Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(10): 4585-4591, 2010 ISSN 1991-8178 © 2010, INSInet Publication

Dual Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for Sar Applications
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Md. Fokhrul Islam, 2M. A. Mohd. Ali, 2B. Y. Majlis and 2N. Misran

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Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2 Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems EngineeringFaculty of Engineering and Built EnvironmentUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Malaysia
Abstract: Microstrip patch antennas offer the advantages of thin profile, light weight, low cost, ease of fabrication and compatibility with integrated circuitry, so the antennas are widely used to satisfy demands for polarization diversity and dual-frequency. This paper presents a coaxilly-fed single-layer compact dual band (C- and X-band) microstrip patch antenna for achieving dual-polarized radiation suitable for applications in airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. The designed antenna consists of three rectangular patches which are overlapped along their diagonals. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are performed to accurately predict the frequency response of the antenna. The fabricated antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of 154 MHz (f0 = 6.83 GHz) and 209 MHz (f0 = 9.73 GHz) for VSWR < 2. Simultaneous use of both frequencies should drastically improve data collection and knowledge of the targets in the SAR system. Key words: Patch antenna, dual-frequency, SAR INTRODUCTION

Remote sensing is the general science of gathering data and information about features, objects and classes on the Earth’s land surface, oceans and atmosphere from sensors located beyond the immediate vicinity of such source. One such sensor that has captured the interest of the scientific community is the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (Chan et al. 2007). The radar group at the Goodyear research facility in Litchfield, Arizona is credited with building the first airborne SAR, back in 1953. It operated at 930MHz using a Yagi antenna with a very wide beamwidth (1000). Subsequently many more airborne SAR systems were developed; notable among them are the AIRSAR by jet propulsion laboratory (JPL), E-SAR by German aerospace research establishment (DLR), C/XSAR (Stuhr et al. 1995) by Canadian centre for remote sensing (CCRS) and EMISAR by Danish centre for remote sensing (DCRS). These airborne SAR systems employed many types of antennas, ranging from Yagi, slotted-waveguide to microstrip. However, modern civilian SAR system generally operates in L-, C- and X-band, where microstrip antenna dominates (Cyril and Jerome 1999). Due to its low mass and low cost, dual-frequency antenna is a powerful choice in microwave remote sensing radars and other wireless communication systems. In SAR applications the two important frequency bands are C-band and X-band. These frequencies are covered by two distinct antennas. Two frequencies (L-band and C-band) and dual polarization were used for the shuttle imaging radar (SIR-C) mission (Jordan et al. 1991, Rait 1993) but the L-band and C-band antenna did not share a common aperture. As a consequence, the SIR-C antenna mass was large and would not be compatible with currently operated platforms. In practice, only a single aperture antenna has the capability of minimum size and cost. There are some literatures in the area of dual-frequency with a common aperture. One recent paper (Chen and Xiaode 2005) describes such a dual-frequency dual-polarization array operating at l- and x-bands, which employs printed slots and dipole elements. In (Pokuls et al. 1998), an array operating at c- and x- band is presented, which consists of printed slots and microstrip patches. A similar l and c band dual-frequency array with dual-polarization was reported in (Vallecchi and Gentili 2002). Recently, dual-band and dual-polarized antennas have been studied using different techniques for satellite and wireless communication applications (Kim et al. 1999, Lee et al. 1999, Chiou and Wong 2002, Choi and Park 2006). Future requirements for advanced SAR antennas include the need for dualCorresponding Author: Md. Fokhrul Islam, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. E-mail: engr_tutul96@yahoo.com

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The designed microstrip patch antenna operates at center frequencies of 6.5 mm. the radiating strip has a bend and its radiation is due to two perpendicular edges. However. which radiate in vertical and horizontal polarizations (Fig. It has been shown by Garg et al. The radiating patch is fed by a coaxial probe type feed in this design. it is essential to have a finite ground plane. light weight and easy fabrication (Balanis 1997). for practical considerations. Sci. structure has three different resonant lengths as follows: W + (W-S2)+ 2Îl1 (1) L + (L-S1)+ 2Îl2 (2) W+L.58 mm and the feed location fp = 4. Three rectangular patches are overlapped along their diagonals. Îl2 and Îl3 are due to the fringing fields and can be computed by equation described in (Balanis 1997). The basic configuration of the proposed patch antenna for exciting dual-band dual-polarization is illustrated in Figure 3. At resonance frequency f3. the inner conductor of the coaxial connector extends through the dielectric and is connected to the radiating patch. 3. (2001) that similar results for finite and infinite ground plane can be obtained if the size of the ground plane is greater than the patch dimensions by approximately six times the substrate thickness all around the periphery. The design of the entire antenna started with the design of a single rectangular patch (Figure 1) that resonates at the center frequency of 9. 3).Yf) from the origin.Aust. As shown from Fig. J. For simplicity.(L-S1)+ 2Îl3 (3) The increments to the lengths. The following sections describe the antenna design more details and present the result achieved. the microstrip antennas are widely used to satisfy demands for polarization diversity and dual-frequency. Hence. The transmission line model described in (Balanis 1997) is used to design the antenna. 2008). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The S-parameters measurements for the microstrip patch antennas were done by using a vector network analyzer (VNA-40GHz) and a coaxial cable with SMA connector. The main advantage of this type of feeding scheme is that the feed can be placed at any desired location inside the patch in order to match with its input impedance. Figure 4 shows the photograph of the fabricated dual band microstrip patch antenna. enhancements of the antenna design have been presented..73 GHz with bandwidths of 154 MHz and 209 MHz respectively.43 mm were used. the length and width of the patch and the ground plane have been rounded off. The SMA (male) connectors with a 50 impedance matching were used for the RF measurements of the antennas. 2010 frequency operation using a single aperture. The transmission line model is applicable to infinite ground planes only. The feed point must be located at that point on the patch. An antenna with the following dimensions was designed: three rectangular patches of dimension (13×9) mm2 with overlapping dimensions S1 = 4. Basic & Appl.6 GHz (Figure 2). a dielectric substrate of relative permittivity εr = 2. The dualpolarized behavior is explained as follows: At resonance frequencies f1 and f2.5 mm and S2 = 6. It is also desirable that the dual-frequency antenna will be simultaneously capable of dual-polarization operation (Islam et al. The results tabulated in Table 1 were obtained after varying the feed location along the diagonal length of the patch from the 4586 The l1 = l1 = l1 = . due to their attractive features such as low profile. the antenna has two radiating strips perpendicular to each other. where the input impedance is 50 ohms for the resonant frequency. the return loss (RL) was compared and that feed point was selected where the RL was most negative.2 with thickness h = 1. In particular. 2004).. Îl1. This feed method is easy to fabricate and has low spurious radiation. S1 and S2 indicate the overlapping dimensions of the patches. In the extreme edges. In this context. The center of the patch is taken as the origin and the feed point location is given by the co-ordinates (Xf. For different locations of the feed point.83 GHz and 9. The SMA (female) connectors with 50 impedance matching were used to fabricate the dual band antenna. The dimensions of the patches are (W×L) mm2. a trial and error method was used to locate the feed point. MATERIALS AND METHODS Antenna Design and Operating Principle: The work described in this section focuses on the design of a dual band dual-polarized SAR antenna sharing the same physical aperture. it illustrates the curved paths along the mean dimension and thus confirms the corresponding resonant frequencies given by equation (3). 4(10): 4585-4591. while the outer conductor is connected to the ground plane. which provides dual polarization (Rambabu et al.

90 6.55 -10.31 -11. 4(10): 4585-4591.69 -15.92 6.83 6.3.5) (3.3.21 183 9.01 203 9.80 6.0) (2. A frequency range of 6–12 GHz was selected and 241 frequency points were selected over this range to obtain accurate results.53 -14.3.92 220 origin (center of patch) to its right most edge.25.5 mm.0.73 -30.96 -18.0.85 mm Table 1: Effect of feed point on center frequency.4. Sci. 2: Return loss for feed located at fp = 0.85 6.25) (3.5.5) (3.75 -21.2. 1: Top view of microstrip patch antenna Fig.79 -9.5.70 -23.49 -24.75 -20.73 -23.Aust.0) 6. Table 1 shows the calculated results for different feed locations.2.13 -23. J.3. Feed location (Xf.83 6.74 -21.0) (3.90 213 9. return loss and bandwidth C-Band No.30 143 162 154 136 104 39 X-Band -------------------------------------------------------Center Return loss Bandwidth frequency (dB) (MHz) (Ghz) 9. Basic & Appl.86 209 9. The coaxial probe feed used was designed to have a radius of 0.75) (4.22 217 9. 2010 Fig.Yf) --------------------------------------------------------Center frequency Return Bandwidth (GHz) loss (dB) (MHz) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (2.32 141 9.75..0. 4587 .

the maximum bandwidth is obtained at (Xf.73 GHz). Very good agreement is obtained in the results. 2010 Fig. It is observed from Table 1 that.5 dB (-9.Yf ) = (3. the center frequency starts to decrease in the low frequency but slightly increase in the high frequency.. As described in Section 2.86 dB are obtained for C-band and X-band respectively. The center frequency is selected as the one at which the RL is minimum. Sci. 4: Photographs of the fabricated dual band antenna: (a) top view.13 dB and -23.Aust. the optimum feed point is found to be at ( Xf.3. J. It is also seen that though the maximum RL is obtained at ( Xf.25. Basic & Appl. From Table 1. the bandwidth can be calculated from the RL plot. indicating that the modelling of the antenna took into account all necessary parasitic effects and that the fabrication process is well controlled. The bandwidth of the antenna for this feed point location is calculated to be 154 MHz (f0 = 6. as the feed point location is moved away from the center of the patch.5 dB corresponds to a VSWR of 2 which is an acceptable figure). The bandwidth of the antenna can be said to be those range of frequencies over which the RL is less than -9.83 GHz) and 209 MHz (f0 = 9.0). 3: Probe feed microstrip patch antenna top view (upper) and side view (lower) Fig. (b) backside view Figure 5 shows the RL plots for some of the feed point locations.4.Yf ) = (4.3.25) where the RL of 24.Yf ) = (3.0. The S-parameter (S11) based comparison between measured and simulated result for the dual band patch antenna is presented in Figure 6.0. 4588 .0). 4(10): 4585-4591.

5: Return loss plots for some of the feed point locations Fig. Figure 7 shows the gain of the antenna at C-band and X-band for φ = 0 and φ = 90 degrees. From the results obtained. φ = 0 and φ = 90 degrees. The maximum gain was obtained in the broadside direction and this was measured to be 5 dBi for both. the bandwidth requirements.and X-band SAR systems to be shared. 3. hence the elevation pattern for φ = 0 and φ = 90 degrees would be important.Aust. Basic & Appl. 6: Return loss for feed located at (3.25) In additions. J. Comparison with other researcher on the same work is presented in Table 2. 2010 Fig.25. for high data collections and accurate knowledge of targets missions needing several frequency bands. A microstrip patch antenna radiates normal to its patch surface. 4589 .. it can be seen that this novel antenna is capable of satisfying some of the requirements of an airborne SAR. this concept allows C. for example. 4(10): 4585-4591. Sci.

The proposed antenna with a bandwidth of 154 MHz (f0 = 6.S. For high data collections and accurate knowledge of targets missions which need several frequency bands.83GHz band (a) φ = 0E (b) φ = 90E and for 9. the concept can be simply adapted to design other antennas operating at different frequency bands.Aust.83 GHz (C-band) 9.. it can be seen that this novel antenna is capable of satisfying some of the requirements of an airborne SAR. 7: Radiation pattern for 6.58 mm DBDP single element Dual frequency elements to both bands simultaneously 6. New York. 1998 and designed antenna Parameter Pokuls et al. Y.83 GHz) and 209 MHz (f0 = 9. Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design. the radiation pattern and bandwidth requirements.73 GHz) was designed and fabricated successfully. Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) of Malaysia under the Sciencefund Grant 03-01-02-SF0254. Inc.A.73GHz band (c) φ = 0E (d) φ = 90E Designed antenna Rogers Duroid 5880 (εr = 2. Lim.2) Thickness = 1. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was supported by the Ministry of Science. From the results obtained.band SAR systems. In additions. 4(10): 4585-4591. 2010 Fig.C. Basic & Appl. J. for example. Koo and T. Sci. 2007. pp: 17041708.94) Antenna types Element types cover Center frequencies Antenna bandwidth Feeding requirements DBDP array antenna Single frequency elements for each band 5. low cost X-band airborne synthetic aperture radar system. C. Conceptual design of a high resolution.73 Ghz (X-band) 150 to 200 MHz Single feed Table 2: Comparison between Pokuls et al. Chan.K. 1998 Thickness = 1.78 mm Substrate material Rogers Duroid 6002 (εr = 2. Beside this. this concept allows the sharing of Cand X. REFERENCES Balanis.6 GHz (X-band) 50 to 100 MHz Dual feed Conclusions: A dual-band dual-polarized coaxially-fed single-layer microstrip patch antenna with a compact structure has been demonstrated. V.. 1997. 4590 . Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium.3 GHz (C-band) 9.. John Wiley & Sons.

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