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FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
Teaching vocabulary to young learners
Author: Lenka Přibilová
Supervisor: Mgr. Naděžda Vojtková
Lenka Přibilová, Teaching vocabulary to young learners: Bakalářská práce. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, Fakulta pedagogická, Katedra anglického jazyka a literatury, 2006, 43 stran a 5 příloh. Vedoucí bakalářské práce: Mgr. Naděžda Vojtková
Bakalářská práce Výuka slovní zásoby u mladších žáků pojednává o potřebe učitele poznat své žáky a rozumět jejich potřebám a problémům. Dalším bodem, o kterém tato práce pojednává, je otázka motivace a zapojení her a zábavy do výuky. Posledním bodem, kterým se tato práce zaobírá, je využití různých metod a přístupů ve výuce u mladších žáků.
The thesis Teaching vocabulary to young learners deals with the need of a teacher to know his or her learners and to understand their needs and problems. Other issue mentioned in the thesis is the question of motivation and icluding fun and games into the teaching process. The last issue the thesis deals with is the usage of different methods and approaches for teaching young learners.
Mladší žák, motivace, slovní zásoba, přístup, metoda, hra, zábava
Young learner, motivation, vocabulary, approach, method, game, fun
Prohlašuji, že jsem bakalářskou práci zpracovala samostatně
pod vedením Mgr. N. Vojtkové. Dále prohlašuji, že jsem uvedla všechny literární prameny, z nichž jsem čerpala. Souhlasím s uložením práce v archivu Masarykovy univerzity a se zpřístupněním ke studijním účelům. V Brně dne 30. července 2006 Lenka Přibilová
5 .Acknowledgements I would like to express gratitude to my supervisor Mgr. Naděžda Vojtková for her valuable advice and help.
5. 3. 1. 3. 2. 3. 3. 4. 2. 4. 2. 7. 2. 2. 3. 6. 5. 2. 4. 7. 2. 2. 2. 3. 2. INTRODUCTION THEORETICAL PART YOUNG LEARNER-WHO IS A YOUNG LEARNER? VOCABULARY WHAT IS VOCABULARY? HOW ARE WORDS LEARNED? WHICH WORDS AND WHAT SHOULD BE TAUGHT? VOCABULARY PRESENTATION BE REALISTIC CHOOSING ACTIVITIES THE ROLE OF FUN AND GAMES IN THE LESSONS PRACTICAL PART LESSON PLAN # 1 LESSON PLAN # 2 LESSON PLAN # 3 LESSON PLAN # 4 LESSON PLAN # 5 LESSON PLAN # 6 LESSON PLAN # 7 CONCLUSION RESUMÉ BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES APPENDIX I 6 8 10 10 13 13 15 17 19 21 22 24 26 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 42 43 45 45 . 4. 3.CONTENT 1. 2. 4. 1. 3. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 6. 2. 2. 3. 2.
APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX II III IV V 47 48 49 50 7 .
The aim of this work is to show several ways that can be used for teaching vocabulary to young learners. the rest at two primary schools also in Brno. In the second part of my thesis I would like to present my system of work and also different methods I use while teaching. I have to admit that at the beginning I doubted about any acquisition for young learners and many arguments seemed cogent to me.1. Reactions and opininons were. I have been teaching English for eleven years now – seven years at a language school here in Brno. different. then I will try to describe who is a young learner. In the theoretical part I will introduce the aim of this thesis.. Introduction “Why? What is it good for ? Is it good for them at all? Do they really need it? Is it not only a useless worry? Why do we have to make them learn something more than what they really need and have to? How much hope shall we place in it? “ These are the most frequent questions I have been thinking about. I ran against a lot of troubles that I would like to share in my final thesis and also I would like to share some ideas for teaching vocabulary to young learners. I have discussed them with many pupils. also didactic aids and methodology books. Therefore I would like to refer to the possibilities which teaching a foreign language to young learners brings. At the begining during the discussions with my colleagues we found out that some kind of conception was needed. teachers and parents. of course. In the next chapter I will focus on what is vocabulary and how it is learned and also the ways how vocabulary can be presented. next we pointed out that there were missing good textbooks or materials. I would like to show why and how teaching vocabulary to young learners can be more efficient. I divided my thesis into the theoretical and the practical part – the practical part follows the theoretical part. Frequent complain of many teachers is that it is extremely difficult to teach children that seem to lack the basic talent for learning languages. During the time I began to realize chances and occasions that English language can offer to children and I started to be a big fan of teaching English to young learners. I will enclose some materials and games that I use in 8 .
books (used literature) which I used for my thesis and the appendices where I included some materials and exercises with the keys. After that follows the list of sources . In conclusion I will briefly summarize my thesis. 9 .my lesssons.
Young learner . others need more time. Some children develop faster. which is starting to be adopted from September 2006. I think these debates will be run over and over because nobody is able to say the exact time for beginning to learn foreign languages.2. the sooner they start. The results are seen quite easily and of course teachers demand this kind of satisfaction.1. according to the new school curricula. I have chosen this age group because I like working with young learners. In my opinion. 10 . Teaching young learners requires the knowledge of knowing all the development differences. We should consider their development too. From my personal experience. From my own personal experience I have to admit that learners at this age are grateful when someone invest time in them. These children still want to learn something new. I think if very young learners are able to achieve good results. Understanding these differences can help me as a teacher to develop methods and a system of work that I will use in the process of teaching. the children will start a year earlier and in some schools the foreign language will be introduced from the 1st grade. There have been many disputes and discussions over this. Theoretical part 2. It is generally known that the Czech system officially allows children to start learning a foreign language in the 4th grade.who is a young learner? A young learner – who is he or she? This term covers a wide age range. In the Czech Republic children have started learning a foreign language in the 4th grade so far. In the 7th grade they will have to start learning a second foreign language. they are happy to present it and they feel more important. I remember a girl . this can be anybody from the age of three to the age of eighteen. I think the older ones can do it too. However.5th grade . Their brain and memory is ready for learning and most of them can learn quite well. When they know it. the better for them. I achieved quite good results with kindergarten children so I do not see any problems for older learners. There is a big difference between what a –three-year-old child can do and what a child of fifteen can do.who was able to “communicate” with a native speaker. it is not possible to say that every child of six will know this and that. But it is possible to pick out some chracteristics which I as a teacher should know and should be aware of. Her joy was the best reward for me. I have decided to focus on young learners – age group 7-11. Of course.
Often they “teach” each other. My observations are the same as hers. p 3) I do agree with Halliwell and her observations. These examples of characteristics I have mentioned above are great hints how to teach young learners and what kind of methods we should use. 1992. they can show off a little bit. They want to learn and are happy when they learn something. the 11 .I would like to point out some characteristics about this age group. They love to be praised for what they have done and learnt. argue. Very often they pretend they understand everything and they know everything. The teacher definitely has to be very sensitive to the children´s needs and has to prepare the lessons well. Halliwell states that: young children are already very good at interpreting meaning without necessarily understanding the individual words already have great skill in using limited language creatively frequently learn indirectly rather than directly take great pleasure in creating fun in what they do their imagination is ready “above all take great delight in talking” (Halliwell. this is very important fact to keep their motivation. They are able to concentrate for certain time. They are able to talk about what they are doing. We should avoid a stereotype. discuss and they are able to interact with both children and adults.. they love when people pay attention to them and their talking. They are able to use language skills not even realizing them. They understand situations and through situations – they use several senses. They are happy when they can play. They love to share their experiences. They can think. They do not realize what is fact and what is fiction sometimes. They use imagination a lot. then they have to share it with somebody and they are proud that they learnt something. It is very important to choose the right way of teaching for these little children.
Otherwise this could have really bad consequences for the learners´ further improvement in the language. 12 .lessons have to be creative and lively.
(Ur. roughly. 2.2. For example. Some words can be entirely new to us. vocabulary is still widening. What is vocabulary? “Vocabulary can be defined. 1. To summarize this. Czech word pošta.e. To find the right word to fit the meaning can be very frustrating. especially if the store of words is limited. Thornbury states that they can be confronted by words that are totally unfamiliar. For example. post office. 2003. the learner while learning the vocabulary of a second language can come across several challenges: “making the correct connections. be able to recall them readily 13 . This used to mean just the post office or simple letters but nowadays it also means emails. and in terms of the way each of us learned our first and any subsequent languages. We come across completely new words that are made up according to new technologies and according to the needs of real life. Even in our native language we are continually learning new words and meanings of old words. between the form and meaning of words when producing language. when understanding the second language. both historically. A useful convention is to cover all such cases by talking about vocabulary „items“ rather than „words“. using the correct form of a word for the meaning intended ( i. Vocabulary 2. nose not noise) To meet these challenges the learner needs to: acquire a critical mass of words for use in both understanding and producing the language remember words over time. a verb to google is used frequently a lot. which are made up of two or three words but express a single idea. and mother-in-law. However. 2. a new item of vocabulary may be more than just a single word: for example. Languages emerge first as words. as the words we teach in the foreign language. Learners of a second language experience something similar. or being used in ways that for them are novel and possibly obscure. p 60) All languages consist of words. Moreover.
p 31) 14 . or unfamiliar uses of known words have to take responsibility themselves for vocabulary expansion” (Thornbury. including coping with unknown words.develop strategies for coping with gaps in word knowledge. 2002.
Suggestopedia is a very successful method in helping learners to memorize words. This method stimulates the learner´s brain by music while learning but nowadays teachers seem to be leaving this method.” (Thornbury. 2. How are words learned? “Without grammar very little can be conveyed. p 18) The child has to realise that these common words like cat can be replaced by superordinate terms like animals.TPR. I will mention just some of them that can be used for teaching young learners. acquiring a vocabulary requires not only labelling but also categorising skills. The mother tongue is never used. not just cats. including vocabulary.” David Wilkins.2. 2. To help the learners understand it is important to visualize the item and get the pupils to repeat or use the item actively. linguist To know a word is one thing but we have to pause on the fact how this knowledge is acquired. The child needs to learn how far to extend the concept of a cat. One good way of doing this is to let them see or perhaps touch the vocabulary item. homonyms etc. 2002. We need to let them repeat it in different ways and they should be given a chance to listen to the teacher talking about it. Thornbury states that the children have to develop some kind of network building – constructing some complex idea. There are many different methods and approaches how to teach a foreign language. then they always start with words used for labelling. Than during this process they will realise there also exist words like synonyms. Only target language is used in the calssrooms and only complete sentences are used. “In other words. there are no translations. Thinking about little children who learn to speak. Very many children are nowadays very hyper and physically active 15 . And to this category also belongs other animals. so that the concept. for instance a house. of a cat has a name cat. Culture is considered an important aspect. What really works especially for young learners is the Total Physical Response method . A little bit of shocking method is the direct method or the direct approach. without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. for example. But of course not every animal is a cat.
Communicative Language Approach (Teaching) – CLT – stresses the meaning of a language in context.and to concentrate for a long time can be very difficult for them. 16 . Communicative competence is highly developed here and learners are encouraged to communicate. This method is used a lot by teachers. Using this method. games. changing topics and using a variety of activities is very appreeciated by them.
(Ur. “The learner has to know what a word sounds like (its pronunciation) and what it looks like (its spelling). maybe we would like to present their past forms. 2. For example when teaching nouns. we can decide which words to teach on the basis of frequency. Context helps them to find the right meaning. also regular and irregular ( girl-girls. Nowadays all the course books are organised into themes and they provide vocabulary according to it. then grammar. Which words and what should be taught? The significant point in teaching vocabulary is the selection of words we as teachers want to teach. Especially with young learners words that they are familiar with and they can stick to them should be taught. p 61) In my opinion it is important to inform learners about the meaning of the word as well as their form and grammar. In the form pronunciation and spelling should be mentioned. “The meaning of a word is primarily what it refers to in the real world. We can relate items together – for example words like “a school. how often the words are used by the speaker of the language. Ur states the learners need to be taught the form of the word. it is good when the learners know the synonyms (smart – intelligent) or antonyms (rich – poor). If there is a theme “Animals”. a blackboard and a break” are all associated with education. Word formation – using prefixes and suffixes. Very often words are taught according to themes and topics. Thus. its denotation”. depending what level the learners are they should be taught to follow some grammatical rules. a teacher. 3. mouse-mice). 1996. Again. we need to consider the frequency too. When teaching verbs. There is a choice for us. also where they live.2. meaning and word formation. Thus. collocations. Words that have quite specific meaning should be avoided with young learners. we would like to present their plural forms. is too difficult for young learners. It is quite easy to teach concrete words at lower level and then become more abstract. then we can expect words like naming animals. p 60) The grammar of a new item also needs to be taught. especially if the verb is irregular (forget-forgot). Learners find this sometimes very difficult and discouraging because some words do not have just one meaning. what they eat etc.” (Ur. using hyphenated words etc. Collocations – I do not think these are important for young learners. 17 . 1996.
firstly I think that knowing the word and understanding its meaning go hand in hand. Secondly.To summarize this. it is important to teach them all these aspects. But as said above they also need to know other aspects of the words they learn. but they need to know it. for example the irregular plural form right away. after some time most of them will not say “mouses”. 18 . Young learners often put words together with what they can see. it is easier to remember concrete words like a chair or a dog than abstract words. In my opinion. Of course. I think that if we keep repeating the plural form “mice”. hear or with whar they can touch. we will not teach them.
wall charts. can we find similar words in the learner´s native language etc. I think every teacher tends to use and prefers some technique that he or she finds interesting. this includes teaching the vocabulary "in spoken form first" to prevent students from pronouncing the words in the form they are written. And of course there are techniques that we as teachers try to avoid. A number of techniques can be adopted to present new vocabulary items. 3. their familiarity with the words – have they come across these words or are they completely new? words difficulty – are the words abstract. Also it is up to the teacher which techniques he or she decides to use but always the effectiveness of teaching should be considered. The presentation of new vocabulary can be classified for example according to verbal and visual techniques.? can the words be easily demonstrated ? shall we use realia or anything that the pupils can become familiar with? can pictures be used to elicit vocabulary? After the teacher chooses what items to teach. There are techniques that are particularly appropriate for certain types of words – for example actions can be explained through pantomime. 2002. In my opinion. Some techniques are more popular and more often used than others. This is closely connected with several factors: the level of the pupils – beginners. Another factor that is worth considering is the age of the learners. he or she should follow certain guidelines. Among visual techniques we can find pictures . posters. placing the new items in context. Younger ones react quite well when we show them concrete illustrations.flashcards.2. word pictures. photographs and magazine pictures. p 75) Firstly. the older ones can manage pretty well abstract explanations or even definitions. intermediate etc. and revising them. blackboard drawings. are they easily pronounced.” (Thornbury. Vocabulary presentation “By presentation we mean those pre-planned lesson stages in which learners are taught pre-selected vocabulary items. several realia 19 . we should consider how many words should be presented during the lesson.
descriptions. Words can be organised into sets. and definition by translation. action and gestures can be used especially for explaining actions and times. Then they have to be told about the alphabetical order and about other things they can find there. Explanation can become extremely difficult especially with beginner levels. In my opinion it is good to use both picture dictionaries and classical dictionaries where they find the meaning with young learners. learners can learn how to use dictionaries. They have to be told there are two parts – English-Czech and CzechEnglish. Using this technique.that teachers can hold up or point to. This technique is not used much recently. contextual definitions. subclasses and subcategories often aided by visual presentation. Teachers can prepare quite interesting lesson where the learners learn how to use dictionaries. Learners can label pictures or objects or perform an action. scales. synonyms and antonyms. Mime. definition by abstraction. 20 . Another way that can be used is translation. and using various forms of definition: for example. Most of the young learners have never used a dictionary before so it is a need to teach them to use dicitonaries first. It has its advantages but also disadvantages. It could be done by the teacher or with using a dictionary. collocations. Verbal techniques consist of using illustrative situations. They cannot interact with the words. definition by demonstration (visual definition). Translation is one of the traditional ways of explaining the meaning of words. even though it is quick and easy but can be very discouraging for learners.
It does not mean. be active. our expectations are sometimes very high. make crosswords etc. and we do it even at midnight. Quite often the children are not “angels”.. 21 . being realistic should mean taking realities into account in such a way that good things can still happen. we should discuss it with him/her. There are teachers who would never do such activities again. . 4. We draw pictures. This of course leads to the fact the children will become silly and they will really enjoy it. Language classrooms are noisy. teachers can come across many language teaching ideas and techinques. creative. for example. Be realistic Nowadays. We encourage them to interact. There are many of them in circulation that it is quite easy to get carried away. On the contrary. “We need to be realistic in our expectations of ourselves and the learners. And we hope it will be worthwile. sensible. We want to be flexible. We should evaluate the lesson ourselves. independent. we want to praise the children as much as possible but on the other hand we want to be realistic and. And their lessons then turn to be boring. we should reject the idea of pairwork because our clasess are big. there are at least fifteen pupils – usually even more. cut paper into small pieces.” (Halliwell.2. The classes with high number of students put exceptional demands on teacher`s preparation for the lesson and there is obviously a requirement of larger classrooms too. 1992. creative. or not very able.. But sometimes something goes wrong. draw flashcards. or poorly motivated. very honestly. p 19) After every lesson we should ask ourselves whether the lesson was productive or unproductive and we should go back to our objectives and aims. Or if we have an observer in the lesson.
games. The children´s minds have to jump from one topic to another with not much time to let things sink in effectively. for example activities like “odd one out. But this can mean we may produce a lesson which is a disaster. “We will not help the children to develop their capacity to concentrate if we jump inconsequentially from one topic to the next.  Another factor that teachers should bear in their minds is to keep the lessons simple. Of course. They may seem to settle the pupils. Before the lesson is planned. too many activities and changing the activities all the time can destroy the lesson well.” (Halliwell. 1992.2. dialogues” etc”. It needs to be considered well. Choosing activities It is up to the teacher mostly to choose the right activity. for example. competitions. 1. We should realise some important things. Thinking about the positive way of the word “stir”. it means these activities will wake up the class. Activities that can stir the class are. We should not forget context developing activities. Another aspect we should think about are activities which engage children´s minds and which keep them physically occupied. warm them up. Once the idea of context playing a decisive role in the choice of language is firmly established. 4. p 27) 22 . there are activities that have the opposite effect. This is good but can lead to misunderstanding. We often try to make our lessons varied. The lesson can be varied by doing lots of activities on different topics. This is not easy and teachers should spend really quality time to think about this. oral work. There are ways of varying the oral work so that it is making different demands on the children and therefore feels different even when the topic remains the same. “If we are to help the learners acquire independent second language lexicons. Many coursebooks provide learners with plenty of opportunities to develop their own context for the language presented. Some language activities can stir a class. we need to highlight the importance of the context in which the language naturally occurs. we can begin to introduce varieties of the language used in different contexts. filling-in exercises. there should be considered what kind of activities should be choosen knowing the effect of them.
they will take to them easily when they appear. Then they can transfer to different topics and situations. “Because you use them regularly you will quickly get to know the best way to set them up with your classes.. They can become truly the core of your language teaching..org.1992. Using different methods and ways of teaching should become a regular part of our lessons. We can reuse materials all the time. we can come up with new things but always the activities should be simple in principle. p 38 )  http://www. Variation comes in the forms of activity as Halliwell states.. Because the classes know them.” (Halliwell.shtml 23 .uk/think/vocabulary/context_developing.teachingenglish.Variation does not only mean changing the topics and materials but also the change of work we do.
Learning can be absorbed really well. is likely to be weaker than that created by events in the classroom itself. Teachers can come up 24 . p 33) It is evident that young learners learn through play much easier and they enjoy it more. 2. 1995. Quite often the learners do not realize they are learning. 1995. drawing.” (Opie. I. solving puzzles. They play and love to play. What is a game? “A game is played when one or moreplayers compete or co-operate for playoffs according to a set of rules. 1986) (Jones in Teaching English to Children) “A true game is one that frees the spirit. a game that works like this is well-known game “Simon says”. p 143) It is obvious that the games need to be motivating.” (Rixon..1995) Games may focus on oral or written part of the language. I and J. the stories need to be picked carefully. And J. It allows of no cares but those fictitious ones engendered by the game itself. ´the most admirable social institutions´. chanting rhymes. 1969) (Opie. Khan states that the achievement of these goals signals the end of the game. In playing together we can see elements of interaction and during interacting the learners develop language skills. (Khan. Piaget (1967) (Piaget in Teaching English to Children) saw chidlren´s games as.. Children are very often concerned with controlling whether everybody follows the rules and whether they are not broken. the level of the learners need to be considered and the teacher has to investigate time into preparation.2. For example. Then the learners are able to follow it better. “Telling stories to students can result in natural language acquisition on their part.” (Rixon. commands for the games can be remembered quite easily. they offer a vast selection of activities. The language learnt by heart can often be a part of the activities. 4.” (Jones. Many games can be looked at as drill exercises but they have an added fun and competition element. The role of fun and games in the lessons “By ´fun and games´ I mean all those activities that we loosely think of as involving play and enjoyment. “ For young learners. For example. Language can also be picked as a result of an enjoyable activity. Children need to be involved and even excited in order to learn effectively. Again. in Teaching English to Chidren) Games are activities with rules and goals. 1995. clapping hands. games. Fun and games should have an important role in the children´s education. motivation deriving from the factors outside the classroom..” (Khan. This is quite a natural way for them to learn. p 37) Teachers can tell stories the learners are familiar with in their own language. model-making. such as parental and social attitudes. Singing. colouring.
It is very appreciated by the learners.. A play is in the essential nature of the child.. Several activities can allow and involve more creative use of the language.a song “This is the way. I . Songs are most grateful way for this. Appreciated story can be The Story of the Big Enormous Turnip. then they can be extended. There are many possibilities for adapting games we can find. Teachers can “play” with vocabulary while teaching it. All this can be applied to teaching vocabulary too.with a simple version of the story. As said above games and fun are important parts of the lesson. New sentences and activities can be produced by the children themselves.. 25 .. The teachers should not forget the values of games and fun activities in the lessons.” or “If you are happy and you know it. The learners can make up new verses. Example .”.
we work with handouts that they get from me and place them into a folder. It is evident that some learners have been learning the English language for several years.15 pupils at the age of 5 – 11.age group 7-11. they still want to learn. I try to use English in the classes as much as possible and I want their reactions in English too. Littlejohn and D. of course if possible. I always have to consider that in each class there are more children and some with learning disabilities. their age and their abilities. I tried out all the activities described here during my teacher´s career. they do not have almost any troubles with motivation and as I have said in the theoretical part. most of them consisted of 10 . All the activities reflect the level of the learners. Practical part In my final thesis I have decided to focus on teaching English vocabulary to young learners . Hicks. Most of the classes use the course book Cambridge English for Schools by A. Most of the pupils only started with learning English in the 4th grade. some started in the kindergarten. The younger ones do not use any course books. The activities have been piloted in at least 10 classes. These handouts are given to them so that their parents know what we learned in the lesson and can practice during the week. I would like to enclose several lesson plans and also reflect on some observations from the theoretical part.3. I have to admit that it is a lot of fun to teach these children. some have just started. 26 .
they forgot. so that I can point to it anytime. So I ask. Reading and colouring: I distribute the handouts (Appendix I) that I have prepared for them and the colour pencils and the learners will colour the people.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know . While talking. I repeat the word “daughter”. I stand behind the door and as they leave I ask them for example for the word “maminka”.the learners get to know my family . 3. Ok. (On the black board there is a family poster all the time. they all have to tell me a “password” to leave. For example. 1. sister etc. Do you live in a family? Who belongs to your family? Do you have any brothers or sisters? What is your brother´s / sister´s name? How often do you see your grandmother and grandfather?. colour pencils. Talking about families: Today we are going to talk about families. a family poster..learners know each other and their families . handouts Assumptions: . 27 . While doing this I read a story about a family from a book. “this is my daughter Kristyna”. we are going to play a game and the winner gets a reward! I will say a sentence. They have to say “mother” and can leave. for example:” Show me your mother!” And you have to show me your mother´s picture. Working with their pictures: (The learners were supposed to bring to the class pictures of their family members. I have to count on the fact.3... Lesson plan # 1 Topic = My family Aims: . Is this your mother? Is this your sister? Is this your grandfather? After some time we will play a game.to get to know the learners´ families. I use pictures of my family and point to the right person and repeat who he/she is. After each sentence I make the learners say whose picture they are showing me. At the end we sum up the lesson and I tell them that next lesson we will play a family pexeso.after the lesson the learners will know at least 5 new words Aids: .) 2..they are ready to share and are ready to play 1. father. Before they leave the classroom.pictures and photos. And so on. so I distribute either my pictures or pictures from magazines. pieces of paper. mother. now I will talk about my family.) Now. Who is this? Your. a story book. the learners know them well so I suppose they will be very active and will want to share . Now. it is your time to show me who is who.
This lesson can be varied in many ways. they put their hands above their heads etc. I let them jump while showing me their family members. What needs to be said here is that during this activity the children are able to learn a phrase “This is my mother/father etc. 45 or 60 minutes. In this lesson I decided to use the TPR method too. the children can come to black board and point to the right person on the poster.Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 1st grade learners or even kindergarten children. In this lesson I decided to use one of the visual methods that I talked about in the theoretical part. But as I have said in the theoretical part. again according to the age and level of the learners and also depending on the fact how long the lesson is – 40. Learners have a chance to hear and see. It is very natural for them to learn this phrase. too much variety can spoil the lesson so this is very important factor that should be considered. the children are able to remember it without any explanation and real “learning”.” Because this phrase is repeated in the lesson many times. 28 .
. Potom si vezmi black a nakresli three birds. Well done. are you ready?I do not want you to shout or look to your friend´s paper. anything. they swap the drawings with their partners and we check it together. a story book.. You can see this classroom is full of colours.. I take a colour chalk and draw a big circle on the board. now we will write a “dictation”. Every time I call out some colour. After some minutes the learners get back to their seats and we repeat all the colours once more. listen up! Black. colour chalk Assumptions: .. So. But to each colour you will write down the name... I say:´Vezmi si yellow a nakresli sun. Now when you have finished. Well done! Now you know we will talk about colours today. Lesson plan # 2 Topic = Colours Aims: ... (After each shout I repeat the colour after them so that they have a chance to hear the pronunciation well. I put the poster on the wall. green. I willshout out a name of the colour and you must run to touch this colour. The very first person who knows will tell me and then we will send it to others and the last person says that outloud. your friend´s trousers.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know .after the lesson the learners will know at least 7 new words including the word rainbow Aids: . now exchange your drawings with your partner and let´s check it.the learners get to know the names of the colours . pieces of paper. are you ready? Let´s start. I want you to do the same.pictures. to get to know how they feel about colours . white.colour dictation should be easy and fun for them 1. a blackboard. Ok. 3. We will play a game.) 2. picture of rainbow. Working with “colours”: Let´s take your exercise books now and you can see what I draw on the board. I also point out to the right colour on the poster..3. I know you do not like dictations but this one is going to be different.. colour pencils. Let´s start now. blue. You can touch a chair.learners probably already know the colours . I have a special reward for you. I will pick up different colour pencils and you can shout out the name of the colour.. Do you any colours? Which one is your favourite? What does black mena for you? How do you feel about yellow? What does it evoke?I will tell you a story about rainbow.. Let´s start now.´Well.) Well.to get to know the learners´ favourite colours.) Well done.. Talking about colours: I will say several words and you tell me what I am speaking about. a colour poster. 2. Usually they do really well and are happy they were succesfull with their “dictation”..they are ready to play . Finishing up the topic: (After the learners finished their drawings. We will do it as a game called “silent post”. children! Now you know the English names for colours. Since we stil lhave time left. You need to be careful about the spelling!. (While we are talking. 29 .
see and touch and later they can run in the classrooms. This topic is quite easy and children have a lot of fun with this. I have to be careful because the learners try to write down the names of the colours.Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 3rd or 4th grade learners. After they have finished that. I have to count on the fact most of the learners already know the colours from previous classes. in this lesson I used one of the visual methods and also TPR. Therefore this lesson cannot be boring so that even these children would be able to be active. The learners can hear. I think using TPR is very productive and learners can learn and remember it better. I usually check the spelling in their exercise books. This lesson can be varied in many ways again.Again. 30 . as I have mentioned in lesson plan # 1.
The teacher also needs to know how many words the learners know.the learners get to know the the basic verbs and adjectives . Now. I always use the English language for explaining the actions and adjectives because the motion help the children to understand. you’ll get a point.Smile! Be happy! Be sad!. BUT if I don’t say Simon says you mustn’t do anything. then I go on with the newer ones.4. I am writing etc. For this activity I decided to choose the well-known commands as a warm-up. Of course during this acitvity we will practice the adjectives too. I decided to show another way of teaching vocabulary to young learners . I am bored.after the lesson the learners will know at least 8 new words Aids: . At the end of the lesson I always check whether they undrestand all the practised commands and adjectives. What are verbs and adjectives? Can you tell me an example? Is the word ´sit´a verb? Is theword ˇhappy´an adjective? So. now I will say some basic commands and you will do what I say. (As I was explaining the rules. I am deaf. it is time for a game. 3.) 2. I ma dancing. While explaining all these actions. it can be used as a revision of what the learners have already known. A pupil with the less points is the winner.colour pencils. I was doing what I was saying.. Together we repeat the words and do the actions.using gestures.. Then we will play a game. (This activity can last as long as the learners are not bored. you can be the teacher now. I will say Simon says Stand up! and you will stand up.) Now I need a volunteer who will say the sentence instead of me.. mimes and actions. I am drinking.” Does anybody know this game? I will explain the rules to you. for example. We will play the game “Simon says. Evaluation: This activity is designed for 4th grade. today we are going to practice some verbs and adjectives. I am showing them the motions. Revision of some basic commands and adjectives: Well. I always start with the easier and already known ones. Verbs Aims: . If you do.learners know some basic commands .they want to express their feelings 1. Lesson plan # 3 Topic = Adjectives. Are you reday? Stand up! Sit down! Close your books!. Simon says Sit down! and you will sit down..they are ready to play . The game 31 . handouts Assumptions: . I am asleep.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know . I am blind. Learning new vocabulary: I want to teach the learners new vocabulary.
Very important aspect of this game is discipline. This activity can be used as a warm-up or we can fill in some part of the lesson if minutes are left. The learners need to pay attention to what I say. When I get feedback from the children.Simon says practises the language in reality. 32 . they usually tell me they like it more when they can give the commands. The learners are very competitive and active because everybody wants to be the winner. Very often I play this game in groups where more children can practise the phrase Simon says.
brainstorming: Well. you can just write down number to each picture. You cannot talk.) Well done. we are going to talk about animals today. the topic of today´s lesson. You are going to hear several sounds of animals and I want you to write their names on a piece of paper. 4. Well done! The word is ANIMALS! And the winner is Honza? Here is your price! What is it? Yes. a tape recorder Assumptions: .after the lesson the learners will know at least 5 new words Aids: .they are ready to share and lsiten 1. So as you can see. it is a toy dog. You 33 .to get to know the basic animals in English .learners will probably know some English names of animals . you are very good! Now we will listen again but this time you do not have the pictures. handouts.) 2. just put your hand above your head. the winner gets a price! If you think you know.pictures. Lesson plan # 4 Topic = Animals Aims: . So.. Talking about animals. WHAT SONG P ICTURE MOTHER CARD LOVE CH R I S T M A S In these words you can find 1 word.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know . Do you understand? ( The learners are ready to listen now. What animals do you know? What is your favourite animal? Have you ever been to the zoo? Do you like big animals? Areyou scared of any? Do you know any exotic animals? Do you have an animal at home?… (During this talking I write down on the blackboard all the animals the learners name and distribute pictures of animals among the children.learners like animals . You will hear 5 sounds and I think you will know all of them. I will start up the lesson in a little bit different way than usually. colour pencils. an animal poster. we will listen to a tape recorder. Listening: Now.. I get ready the tape recorder. To make it easier I distributed a set of pictures among you and you will hear all these animals. children. I will write something on the blackboard and you have to find out a hidden word in it.3.
The topic is also very grateful and from my personal experience the children always have a lot of fun with it. (Usually the learners want to be creative and work on their own. Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 3rd or 4th grade. because you can work with dictionaries. which is not as easy for them. Through brainstorming. you can write about them – what they eat. anything you like. they do not need my help. what is your favourite animal? etc. I usually have examples with me in the lesson. Probably the hidden word would be too difficult for them. you can either ask me or. Jano. if nobody is able to guess this word. You can either draw or glue animals. Right at the beginning of the lesson the learners have a chance to brainstorm. Then I let them be creative and let them work on the project. you can use them. everybody is included. (This is a little bit more difficult but the sounds are of well-known animals so the chidlren will not have any troubles with it. so I can show them so that they get ideas. This is very active time.must guess which animals you hear. If somebody remains quiet. each child can talk and I pay attetnion to this. This lesson can be varied in many ways and can be done with younger learners too. So you need to know some animals and also something about them. imagine you are going to take a friend of yours to the zoo soon and you want to give him/her a tour. I ask questions – Honzo. therefore after this activity I need to calm them down and we listen to the sounds of animals. Of course. 34 . So now. If you need help. so I let them work in the next lesson too. I do not tell them which animals they have to choose or what exactly needs to be written there or how exactly it has to be done. make groups of 4 and each group has to prepare a poster. Project: Now. so the children do not usually have any troubles with this. where they live. Then they have to guess the hidden word. All the sounds are of known animals. the learners usually remember at least 1 new word. so the teacher would have to come up with a different activity. Also usually this activity takes longer time.) 3. do you know any animals?. Again. I help them.
3. Practise: I usually ask the children to find out three vocabulary items to practise the finding. pear. Now. the window is the odd one. Which one is the odd one? Yes.learners know the alphabet so this should not be that difficult . you can find it here.“apple. English-Czech and Czech-English. So. It is orgaized according to the alphabetwhich you already know. Now check these three items . At the end we check the exercixe together. I distribute the handouts (Appendix II) and the learners work on the handout.to teach and practise using dicitonaries . 35 . distribute these dictionaries.but even this fact the learners need their time to get used to working with the dictionaries 1. Introducing dictionaries: This mornig as I was getting ready for your lesson I realised I would need helpers. the English one. Each child says one letter from the aplhabet. So thank you for coming and helping me to bring the dictionaries.. If I say an English word.to revise some basic terminology . Lesson plan # 5 Topic = Fruit Aims: .Well done! At the end of the lesson we can sing the alpabet song if you want to. 2. window”. put your hands above. Working with the dictionaries: Now it is time to start “working” with the dicitonaries.. As homework they have to prepare similar exercise. which part will you be looking in?Yes.after the lesson the learners will know 5 new words Aids: .various kinds of dicitonaries. you can see there are two parts. If you find id. 3. I need to be sure they are familier with working with the dictionaries.. If their answer is right. You can work in pairs and you must circle the odd ones. Thses books are called dictionaries. flashcards Assumptions: . So if you do not understand some word. Let´s quickly revise the aplhabet. I will go on like this for a while. handouts. Do you understand it? Well. So the word is a lemon. one into each desk. 5.. I will give you the handouts and you have to work on them. If you open them. I will say an English word and you can find the Czech equivalent in the dicitonary. you can start working.to find out the odd words .
From my own personal experience I have to say that children usually like working with dictionaries and like the exercises. 36 . I did not manage to do everything that I planned for the lesson. This is probably their first time using and working with dictionaries. I have to admit that when I first taught this topic and was teaching how to use dicitonaries. Now I have to make sure that children know the alphabet really well.Evaluation: I talk about using dictionaries as a way for teaching vocabulary in the theoretical part.This activity is designed for learners in the 4th grade. But it cannot be long because the learners easily get bored with it. I said that it is very traditional and maybe an old way but I wanted to show that translation can be used and sometimes should not be avoided. Every time there is a child who has troubles with it but it is normal.
reading texts. You will have to answer some questions too. so that the children would have to memorize it. After that.the learners usually are not as willing to talk so I have to ask right and direct questions 1. I erase 1 word. a poem Assumptions: . (Appendix III) I distribute the texts and I read first. Talking about weather: Good morning. Odd one out: (Appendix V) Thank you very much for your work today and so that you can practise these new words at home. The learners can see the whole poem on the blackboard. Poem: (Appendix IV) Well. 4. I read it outloud and then we read it together. I have to give you a homework.after the lesson the learners will know 5 new words Aids: . so all you have to do is to find the odd word out. we start learning the poem. because you have been working hard. So. You all know this type of exercise. This is all because of the weather. Do you like this kind of weather? What do you like to do in this kind of weather? What is your favourite season? Why? Do you prefer hot weather to cold weather? etc. I assume the children will ask me what is wrong with me. flashcards. If not. When this is done. We talk about the text and after that they answer the questions all by themselves. Every time we read it. I am tired and I would like to be at home in my bed with a hot cup of tea and my favourite book.learners already know some weather terminology .3. each child reads a line.to find out the odd words .to understand the text about weather . I will write it on the blackboard. now it is time to learn a short poem. enjoy it and see you next lesson. Reading: Now. I have to say it myself. 3. 6. we will read a short text about the weather and then we will talk about it. The children just listen. children! ( I look very tired and I am not happy.to revise some basic terminology . Lesson plan # 6 Topic = The Weather Aims: . This won´t take you long. Bye bye! 37 .) I am not happy today. 2. I wil lwrite the questions on the blackboard.
Usually next lesson I go on in this topic. The lesson does not have to seem interesting to the learners at first but later they start to like it. I have to admit this is not easy but I as a teacher have to adjust my vocabulary and talking to the learners´ level.Evaluation: This activity is designed for 5th grade. This lesson makes use of it. In the theoretical part I talk about CLT as a way of teaching vocabulary to young learners. Working with a text is important for them. looking for information is another way to learn the language. This lesson is done completely in English and the communicative competence is highly encouraged and used here. I have to be really well prepared for this lesson. At the end they memorize the poem by heart and I have to confess that 99% of the class always remember the poem. I work with the learned vocabulary and I build on it. 38 .
I usually do not correct grammar mistakes. Don´t forget it has to be a story and not just several sentences put together. are you ready? Do you still think it is difficult? Ok. It has to make sense. the English equivalents. As you can see. Tell me some English prepositions! …Well done again! Since you know the English prepositions.3. maybe you can use nouns. Discipline is not usually 39 . It is only up to you. did you learn anything new today? You could see that we can have fun and play with prepositions in English too. let´s use them in reality. The brainstorming: Today. 7. If they come up with the story after the first round. So. I tell them they have to focus on the prepositions and each of them has to say a sentence. The only time the learners are allowed to speak Czech is when I ask them about the Czech prepositions. I bet she will like it. Revision: Well. Maybe next time we could try adjectives.to revise some basic prepositions Aids: . we go on. And it is not just prepositions you can use in a story. I only focus on the prepositions. only the level and age of the learners have to be considered. you can suggest this kind of activity to your Czech language teacher.none Assumptions: . then we finish and I usually let them mime it or do the actions.learners already know some prepositions .) 2. Now it is your turn! (Now each child has to say a sentence and we go on as long as needed. right? Can you tell me any examples of Czech prepositions? …Well done! And now. I decided we will not learn anything new and we will have kind of relaxing lesson. I will start so that you have some more time to think.to come up with a story focusing on prepositions . Are you happy? But don´t worry. we will have regular English lesson. The story time: So. Once upon a time. I will start now. I met a man IN a town. I heardthat in the lessons of Czech language you are talking about prepositions. Evaluation: This activity is designed for 5th grade but can be adopted for any grade. If not.) 3. Lesson plan # 7 Topic = A Story telling Aims: . another way of using CLT in the lesson. Maybe.to come up with own story is not always easy 1. numerals etc. ( I tell the learners we will come up with a story. All the children are curious about the story so they pay attetnion to it. Then it is only English and again the communicative competence is encouraged here.
I have really good experience with this kind of activity eventhough when I started to teach it was hard for me. If they are allowed to act it out later. I tried it usually with older learners and there was a problem with discipline and the learners tried to use words they are not allowed to use in the classes.a problem even though it is always just 1 person speaking. they are even happier. 40 .
There are more and more chidlren with these problems and we as teachers need to help them to enjoy the lessons and help them to learn too. I wanted to show that working with them offers many possibilities and we can use many methods and approaches. their expectations with which each child comes to the lessons. I have to admit that in practice I tried out all the lesson plans and it worked well. there are several lesson plans.4. They need to feel the teacher likes them and wants to teach them something new. how it can be taught. 41 . Sometimes. Every learner is different and we need to view each person individually. Also. The teacher has to know his or her pupils. we as teachers have to consider the learning disabilities too. In the Practical Part. The teacher needs to understand their differences. the teacher has to be strong at the knowledge but also needs to connect with the children. also ways how to motivate them and last but not least their learning style. Testing and assessment will be the theme of my next future research. It is important to understand their needs. I tried to show how some methods and approaches can be used in the lessons while teaching young learners. From the theory. the results are seen easily and the learners at this age are very grateful when someone invest time in them. In the Theoretical Part I have mentioned some characteristics of young learners. During my teacher´s training I have learned that it is important to learn about their personalities and also to get to know them. All this the teacher is learning while working with the learners. some activity took longer time so the learners were assigned a homework. which words should be taught and ways that vocabulary can be presented. I deal with the subject of teaching vocabulary to young learners. their cultural and family background etc. as the title prompts. their hobbies and interests and just basic information about the learners. The teachers get to know their families. especially nowadays. I also tried to show that variety is important because young learners get bored if they do the same activities in the same way all the time. When teaching young learners. Conclusion In my final thesis. The focus of this thesis is the personality of young learners and teaching vocabulary to them. As said in the theoretical part. The Practical Part proved what I mentioned in the theory. I also talk about vocabulary – what it is.
Another subject of this thesis is the vocabulary itself – how it can be presented. taught. One of the subjects of this thesis is to show the characteristics of a young learner. Jsou zde zmíněny i metody a přístupy. které mohou být v hodinách využívány. Dalším předmětem této práce je slovní zásoba – jak může být prezentována. In the Practical Part. Every activity mentioned in the lesson plans was tried out during my teacher´s profession. Jedním z předmětů této bakalářské práce je ukázat charakteristiku mladšího žáka. 42 . These lesson plans focus on using different methods while teaching vocabulary to young learners. also what should be taught. Resumé Understanding the personality of a young learner plays an important role in effective teaching. Tyto přípravy jsou zaměřeny na využití různých výukových metod vhodných k výuce slovní zásoby u mladších žáků. There are mentioned some methods and approaches that can be used in the lessons. several lesson plans are presented. Každá aktivity zmíněná v přípravě byla vyzkoušena během mé učitelské praxe. V praktické části jsou prezentovány přípravy na hodiny.5. Resumé Poznání osobnosti mladšího žáka hraje důležitou roli při efektivní výuce. vyučována a také co by se vlastně mělo vyučovat.
124 s. Jeremy. 124 s. 1991. 9.Book 2. 3. Susan: Teaching English in the Primary Classrooms. Tony. UK: Longman Group Essex. Roles of Teachers & Learners. ISBN-0521-44994-4. Teach English: A training course for teachers. 43 . DOFF.. 1992. 11. ISBN-0-582-07109-7. In: BRUMFIT. Lisbeth H: Teaching English to Children. 6. 2005. 1991. Stuart: A Way with Words.Bibliography 1. 8. Shelagh: Young Learners of English: Some Research Perspectives. Essex: Longman. 1991 10. 142-157. ISBN 0-582-40385-5. 2002. 185 s. HARMER. SCOTT. RIXON. MOON. 5. REDMAN. BRUMFIT. Vocabulary Development Activities for Learners of English. KHAN. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Teaching English to Children. 1996. MOON. WRIGHT. YTREBERG. A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and theory. Christopher. ISBN0-17-556889-8.18-34232-9. ISBN 0-19-437133-6. ISBN-0521-35921-X. Longman Essex. ISBN-0521-35919-8. 345 s. Book 3. 2005. 370 s. 1988. Wendy A. ISBN-0-582-42082-2. Ray (edd. 110 s. THORNBURY. Longman Group Essex.). Christopher. Longman Group Essex. s. Cambridge University Press. UK: Longman. Cambridge University Press.UK: Oxford University Press. HALLIWELL. ISBN 0. 169 s. REDMAN. 7. 309 s. Jayne. 12. TONGUE. Vocabulary Development Activities for Learners of English. 1995. Cambridge University Press. 2. ISBN-0-582-42966-8. Stuart: A Way with Words. TONGUE. 1999. UR. Penny. Jayne. 1995. 4. Scott: How to teach vocabulary. From Practice to Principle. Longman Essex.UK: Cambridge University Press. Adrian. 375 s. 160 s. Ray: Teaching English to Children. Julia: Using games in teaching English to young learners.
http://www. http://www.longman.com/ 44 .Other resources 1.uk 2.teachingenglish. http://www.com/young_learners 3.org.eslkidstuff.
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