NAME…………. ORGANIZATION…………….. DESIGNATION……………………….. Focus on question and give the possible answer according to your knowledge and experience. Select the option
1 2 3 4 5 DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE SATISFIED AGREE STRONGLY AGREE
Question No 1 Control transfer in decision making from higher management to lower management will positively effected on decisions making and performance of team. 1 2 3 4 5
Question No 2 Transference of control from higher management to lower management will cause to increase the training and system development cost. 1 2 3 4 5
Question No 3 Decartelization creates the motivation in the employees that leads to decisions right time. 1 2 3 4 5
Question No 4 Due to Quick Management Information system decisions can be done excellent with out decentralization. 1 2 3 4 5
Question No 5 Organization lose control due to transferring authority to lower management 1 2 3 4 5
Question No 6 In Work force diversity and different working culture environments decentralization is beneficial for right decision at right time. 1 2 3 4 5
Question No 7 In decentralization employee feel dissatisfaction due to responsibility and job burden. 1 2 3 4 5
Question No 8 Senior authority holder employee loses interest in respect of taking back the powers of decision making. 1 2 3 4 5
Methodology for Research questionnaire
I chose the certain methodologies for answers the question and information that I have needed for my research work.
Distributing questionnaires direct
I distribute questionnaires to direct respondent where I found the opportunity for getting more and more information. I also distribute the questionnaires in my class fellows who are closely connected with some managerial jobs and acting in the management team. My respondent in my research program was student, professionals for getting their comments for more and more information. This method plays a vital role in my research project on decentralization in decisions making. This method was excellent, easy and so simple for getting the required information. In this category my targeted population was only those who well know the management process and having the sense of decentralization process in decisions making. More then average I got the response in this section.
Besides direct distributing the questionnaires I emailed the questionnaire to more than100 persons in different areas of the world. I was join yahoo chat room Business and Trade and collect the addresses of different professionals but response was too much low. This method response was not satisfactory because every person don’t like to give the response with out direct meeting. I was chose this method because it was very economical in research.
On line presenting questionnaire like Interviews
This way was good other than email. Because start from hello to the respondent with polite manners with perusing them for help in getting information. This required a long time but I only asked the questions from few persons round about 10 and getting their view about the decentralization in decisions making. In this category number of persons from different professions was involved like managers, marketers, businessmen and students as well.
Reason for choosing these methodologies
I carefully planned the useful method for large amount of data and opinions from relating people due to the shortage of time and making my research excellent. I clear provide an excellent shape to my questionnaire as I asked in the survey. According to my observation only management
Related persons, professionals and business student were beneficial for getting the good information on the right time. The basic reason was who are correspondent to answer the research question and what type of information I have needed with in minimum time for putting excellence for my research work.
I have made an action plan for my research work. I have done a lot of work on Decentralization process in decision making. I have done certain work for my research project work and timing as below.
1st • • • 2nd • • • • •
study literature from course notes 1st week of July 2010 study from internet different reports study different articles study Prepare a questioners Editing in the questioners Made final questioners Distributing questioners by email Distributing questioners professionals
Week of July 2010 4th week of in July 2010
• • • • • • •
Taking interview observing Collect data Analyze data Makes a sense for presentation Present finding and conclusion recommendation
1st week of August 2010 2nd week of August 2010
Research Technique I have used the two methods of research for the solution of the problem. These methods provide me a great help for the finding. Primary Research Method
‘’Primary research involves the collection of data 1st time. This
including questionnaires, interviews and observation from others. This information collected in things like questionnaires and interviews’’
I distribute final questionnaires to the target correspondent like professionals, managers and business students via Email directly distribute and collect. I distribute round about in 30 to 40 correspondents for getting more and more finding and suggestions. I used the technique for the collection of data through email, chatting with professionals and defining the questionnaires. This area provide me a great help for the collection of my data and information about decentralization process in the organization where decisions making process was difficult in centralization.
I conduct the interviews of many professionals whose are still doing the job and those who have closely connected with higher management. I try my level best for right correspondent for information I have needed. I asked number of questions and define every thing which is complicated and difficult for others to under stand. Due to the shortage of time because I have need of much more information about decentralization. I visited the number of companies like, Barkley bank, in city center areas and get the required information.
I also collect the qualitative data for the solution of the problem. I get the opinions as well as questions for decentralization in an organization. In this approach I targeted the qualified people in management and asked about their view about the problem.
I collect data through Email from only 40% get the response and get backed the questionnaires from direct distributed and get feed back from 20 peoples. I also conduct the structured interview from 20 persons.
Secondary Research Method
‘’Data collected for a purpose other than the one a forecaster may use
it for; sources may include newspapers, press releases, and market research reports’’
Unstructured interview &study different reports and journals
I conduct the interview of those who are contacted to management and enjoy the authority in shape decentralization but response in this process was low. After this I study several reports and making sense about the problem about decentralization. I also study the several journals for finding the solution.
Direct Employee Approach
I tried my level best to approach to direct employee but only little repose I got. I only get about 3 response from city center KMS management and marketing promotion.
Sampling and Analysis Random sampling
I used the random sampling for giving the equal importance to total data because a small amount of data I have collected due to the shortage of time I want to make a good prediction for my research. It is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of an unbiased or random subset of individual observations within a population of individuals.
I also used the opportunity sampling technique. Where I found there I target for getting excellent valid information about my research work. Some time I go to the offices for meeting with manager about research work besides this there I collect the view of different person who was there. This technique also provides me the help for getting the informative data about the research work.
I analyze the data according to the category of Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. For good analysis it is impossible to analyze the whole target population due to this I select a sampling technique that’s discussed in previous report. Here I am giving a slight touch to those sampling technique In the qualitative analysis I found the certain answers for the Decentralization process, during the interviews, study the different report and opinions of the persons.
I used a self driven approach for getting the maximum result I divide the cretin categories of respondent for making my analysis more appropriate and valid for solution of the problem. Different Groups Management Group Area of Interest Management Decisions Making Planning and Controlling Comments Decentralization/Processes Centralization/process Decisions Making
Professional in areas of business
different Multi skills Mangment,Operations Decisions maker Trainers Promoters controllers Study different Management Management and Business Subject Human Resource Information Technology Management Marketing Promotion Feedback From questions Systems of work Report study Article study
I get the data from different persons that describe in the table. I found excellent information about management hierarchy in decision making. I take the interviews; observe many things during interviews, suggestion and opinions about the process of decisions making in an organization from transferring control in lower management
First I count the Average of every Questionnaire and than put in to action due to the shortage of time for this research work. I used the Median approach for quantitative analysis. I arranged the data in Un group formed. I first calculate the average of my correspondent
individually and then put in the practical mathematical way that I think the best and suit able for the numeric point of view.
Reason for choosing Median
It is most simple and easy way to present data in numerically. This method tell us the average out come In this method the chance of errors also reduced. It is generally accepted every where even child know this It will give the clear sketch about the finding X= 3.5,3.02,3.00,3.87,22.214.171.124,3.99,4.01,4.00,4.56,4.35,4.89,4.3,4.5,4.56,4.60,4.64 ,4.66,4.70,4.77,4.85,4.87,4.92,4.93,4.98,4.98,4.95,4.96
Median= Median= Median= Median= Median= Median= Median = N+1/2 the item 28+1/2 the item 29/2 the item
14.5 the item 14th item +15th item/2 4.5+4.56/2 4.53
4th option stands for Agree 5th option stand for strongly Agree Its mean our result falling in the average people think the decentralization is positively affected on the decisions making well.
Presentation of solution /interpretation I present the result that I measure in the research project. That follows the decentralization process in decisions making. This analysis decentralization is compulsory in decisions making where the head offices are faraway from sub offices. In the decentralization the decisions can be done at right time. Due to the transference of Authority the employees feel motivation and think internal pride for empowerment they keep keen focus on their work that leads to excellent growth and performance. In the decentralization process the organization must provide the training program to the employee for developing their skills in the best possible fashion for taking the right decisions. In this process authority breaks in to bottom level that’s good for decisions making. Centralize when only a few people are capable of making good decisions. Sometimes people think decentralization means automatically pushing all decisions lower in an organization, whether or not the people at the bottom have the skills to make the decisions wisely. But such an approach is not decentralization; it's just stupidity. With some decisions, no matter how much information you have, you still need special skills or knowledge to make the right choice .’’ Most hospital patients, for instance, want well-trained physicians to make the key decisions about their medical care’’
Areas fo focus in decenterlization
During the research I found certen areas of focus in decenterlization that leads to good decisions. o Delegated authority from the top-level management to the lower levelmanagement must be shown clearly. o o Authority must aligned with responsibility. Areas under control must be established and must be suitable with the number of employees and duties.
o The levels of management must be shown clearly. o An effective horizontal and vertical communication channel must be practised. o Division of jobs must be practised fully. o Control of power is maintained by the top-level management. Some threats of decentralization in decision making There are some threats I found during the study of decentralzation that can be discussed below. Employee feel burden In the interviews,questionairs,observation and study the different reports employee feel burden for taking an extra responsibility that some time cause to creat mental pressure and due to this the required result cant obtain. Senior employees loos interest for taking back the authority Senior employees also don’t like the transfer of authority to lower management. During the study of a report I found Mr tom who was in the senior management having 32 years of experience leave the job due to transfering control to a person who is 5 years of experience. He says my mother advised me don’t trust on that person who have not making an eyes contact. Low experience In my research I found that experience is much countable in management work as well as in decision making. Juniors employees not having the excellent experience that may cause to stop the growth and wrong decisions. No innovation In my research study I found that it is difficult for low level management to spread innovative ideas about decisions making. With out centralization the ideas can’t be generated about innovation.
In the research I found the number of critical problems in the decentralization process in decisions making. There number of things that can negatively effected on management, work force diversity, lack of specialization and also lack of confidence in lower management. These things extremely connected with in any organization for the system. I can conclude the all that I found in research project methodology. I try my level best to find a suit able way in the decision making process in decentralization. I spread the questionnaire, taking the interviews of different persons; study the different reports and journals. I conclude the information about facts and figure that I have found in the work. This is a critical process in shape of work force diversity and different cultural environment you should keep focus on the training and may you bear a huge training cost. If you want do the decentralization then substitute is also available for management. They want to establish a good Management Information System through intranet. Due to this technique the higher management is also able to get decision at right time.
Evaluation of Methodology
I evaluate the methodology that is used in research project. Suitability This methodology provides me a great help about the method of collection data. I collect a suitable data accurate, suitable and correct. This method was reliable in collection of data, presentation of data and also analysis for getting the valid conclusion about result. This methodology provides me an excellent help for collection and analysis of data about decentralization in decisions making. This methodology provides me a great help for finding the solution of the problem. I distribute 100 of questionnaire 20 t0 30 persons interview and study round about 6 reports about different areas. This method was much suitable for me. Due to the usage of this methodology I find the conclusion.
Feasibility I have not many skills to apply the mathematical approaches but due to different skills I used this approach for finding. Due to the shortage of time I was unable to apply all the methods in this research methodology. But I try my level best to apply these skills for getting the excellent and valid conclusion and go to the final solution. Due to the lack of resources I cont properly used this method. because I don’t have the relevant software that provide me the help for getting result. Due to the high cost I cont reach the all resources. Due to the lack of resources I cont use a good technique of sampling. Acceptability I found an accepted process for gaining commitment. This methodology process is acceptable anyhow this process of methodology is acceptable for getting valid result and conclusion. Through out the research program I present in qualitative as well as in shape of quantitative finding.
Decentralization is much important when head offices are faraway or located at different corners of the world. Due to the transference of authority to lower management the decision can be done with in no time and according to the problem. Decentralization also motivates the employees to perfuming their duties well because they take the responsibility and trying to put all their efforts and experiences in decisions making. It is positively affected on the performance of the whole team that leads to success. But a well defined system is much compulsory in decentralization and also defines the job specification and description for all lower level authority. For developing the decentralization training to the employee with in excellent professional environment is also important and objective of the job will clearly transfer and trains in a suit able way.
Delegated authority from the top-level management to the lower levelmanagement must be shown clearly. Authority must aligned with responsibility. Areas under control must be established and must be suitable with the number of employees and duties. The levels of management must be shown clearly. An effective horizontal and vertical communication channel must be practised. Division of jobs must be practised fully. Control of power is maintained by the top-level management. Area of Future research Some parts of this research I cnt complete due to the shortage of time. In future I want to do research on some issue that cant be measure in this research. Role of Work Culture in decision making
Work force diversity in multinational organization
Research Methodology (REFFERAL SUBMISSION)
Topic: DECENTRALIZATION PROCESS IN DECISION MAKING
TABLE OF CONTENTS QUESTIONNAIRS METHODS OF QUESTIONAIRS RESON FOR CHOSING THIS METHODS ACTION PLAN SAMPLING ANALYSIS QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION CONCLUSION METHODOLOGY RECOMMENDATION REFFEENCE 8 9 10,12 13 13 14 15,16 1,2 3 4,5 5 6,7
References www.google.com www.mba project.com www.scribd.com www.pu.edu.pk Akai, Nobuo and Masayo Sakata (2002), ‘Fiscal Decentralization Contributes to Economic Growth: Evidence from State-Level Cross-Section Data for the United States’, Journal of Urban Economics, Vol.52, No.1, pp.93-108. Breuss, Fritz and Markus Eller (2004), ‘Fiscal Decentralisation and Economic Growth: Is There Really a Link?’, CESifo DICE Report, Journal of Institutional Comparisons, Vol.2, No.1, pp.3-9. Dubois, H.F.W. & Fattore, G. (2009), 'Definitions and typologies in public administration research: the case of decentralization', International Journal of Public Administration, 32(8): pp. 704-727