Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Chapter 3 MTP and MTP3B........................................................................................... ...............1 3.1 MTP........................................................................................................ ..........................1 3.1.1 Overview............................................................................................................. ....1 3.1.2 MTP3 Functions...................................................................................................... 2 3.1.3 Message Format............................................................................................... ......4 3.1.4 Signaling Procedures.......................................................................................... ..16 3.2 MTP3B............................................................................................................ ................19 3.2.1 Overview........................................................................................................... ....19 3.2.2 Introduction of MTP3B............................................................................ ..............20 3.2.3 MTP3B Message Structure.............................................................................. .....23 3.3 SAAL..................................................................................................................... ..........25 3.3.1 SAAL Function Structure.............................................................. ........................25 3.3.2 SSCOP.................................................................................................. ...............26 3.3.3 SSCF ..................................................................................................... ..............32 3.3.4 LM....................................................................................................................... ..33

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Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols

3MTP and MTP3B

Chapter 3 MTP and MTP3B
3.1 MTP
3.1.1 Overview
Narrowband Message Transfer Part (MTP) is the traditional TDM based transmission system. Its major function is to enable reliable transmission of signaling messages over signaling network, and to take measures to avoid or minimize message loss, duplication or mis-sequencing in case of system fault or signaling network fault. The functions of the MTP are separated into three functional levels: signaling data link (MTP1), signaling link functions (MTP2) and signaling network functions (MTP3). The structure of the MTP protocol stack is illustrated in 3.1.1.

ISUP SCCP MTP3
MTP MTP User

MTP2 MTP1

Figure 1.1Structure of the MTP protocol stack

The MTP in the signaling-processing module of MSC and HLR is used to convey SS7 user signaling (ISUP/SCCP). It is designed completely in compliance with the ITU-T Recommendations Q.701 to Q.710 Series.

I. MTP1
Signaling data link is the level 1 function (MTP1) of the MTP. It defines the physical, electrical and functional characteristics of a signaling data link and the means to access it. It is equivalent to the physical layer of the OSI reference model and is used to generate and receive the signals through the physical channels.

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8kbit/s) or at a higher bit rate (for example. and to appropriately reconfigure the routing of messages through the signaling network The signaling network functions are divided into two basic categories. They are used to transfer signaling to a data link. and are used to enable management message transmission between the signaling points for the purpose of ensuring a reliable transfer of the signaling messages over the signaling network in case that signaling links and signaling transfer points fail.1. Therefore. III.2 MTP3 Functions The signaling network functions provided by the MTP3 must ensure a reliable transfer of the signaling messages even in the case of the failure of signaling links and signaling transfer points. namely signaling message handling and signaling network management. 2 .Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B A signaling data link is a bidirectional transmission path for signaling. initial alignment. The level 2 functions together with a level 1 signaling data link provide a signaling link for reliable signaling transfer between two directly associated signaling points. level 2 flow control and signaling link error monitoring. See 3. 2048kbit/s) may also be applied.1. error correction. 4. 3. They implement the functions of the network layer of the OSI reference model.2. The standard bit rate on a digital bearer is 64kbit/s. signal unit alignment. processor outage. comprising two data channels operating together in opposite directions at the same data rate. MTP3 Signaling network functions are the level 3 functions (MTP3) of the MTP. The signaling link functions include signal unit delimitation. II. error detection. A transmission link at a lower bit rate (for example. they include the appropriate functions and procedures necessary both to inform the remote parts of the signaling network of the consequences of a fault. MTP2 Signaling link functions are the level 2 functions (MTP2) of the MTP.

Signaling Message Handling The purpose of the signaling message handling functions is to ensure that the signaling messages originated by a particular User Part at a signaling point (originating point) are delivered to the same User Part at the destination point indicated by the sending User Part. 3 .  the message discrimination function. The signaling message handling functions are divided into:  the message routing function.  the message distribution function.2Signaling network functions I. used at a signaling point to determine whether or not a received message is destined to the point itself. that message is transferred to the message routing function. used at each signaling point to deliver the received messages (destined to the point itself) to the appropriate User Part. used at each signaling point to determine the outgoing signaling link on which a message has to be sent towards its destination point. When the signaling point has the transfer capability and a message is not destined to it.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B Level 4 Level 3 message transfer part Level 2 Signaling network function Outgoing Signaling message processing Message distribution Message discrimination Incoming Message routing Signaling network management Signaling traffic management Signaling route management Signaling link management Test and maintenance Signaling message stream ---Indication and control Figure 1.

When the faulty link or signaling point is restored.3 Message Format For the purpose of meeting the requirements of the MTP for transmitting a variety of signaling messages. Such a reconfiguration is effected by use of appropriate procedures to change the routing of signaling traffic in order to bypass the faulty links or signaling points. in order to reestablish the normal configuration of the signaling network. signaling network management messages. The details are described as follows: 1) Signaling traffic management function: This function is used for the diversion of signaling traffic from one link or route to one or more alternative link or route.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B I. in some circumstances it is necessary to activate and align new signaling links. 4 . and deactivate an aligned signaling link. used for MTP restart of signaling points. Signaling Network Management The purpose of the signaling network management functions is to provide reconfiguration of the signaling network in the case of failures and to control traffic in case of congestion. or used to temporarily slow down signaling traffic in the case of congestion at signaling points. activate an idle (unaligned) link. route or signaling point. three basic types of signal unit are defined: Message Signal Unit (MSU). Moreover. The signaling network management functions are divided into:    Signaling traffic management Signaling link management Signaling route management These three signaling network management functions are activated in the appropriate circumstances when some change occurs to the state of a signaling link.  Message signal units are used to carry messages of the user parts. 3. in order to restore the required signaling traffic capacity between two signaling points. and signaling network testing and maintenance messages.1. 2) Signaling link management function: This function is used to restore a faulty signaling link. and Fill-In Signal Unit (FISU). Link Status Signal Unit (LSSU). the opposite actions and procedures take place. 3) Signaling route management function: This function is used to distribute the information about the signaling network status with the objective of blocking or unblocking a signaling route.

3. The other contains the signaling information to be handled by the user part. this part comprises 8 fixed length fields. MSU F CK 8 16 SIF 8N(N≥2) SIO 8 2 LI 6 FIB 1 FSN 7 BIB 1 BSN 7 F 8 First bit transmitted Basic format of a message signal unit (MSU) LSSU F 8 CK 16 SF 8 or 16 2 LI 6 FIB 1 FSN 7 BIB 1 BSN 7 F 8 First bit transmitted Format of a link status signal unit (LSSU) FISU F 8 CK 16 2 LI 6 FIB 1 FSN 7 BIB 1 BSN 7 F 8 First bit transmitted Format of a fill-in signal unit (FISU) Figure 1. a signal unit will be delimitated once the opening 5 . Status Field (SF). Forward Indicator Bit (FIB). Check bits (CK). when no message signal units or link status signal units are to be transmitted over the signaling links. One is shared by the variety of signal units and required by the MTP processing. In the transmission of signal units. Backward Indicator Bit (BIB). The Part Required by the MTP Processing This part includes Flag (F).1. fill-in signal units are sent continuously with the feeding objective. Forward Sequence Number (FSN). Under normal conditions.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B  Link status signal units provide the information about the link status in order to perform control actions such as connection and restoration on the signaling link.3Format of the signal units A signal unit is divided into two parts from the structure point of view.  Flag (F) There is a flag at the start and the end of every signal unit. Backward Sequence Number (BSN). the opening flag of a signal unit is normally the closing flag of the preceding signal unit. Length Indicator (LI). for the purpose of maintaining the normal operation of the signaling links. Therefore. I. and Service Information Octet (SIO) (SIO only exists in message signal units).  The structure of the signal units is illustrated in 3.

until the value of the backward indicator bit changes at receiving another retransmission request. The forward indicator bit is used in the retransmission procedure of message signal units. It has the same status as the received backward indicator bit during non-error operation. several flags may be inserted between signal units. all the transmitted message signal units are allocated with a forward sequence number which is numbered from a cyclic sequence ranging from 0 to 127. the backward sequence number indicates the sequence number for starting the retransmission. It is sent by the receiving terminal to indicate to the transmitting terminal that the message signal unit is acknowledged (accepted successfully). the transmitting terminal and the receiving 6 .  Forward sequence number (FSN) The forward sequence number is the 7-bit sequence number of the message signal unit in which it is carried. A change made to the value of the received backward indicator bit indicates a request for retransmission. in case that the signaling links are overloaded. At the receiving terminal. In the operation of the signaling network. A fill-in signal unit and a link status signal unit share the forward sequence number of the last transmitted message signal unit instead of being assigned again. as a part of the acknowledgement function. the forward sequence number also serves to identify the signal unit to be retransmitted. the forward sequence numbers of the received message signal units are used to detect the order of the message signal units.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B and closing flags are successfully found from the information stream. in order to keep consistent with the backward indicator bit value. In addition to signal unit delimitation. The signaling terminal also changes the value of the forward indicator bit (changing 1 to 0 or 0 to 1) when retransmitting the message signal unit. At the transmitting terminal. in order to cancel controlling and reduce loading. The bit pattern for the flag is 01111110.  Backward sequence number (BSN) The backward sequence number is the sequence number of a message signal unit being acknowledged. If retransmission is required. In the case of a request for a retransmission.  Forward indicator bit (FIB) One bit is occupied.

the number of bits between two signal unit flags must be an integral multiple of 8. The 6-bit length indicator field is a number in binary code in the range 0~63 (decimal). be equal to 5 (fill-in signal unit). The length indicator differentiates between the three types of signal units. For a number out of such range. or be less than or equal to m+7 (m is 272).Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B terminal of a message independent assign the forward sequence number. the maximum length indicated by it cannot be more than 272 octets. The number of octets may be equal to 0 (if only flags are sent).  Length indicator (LI) The length indicator is used to indicate the number of octets following the length indicator octet and preceding the check bits. 0 is changed to 1 or 1 is changed to 0).  Backward indicator bit (BIB) The backward indicator bit provides a retransmission request for the received error signal unit.  Check bits (CK) 7 . otherwise this bit will be sent with a conversed value (that is. not more than 127 signal units can be transmitted while not be acknowledged. requesting the terminal peer to retransmit the error message signal unit. In the case that the length indicator equals 63. According to the CCITT. the length indicator is invariably set to 63 if the signaling information field of a message signal unit is more than 62 octets. If the received message signal unit is correct its value will be invariable when a new signal unit is sent. The length indicator values of the three types of signal units are as follows: Length indicator = 0 Length indicator = 1 or 2 Length indicator > 2 Fill-in signal unit Link status signal unit Message signal unit In the national signaling network. Limited by the forward sequence number and the backward sequence number. the signal unit is treated as error. Note that it is necessary to calculate the number of bits and the number of octets between two flags in the receiving process of signal units.

The service indicator and the sub-service field occupy 4 respectively. where the closing flag is included.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B The check bits field is used for error detection of a signal unit. The seven fields described above appear in all the three types of signal units. (Eight such fields are mentioned in the previous section. as shown in I.  Status field (SF) The status field is unique to link status signal units and is used to indicate the status of a signal link. the link status is indicated by the lower three bits currently. It contains the service indicator (SI) and the sub-service field (SSF). The length of the status field may be one octet (8 bits) or two octets (16 bits).) They are mandatory to every signal unit. as shown in I: Table 3. 8 . If the status field is one octet. It is composed of 16 bits. The field has 8 bits.1Meanings of the link status indications in the status field CBA Bits 000 001 010 011 100 101 Identifier SIO SIN SIE SIOS SIPO ISB Indication Status indication “O” Status indication “N” Status indication “E” Status indication “OS” Status indication “PO” Status indication “B” Meaning Out of alignment Normal alignment Emergency alignment Out of service Processor outage Busy (link congestion)  Service information octet (SIO) The service information octet field is unique to the message signal units.

2) Sub-service field (SSF) It is composed of 4 bits.4Format and codes of the service information octet 1) Service indicator (SI) The service indicator is used to indicate the particular user part associated with the transmitted message. The network indicator is used to identify the nature of the network where the message is transferred. In the message transfer part of the signaling network.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B F CK SIF SIO SSF SI DCBA 0000 0100 1000 1100 Meaning International network Spare (for international use only) National network Reserved for national use DCBA 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1111 Meaning Signaling network management messages Signaling network testing and maintenance messages Spare SCCP Telephone User Part ISDN User Part Data User Part Spare Figure 1. The code allocation for the service indicator is shown in I. the network indicator may be set to 10 or 11 9 . it is an international or national signaling network message. that is. the lower two are currently spare bits. coded 00. the message handling functions will base the service indicator to distribute the message to the specified user part. According to the CCITT. The higher two bits are the network indicator. The code allocation of the sub-service field is shown in I. the spare bits in the sub-service field may be used as per the national signaling network.. For example. The service indicator capacity is enough to indicate 16 types of user part messages. Several common types are listed in the figure.

all the traffic to the destination has the same traffic level. The standard routing label has a length of 32 bits and is placed at the beginning of the signaling information field. the network indicator is set to 10 or 11 in order to identify the unified 24-bit encoding scheme or temporary 24-bit encoding scheme (where ten “0” at the higher bit is added/removed). II. The label includes the destination point code (DPC). uniquely identifying one signaling point in the SS7 network. 2) In performing average load sharing of the stream between all available links. The signaling link selection is used in the following cases: 1) In ensuring message sequencing. the message is distributed to the corresponding user part (such as ISUP or SCCP) identified by the service indicator in the service information octet. the heading code of the user signaling information. If a certain user part periodically transmits messages and the signaling link selection value is assigned in the cyclic manner.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B to indicate the local signaling network or toll signaling network in case of 14-bit signaling point encoding scheme. The label structure determines four types of label as shown in 2: Type A MTP management messages 10 . The Signaling Information Part Processed by a User Part The signaling information part processed by the user parts is the signaling information field (SIF) in the message signal unit format. When the destination point code contained in the message indicates the receiving signaling point. It consists of three parts: the label for message addressing. If the unified 24-bit encoding scheme is utilized. A signaling point code is a numeric address. and the user signaling information. Any two transmitted messages with the same signaling link selection will normally arrive at the destination in the order in which they were first transmitted. The signaling information field only exists in a message signal unit. the originating point code (OPC) and the signaling link selection (SLS) field.  Label The label contains the information necessary to deliver the message to its the destination point.

5Label structure of the four types  Heading code The heading code is a field following the label It is composed of the 4-bit heading code H0 and the 4-bit heading code H1. This part is further divided into several sub-fields. that is. the TCAP messages are classified as SCCP messages.  Signaling information The signaling information part is also named service information part. F CK SIF SIO LI FIB FSN BIB BSN F Management message SLC CIC SLS OPC OPC OPC OPC DPC DPC DPC DPC Type A: MT P management messages Signaling message Type B: TUP messages Signaling message CIC SLC SLS Type C: ISUP messages SCCP user data Type D: SCCP messages Figure 1. the heading code H0 coded 0001 and the heading code H1 coded 0001 indicate an Initial Address Message (IAM). The H0 coded 0001 and the H1 coded 0001 indicate a Changeover-order signal (COO). type D. the maximum capacity of a class of user messages is 256. the H0 coded 0001 and the H1 coded 0100 indicate a Transfer-prohibited signal. Another example is about a signaling network management message. in a TUP message. These sub-fields may be mandatory or optional with fixed length or variable length in order to meet the requirements of various 11 . the heading code H0 coded 0001 and the heading code H1 coded 0100 indicate an Address Complete Message (ACM). For instance.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B Type B Type C Type D TUP messages ISUP messages SCCP messages As TCAP messages have to be transferred by the SCCP. and identifies the message group and the message type. As both the H0 and the H1 occupy 4 bits.

These fields are all analyzed and handled at the second functional level of the signaling network. the length indicator and the check bits are mainly used for transmission. receiving sequence. these messages are delivered to a particular user part. They are also generated and handled at the functional level 2. Link status signal units are used to carry the status indication information of a signaling link. error detection and correction of the message signal unit. They are generated at the functional level 3 of the signaling network and also processed at the level 3. that is. For the format and encoding of the service information field. Fill-in signal units are used for “feeding” purpose on a signaling link and composed of several fields that mainly involve transmission control. the functional level 2 may also accept the status indication of the signaling link from the peer and process it. the flag. that is. Message signal units are divided into three classes according to their role in the signaling network: the message signal units used for signaling network management (MSU-SNM). The third class includes the messages of type B. which makes it possible for message signal units to be suitable for a variety of user messages and also makes it possible for the variety of user message to be conveyed through common signaling channels. the forward indicator bit. the forward sequence number. C and D label structure. 12 . and described in details in the following section. and the message signal units generated by user parts (MSU-UP). The first two classes utilize the type A label structure and are transmitted between the MTPs. The signaling network management messages are critical to the MTP. The generating and handling of the signaling information part (service information part) is implemented by the functional level 4. MTP Messages In a signal unit. The level 3 functions of the signaling network are responsible for analyzing the label contained in the message to determine where the message will be distributed. the backward sequence number. III. the user parts. The functional level 2 may base both the related indication from the level 3 and the judgment of itself to generate a corresponding status signal unit and transmit it out. the backward indicator bit. If necessary. the signaling link level. the information relating to congestion and processor outage will be reported to the level 3. Through the MTP.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B functions and supplements. please reference the user messages. Fill-in signal units are generated and handled by the level 2 functions. the message signal units used for signaling network testing and maintenance (MSU-SNT).

Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B General format for the signaling network management messages In the signaling network. it is coded 0000. As both the H0 and the H1 occupy 4 bits. there are 16 message groups and 16 message types in each group are available. See III.  Heading code The heading codes include the 4-bit heading code H0 and the 4-bit heading code H1. It structure is illustrated in III. or another particular code is not specified. As a type of message signal unit. The heading code H0 identifies the management message group.6General format for the signaling network management messages  Label It comprises the destination point code (DPC). Currently 4 bits are used. Management information 8n (n 0) First bit transmitted H1 4 H0 4 4 SLC OPC 4 DPC 24/14 24/14 Figure 1. The signaling link code indicates the signaling link interconnecting the destination and originating points. The spare 4 bits are coded 0000. Now not all of them are used. the originating point code (OPC) and the signaling link code (SLC). the signaling network management messages are distinguished by the configuration 0000 of the service indicator (SI) contained in the service information octet in the signal unit. 13 . The heading code H1 determines the specific message from the message group. the message capacity reaches 256 types. the signaling information of a signaling network management message is carried by the service information field. That is. The destination point code and the originating point code are described the same as the preceding section. If the message is not related to a signaling link.

1Heading code allocation of signaling network management messages Messa ge Group H1 0 0 0010 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1100 1 1110 1111 000 001 011 100 101 110 111 000 001 010 011 101 H0 0 000 CHM ECM FCM TFM RSM MIM TRM DLM 0 001 0 010 0011 0 100 0 101 0110 0111 1 000 1 001 UFC 1 010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 UPU CO COA O EC ECA O RCT TFC TFP * RST RSR LIN LUN LIA LUA LID LFU LLT LRT TRA DLC CSS CN CN S P TFR TFA * CB CB D A The meaning of the signaling network management messages is listed in III. Table 6.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B Table 6.2Signaling network management messages Message CHM Full name Changeover and changeback messages 14 .

Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B Message COO COA CBD CBA ECM ECO ECA FCM RCT TFC TFP TFR TFA RSM RST RSR MIM LIN LUN LIA LUA LID LFU LLT LRT TRM TRA DLM DLC CSS CNS Changeover-order signal Full name Changeover-acknowledgement signal Changeback-declaration signal Changeback-acknowledgement signal Emergency-changeover message Emergency-changeover-order signal Emergency-changeover-acknowledgement signal Signaling-traffic-flow-control messages Signaling-route-set-congestion-test signal Transfer-controlled signal Transfer-prohibited signal Transfer-restricted signal (national option) Transfer-allowed signal Signaling-route-set-test message Signaling-route-set-test signal for prohibited destination Signaling-route-set-test (national option) signal for restricted destination Management inhibit messages Link inhibit signal Link uninhibit signal Link inhibit acknowledgement signal Link uninhibit acknowledgement signal Link inhibit denied signal Link forced uninhibit signal Link local inhibit test signal Link remote inhibit test signal Traffic-restart-allowed message Traffic-restart-allowed signal Signaling-data-link-connection-order message Signaling-data-link-connection-order signal Connection-successful signal Connection-not-successful signal 15 .

Message Routing The message routing function is based on the information contained in the routing label. Typically the destination point code is associated with more than one signaling link that may be used to carry the message. Each signaling point has the routing information that enables it to determine the signaling link over which a message is sent on the basis of the destination point code and the signaling link selection field. thus effecting load sharing. namely on the destination point code and on the signaling link selection field.1. Message Examples Transfer-allowed message (TFA) The format of the transfer-allowed message is shown as follows: DCBA Destination 24 Heading Code H1 4 0100 Heading Code H0 4 Label 56 First bit transmitted The heading code H1 contains one signal code as follows: D 0 C 1 B 0 A 1 Transfer-allowed signal 3. 16 .4 Signaling Procedures I.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B Message CNP UFC UPU Full name Connection-not-possible signal User part flow control messages User part unavailable signal IV. the selection of the particular signaling link is made by means of the signaling link selection field.

Changeback The objective of the changeback procedure is to ensure that signaling traffic is diverted from the alternative signaling link(s) to the signaling link made available as quickly as possible. signaling traffic is diverted to the alternative signaling link(s). Messages not related to a signaling link may be assigned any signaling link code (SLC) to allow load sharing of the messages. To implement this purpose. II. changeover is initiated at a signaling point. They are routed in accordance with the normal routing function. Changeover The purpose of the changeover procedure is to ensure the signaling traffic carried by the unavailable signaling link is diverted to the alternative signaling link(s) as quickly as possible while avoiding message loss. 17 . The following actions are then made:  transmission and acceptance of message signal units on the concerned signaling link is terminated. in the normal case the changeover procedure includes buffer updating and retrieval. which are performed before reopening the alternative signaling link(s) to the diverted traffic.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B There are two basic cases of load sharing. while avoiding message loss. load sharing between the links not belonging to the same link set. a procedure to update the content of the retransmission buffer of the unavailable signaling link is performed. or may be assigned a default SLC such as 0000. In the case of unavailability of a signaling link. Buffer updating consists of identifying all the messages in the retransmission buffer of the unavailable signaling link which have not been received by the far end. Changeback includes the basic procedures to be used to perform the opposite action to changeover. transmission of link status signal units or fill-in signal units takes place. Retrieval consists of transferring the concerned messages to the transmission buffer(s) of the alternative link(s).     III. duplication or mis-sequencing. where the (SLC) is used as SLS for load sharing. namely:   load sharing between the links belonging to the same link set. the alternative signaling link(s) are determined. duplication or mis-sequencing.

new initial alignment procedures may be started on the same signaling link.   18 . if the signaling link test is successful. the link becomes ready to convey signaling traffic. IV. signaling link initial alignment will take place. initial alignment starts:  if the initial alignment procedure is successful. and such traffic is stored in a changeback buffer. a changeback declaration is sent to the remote signaling point of the signaling link made available through the concerned alternative signaling link. if the signaling link test fails.    V. the signaling link is active and a signaling link test is started. if the signaling link test is successful. this message indicates that message traffic on the alternative signaling link will be sent by the signaling link made available. and therefore it becomes once again available. restored. The following actions are then made:  the alternative signaling link(s) to which traffic normally carried by the signaling link made available was previously diverted are determined.   if the initial alignment procedure is successful. new initial alignment procedures are started on the same signaling link after the timer expires. a signaling link test is started. link restoration starts until the signaling link is activated or a manual intervention is made.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B Changeback is initiated at a signaling point when a signaling link is reconnected. or unblocked. Signaling Link Activation When a decision is taken to activate an inactive signaling link. if the initial alignment is not possible. the restoration procedure is repeated until the link is restored or a manual intervention made. transmission of the concerned traffic on the alternative signaling link(s) is stopped. the link becomes restored and thus available for signaling.    the concerned signaling point will restart diverted traffic over the signaling link made available when it receives a changeback acknowledgement from the far signaling point of the link made available. Signaling Link Restoration After a signaling link failure is detected. in the case when initial alignment is not possible. if the signaling link test fails.

VII.1 Overview Broadband MTP provides the transfer capability of broadband signaling cross the ATM network and consists of Message Transfer Part (broadband) (MTP3B) and Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL).  when the signaling transfer point Y recognizes the inaccessibility of the signaling point X.2. restriction and availability of a signaling route is communicated by means of the transfer-prohibited. Signaling Route Management Procedures The purpose of the signaling route management function is to ensure a reliable exchange of information between the signaling points (to ensure the availability of the signaling routes). the transfer-prohibited message is sent to the signaling transfer point Z.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B VI. When a decision has been taken to deactivate a signaling link. X is the destination signaling point. Transfer Prohibited For the purpose of being described conveniently. The unavailability. and Z is a signaling transfer point.  when the signaling point Y starts to route signaling destined to the signaling point X through the signaling transfer point Z which is currently unavailable for the signaling point Y. the signaling terminal of the signaling link is taken out of service. 19 .2 MTP3B 3. the transfer-prohibited message is sent to the adjacent signaling point from which the concerned message was received. it is assumed that Y is the originating signaling point. the transfer-prohibited message is sent to all accessible adjacent signaling points (broadcast method).  when a message destined to the signaling point X is received at the signaling transfer point Y and Y is unable to transfer the message. VIII. transfer-restricted and transfer-allowed procedures. 3. provided that no signaling traffic is carried on that signaling link. Signaling Link Deactivation An active signaling link may be made inactive by means of a deactivation procedure.

the broadband MTP provides signaling transfer services for the SCCP. In the aspect of physical connection. MTP3B Structure Similar to the MTP3.2. To widen the signaling bandwidth. The MTP3B uses the services provided by the SAAL for message exchange. the broadband MTP is mainly applicable to the Iu-CS interface and provides signaling transfer services for the RANAP/SCCP. In MSOFTX3000.2. BICC and H.1.248 protocols. 3. The MTP3B is not only responsible for carrying signaling messages. SCCP/BICC/H. the broadband MTP is also used on the Nc interface and provides services for the BICC protocol. but also responsible for managing the signaling network and signaling links. E1 trunk connections are changed to ATM (Permanent Virtual Channel) connections. 20 .2 Introduction of MTP3B MTP3B is a protocol specification designed for ATM features on the basis of the MTP3. the MTP-1 and the MTP-2 are changed to SAAL (Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol. Service Specific Coordination Function) and the MTP-3 is changed to MTP3B.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B The major differences between the broadband SS7 and narrowband SS7 are the relevant modifications of the MTP layer. the functional structure of the MTP3B protocol is composed of signaling message handling and signaling network management. If necessary. as shown in 3.7Structure of the broadband MTP Currently in UMTS.248 User Part Broadband MTP MTP3b SSCF AT NNI LM SSCOP SAAL AAL5 ATM Figure 1. I.

congestion may appear in the signaling network. if valid. MTP3B Functions The major functions provided by the components in the MTP3B protocol structure are described as follows: 1) Message discrimination The purpose of the message discrimination function is to examine the standard field in the message header to judge whether or not a received message from the lower layer (SAAL) is valid and. signaling message handling is further divided into message routing. With the enlargement of a signaling network and increasing of the load over signaling links. the message will be discarded. the message will be delivered to the message distribution module. signaling link management and signaling route management. the message will be discarded. the message will be delivered to the message routing module for further handling. b) When the received message is not destined to the point itself and the signaling point has no the transfer capability. 2) Message distribution 21 . discrimination and distribution functions. II. Thus controlling congestion is one of the signaling network management functions. to determine where the message will be delivered. The signaling network management functions comprise signaling traffic management.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B 1) Signaling message handling The purpose of the signaling message handling functions is to ensure that the signaling messages originated by a particular User Part at a signaling point are delivered to the same User Part at the destination point indicated by the related field in the message signal unit (there are only SCCP and STC user parts at the Iu interface). Activation and alignment of a new signaling link is also included.   If the message is not valid. To achieve these functions. there are the following possibilities: a) When the received message is destined to the signaling point itself. otherwise. If the message is valid. 2) Signaling network management The purpose of the signaling network management functions is to provide reconfiguration of the signaling network in the case of failures.

3) Message routing The purpose of the message routing function is to base the header information of a received message to select an appropriate route for it. in the case of unavailability or unreliability of the currently applied route. the message will be discarded. so as to direct the message out. 5) Signaling route management The purpose of the signaling route management function is to provide the basis for message routing and.  When the message is not destined to the point itself and the signaling point has the signaling transfer function. base the link set to select a link. An exception is there is not such a satisfactory route. base the route to select a link set. 4) Signaling traffic management The purpose of the signaling traffic management function is to ensure a reliable and in-sequence transfer of signaling messages.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B The purpose of the message distribution function is to direct a received message to the appropriate upper-layer module which is the destination for processing the message. The handled message has the following possibilities:  The message is delivered from the upper-layer. 6) Signaling link management The purpose of the signaling link management function is to perform a proper handling procedure on a signaling link in the case of unavailability or unreliability. and use the selected link to finally transmit the message out. the message will be discarded. the function is used to divert the messages to one or more alternative links with the objective of avoiding message loss or mis-sequencing. provides rerouting function and re-configures the network in order to provision a reliable route to achieve signaling transfer. its destination signaling point can be found from the destination signaling point table at this signaling point.  When the message is not destined to the point itself and the signaling point has the signaling transfer function but the destination signaling point of the message cannot be found from the destination signaling point table at this signaling point. The message routing module has to determine an available route to transmit it. in order to stop using the unreliable link and repeatedly restart the link with the objective 22 . If the message does not exist in the particular level 4 module indicating to process it or the field is not valid. In the case of unreliability or unavailability of a link.

Please reference “Narrowband MTP” for more information. II. Changeover Procedure By contrast with the narrowband MTP. I.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B of making it available again. Length of User Data The MTP3B extends the length of the user data contained in a signal unit. Here in this chapter only their differences are covered. Service Indicator (SI) The following codes of the service indicator are additionally used in the MTP3B: SI code 1001 1010 Meaning Broadband ISDN User Part Satellite ISDN User Part In MSOFTX3000 product.3 MTP3B Message Structure The message structure of the MTP3B is basically same as that of the MTP3.2.248. the MTP3B changeover procedure applies with the following exceptions and clarifications: 23 . The service indicator codes respectively corresponding to them are as follows: SI code 0011 1101 1110 SCCP BICC H. namely SCCP. BICC and H. the MTP3B has three users. 3. The maximum amount of the user data supported by MTP3B signaling links is 4091 octets (that supported by narrowband MTP is 272 octets).248 Indicating user III. The link management function also provides the link testing function which periodically performs testing on a link so as to confirm the availability of the link.

 Moreover a signaling link that is available is recognized by level 3 as failed when an extended changeover order or an emergency changeover order is received. Heading code allocation of MTP3B signaling network management messages is shown in the following table:  Message Group H0 00 00 00 01 00 10 00 11 01 00 01 01 01 10 H1 01 11 10 00 10 01 10 10 10 11 11 00 11 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 0000 CH M EC M FC M TFM 0001 C O O E C O R C T T F P R S T LI N T R A D L C C S S C N S C N P C O A E C A T F C * T F R TF A * X C O X C A C B D C B A 0010 0011 0100 RS M MIM 0101 R S R L U N LI A L U A LI D LF U LL T L R T 0110 TR M DLM 0111 1000 1001 24 .Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B  The signaling link failure indication causes by MTP2 link do not apply. here is In Service to Out Of Service state causes by SAAL or when a request (automatic or manual) is obtained from a management or maintenance system. The changeover message of the signaling network management messages is modified by using XCO/XCA to replace COO/COA.

The CS is divided into the Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS) and the Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS). That is to say.2110). Q.1. As shown in 3. What implements this function is the Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL).2110. The SAAL comprises the Convergence Sublayer (CS) and the Segmentation And Reassembly (SAR).2144). the Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) sublayer (ITU-T Q.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B Message Group UFC 1010 U P U H1 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 3.2140 and Q. 25 . and the Layer Management (LM) (ITU-T Q.2140).2144.3.3 SAAL 3. the SSCS includes three parts: the Service Specific Coordination Function (SSCF) sublayer (ITU-T Q. The SAAL makes use of the specification of AAL type 5 (AAL5).3. Further. signaling information in a variety of message formats has to be converted to a format suitable for transportation over ATM network and ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) connections have to be set up for signaling. signaling adaptation is required in the transmission of signaling information across ATM network. The SAAL protocol used in MSOFTX3000 product is in full compliance with the ITU-T Recommendations Q.1 SAAL Function Structure In the broadband network.

2 SSCOP I. this function allows to adjust the information transmission rate to perform flow control. 3. sequence errors are corrected when the receiving SSCOP entity detects missing SSCOP Service Data Units (SDUs). thus the SSCOP. It also allows the transmission of 26 . Error correction by selective retransmission: Through retransmission. the SSCF and the LM constitute the core of the SAAL protocol.  Connection control: This function performs the establishment.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B MTP3 B O SSCF-NNI M L M SSCO P CPCS SAR SAAL Figure 1. SSCOP Functions The SSCOP performs the following functions:  Sequence integrity: This function preserves the order of SSCOP SD PDUs that were submitted for transfer by SSCOP.   Flow control: By sending the movement of the sliding window.3. Error reporting to Layer Management: This function indicates to layer management errors which have occurred. and resynchronization of an SSCOP connection.8Structure of the SAAL protocol in MSOFTX3000 In MSOFTX3000. the CPCS and the SAR are implemented by the BSG hardware. release.    Local data retrieval: This function allows the local SSCOP user to retrieve insequence SDUs which have not yet been released by the SSCOP entity when a link changeover procedure takes place at the higher layer. Keep alive: This function verifies that the two peer SSCOP entities participating in a connection are remaining in a link connection established state even in the case of a prolonged absence of data transfer.

The RS PDU is used to resynchronize the buffers and the transmitter and receiver state variables (counters). The BGN PDU requests the clearing of the peer’s transmitter and receiver buffers.      RSAK PDU (Resynchronization Acknowledge): The RSAK PDU is used to acknowledge the acceptance of a resynchronization requested by the peer SSCOP entity. RS PDU (Resynchronization): The RS PDU is used for the routine connectionoriented reset in other connection-oriented protocols. status information about the peer SSCOP entity.  BGAK PDU (Begin Acknowledge): The BGAK PDU is used to acknowledge the acceptance of a connection request from the peer. END PDU (End): The END PDU is used to release an SSCOP connection between two peer entities. SSCOP Protocol Data Units What are conveyed between two SSCOP peer layers for the establishment or release of a connection and for the guarantee of a reliable message transmission are protocol data units (PDUs) of the SSCOP. BGREJ PDU (Begin Reject): The BGREJ PDU is used to reject the connection request of the peer SSCOP entity. and the initialization of the peer’s transmitter and receiver state variables and counters.  Transfer of user data: This function is used for the conveyance of user data between users of the SSCOP.  II. Status reporting: This function allows the transmitter and receiver peer entities to exchange status information. SSCOP supports both assured and unassured data transfer.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B variable length user-to-user information without a guarantee of delivery.  ER PDU (Error Recovery): The ER PDU is used to recover from protocol errors in the operation of a connection.    27 . Basic PDUs are listed and described as follows:  BGN PDU (Begin): The BGN PDU is used to establish an SSCOP connection between two peer entities. SD PDU (Sequenced Data): The SD PDU is used to transfer user service data to the peer entity after an SSCOP connection is set up. ENDAK PDU (End Acknowledge): The ENDAK PDU is used to confirm the release of an SSCOP connection.  Protocol error detection and recovery: This function detects and recovers from errors in the operation of the protocol. POLL PDU (Status Request): The POLL PDU is used to request. across an SSCOP connection. ERAK PDU (Error Recovery Acknowledge): The ERAK PDU is used to acknowledge the recovery from protocol error.

Incoming Connection Pending: An SSCOP entity that has received a connection request from its peer and is waiting for its user’s response is in the Incoming Connection Pending state (State 3).  State 4 .  State 5 . In this way. based on the examination of the sequence number of the SD PDU.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B  STAT PDU (Solicited Status Response): The STAT PDU is used to respond to a status request (POLL PDU) received from a peer SSCOP entity.  UD PDU (Unnumbered Data): The UD PDU is used for unassured data transfer between two SSCOP users.  USTAT PDU (Unsolicited Status Response): The USTAT PDU is used to respond to a detection of one or more new missing SD PDUs. It is also used to update the position of the transmitting window. SSCOP States The states of an SSCOP protocol entity reflect general conditions of the SSCOP entity in the sequences of signals and PDU exchanges with its user and peer. The STAT PDU also contains the sequence number [N(PS)] of the POLL PDU to which it is in response.Outgoing Disconnection Pending: An SSCOP entity requesting release of the peer-to-peer connection goes to the Outgoing Disconnection Pending state (State 4) until it receives confirmation that the peer entity has released and transitioned to the Idle state (State 1).Incoming Resynchronization Pending: An SSCOP entity that has 28 . Similar to the UD PDU. the MD PDU does not ensure a reliable receipt by the peer. but there is not the N(PS) field. without changing the entities’ counters or variables. the maximum transmitting sequence number of SD PDUs that can be sent currently is controlled.Idle: Each SSCOP entity is conceptually initiated in the Idle state (State 1) and returns to this state upon the release of a connection. respectively.Outgoing Resynchronization Pending: An SSCOP entity requesting resynchronization of the connection with its peer is in the Outgoing Resynchronization Pending state (State 5). State 2 . without retransmitting lost data. It is used to notify the peer SSCOP entity of correct receipt of concerned SD PDUs and also used to acknowledge which SD PDUs are successfully accepted and which fail to be received.  State 6 . The basic states are:  State 1 .Outgoing Connection Pending: An SSCOP entity requesting a connection with its peer is in the Outgoing Connection Pending state (State 2) until it receives acknowledgement from its peer   State 3 . after which it does the same. without affecting connection-oriented sequencing in progress.  MD PDU (Management Data): The MD PDU is used for unassured management data transfer between two SSCOP management entities. III. It contains the data for updating the transmitting window of the peer.

both peer SSCOP entities will be in Data Transfer Ready state (State 10) and assured data transfer can take place.res primitive containing also SSCOP-UU and BR primitives. notified its user. The SSCF responds to the SSCOP with an AA-ESTABLISH. resynchronization.Outgoing Recovery Pending: An SSCOP entity requesting recovery with its peer of an existing connection is in the Outgoing Recovery Pending state (State 7). the SSCOP sends a BGAK message back to the originating SSCOP and the originating SSCOP decodes and processes it and sends it to the SSCF. the SSCF sends an AA-ESTABLISH.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B received a resynchronization request from its peer and is waiting for its user’s response is in the Incoming Resynchronization Pending state (State 6).Recovery Response Pending: An SSCOP entity which has completed recovery. These actions establish a connection between two SAAL entities in two broadband signaling exchanges. or error recovery procedures. This primitive contains SSCOP-UU and BR parameters used by SSCOP to generate a BGN message.Data Transfer Ready: Upon successful completion of the connection establishment. See IV.ind signal which will be sent to the receiving SSCF.  State 8 . Whereas.  State 10 . IV. 29 . and is awaiting response is in the Recovery Response Pending state (State 8). SSCOP Operating Mechanism  Connection establishment of SSCOP In order to establish a connection between two peer SSCOP entities. The BGN message is sent to the receiving SSCOP where it is decoded.req primitive to the SSCOP.Incoming Recovery Pending: An SSCOP entity that has received a recovery request from its peer and is waiting for its user’s response is in the Incoming Recovery Pending state (State 9).  State 9 . processed and mapped to an AA-ESTABLISH.  State 7 .

it is also indicated that it is expecting the next PDU. This message notifies the SSCOP A that 1) it must re-transmit PDU3 and PDU4.con. The odd element (valued 3) indicates the PDU of a certain loss interval.9Connection establishment of SSCOP  Data transfer and error recovery of SSCOP As shown in IV. and 3) it must preserve PDU3 and PDU4 as there is not enough information about the final result of PDU3 and PDU4. Only the PDU1 and PDU2 succeed in arriving at SSCOP B without error.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B SSCOP A SSCOP B AA-ESTABLISH. AA-ESTABLISH. the even element (valued 5) indicates the first PDU in the next correctly accepted sequence. The SSCOP A sends a POLL PDU. PDU BGAK AA-ESTABLISH.ind. The SSCOP A then sends 3 SD PDUs to the SSCOP B. Contained in the message is N(S)=5 indicating the N(S) value of the next new SD PDU (that is. and the STAT PDU is coded N(R)=3 to acknowledge the acceptance of the PDU1 and PDU2. As the SSCOP is not allowed to exchange out-of-sequence service with the user. The SSCOP delivers the PDU1 and PDU2 to the proper user. the next SD PDU to be transmitted). The N(PS) field contained in the STAT must be the same as the value of the N(PS) field contained in the concerned POLL PDU. The list element is set to 3 and 5. and only the PDU7 is received. 2) it can release PDU1 and PDU2 from the buffer. Figure 1. SSCOP A sends to SSCOP B four SD PDUs in the N(S) sequence numbered from 1 to 4.req PDU BGN AA-ESTABLISH. PDU3. The SSCOP B responds to the POLL PDU with a STAT PDU. In addition. The information indicated by it is described as follows. The POLL also contains N(PS)=1 which is the sequence number of the POLL PDU. It sends to the SSCOP A a USTAT PDU (where N(R)=3). the SSCOP B keeps PDU7 in the buffer. that is. 30 .rsp.

After receiving it. {3. 2 USTAT (3.7}) X X 7 5 (1) 6 (1) 3 4 X X T1160080-94/d82 FI G U R E I I . and releases the connection.5}) Delivered X X POLL(5. See IV. {5.confirm ENDAK Figure 1. the peer sends an ENDAK PDU. SSCOP A AA-RELEASE.confirm message to the concerned SSCF.1) STAT (3.10Data transfer of SSCOP  Connection release of SSCOP After an SSCOP receives a release request message AA-RELEASE.2110 E r r or r ecover y via solicited and unsolicited ST A T s of the last tr ansmitted SD PD U s Figure 1.11Connection release of SSCOP 31 . On receipt of the END PDU. N (MR).request END SSCOP B AA-RELEASE. the receiving end sends an AA-RELEASE.indication.N Free 1.indication AA-RELEASE.request.1. the peer sends an AARELEASE.9/ Q . After the connection is released.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B Action Tx 1 (0) 2 (0) 3 (0) 4 (0) 5 (1) 6 (1) 7 (1) Rx 1 2 X X (MR). it sends an END PDU to the peer SSCOP.

3. its information is carried in SSCOP PDUs. 32 . For instance. and moves a link from the Out Of Service status to the Alignment status. With the help of the layer management. the SSCF transmits a BGN PDU to the peer entity in the receiving exchange to start the alignment procedure.  Flow control: The SSCF reports to the user the congestion level (or no congestion) to avoid unnecessary cell loss.  Performing link alignment.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B 3. this function makes it possible to obtain back the data not yet transmitted and divert the data to alternative link(s).  Link status maintenance: This SSCF function receives primitives from the MTP-3 or signals from the SSCOP and maintains information pertaining to the status of the link.  Local retrieve: In the case of a changeover procedure performed on a faulty link. SSCF Functions  Primitive mapping: The SSCF maps primitives received from SAAL user to signals defined at the SSCOP upper layer boundary and maps signals received from the SSCOP to primitives implicitly defined at the MTP-3 lower layer boundary.  Reporting to layer management: This SSCF function transmits MAAL primitives to the layer management so that the layer management can perform statistics and measurements. the SSCF reports the release to the layer management. it can provide primitives/signals to the MTP3 and the SSCOP as an aid to maintaining the link. the SSCF only transfers the signals between the SSCOP and the MTP3B to and fro. SSCF Link Alignment Alignment procedure: The procedure initiated according to user's request to detect the status of a link before it is put into service in the case of successful establishment. and then the layer management can measure the In-service duration. playing an intermediate role.3 SSCF The SSCF is used to coordinate the interface between the SSCOP and the upperlayer MTP3B. The SSCF does not transmit any PDUs to the peer entity in the receiver. II. such as In Service and Out Of Service. Based on the information. the error monitoring function can be implemented. instead. I. and vice versa. It also diverts its own PDU flow to the lower layer in order to prevent from congestion happening at the other end. It maps primitives from the MTP3B to required SSCOP signals. upon release of a link. by relying on the SSCOP. On receipt of the user’s (MTP3B) request (by sending a STAR_req primitive). In nature.

The SSCF alignment procedure provides a normal or emergency proving.3. In order to avoid unnecessary alteration. In the end. the proving fails. The layer management has the following states: 33 . As a component of these operations. proving PDUs are transported between the exchanges. as well as other information. It makes a direct interaction with the sublayers to implement a number of Operation Administration and Maintenance (OAM) functions. how frequent faults take place. if 1000 proving PDUs are really transmitted successfully and errors are not found then the link is recognized as passing the alignment and can be put into service. At this moment.  Periodically conducting a number of measurements. how frequent congestions happen. A links proves to be good by the means that n (1000 by default) proving PDUs can be successfully transmitted.4 LM The position of the Layer Management (LM) in the SAAL is shown in 3. If no error occurs.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B These operations require the SSCOP to establish a link between the two exchanges. Transmission of testing PDUs of N1 amount (1000 by default) at a specified rate (one PDU per millisecond by default) must be completed within 30 seconds from the start to the proving success. The SSCS LM is the layer management entity of the Service Specific Convergence Sublayer.1. If one or two (one by default) of the transmitted N1 PDUs are re-transmitted. a link has to be monitored against excessive delays during service transmission. the SSCS LM is described as an entity having interactions with all SAAL layers since CPCS and SAR (AAL Type 5) are implemented by the hardware and there are no interactions defined at these two layers. For instance. In the normal proving. the layer management allows a certain number of errors occurring at the link.  Performing alarm handling. Then the SSCF enters the Proving status for the link. the SSCF indicates the layer management to start the monitoring action. Therefore. After the link is successfully established. The proving algorithm on SAAL link is based on the alignment error rate monitoring process used for proving a link. The SSCS LM is responsible for conducting the following tasks:  Determining whether a link should be out of service or in service. 3. Whether to begin proving can be initiated by the layer management and the MTP3B.3. the layer management uses counters to count how long each link is in service. the link succeeds in being proved and moves to In Service.

and “m/n/r” indicates the compound state of the three sub-layers.  Algorithm 3 is mainly used for light load.  2/1/2 Alignment/Idle: In this state. This request was passed to SSCOP by means of an AA- 34 . 1/4/1 Out Of Service/ Outgoing Disconnection Pending: In this state the MTP3B. the receiver has not enough time to handle the data. This algorithm monitors data retransmissions. If the volume of the transmitted data is too large. it indicates a bad quality on the link. When data retransmissions occur so frequently within a particular interval that the occurrence sum exceeds a threshold. or an AA-RELEASE-request or an MAAL_RELEASE-Request. SAAL Compound States The states for coordinative operation among the three sub-layers are defined as follows: (“m” indicates the state number of SSCF. This causes the fact that the data in the sending buffer cannot be released so long that the sum of the transmission queue continues to increase to a particular value.)   1/1/1 Out Of Service/Idle: In this state. In this case. LM Error Monitoring Algorithms The layer management provides three algorithms for error monitoring. the link will be released. If within a particular interval the difference between the number of transmitted POLL PDUs and the number of accepted STAT PDUs (the difference is actually the number of lost STAT PDUs) exceeds a threshold. and the SSCF is waiting for a confirmation of the SSCOP connection release. it also indicates a bad quality on the link. “r” indicates the state number of LM. or alternatively the Layer Management. which caused the SSCF to issue an AA-RELEASE-request. the link will be released.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B      Out Of Service Alignment Proving Aligned Ready In Service I.  Algorithm 1 is mainly used for heavy load. the SAAL user requested the SSCF to provide an AAL connection. the connection is idle.  Algorithm 2 is mainly used for intermediate load. respectively. Once the delay is beyond tolerance. AA-RELEASE-confirm. These algorithms ensure to detect an error burst keeping for more than 400ms. At this moment. the link will be released. “n” indicates the state number of SSCOP. II. has issued an AAL-STOP-request.

and SSCS layer management is conducting alignment error rate monitoring to verify the quality of the link. The transition of the eight states above mentioned is shown in the figure. This request was passed to SSCOP by means of an AA-RELEASE-request.  3/10/5 2/10/3 In Service/Data Transfer Ready: In this state. and the SSCF is waiting for a confirmation of the SSCOP connection release. SSCF is waiting to reattempt this process.  2/2/2 Alignment/Outgoing Connection Pending: In this state.  2/4/2 Alignment/Outgoing Disconnection Pending: In this state the SSCF. an SSCOP connection is in service and may be used by the user to transfer signaling messages.  2/10/4 Aligned Ready/Data Transfer Ready: In this state. requested the release of the SSCOP connection. 35 . This state transition within SSCF is not indicated to the SAAL user. II is the normal start flow diagram of the SAAL protocol.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B ESTABLISH-request. AA-RELEASE-confirm. This process will be repeated until a supervisory function indicates that the establishment of an AAL connection is to be abandoned.  has been established. or in the case of unsuccessful proving. the user has issued an AAL-START-request. the Layer Management. the SSCF has completed proving and is awaiting an indication from its peer that the signaling link can be put into service. but the connection establishment or proving was unsuccessful. the signaling connection Proving/Data Transfer Ready: In this state. and the SSCF is waiting for a confirmation of SSCOP connection.

(I S) -ind. T3 expires C1 = 0 G-ind. SE RVIC AAL-IN_ POLL POLL STAT AA-DAT A-ind ..(IS) 3 5 ind. AAL-STA 2 H-req. 3/10/5 STAT 4 AAL-IN_S ERVICE -ind. 5 T1167200-94/d06 FIGURE II. 2/10/3MAAL-PRO VING-ind . 2 PORT MAL-RE (-.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols 3MTP and MTP3B LM MTP3 1 1 SSCF-NNI 1/1/1 SSCOP 1 SSCOP 1 SSCF-NNI 1/1/1 MTP3 LM 1 1 2 AAL-STA RT-req.-) PORT-ind.(NM AA-DATA SD POLL SD T3 expires C1 > 0 POLL STAT AA-DATA -ind..ALN. 3 ) -req. T3 expires C1 = 0 MAAL-S 2/10/4 AA-DAT A-req..ALN. EPORTMAAL-R INS..(IS) AA-DATA SD SD MAAL-S -req.-) (-.2140 Time flow diagram for connection estabishment Both UPS=Normal.. 10 (-. 3/10/5 3 MAAL-RE (-.. . Case 1 Figure 1.( AA-DA SD AA-DAT A-ind.(IS) TOP_PR OVIN G-i AA-DATA nd.. (NM) .INS. 2 TABLISH AA-ES 10 BGN d.-) -ind..1/Q. BGN -conf . OVING-in 2/10/3 MAAL-PR BGAK BGAK 3 T3 expires C1 > 0 AA-DAT A-req.12Normal start flow diagram of SAAL 36 .(NM) M) A-ind.(N AA-DAT STAT SD T3 expires C1 > 0 NM) TA-r eq.(NM AA-DATA RT-req.-) PORT-ind.(NM ) ) -ind. STABLIS AA-E 2/2/2 2 AA-ES 2 TABLISH MAL-RE -conf. 2/2/2 AA-ESTA BLISH-req . 2/10/4 4 E-ind. ROVIN TOP _P ..(NM) T3 expires C1 > 0 AA-DAT A-req.