 12V. a Diode (3) is connected in reverse. 12V. This circuitry is embedded in appropriate Epoxy compound (6) to protect it from the vehicle vibrations.7 V.7 V.3 Ah VRLA battery connected across the UC unit is able to substitute the 5Ah lead-acid battery. 25 Farad rating. 4 . Why not only UC Unit? From practical considerations. If reverse voltage is applied to Ultra capacitors. 12 Ultra-capacitors of 2. maintaining the air-vent clear for easy escape of gases produced etc. that is.0. 210 Farad rating. 1. high current starting load. whose value depends upon Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) of the Ultra capacitors [4]. 5. 70 Farad unit. VRLA battery is supported on two vibration absorbing pads at the bottom and held firmly in place by hook & loop wrap strap. greasy environment etc. Fuse Unit (8) is used to protect the Battery from full discharge and possible permanent damage. 4. The ESR value of series-parallel arrangement results in lower effective ESR. Resistor (2) is the cell voltage equalization resistor. 1. Fig 6 shows the Rear & Front view of the HPP Unit. such as topping-up of Acid and Distilled water. 4. Why maintenance free VRLA Battery? Flooded lead-acid batteries call for regular maintenance. only replacement once in 2 to 3 years.3Ah VRLA battery along with UC unit meets this requirement adequately. are connected in series-parallel combination. maintenance free VRLA battery does not require any regular maintenance. resulting in UC Unit taking higher share of peak load current. Thus. The voltage across each cell in a series string must not exceed the maximum continuous working voltage rating during charging/discharging. UC Unit is designed to work for the life of the vehicle without any maintenance. The UC unit relives the battery of the demanding short duration. within 14. the energy source should be able to give minimum of 5 to 7 cold-cranking starts on Fig 6: Rear & Front view of HPP 4. cleaning of +ve & -ve terminals eroded by the acid. To protect the Ultra capacitors from such damage. Maintenance free. Why 2*25F UC in parallel instead of single 50F? Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) has decisive influence on the current shared by UC Unit and battery. This will make the HPP commercially un-viable in comparison with the 5 Ah lead-acid battery used.2 +/. This is not easily accessible to the user. The epoxy molded UC Unit is housed in the upper portion. the 12V.33 Farad Ultra-capacitor (UC) unit. the +ve and –ve terminals (4 & 5) are designed suitably. as it is expected to last for the life of the vehicle without need for any maintenance. this is a simple arrangement in which 12 Ultra-capacitors of 2. Figure 5: HPP Circuit Diagram As shown in Fig. 8. This arrangement ensures that vehicle vibrations do not affect VRLA battery. due to any short to ground taking place throughout the vehicle wiring.2 HPP CIRCUIT DIAGRAM the vehicle.2 VDC. 4. capacitor life is shortened and serious damage may occur.5 ADVANTAGES TO USER • No regular maintenance needed: Sealed.4 CONSTRUCTION The size and shape of the HPP Unit is maintained same as the existing 5Ah lead-acid battery for ease of replacement on vehicle.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The selection of battery and Ultra-capacitor values is guided by the following considerations.under variable load conditions. This calls for a 12 V. as sustained over-voltage can cause an Ultra capacitor to fail. For ease of replacement with existing lead-acid battery on vehicles. The battery is housed without any cover for ease of replacement as and when required.

Improper disposal of batteries leads to poisoning of potable water.93 Kg. to confirm that functioning of HPP is on par with that of battery. without allowing it to fire and plots of Voltage and Currents are taken. The summery of the test results is at Table 3. the price of a 1. TABLE 4: ENGINE CRANKING TEST RESULTS This test is done on various 100cc Self-Start vehicles. Honda Dio.1. fitted with 5 Ah lead-acid battery. • Extended Life of Battery: 5. puts the power source to real test and we get insight of its response. using 5 Ah battery and HPP as power source.. without allowing it to fire. battery is not subjected to deep-discharge. say for 100 to 150 m-seconds. the following tests were carried out. in the open market. As on date.1 ENGINE STARTING TEST 5 . This will result in longer life of the VRLA battery used As about 60% of the peak-power demand is met by UC Unit. 8. which is much cheaper than 5Ah lead-acid battery.• Low replacement cost: TABLE 3: ENGINE STARTING TEST RESULTS Once in 2 to 3 years the user has to replace only the VRLA battery. Hence HPP has better cold cranking capability at minus 10° as C compared to lead-acid battery.1Observations • • The starting performance of the vehicle with HPP is on par with that of lead-acid battery Major portion of the peak load is taken by UCUnit. TVS Scooty pep+ etc. Cranking the engine for longer time. Fig 3 shows the typical voltage and current plots taken on Honda Activa scooter. 5. Hazardous materials such as antimonial lead and sulphuric acid are used in the manufacture of lead-acid batteries. resulting in extended life of battery.15 Kg and that of HPP is 0. Here Starter Motor is made ‘ON’ for 3 seconds during which the engine fires.3Ah VRLA battery is about Rs. • Better cold weather performance: Ultra-capacitors work satisfactorily up to minus 40° C without appreciable drop in capacitance. By use of smaller VRLA battery the ill effects are reduced to that extent. like Honda Activa.2 ENGINE CRANKING TEST During engine start test. Typical Voltage and Current plots are shown at Fig. • Environment pollution: Fig 7: Honda Activa Starting plots 5. the role of power source and Starter Motor is for smaller duration.950 of 5Ah lead-acid battery • Low initial cost: The price of HPP works out to about 90% to that of 5Ah battery. • Reduced weight: The weight of 5Ah battery is about 2. 5. in the open market. pollution etc. This will help OEMs in their effort to reduce the vehicle weight to achieve better fuel economy figures.210 as against Rs. For test results refer Table 4. In this test the engine is cranked for 8 seconds. TESTS & RESULTS To compare and confirm the suitability of HPP as substitute for the existing 5 Ah lead-acid battery on twowheelers.

However. The speed setting of the Magneto. However this should be acceptable. on the vehicle how long HPP will last. Fig 8: Honda Activa Cranking plots 5.1 Test Cycle 3 second Starter Motor ‘ON’ – 30-second engine ‘ON’ – 10-second system ‘OFF’ Total Cycle time: 41 seconds Initially the test was planned for 2000 cycles expecting HPP to last less than that.1 Test Cycle: • • • • Crank for 2 seconds – Rest for 4 seconds No charging during this test Find out number of crank cycles possible Refer Table 5 for the test results 5. This test cycle is devised to simulate the worst case possible during city driving condition.8V of 5Ah battery. Terminal voltage of the power source was taken at the end of every 50 cycles. only 28 cranks were possible. in the subsequent tests it is confirmed that. as expected. along with voltage and current plots.2 Observation: As the stored energy in HPP is lower.TABLE 5: QUICK-CRANK TEST RESULTS 5. This is one of the limitations of the HPP. • From the Current plots it may be seen that. The plot of terminal voltage Vs Test Cycle is shown at Fig.4 LIFE CYCLE TEST The next important question is. it un-loads its power during initial 300 m-seconds.3. 5. as we do not expect more trials by the user. . To find out.3 QUICK CRANK TRIALS Due to any reason if the engine does not start. Low load on VRLA battery ensures longer life of the battery . However. an added advantage over battery system. 5. 9 was derived.2V as against 11. • Engine starting and cranking trials at minus 5 and minus 10° are yet to be done to confirm HPP’s C better performance at low temperatures. the terminal voltage at the end of 8 seconds.61% of the peak load is taken by UC Unit. During rest of the period. with HPP is lower at 10. test as shown in Fig. power for cranking is met by VRLA battery . when the demand is high. To study the response of HPP under such conditions. this test was conducted in the following manner.4. users keep cranking the engine repeatedly.As the internal resistance of UC-Unit is very low (less than 1/3 of VRLA battery). 10. 5.3. as its stored energy in comparison with 5 Ah lead-acid battery is low.The peak currents with HPP are lower as the starting voltage is higher. which charges the power source during engine ‘ON’ period. was adjusted to 2200 rpm.2. practically.1 Observation: • From the Voltage plot it may be seen that. Figure 9: Life test Cycle 6 . the terminal voltage gets back to its full value fast as the charging time of UC Unit is quite low. test was concluded at 3200 cycles as HPP continued to work without any fall in terminal voltage.

on the vehicle. Flooded cells in leadacid batteries typically use lead alloyed with Antimony to increase their mechanical strength.3% per month. The fall in open-circuit voltage of fully charged 5Ah leadacid battery and HPP unit was monitored for a month. HPP can directly 7 5. Hence it was necessary to confirm the effect of self-discharge of HPP on system working.Figure 10: Life Cycle Test Results 5. like in maintenance free VRLA battery. resulting in UCUnit of 12V. This unit also has under-gone the same tests as that of 5 Ah HPP. The product also contributes towards lowering of Environmental Lead pollution As per survey of electrical systems across different brands of vehicle. the UC-Unit failed as the charging voltage crossed 28V due to the failure of Regulator-Rectifier Unit. Figure 11: Drop in terminal Voltage due to self-discharge 5. 50 Farad rating are used. The test results and field trials confirm that the 9 Ah HPP can replace the existing 9 Ah lead-acid battery on two-wheelers.6% per month and that of 5 Ah leadacid battery is 2. Here 12 UC of 2. 60. Users are benefited with maintenance free. no drop in terminal voltage is observed with HPP system.5. 5. CONCLUSION • Based on the field trials and experiments. 3. since July 2006.4.67 Farad. These vehicles have covered approximately 1. HYBRID POWER PACK (HPP) 9AH The circuit is similar to as shown at Fig. The replacement cost over the years is also low. drop in terminal voltage per day of a lead-antimony battery is 3 times more than that of a lead-calcium battery In case of HPP. it can be concluded that HPP as a Battery substitute matches all performance requirements of ‘SelfStart’ Two-wheelers. lower weight system with better cold-start capabilities.6 FIELD TRIALS HPP was fitted on 16 different customer vehicles and monitored regularly.000 Km without any noticeable problem. 16. The rating of the VRLA battery used is 12V. use lead alloyed with calcium. in comparison with lead – acid battery 5.1 Observation • The drop in terminal voltage due to self-discharge of HPP is 3. Thus. the terminal voltage at the end of 30 days is higher than that of lead-acid battery. Gel and AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat) cells. the self-discharge of UC-Unit is added as it is connected in parallel to the battery. But this also increases the self-discharge. This is because the terminal voltage of HPP is always higher than that of lead-acid battery.3 Ah. This indicates that the designed energy of HPP is adequate to run the system without degradation.5 HPP SELF-DISCHARGE TEST The self-discharge rate is the measure of how-much batteries discharge on their own. HPP unit could easily crank the engine. apart from self-discharge of VRLA battery. The findings are shown graphically at Fig. • • • • .2 Observation: Like in lead-acid battery system. Though the self-discharge rate of HPP is higher.11 below. In one vehicle. 6. even after 30 days of self-discharge. At room temperature. above.7V. which reduce gassing and self-discharge.

132.The company has made strategic investments in R&D to develop new technologies in the field of electrical & electronics for motorcycles. Hadapsar Industrial Estate. • REFERENCES: 1. Work is underway to use HPP for Self-Start of four wheelers & Gen-sets • Mr.E.Y. Ltd.7 5. KO UC PM Mr. 26876950 Mobile: 9370147623 E-mail: vernekar@masterignition. & Vernekar D. Along with the introduction of HPP. Hadapsar Industrial Estate Pune. it is possible to improve the electrical system efficiency by redesigning of Magneto. 8 . 3. in 1991. USA. PRESENT STATUS • 5 Ah HPP is launched in the Indian open-market in September 2007 and 9 Ah HPP will be launched in January 2009 One of the leading Indian two wheeler O. Automotive Components & Manufacturers Association (ACMA) ‘website: www. (INDIA) Phone: +91-20-26817780. without any modification for over 70% of the existing Self-Start Mr. introduction of Regenerative Braking etc.E. NESSCAP product literature ‘What is Electric Double Layer Capacitor?’(EDLC) 4. 14. The company has made rapid progress due to strong focus on innovation & quality and has grown to USD 25 million turnover . Ltd 14. NESSCAP ‘Ultra capacitor Technical Guide’ No. VERNEKAR General Manager Chheda Electrical & Electronics Pvt. FUTURE OUTLOOK • Price of Ultra-capacitor is coming down and that of lead-acid batteries on the rise. D. 26876950 Mobile: +91 98220 50939 E-mail: ignition@vsnl.J.substitute. SAE paper No. presented at SIAT-2007.acmainfo. This will make HPP commercially attractive and also help in improving the product further. VIJAY JAGDISH CHHEDA Managing Director Chheda Electricals & Electronics Pvt. (Electrical) with 38 years experience in Design & Development of Auto-Electrical systems.411013. ‘Ultra-Capacitors as Battery substitute on Two-Wheelers’. Pune. EPCOS literature No. Mr. 2003.Y.411013. BSU is one of the products evolved as a result of development of new technologies.Chheda has done his Masters in Manufacturing Engineering from Carnegie Mellon University. (INDIA) Phone: +91-20-26817780. In’.. Work is under progress on these lines.Vernekar is B. Chheda founded Chheda Electricals & Electronics Pvt Ltd for manufacture of auto electrical & electronic parts. has shown keen interest in this product and is undergoing extensive testing by them • CONTACT: Mr. Chheda V.