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DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN 

Most of the people were illiterate and numbers of educational institutions were insufficient for educating people. If we are to make real. PAKISTAN·S AFTER  EDUCATIONAL SETUP INDEPENDENCE At the time of independence. You know that importance of education and the right type of education.. The Quran placed great emphasis on education.1 .. Since 1970 some of the important functions of local councils were moved up to the provincial government.. This is necessary in order to lay sound basis for political culture. The Quaid as quoted above also highlighted its importance for the new nation. cannot be overemphasized.. speedy and substantial progress.1947. Pakistan has a weak educational setup. At the time of independence (1947) the organizational structure of local government was vibrant. having regard to the modern conditions and vast developments that have taken place all over the world". During 1950s and 1960s local councils. ( Quaid-e-Azam ) (1) Pakistan appeared on the map of the world on 14th August. Ministry of education and provincial education departments are regulating the educational laws and policies at federal and provincial levels. Pakistan Development pg. we must earnestly tackle this question . usually educational administration has been practiced through centralized system. political socialization and recruitment of political system of the country. Pakistan inherited administrative setup from British in 1947 and since then the system has improved to some extent through a number of administrative reforms but revamping of administrative structures did not take place. Pakistan was created in the name of Islam under the outstanding leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. delivered most of the public services.INTRODUCTION : Education is not only an important pillar for development but also the basic condition for the success of democracy. In Pakistan. The Muslims are religiously bound to get education.. Ref (1):  Akhtar Hasan Khan "Education in Pakistan: fifty years of neglect". Quaid had complete belief in students throughout the movement for independence.

A Hindu delegate Director Public Instruction from East Bengal dissented from the resolution that recommended text books in Urdu. that the system of education should suit the genius of our people. Following educational policies have been introduced in the country since its independence in 1947: a b c d e f g ). (b) Free and compulsory elementary education. Co-education schools at the primary level if recommended by local conditions. made three basic recommendations: (a) Education should be inspired by Islam. The conference recommended to the Constituent Assembly that Urdu should be recognized as of Pakistan. responsibility and sell less service to the nation. inter-alia. He provided the basic guidelines for future education development by stressing. ).EDUCATIONAL POLICIES : Development of education is evident from the Educational Policies introduced by the Government in different periods. Educational Conference 1947 Report Of The Commission On National Education 1959 National Education Policy 1970 Developmental Changes In Educational Policy 1972 Education Policy 1978 National Education Policy. integrity. It should also provide scientific and technical knowledge for economic uplift of the new state. (c) Emphasis on technical education. The All Pakistan Education Conference was convened in 1947. ). ). The conference also emphasized for free and compulsory education at primary level and then gradually to be raised to middle level. at the behest of Quaid-i-Azam. ). ).  . ). 1992 National Educational Policy 1998-2010 EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE 1947  The importance of education was fully realized soon after the establishment of Pakistan. The Conference therefore. It resolved that Urdu must be taught as a compulsory the lingua franca subject in schools. It also focused on improving literacy rate through adult literacy program [2] Ref (2): Lingua Franca: A language or mixture of languages used as a medium of communication by people whose native languages are different. He preferred English for the public of Bengal. it should be consonant with our history and culture and instill the highest sense of honor.

P. On this day. This policy was announced on November 28. "We must recognize that Government has never provided adequate financial support for education either in absolute terms or in comparison with the effort being made in other countries. This goes against the whole concept of economic planningª. scientific and technological development." [3] EDUCATION POLICY 1970 The New Education Policy 1970 was adopted by the Cabinet on March 26. It emphasized that higher education must be concerned with the formation and development of character along with the acquisition of knowledge. It is stated that because we are poor we cannot afford an extensive educational programme. 340 . The Commission recognized that civilized societies have for many centuries looked to their institutions of higher learning for the training of leaders in government and the professions. Education being a very important aspect of national development received priority during this period. This policy regarded educational development as a dynamic and continuous process.341. 1959. Ref (3): Report of the Commission on National Education.1969. moral.1970. and cultural values of independent Pakistan. the President of Pakistan General Aga Khan Mohammad Yahya Khan had also announced the dissolution of the one unit in West Pakistan. The Commission was appointed by a resolution adopted by the Government of Pakistan on the 30th of December 1959. We are spending a smaller percentage of our national income ª on education than many countries whose resources are more or less equal to our own.  .REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON NATIONAL EDUCATION 1959 The Ayub era saw high-level commissions to examine and guide all walks of life. and enable the system to meet the growing needs of the nation in the fields of agricultural. the community and all others concerned with it. some truth in thisª. of course. But to argue that we are too poor to support education is to argue that we must always be poor. with the mandate of evolving a national system of education which would reflect the spiritual. There is. It is frequently argued that the level of support for education in Pakistan is related to the general economic position of the country and if our effort is to be judged in this light it is as much as can be managed. which implied an evolutionary exercise and periodic appraisals of policies and programs on the part of the state.

The strategy used in developing the goals relied on two principles. was considered a landmark of Bhutto·s regime. Its salient features were as follows: y y y y y y y Great emphasis on universal enrolment up to class 5.National Education Policy 1970 also proposed the introduction of decentralization of educational administration to ensure academic freedom and financial autonomy required for the healthy and effective growth of educational institutions at various levels. During Zia·s era Maktab schools were revived and national education policy was announced under which private sector encouraged to contribute towards provision of education. This was to be monitored by continuous study and evaluation. The statement of goals was accompanied by broad-based guidelines which were to provide a framework within which the Provincial Government and non-government agencies were to prepare detailed plans and programs. Education was made free and compulsory at primary up to class X. Establishment of two National Institutes of Modern Languages. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN EDUCATIONAL POLICY 1972 Bhotto·s regime gave its Educational Policy on March 15-1972. System of sabbatical leave for faculty members. parents. and (c) correcting the growing imbalance between various types of education. The university grants commission was established to coordinate all universities. The role of the Ministry of Education was to ensure that adequate and effective programs are developed for the achievement of the educational goals and targets at the desired place. Islamization of education was remarkable achievements of his era. He focused mass literacy and enrolment of school dropouts through Nai Roshni Scheme. He nationalized the privately managed institutions which. National Research Fellowships and National Professorships Schemes to be financed by the central government. and founders. The national objectives were identified as: (a) equalizing the opportunities for education. Secondary and tertiary education institutions to have their own governing/advisory bodies with representation from government. (a) education should be inspired by the nation's ideological and cultural heritage.  . and (b) education should be dictated by universal structures of human knowledge and concepts of human progress. Higher pay scales for faculty members tied to qualifications and research output. (b) arresting the declining educational standards. Decentralization of educational institutions to allow greater community participation. teachers.

fostering discipline and promotion of scientific and technological education needed for socio-economic growth. 1979 Presented in February 1979. brotherhood and sense of patriotism. inculcation of character in accordance with Quran and Sunnah. Private schools and colleges were to be opened up and enforcement of Urdu in 450 English medium schools countrywide. development of creative and innovative faculties of people. These two were made compulsory subjects for all students. Plans were made to setup 30 Arabic language centers under the umbrella of Allama Iqbal Open University. This policy was announced by Minister Of Education Mohammad Ali Khan on 12 October 1978 in Islamabad. Interestingly. The major change introduced through this policy was the use of the national language as the medium of instruction with a view to strengthening the ideological foundations of the nation. NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY. providing equal opportunities to all citizens for cultural and religious development. and to foster unity of thought.EDUCATION POLICY 1978 In 1978 a new education policy should be stressed that Pakistan must abide by Islamic Principles Of Education and cultural traditions to suit their socio-economic needs and requirements. It focused on adoption of Urdu as the medium of instruction at grade 1 in 27 English medium schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The major aims of this policy again focused on fostering deep and abiding loyalty to Islam. creating awareness that a Pakistani is also a part of Universal Muslim Ummah. This policy aimed at "Islamization" and the revision of the curriculum in order to assign highest priority to Islamiat and Arabic.  . the stated aim of this policy was the harmonization of education with the concepts of Islam and the ideology of Pakistan. the Federal Schools under defense and missionary schools resisted in favor of English as the medium of instruction. functional literacy to all citizens. to promote national unity and national unity. Only 12 schools followed the instructions.

this policy too fell victim to the vagaries of political expediency and instability. Grants-in-Aid for specific purposes shall be provided to private institutions. Liberal loan facilities shall be extended to private educational institutions by financial institutions. In rural areas. It envisaged a qualitative shift for higher education from supply to demand oriented study programs. Unfortunately. NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL POLICY 1998-2010 The National Education Policy 1998 was formulated in the milieu of Quaid¶s message [3] with a vision to transform the Pakistani nation into an integrated.NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY. Matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through Education Foundation. cohesive entity that can compete and stand up to future challenges. The government shall not only provide free land to build the school but also bear a reasonable proportion of the cost of construction and management. schools shall be established through public-private partnership schemes. The National Education Policy 1998-2010 proposed that there shall be regulatory bodies at the national and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations. 1992 This policy was initiated in December 1992 with the objective of restructuring the existing educational system on modern lines. and placed a heavy premium upon Research. It started out realistically enough by recognizing the need to create an operational framework which would improve quality by ensuring effective translation of policy principles into concrete action at the level of educational institutions.  . and Student Discipline. Community Participation. A reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting up of educational facilities by the private sector. Setting up of private technical institutions shall be encouraged. It was prepared for a period of ten years (1992-2002). and to bring a social change as dictated by the teachings of Islam. and like its predecessors aimed at universal primary education.

therefore. The present government has given much importance to education sector it has not only emphasized raising the present literacy rate but also emphasized improving the quality of education.  .CONCLUSION The above policies of Pakistan recognized that education is the basic right of every citizen. access to education for every citizen is crucial for economic development and for poverty alleviation.

pk/Publications/Decentralization in the Education System of Pakistan.com/p/articles/mi_6788/is_4_36/ai_n28701421/ >cssforum. pg:1.edu.htm  . http://findarticles.com. >tfhe. 12 Feb.2 Review.net/resources/pakistan. 2011.edu. > Akhtar Hasan Khan "Education in Pakistan: fifty years of neglect".html >faculty.com.ksu.com/tag/education-ministry-pakistan/.sa/NaeemAfzal/Documen >friendsmania. Pakistan Development. FindArticles.net/forum/9th-class-english-notes/20209.BIBLIOGRAPHY > aepam.htm >iqrapakonline.wordpress.pk/css-compulsory-subjects/current-affairs/current-affairs-notes/1968-educationsystem-pakistan.