Electronics

Energy Division

Practical Guide TO Good EARTHING

A

MORLYNN
INSULATORS

that is important in securing a good electrical earth. it passes from a low resistance metal into an immediate area of high resistance soil. 4. requiring earth rods to be driven to even greater depths. Factors chiefly affecting soil resistivity are 1. and an increase of only a few percent of moisture content in a normally dry soil will markedly decrease soil resistivity. it is this resistance at the interface where the current leaves the earth rod and flows into the main body of the earth that is important and explains why soil resistivity tests are very necessary in order to secure lowest overall resistance. And so on into a succession of sheaths or shells of ever increasing area. soil ionisation. The earthing of an electrical installation has two purposes 1. drought and frost can introduce wide variations in “normal” soil resistivity. In many locations soil can be quite homogenous. Refer Table 1 for typical soil resistivity values. as well as providing good conditions for a closely packed soil in good contact with the earth rod. and the current density so small. The characteristic primarily determining the effectiveness of an earth electrode is the resistance which it provides between the earthing system and the general mass of earth. The other unit commonly used is the Ohm centimetre. For example.clay. The areas of resistance can be described as being that of a number of sheaths of ever increasing diameters. 2. The resistance of the earth path is determined 1. See Table 2 for variations of soil resistivity with moisture content. Climate Obviously arid and good rainfall climates are at opposite extremes for conditions of soil resistivity. Soil resistivity usually decreases with depth. moisture. one Ohm metre being the resistivity the soil has when it has a resistance of one Ohm between the opposite faces of a cube of soil having one metre sides. 2. The current path passes into the first sheath immediately adjacent to the earth rod and then into the second sheath which is of a larger cross-section with a greater area for current flow. dry sand in elevated areas can have values as high as 10. Conversely. Seasonal conditions The effects of heat. 1 Principal factors affecting soil resistivity Fig. and because of this. and 3. 3. etc. To provide protection for persons or animals against the danger of electric shock. multiply by 100. Very often soil composition is in layers or strata. and Table 3 for variations of soil resistivity with temperature. gravel. Type of soil Soil composition can be . Other factors Other soil properties conducive to low resistivity are chemical composition. Soil resistivity varies greatly from one location to another. soil temperatures below freezing greatly increase soil resistivity. especially at sub-soil level and lower where the moisture content is not subject to drying out. and it is the resistance of the varying strata. of ever decreasing resistance. the resistance at this point is negligible. In the other extreme. Reference to Figures 1 and 2 depict what happens when a current flows from an earth rod into the surrounding earth. Eventually at a distance of three or four metres. while other locations may be mixtures of these soil types in varying proportions. 2 2 . To maintain the proper function of the electrical system. 2. by its contact resistance between the earth rod and the surrounding soil. Purpose of Earthing Chief requirement of good Earthing is low soil resistivity The Earth Path Fig. by the resistance of the earth rod and connecting conductors. When an electrical current passes into the soil from a buried earth rod. sand. Measurements show that 90% of the total resistance around an earth rod is within a radius of three metres. loam. by the resistivity of the soil surrounding the earth rod. To convert Ohm metres to Ohm centimetres. of lower resistance than the first sheath.Section 1 The Basics of Earthing What is “Earthing”? Earthing may be described as a system of electrical connections to the general mass of earth.000 Ohm metres. However. the area of current dissipation becomes so large. soil around the banks of a river have a resistivity in the order of 1. All have much to do with retention of soil moisture. there is a large variation of soil resistivity between different soil types and moisture contents. silt. and therefore. rock. In view of all the above factors. shale. stones. Soil resistivity (specific resistance of the soil) is usually measured in Ohm metres. grain distribution and homogeneous grain size.5 Ohm metres.

000 50. Refer to the instrument manufacturer’s manual on how to carry out the test. resistance measurements are taken at increasing spacings (e. the distance between the earth rod under test and the current probe “C” is not less than 15 metres.000 100. earth rods should be installed in parallel to obtain a lower resistance reading. Measuring resistance Figure 3 illustrates the test setup for measuring the resistance in Ohms between the installed earth rod and the general mass of earth. loam and mud Lake and brook water Sand Morane gravel Ridge gravel Solid granite Ice Usual Limit Ωm 0. 6 Typical curve of apparent soil resistivity for 3 layer soils 3 . As a general rule.100 630 290 --- Table 3 Variation of Resistivity with Temperature in a Mix of Sand and Clay with a Moisture Content of about 15% by Weight Temperature Typical Value of Resistivity oC Ωm 20 10 0 (Water) o (Ice) -5 -15 72 99 138 300 790 3. for spacing of 2 metres. i. 5 Typical curve of apparent soil resistivity for 2 layer soils Middle layer less conductive Lower layer more conductive Apparent soil resistivity (Ohm/m) Table 2 Variations of Soil Resistivity with Moisture Content Typical Value of Resistivity Ωm Moisture Content Clay mixed with sand Sand % of Weight 0 2. The profile can be used to identify where low resistivity soil occurs so that appropriate installation techniques can be used. deep driving earth rods are recommended.000 1.000 10. If the soil resistivity increases with depth.g.000 to 100.500 430 185 105 63 42 --3. A four-terminal instrument is required for soil resistivity.000 to 30.000 2.000 to 50. 1.000 40 to 10. 3m. Now. The probes are installed in a straight line with an equal spacing of “a” metres and inserted to a depth of no more than a/20 metres. a soil resistivity versus depth profile can be drawn as shown in Figures 5 and 6. keeping the centre position the same. Always ensure that the spacing between individual test probes are identical.000 5 to 250 100 to 400 200 to 3. slates. etc Peat.000.000. they can be generally categorised as three-terminal or four-terminal test instruments. 4 The use of the resistivity at probe spacing “a” metres as the average resistivity to a depth of “a” metes is a good enough approximation for most circumstances. From the calculation.5 5 10 15 20 30 10.000 3.000 25. 3 Test rods ‘a’ ‘a’ centre ‘a’ Depth ‘a’ 20 C1 P1 P2 C2 Earth tester Fig. The soil resistivity can be obtained from the following formula: where ρ = 2π a R (Ohm metres) ρ = apparent soil resistivity a = spacing of probes in metres R = resistance value in Ohms (as indicated on the tester) Soil Site Testing Essential Potential (P) Probe Current (C) Probe Depth 300 to 500mm Earth rod under test C1 P1 P2 C2 Soil Earth tester Fig. 2.000 15. sandstones.000 3. a = 2m. There are a variety of test instruments available. 4m. The test results give a resistivity profile of the earth beneath the surface. Measuring soil resistivity Figure 4 illustrates the simple test setup for measuring soil resistivity.000 10.e. Table 1 Resistivity Values for Several Types of Soils and Water Typical Resistivity Ωm 2 40 50 100 120 150 250 2.000 Lower layer more conductive Apparent soil resistivity (Ohm/m) Spacing (m) (Depth) Fig.1 to 10 8 to 70 10 to 150 4 to 300 10 to 1.300 Spacing (m) (Depth) Fig. depth must be less than 100mm. Best results are achieved when the spacing of the parallel earth rods is greater than their depth.A Practical Guide to Good Earthing Every earth is an individual and the only way to know that an earthing installation meets code requirements is to carry out proper resistance measurements on site. As the soil resistivity decreases with depth.000 Type of Soil or Water Sea Water Clay Ground well and spring water Clay and sand mixtures Shale. etc). However.

ease and economy of installation and overall reliability. Mechanically. it can be seen from the curve. where it may take some time for the soil to close back about the electrode. 8 0 Note that if the diameter of the earth rod is halved (or doubled). Large diameter rods may be more difficult to drive than smaller diameter rods. This is because it is not the actual area of contact with the soil that counts. high resistance to atmospheric corrosion and soil attack. Taking into account conductivity. its connection to the earthing system is easily made. The clad steel rod is simple to install. industrial and substation applications. all manner of conductor materials and shapes have been installed in the ground to provide an electrical earth. This single piece taper coupling is quick and easy to fit to the earth rod.01 m2 66% increase Fig. there is little advantage to be gained from increasing the earth rod diameter with the object in mind of increasing surface area in contact with the soil. The range includes the specially designed extendable earth rods which may be joined end to end to reach into the deeper levels of moist soil. Close soil contact will allow true earth resistance readings and may eliminate the need to drive deeper in order to obtain the desired result. so much as the total resistance area of the sheath or shell surrounding the earth rod. metallic rod. a good earth rod should have a low intrinsic resistance and be of sufficient section to carry high currents without damage when called upon. tubes. Extendable Earth Rod Coupling Systems A key feature of Dulmison’s extendable earth rods is the low profile of the couplings. 4 . and the installation is readily accessible for inspection and test. 7 20 Resistance in Ohms 15 10 5 R = resistance of earth rod in Ohms ρ = soil resistivity in Ohm metres L = length of earth rod in metres d = diameter of earth rod in metres The curve shown in Fig. The usual practice is to select a diameter of earth rod which will have enough strength to enable it to be driven into the particular soil conditions without bending or splitting. the steel rod clad with either copper or stainless steel has proven its superiority over all others. the current trend is to a tapered coupling.5% increase 1000mm Shell area ‘C’ 2. Steel core Earth Rods have the best attributes Electrically.24 m2 2. with the use of deep driving techniques. 1. have a rigid core for easy driving and be of durable.5 6. Dulmison has had wide experience in the design and production of a variety of copper and stainless steel clad earth rods for domestic.1 ) Ohms 2πL d 500mm 500mm Shell area ‘A’ 1. corrosion resistant material. copper strip. extendable earth rods have been developed to reach underlying strata of low permanent resistivity unaffected by seasonal drying. Both the flush and taper coupling designs provide excellent electrical connection as proven in laboratory testing and experience in service. Additionally. By comparison.Section 2 About Earth Rods Types of Earth Rods At one time or another. The elimination of coupling “bulges” enables close soil contact throughout the entire length of the electrode. its physical properties should exhibit strength.0 Length of electrode in metres Fig. a much more dramatic effect is obtained by increasing the length of the earth rod. the resistance is changed by some 121/2%. 8 is based upon this formula where the earth resistance using a 25mm diameter earth rod is plotted against its length for soil having a resistivity of 10 Ohm metres. The depth to which an earth rod is driven has much more influence on its electrical resistance characteristics than has its diameter.5 3. galvanised steel stakes. (Refer paragraph “The Earth Path”. Earth Rod length more important than Rod diameter 510mm 250mm 520mm 250mm 510mm 250mm Apart from considerations of mechanical strength.21 m2 Shell area ‘B’ 1. wire and water pipe. These materials range from cast iron plates.) The resistance of an earthing installation by an earth rod is calculated according to the following formula: R= Where ρ ( ln ( 8L ) . This is an important consideration in dry/arid countries (such as Australia). While the flush (pin and sleeve) coupling has proven itself with years of reliable service.0 4.

g. However.see explanation under “Earth Path”. coke breeze and like materials. This is because multiple earth rods. Dulmison stainless steel earth rods have a high resistance to both atmospheric and soil corrosion. rod diameter. etc. being clad with an austenitic grade stainless steel having a chromium content of approximately 17%. e. fewer rods coupled together for deep driving will achieve a lower resistance than the same number in parallel. configuration of earth rods and soil resistivity. was submitted to Metal Manufacturers Limited. The permanence of copper in most soils. The earth rod spacing should not be less than the earth rod length to avoid overlap of resistance areas.as per conditions described above. such as in tidal lands. unless spaced well apart. The report read in part: “As you can see. 5 . In most cases. involves long cabling and many connections. for examination. and its inherent low resistance. all adding up to higher costs in time. near Sydney. lead sheathed cables.A Practical Guide to Good Earthing The combined resistance of parallel rods is a complex function of the number of rods. 3. rod length. Etching and examination at 100x magnification confirmed this. A Dulmison copper clad earth rod which had been installed on the shores of Botany Bay at Sans Souci. Accordingly. Moreover. salt marshes. Port Kembla. NSW. brings it into widespread use throughout the electrical industry in Australia and around the world. Where the earthed item needs to be protected against galvanic attack and corrosion. its resistance to chemical attack and corrosion. swamps and land filled with ashes. reproduced here at 4x magnification shows no circumferential irregularities indicating sheath corrosion. rod separation. the installation of multiple earth rods at sufficient distances apart takes up a large area.” The cross section. labour and equipment. Where the tougher sheathing of stainless steel will provide for a more durable and rigid earth rod better suited to hard driving conditions than its copper counterpart. NSW for 10 years. at 4x magnification after 10 years in salt-laden soil. 2. Where the chemical composition of the soil reacts more unfavourably than copper . there are certain soils where it is inadvisable to use copper. Test shows no “detectable corrosion” (after 10 years in salty soil) Copper vs Stainless Steel Earth Rod length more important than number of rods in parallel Cross section of copper sheathed Dulmison earth rod described above. do not follow the law of resistance in parallel as their earth conducting paths overlap . there has not been any detectable corrosion of the copper sheathing. the cladding operation imparts an extra toughness to the stainless steel through work hardening. Typical of the applications where Dulmison stainless steel clad earth rods are favoured over copper clad are 1. steel poles.

Dulmison Earth Rods • are Energy Authority approved around Australia and the South Pacific • are tested to 5kA fault current . STE1312 STE1314 STE1318 STE1324 STE1330 Pack/ Bulk Qty 10/500 10/500 5/500 5/500 1/50 14mm Dia. They are not prone to de-alloying or stress corrosion which can adversely affect earthing fittings that have been made from inferior materials such as brass. Numbers Pack/Bulk Qty 13 1440 SNE1314 10/500 13 1800 SNE1318 5/500 STE Series Stainless Steel Clad Rods Rod Length 1200 1440 1800 2400 3000 13mm Dia. Each rod incorporates an integral driving point. Bulk Qty 15mm Dia. the Earthing Handbook expressly forbids the use of brass in buried situations. This type of construction provides the rods with high mechanical strength for driving and good resistance to corrosion. Available in either copper or stainless steel clad rod.General Dulmison earth rods have a structural steel core with an outer cladding of either electrolytic pure copper or austenitic stainless steel. Taperlock coupled earth rods present slim profile (less than 1mm deviation) to ensure minimal soil displacement.Types CTE and STE The simplest of all extendable earth rods to install is the taperlock earth rod.16mm2 Certificate of Suitability CS571N CNE Series Copper Clad Rods Rod Diameter Rod Length Cat. Bulk Qty 19mm Dia. The coupling is a single piece with taper matching that of the rod. In fact. A single blow is all that is required to lock the rod and coupling together. Type CNE CTE Series Copper Clad Rods Rod Pack/ Pack/ Pack/ Length 13mm Dia. machined (not ground) to preserve the strength and rigidity of cold drawn steel. there are a variety of sizes to meet all situations.labour and materials All Dulmison couplings are made from stable materials compatible with the earth rod core and sheath. Non Extendable Earth Rods Dulmison manufacture a broad range of non extendable earth rods. The flat tip was developed for penetrating all types of soil. Bulk Qty 1200 1440 1800 2000 2400 3000 CTE1312 CTE1314 CTE1318 --CTE1324 CTE1330 10/500 10/500 5/500 --5/500 1/50 CTE1512 CTE1514 CTE1518 --CTE1524 CTE1530 10/500 --10/500 --5/500 ----CTE1920 5/500 --1/40 --------1/20 ----- Earth Rod Accessories Coupling CCT13 10/100 CCT15 10/100 Point DPT13 50/200 DPT15 50/200 Star Point SDP13T 10/100 SDP15T 10/100 Driving Accessories Hand Kango 950 A/C Tex 11 A/C Cobra DHT15 5/25 MDH15K Each MDH15A Each MDH15AC Each DHT19 ------5/25 ------CCT19 DPT19 --10/50 10/50 --- Domestic earth rod clip EC13D.9kA peak with no appreciable effect to the rod itself • have bonded-for-life cladding • have consistent OD throughout length ensuring fit of earth clips comply with AS1882 • can be formed around footings without damage to cladding or core • are 100% Australian made . This design philosophy has been carried over into Dulmison’s range of earthing connectors. This is ideally suited to light sandy soil conditions where there is little driving resistance from the soil.Section 3 Everything for Earthing Earth Rods . Suitable for cables in the range 6 . Numbers Pack/Bulk Qty 1440 CNE1314 10/500 13 1800 CNE1318 5/500 13 1800 CNE1518 5/500 15 2400 CNE1524 5/500 15 Type LGR SNE Series Stainless Steel Clad Rods Rod Diameter Rod Length Cat. Domestic Rod Pack . The extremities of the rod terminate in identical tapers.CNE1314T 10 pcs/pk CNE1314 Domestic earth rod 10 pcs/pk EC13D Earth clip Extendable Earth Rods Taperlock Coupled . STE1412 STE1415 STE1418 STE1424 STE1430 Pack/ Bulk Qty 10/500 10/500 5/500 5/500 1/40 Earth Rod Accessories Coupling Point Star Point SCT13 DPT12 SDP12T 10/100 50/200 10/100 SCT15 DPT15 SDP15T 10/100 50/200 10/100 Consult office for additional information &/or sizes Commercial/Industrial LGR Series 19mm Copper Clad Rods Rod Length Catalogue Number Pack/Bulk Qty 1800 2400 3000 3600 4500 LGR1918 LGR1924 LGR1930 LGR1936 LGR1945 1/20 1/20 1/20 1/20 1/20 Driving Accessories Hand Kango 950 A/C Tex 11 A/C Cobra DHT15 MDH15K MDH15A MDH15AC 5/25 Each Each Each 6 .

Packaging: 20kg non-tear. No. having a reduced section with precision drilled hole. This can mean a reduction in the number of rods required to achieve a specific resistance value. Dry mix will yield a volume of approximately 0. Manufactured from high strength aluminium alloy or polymer concrete.Type SDE (Telstra) Telstra designed and approved earth rod featuring corrosion resistant stainless steel clad rods. Natural Gypsum Conforms to AS2239 Features: Stable. plastic lined bags. copper clad earth rod series is available in a variety of lengths to 3000mm. Sodium Sulphate N/A EARTH5050 Calcium. Gypsum. Slurry will yield a volume of approximately 0. CCE Series Copper Clad Rods Rod Length 1200 1440 1800 2400 3000 13mm Dia. SDE Series Stainless Steel Clad Rods Rod Length 14mm Dia. The whole coupling mechanism finishes flush with the main body of the rod. The ends of the rod are identical.Type CCE This flush jointed. low shrink characteristics. Non-toxic. noncorrosive. CCE1312 CCE1314 CCE1318 CCE1324 CCE1330 Pack/ Bulk Qty 10/500 10/500 5/500 5/500 1/50 15mm Dia. Hinged covers allow easy access for inspection or testing. Bentonite. 165 120 165 120 76 240 200 127 127 200 Cat. No. ERB3 Polymer concrete Earth Rod Accessories Coupling Point Star Point CCA13 DP13 SDP13 10/100 25/200 10/100 CCA15 DP15 SDP15 25/100 50/200 10/100 Earthing Enhancement Compounds Cat. Pin Lock Pack/Bulk Qty 1440 SDE1414L 10/500 Coupling Point Star Point Earth Rod Accessories C14L DP14 SDP14D Driving Accessories Hand Coupling Tool DH14 CT14 5/30 5/25 25/75 50/200 10/100 Installation: Apply as a dry mix or pourable slurry. The coupling system comprises of a stainless steel sleeve and hardened steel pin having a raised convolution at the midpoint.A Practical Guide to Good Earthing Extendable Earth Rods Flush Jointed . they are well suited to use in high traffic areas. Sodium Sulphate Conforms to AS2239 Driving Accessories Hand Kango 950 A/C Tex 11 A/C Cobra Drive Pin DH15 MDH15DF MDH15AF MDH15C MDP10M 5/30 Each Each Each 100 EARTHRITE Bentonite. Coupling is via a two piece arrangement comprising copper sleeve and hardened steel pin. Expansion Jointed . Effective contact is established along the entire length of the driven electrode from day one. No. A secure and non-detachable joint is achieved by means of the pin’s convolute expanding and deforming the ends of the rod into the coupling sleeve as the rods are driven together.030m3 when mixed with 20 to 25 litres of water (roughly 33 bags to the cubic metre) 7 . high conductivity providing long term low ground resistance. Gypsum. extendable in 1440mm lengths. High expansion. EARTHFIL Composition Standard Bentonite. with either 13mm or 15mm nominal diameter. CCE1512 CCE1514 CCE1518 CCE1524 CCE1530 Pack/ Bulk Qty 10/500 10/500 5/500 5/500 1/40 Cat. ERB1 Aluminium alloy casting Connection Boxes These enclosures provide a tidy means of protecting the connection of the main earth conductor to the earth rod.0176m3 (roughly 57 bags to the cubic metre).

19 16 . Material: High copper content alloy castings with stainless steel U-bolt.21 17 . spring washers and nuts.14. Fig. 2 Fig.14.10 .Parallel Simple and robust. EP3 20 13 .7 8. Material: Copper alloy casting.6 .19 16 .17.21 Single Conductor . these pinch and U Bolt type clamps have a vee groove embodied in the casting to accommodate the earthing cable.19 50 .14.7 2 1 EP4 20 13 .1 . as illustrated.14.Versatile These clamps are designed for either parallel or right angle connections. Specification Cat. mm 13 .35 5. Material: High copper content alloy castings with stainless steel U-bolt.19 13 .14.6 7. of Fig Cat Pack No.19 50 .05 . mm csa mm2 Dia.120 5. mm Conductors No.7.19 50 .7. stable and low resistance path to earth.120 8. Conductor Size mm csa mm2 Diameter mm 13 .7.35 4.7 2 2 ET2 15 13 .35 50 .35 5.Section 3 Everything for Earthing Earth Rod Clamps Single Conductor . GB1 GB2 GB3 EL21090 Pack Qty 25 20 10 10 Rod Dia.15 10 .7.15 Conductor Size csa mm2 Diameter mm 16 . No.14.19 16 .120 150 .120 8.19 13 . spring washers and nuts.2 Type GRC5 Clamp 210 Multiple Conductor Installations for multi-conductor earthing For 2 earth conductors parallel to rod or 2 or 3 earth conductors at right angles to rod.630mm2 Bonding cable 70mm2 3 sec current rating 10kA Lug diameter 10mm Terminal thread M10 Thread depth 20mm KITY 8 .14. Qty Dia. bronze set screw or stainless steel U-bolt and nuts.1 .2 2 1 ET1 25 13 . 3 Type EP Type ET Rod Conductor Size No. EARTHMAT Description Material: Galvanised mild steel Size: 1500mm x 900mm Mesh: 76mmx 50mm Installation kit for type RDB rotary switches with earth switch.9 . Rod Dia.2 15.2 3 3 Earth Mats Earth mats and installation kits Kit Earthmat Earthing Bond For commercial earthing installations C70 The Earthing Bond system provides an earth connection welded to the steel reinforcement. thus offering a virtually indestructible.9 .9 . No. C70 Cat.19 12 .1 . Pack Qty 100 GRC5 CLAMP210 10/50 EP1 40 Cat No.2 2 2 ET4 10 13 .65 13 .120 5.7 . Cat No. Mains cable 50 .120 8.10 .9 .120 5. 1 Fig.185 35 .15 16 .

exclude moisture and resist rotation of the connector on the earth rod. and to safeguard personnel close to that equipment.70 70 .0 50 .120 Open Section CEC050 50 70 . and more to the point. 9 .4 25 .120mm2 8.95 95 .One crimp from a standard compression tool • Range taking . • Individually packed .40 DU1315 or Earthrods 11. Features and benefits • Simple installation .From 35mm2 to 120mm2 (13 to 15mm diameter earth rods) • Connector design . a number of various combinations of conductor sizes and grid connections arrangements are readily accommodated.A Practical Guide to Good Earthing CEC Connectors A heavy duty compression connector for earth rods and conductors Dulmison CEC connectors were specifically developed to dissipate surges of high fault current quickly and effectively to limit any potential damage to equipment. conductor size and installation die reference.Identical material to the conductor eliminates problems caused by electrolytic corrosion and the corrosive effects to some soil. are quickly and economically made.Current carrying capacity greater than that of the conductor • Corrosion resistant . mm2 Catalogue Pack Qty No.Each CEC connector is clearly stamped with the appropriate catalogue number. • Easy identification .For cleanliness and ease of handling.70 13 .50 70 . Installation notes • Standard “C” head compression tool of minimum 12 tonne capacity recommended • Full compressive force of the tool is utilised as application is not limited by die halves meeting. but the pressure release valve in the tool • Regular use of a load test cell to confirm compression performance of the tool is recommended. the CEC connector is fitted by use of standard compression tools to form a dependable.15mm dia.50 50 . 15.A specially formulated jointing compound heavily laden with copper particles.50 70 . • Pre-coated with Coppalube .95 Die Set DUOT CEC070 CEC095 50 50 DUOT DU1315 Consult office for additional information and/or sizes Application to Earthing Grid Systems By joining two Compress-On connectors .35 70 . mm Cross section mm2 Conductors Blank Blank 50 .0 95 . CEC15000 CEC15035 CEC15070 CEC15120 50 40 40 50 Tap off Conductor Die Set Dia.by means of length of bare stranded copper cable. to increase the mechanical and electrical integrity of the connection.50 50 . tamper-proof joint from conductor to earth rod or buried earthing cable. Catalogue Pack Conductor Qty Combination No.This connector may be installed in damp or fire risk areas with no adverse effects on the joint or the environment.either of the same or of different catalogue numbers . Manufactured from pure wrought copper. • All weather application .

Consult office for technical information.Section 3 Everything for Earthing The Cadweld Connection The “Forever Connection” for • Electrical systems earthing • The earthing of heavy duty industrial equipment • The cathodic protection of plant and installations • Busbar connections • Electric transport and communication systems Cadweld Connections • Are self contained • Require no arc welding equipment • Require no gas cylinders • Require no external power source Simple. A connection without contact pressures to loosen or corrode . Thus it is that insulated cables and thin walled tube may be Cadwelded without detriment to adjacent insulation or tube wall strength. No. Airport Earthing Terminal For static electricity earthing . Installation procedure: Drive electrode into ground to required depth. or molecular weld of virtually pure copper. The Cadweld connection provides for 1.the Furseweld connection is an integral part of the conductor system. Also available.e. 3. F20634 secures datum permanence • Consult office for further details 10 . AET1918F Survey and Mapping Datum Marks SDE Series 14mm rods • Stainless steel for permanence • Extendable for deep driving • Manual or machine driven • Special stainless steel ‘drive fit’ protective cap Cat. A connection not affected by high current surges. that of the connected conductors. AET1918 Standard length: 1800mm. Although the temperatures reached to effect this weld are extremely high. servicing and cargo loading areas. Illustrated here are just a few of the many uses for Cadweld applicable to earthing. i. Remove protruding portion of rod above cap and finish flush. twice that of the connected conductors 2. new release flush fitted static terminal Cat. heavy bronze cap. portable and extremely fast. No.Cat. other lengths to special order Pack Qty: 15 Type AET electrodes provide for the earthing of airport tarmac areas where any generation of static electricity could be hazardous. A connection with a high current carrying capacity equal to or greater than. Cadweld is ideal for on-site welding of connections to a wide range of metals as follows Copper Copper to . On short circuit tests the conductors melt before the Cadweld connection. The heavy duty capping has a ribbed design affording a fast and positive earthing connection by means of earth lead connector clips.Mild steel Stainless steel Copper clad steel Galvanized steel Bronze Brass Monel metal About the Cadweld Connection A Cadweld connection is a true fusion. 4. A connection with a cross sectional area that is in most cases. aircraft refuelling. Material: Solid steel core overlaid with copper cladding. No. the process itself is so fast (a matter of seconds) the total amount of heat applied to the connection surfaces is considerably less than that of a comparable brazing or soldering operation.

to heavy blows which are destructive to the metal and can cause deformation to the rod end as well as bending and possible splitting. Cobra. Their use is dictated by the nature of the soil and terrain. The Mechanical Hammer. pneumatic and petrol-driven drills and augers to hydraulic plant with diamond bits that can penetrate rock. Machine drilling equipment is available commercially and ranges from electric. There are two methods of installing earth rods into the drilled hole. well mixed slurry of EARTHRITE and water is then poured in to backfill the hole. a. There are a variety of methods for driving earth rods into the ground from the simple hand held hammer to power operated mobile rigs. it is preferable to use one of the Dulmison extendable series earth rods. Petrol engine driven hammers . A thick. These have the advantages of being self-contained and independent of compressed air or electricity supply for operation. Atlas Copco and similar are suited. is suited to deeper driving and heavier earth rods but should be rig mounted because of its size and weight. and the number of rods to be driven. Earth rods up to 3m long can be driven satisfactorily in one length. 9 11 . which can be one of three types: a.Fig 9. the length of drive needed to secure minimum resistance. General note: Very light and very heavy hammers with a long stroke are not suited to earth rod driving. the only option is to drill a hole to take the earth rod. Pneumatic hammers . More often than not. The second option is to assemble the extendable rods together and insert into the drilled hole. 900 or 950 and similar weight equipment suitable for light driving to medium depths . roughly 57 bags to the cubic metre). 20kgs of EARTHRITE will yield a volume of approximately 0. the gap between the earth rod and wall of the drilled hole is commonly filled with a water expanding compound.typical are Atlas Copco. Where rods have to be longer than 3m. and they interface between the earth rod driving end and the mechanical hammer. b.e. The earth rod should be driven lightly using a hammer of around 11/2 to 3 kgs. c. However. the rod can be driven into the ground by either a hand held hammer or mechanically operated hammer. This is a mixture of Bentonite and Gypsum with a small amount of Sodium Sulphate to reduce the resistivity of the backfill. The Kanga model 2500. The fitting of a guide to the rod will assist rigidity and reduce whipping when the rod comes up against resistance to penetration. Where holes are drilled. Medium tools in the 71/2 to 12 kgs range with a stroke of approximately 58 to 108mm delivering 2200 blows per minute are ideal for normal applications.typical are Kanga models 1800. A range of machine driving heads are given in the Driving Accessories tables on pages 6 and 7. keeping the force of the blows axial to the rod to obviate the risk of whipping. and preferable. The driving methods are The Hand Held Hammer is an effective method for most domestic installations encountered in suburban lots. Pneumatic c. Electric b. Such a compound is EARTHRITE. water is poured into the backfilled hole.of which Pionjar. Electric hammers . As a rule of thumb.Section 4 Getting Down to Earth Earth rods are installed by one of two methods.0176 cubic metres (i. While it may be possible to maintain this when manually using a light type hammer such as an electric Kanga. A large number of comparatively light hammer blows are more effective. Driving an earth rod with a mechanical hammer calls for special care to ensure the force of the blows are axial to the rod. Drilled Installation Driving Methods Methods of installing Earth Rods Fig. a heavy duty hammer. it is certainly advisable to use rig mounting to ensure correct driving especially when it comes to driving the longer earth rods. and similar chipping hammers in the 7kg range with speeds of around 2000 blows per minute. Petrol engine driven These power operated aids are used when soil conditions are not suited to hand driving and when long earth rods have to driven to great depths. where driving is difficult or progress non-existent. One method is to backfill the hole with dry EARTHRITE and as extendable rods are driven to the required depth.

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