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FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
Teaching vocabulary to young learners
Author: Lenka Přibilová
Supervisor: Mgr. Naděžda Vojtková
Lenka Přibilová, Teaching vocabulary to young learners: Bakalářská práce. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, Fakulta pedagogická, Katedra anglického jazyka a literatury, 2006, 43 stran a 5 příloh. Vedoucí bakalářské práce: Mgr. Naděžda Vojtková
Bakalářská práce Výuka slovní zásoby u mladších žáků pojednává o potřebe učitele poznat své žáky a rozumět jejich potřebám a problémům. Dalším bodem, o kterém tato práce pojednává, je otázka motivace a zapojení her a zábavy do výuky. Posledním bodem, kterým se tato práce zaobírá, je využití různých metod a přístupů ve výuce u mladších žáků.
The thesis Teaching vocabulary to young learners deals with the need of a teacher to know his or her learners and to understand their needs and problems. Other issue mentioned in the thesis is the question of motivation and icluding fun and games into the teaching process. The last issue the thesis deals with is the usage of different methods and approaches for teaching young learners.
Mladší žák, motivace, slovní zásoba, přístup, metoda, hra, zábava
Young learner, motivation, vocabulary, approach, method, game, fun
Prohlašuji, že jsem bakalářskou práci zpracovala samostatně
pod vedením Mgr. N. Vojtkové. Dále prohlašuji, že jsem uvedla všechny literární prameny, z nichž jsem čerpala. Souhlasím s uložením práce v archivu Masarykovy univerzity a se zpřístupněním ke studijním účelům. V Brně dne 30. července 2006 Lenka Přibilová
5 . Naděžda Vojtková for her valuable advice and help.Acknowledgements I would like to express gratitude to my supervisor Mgr.
4. 2. 5. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 6. 4. 6. 2. 2. 1. 2. INTRODUCTION THEORETICAL PART YOUNG LEARNER-WHO IS A YOUNG LEARNER? VOCABULARY WHAT IS VOCABULARY? HOW ARE WORDS LEARNED? WHICH WORDS AND WHAT SHOULD BE TAUGHT? VOCABULARY PRESENTATION BE REALISTIC CHOOSING ACTIVITIES THE ROLE OF FUN AND GAMES IN THE LESSONS PRACTICAL PART LESSON PLAN # 1 LESSON PLAN # 2 LESSON PLAN # 3 LESSON PLAN # 4 LESSON PLAN # 5 LESSON PLAN # 6 LESSON PLAN # 7 CONCLUSION RESUMÉ BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES APPENDIX I 6 8 10 10 13 13 15 17 19 21 22 24 26 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 42 43 45 45 .CONTENT 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 7. 3. 2. 4. 1. 4. 2. 3. 2. 3. 3. 5. 1. 7. 2. 1. 3. 3. 3. 2. 3.
APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX II III IV V 47 48 49 50 7 .
different. I ran against a lot of troubles that I would like to share in my final thesis and also I would like to share some ideas for teaching vocabulary to young learners. In the second part of my thesis I would like to present my system of work and also different methods I use while teaching. then I will try to describe who is a young learner. the rest at two primary schools also in Brno.. At the begining during the discussions with my colleagues we found out that some kind of conception was needed. next we pointed out that there were missing good textbooks or materials. I have been teaching English for eleven years now – seven years at a language school here in Brno. I have to admit that at the beginning I doubted about any acquisition for young learners and many arguments seemed cogent to me. teachers and parents. also didactic aids and methodology books. Frequent complain of many teachers is that it is extremely difficult to teach children that seem to lack the basic talent for learning languages. In the theoretical part I will introduce the aim of this thesis. I divided my thesis into the theoretical and the practical part – the practical part follows the theoretical part. of course.1. I would like to show why and how teaching vocabulary to young learners can be more efficient. In the next chapter I will focus on what is vocabulary and how it is learned and also the ways how vocabulary can be presented. Reactions and opininons were. The aim of this work is to show several ways that can be used for teaching vocabulary to young learners. I will enclose some materials and games that I use in 8 . During the time I began to realize chances and occasions that English language can offer to children and I started to be a big fan of teaching English to young learners. Introduction “Why? What is it good for ? Is it good for them at all? Do they really need it? Is it not only a useless worry? Why do we have to make them learn something more than what they really need and have to? How much hope shall we place in it? “ These are the most frequent questions I have been thinking about. I have discussed them with many pupils. Therefore I would like to refer to the possibilities which teaching a foreign language to young learners brings.
In conclusion I will briefly summarize my thesis.books (used literature) which I used for my thesis and the appendices where I included some materials and exercises with the keys. After that follows the list of sources . 9 .my lesssons.
Young learner .who was able to “communicate” with a native speaker. There is a big difference between what a –three-year-old child can do and what a child of fifteen can do. In the 7th grade they will have to start learning a second foreign language. In my opinion.2. Some children develop faster. But it is possible to pick out some chracteristics which I as a teacher should know and should be aware of. the children will start a year earlier and in some schools the foreign language will be introduced from the 1st grade. I think the older ones can do it too. There have been many disputes and discussions over this. which is starting to be adopted from September 2006. Understanding these differences can help me as a teacher to develop methods and a system of work that I will use in the process of teaching. From my personal experience. I have decided to focus on young learners – age group 7-11. they are happy to present it and they feel more important. 10 . I remember a girl . I achieved quite good results with kindergarten children so I do not see any problems for older learners. this can be anybody from the age of three to the age of eighteen.who is a young learner? A young learner – who is he or she? This term covers a wide age range. Her joy was the best reward for me. I think if very young learners are able to achieve good results. Their brain and memory is ready for learning and most of them can learn quite well. Theoretical part 2. it is not possible to say that every child of six will know this and that. However. according to the new school curricula. These children still want to learn something new. We should consider their development too. From my own personal experience I have to admit that learners at this age are grateful when someone invest time in them. Of course. I think these debates will be run over and over because nobody is able to say the exact time for beginning to learn foreign languages. When they know it.1. Teaching young learners requires the knowledge of knowing all the development differences. the better for them.5th grade . In the Czech Republic children have started learning a foreign language in the 4th grade so far. the sooner they start. I have chosen this age group because I like working with young learners. The results are seen quite easily and of course teachers demand this kind of satisfaction. It is generally known that the Czech system officially allows children to start learning a foreign language in the 4th grade. others need more time.
They want to learn and are happy when they learn something. They are able to use language skills not even realizing them. They are happy when they can play. They use imagination a lot. they can show off a little bit. They love to be praised for what they have done and learnt. they love when people pay attention to them and their talking. They are able to talk about what they are doing. 1992. They understand situations and through situations – they use several senses. the 11 . They can think.. It is very important to choose the right way of teaching for these little children. discuss and they are able to interact with both children and adults. They are able to concentrate for certain time. We should avoid a stereotype. Very often they pretend they understand everything and they know everything. Often they “teach” each other. argue. They do not realize what is fact and what is fiction sometimes. p 3) I do agree with Halliwell and her observations. These examples of characteristics I have mentioned above are great hints how to teach young learners and what kind of methods we should use. They love to share their experiences.I would like to point out some characteristics about this age group. Halliwell states that: young children are already very good at interpreting meaning without necessarily understanding the individual words already have great skill in using limited language creatively frequently learn indirectly rather than directly take great pleasure in creating fun in what they do their imagination is ready “above all take great delight in talking” (Halliwell. The teacher definitely has to be very sensitive to the children´s needs and has to prepare the lessons well. then they have to share it with somebody and they are proud that they learnt something. My observations are the same as hers. this is very important fact to keep their motivation.
12 .lessons have to be creative and lively. Otherwise this could have really bad consequences for the learners´ further improvement in the language.
Some words can be entirely new to us. and in terms of the way each of us learned our first and any subsequent languages. Languages emerge first as words.2. both historically. a verb to google is used frequently a lot.e. vocabulary is still widening. the learner while learning the vocabulary of a second language can come across several challenges: “making the correct connections. Even in our native language we are continually learning new words and meanings of old words. as the words we teach in the foreign language. This used to mean just the post office or simple letters but nowadays it also means emails. especially if the store of words is limited. For example. Learners of a second language experience something similar. using the correct form of a word for the meaning intended ( i. To summarize this. Thornbury states that they can be confronted by words that are totally unfamiliar. (Ur. between the form and meaning of words when producing language. be able to recall them readily 13 . when understanding the second language. 2. A useful convention is to cover all such cases by talking about vocabulary „items“ rather than „words“. What is vocabulary? “Vocabulary can be defined. For example. and mother-in-law. 2003. which are made up of two or three words but express a single idea. post office. roughly. or being used in ways that for them are novel and possibly obscure. We come across completely new words that are made up according to new technologies and according to the needs of real life. nose not noise) To meet these challenges the learner needs to: acquire a critical mass of words for use in both understanding and producing the language remember words over time. However. 1. Czech word pošta. 2. Vocabulary 2. a new item of vocabulary may be more than just a single word: for example. To find the right word to fit the meaning can be very frustrating. Moreover. p 60) All languages consist of words.
develop strategies for coping with gaps in word knowledge. 2002. or unfamiliar uses of known words have to take responsibility themselves for vocabulary expansion” (Thornbury. including coping with unknown words. p 31) 14 .
linguist To know a word is one thing but we have to pause on the fact how this knowledge is acquired. What really works especially for young learners is the Total Physical Response method . for example. The mother tongue is never used. Only target language is used in the calssrooms and only complete sentences are used. Very many children are nowadays very hyper and physically active 15 . How are words learned? “Without grammar very little can be conveyed. But of course not every animal is a cat. homonyms etc. We need to let them repeat it in different ways and they should be given a chance to listen to the teacher talking about it. acquiring a vocabulary requires not only labelling but also categorising skills. Thornbury states that the children have to develop some kind of network building – constructing some complex idea. A little bit of shocking method is the direct method or the direct approach. p 18) The child has to realise that these common words like cat can be replaced by superordinate terms like animals.TPR. This method stimulates the learner´s brain by music while learning but nowadays teachers seem to be leaving this method.” David Wilkins. To help the learners understand it is important to visualize the item and get the pupils to repeat or use the item actively. without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. There are many different methods and approaches how to teach a foreign language.” (Thornbury. Culture is considered an important aspect. 2. there are no translations. Suggestopedia is a very successful method in helping learners to memorize words. I will mention just some of them that can be used for teaching young learners. 2. so that the concept. 2002. Than during this process they will realise there also exist words like synonyms. And to this category also belongs other animals. “In other words. then they always start with words used for labelling. including vocabulary. The child needs to learn how far to extend the concept of a cat.2. One good way of doing this is to let them see or perhaps touch the vocabulary item. of a cat has a name cat. Thinking about little children who learn to speak. not just cats. for instance a house.
16 . Using this method. changing topics and using a variety of activities is very appreeciated by them. Communicative Language Approach (Teaching) – CLT – stresses the meaning of a language in context. This method is used a lot by teachers.and to concentrate for a long time can be very difficult for them. Communicative competence is highly developed here and learners are encouraged to communicate. games.
it is good when the learners know the synonyms (smart – intelligent) or antonyms (rich – poor). Again. 3. We can relate items together – for example words like “a school. Nowadays all the course books are organised into themes and they provide vocabulary according to it. then grammar. (Ur. For example when teaching nouns. Context helps them to find the right meaning. Ur states the learners need to be taught the form of the word. we can decide which words to teach on the basis of frequency. Thus. p 60) The grammar of a new item also needs to be taught. collocations. 17 . how often the words are used by the speaker of the language. using hyphenated words etc.2. Words that have quite specific meaning should be avoided with young learners. depending what level the learners are they should be taught to follow some grammatical rules. p 61) In my opinion it is important to inform learners about the meaning of the word as well as their form and grammar. Especially with young learners words that they are familiar with and they can stick to them should be taught. There is a choice for us. is too difficult for young learners. It is quite easy to teach concrete words at lower level and then become more abstract. then we can expect words like naming animals.” (Ur. also regular and irregular ( girl-girls. Thus. 1996. When teaching verbs. “The learner has to know what a word sounds like (its pronunciation) and what it looks like (its spelling). a teacher. 1996. Collocations – I do not think these are important for young learners. especially if the verb is irregular (forget-forgot). In the form pronunciation and spelling should be mentioned. also where they live. meaning and word formation. Which words and what should be taught? The significant point in teaching vocabulary is the selection of words we as teachers want to teach. mouse-mice). Very often words are taught according to themes and topics. Word formation – using prefixes and suffixes. If there is a theme “Animals”. “The meaning of a word is primarily what it refers to in the real world. its denotation”. we would like to present their plural forms. we need to consider the frequency too. Learners find this sometimes very difficult and discouraging because some words do not have just one meaning. what they eat etc. a blackboard and a break” are all associated with education. maybe we would like to present their past forms. 2.
But as said above they also need to know other aspects of the words they learn. Secondly. after some time most of them will not say “mouses”. we will not teach them.To summarize this. I think that if we keep repeating the plural form “mice”. it is important to teach them all these aspects. 18 . firstly I think that knowing the word and understanding its meaning go hand in hand. for example the irregular plural form right away. Of course. but they need to know it. it is easier to remember concrete words like a chair or a dog than abstract words. hear or with whar they can touch. Young learners often put words together with what they can see. In my opinion.
Some techniques are more popular and more often used than others. 2002. photographs and magazine pictures. This is closely connected with several factors: the level of the pupils – beginners.” (Thornbury. we should consider how many words should be presented during the lesson. And of course there are techniques that we as teachers try to avoid. wall charts. The presentation of new vocabulary can be classified for example according to verbal and visual techniques. and revising them. blackboard drawings. A number of techniques can be adopted to present new vocabulary items.flashcards. intermediate etc. I think every teacher tends to use and prefers some technique that he or she finds interesting. are they easily pronounced. he or she should follow certain guidelines. several realia 19 . Another factor that is worth considering is the age of the learners. Vocabulary presentation “By presentation we mean those pre-planned lesson stages in which learners are taught pre-selected vocabulary items. word pictures. can we find similar words in the learner´s native language etc.2. p 75) Firstly. posters. the older ones can manage pretty well abstract explanations or even definitions. In my opinion. There are techniques that are particularly appropriate for certain types of words – for example actions can be explained through pantomime. Among visual techniques we can find pictures . their familiarity with the words – have they come across these words or are they completely new? words difficulty – are the words abstract. 3. Younger ones react quite well when we show them concrete illustrations. Also it is up to the teacher which techniques he or she decides to use but always the effectiveness of teaching should be considered. placing the new items in context. this includes teaching the vocabulary "in spoken form first" to prevent students from pronouncing the words in the form they are written.? can the words be easily demonstrated ? shall we use realia or anything that the pupils can become familiar with? can pictures be used to elicit vocabulary? After the teacher chooses what items to teach.
contextual definitions. This technique is not used much recently. Another way that can be used is translation. Translation is one of the traditional ways of explaining the meaning of words. descriptions.that teachers can hold up or point to. Then they have to be told about the alphabetical order and about other things they can find there. They have to be told there are two parts – English-Czech and CzechEnglish. Most of the young learners have never used a dictionary before so it is a need to teach them to use dicitonaries first. even though it is quick and easy but can be very discouraging for learners. Using this technique. and using various forms of definition: for example. definition by demonstration (visual definition). It could be done by the teacher or with using a dictionary. Mime. Explanation can become extremely difficult especially with beginner levels. scales. In my opinion it is good to use both picture dictionaries and classical dictionaries where they find the meaning with young learners. subclasses and subcategories often aided by visual presentation. collocations. action and gestures can be used especially for explaining actions and times. definition by abstraction. Teachers can prepare quite interesting lesson where the learners learn how to use dictionaries. Learners can label pictures or objects or perform an action. learners can learn how to use dictionaries. and definition by translation. synonyms and antonyms. They cannot interact with the words. Words can be organised into sets. Verbal techniques consist of using illustrative situations. It has its advantages but also disadvantages. 20 .
We encourage them to interact. make crosswords etc. We want to be flexible. very honestly. we want to praise the children as much as possible but on the other hand we want to be realistic and. 1992. creative. our expectations are sometimes very high. we should discuss it with him/her. Quite often the children are not “angels”. But sometimes something goes wrong. creative. It does not mean. Be realistic Nowadays. and we do it even at midnight. for example. there are at least fifteen pupils – usually even more. .. Language classrooms are noisy. 21 . sensible. or not very able. There are teachers who would never do such activities again. There are many of them in circulation that it is quite easy to get carried away. teachers can come across many language teaching ideas and techinques. Or if we have an observer in the lesson. “We need to be realistic in our expectations of ourselves and the learners. or poorly motivated. We should evaluate the lesson ourselves. The classes with high number of students put exceptional demands on teacher`s preparation for the lesson and there is obviously a requirement of larger classrooms too. And their lessons then turn to be boring. And we hope it will be worthwile.2. p 19) After every lesson we should ask ourselves whether the lesson was productive or unproductive and we should go back to our objectives and aims. draw flashcards. being realistic should mean taking realities into account in such a way that good things can still happen. independent. This of course leads to the fact the children will become silly and they will really enjoy it. On the contrary. be active. we should reject the idea of pairwork because our clasess are big. 4.. We draw pictures. cut paper into small pieces.” (Halliwell.
filling-in exercises. for example activities like “odd one out. Once the idea of context playing a decisive role in the choice of language is firmly established. This is good but can lead to misunderstanding. There are ways of varying the oral work so that it is making different demands on the children and therefore feels different even when the topic remains the same. The lesson can be varied by doing lots of activities on different topics. This is not easy and teachers should spend really quality time to think about this. Many coursebooks provide learners with plenty of opportunities to develop their own context for the language presented. Some language activities can stir a class. The children´s minds have to jump from one topic to another with not much time to let things sink in effectively. It needs to be considered well. games. there should be considered what kind of activities should be choosen knowing the effect of them. We should not forget context developing activities. too many activities and changing the activities all the time can destroy the lesson well. Activities that can stir the class are. But this can mean we may produce a lesson which is a disaster. Before the lesson is planned. it means these activities will wake up the class. Thinking about the positive way of the word “stir”. Choosing activities It is up to the teacher mostly to choose the right activity. Another aspect we should think about are activities which engage children´s minds and which keep them physically occupied. we can begin to introduce varieties of the language used in different contexts.2. 1992. We often try to make our lessons varied. 1.  Another factor that teachers should bear in their minds is to keep the lessons simple. “If we are to help the learners acquire independent second language lexicons. “We will not help the children to develop their capacity to concentrate if we jump inconsequentially from one topic to the next. 4. We should realise some important things. there are activities that have the opposite effect. dialogues” etc”.” (Halliwell. p 27) 22 . Of course. for example. warm them up. we need to highlight the importance of the context in which the language naturally occurs. They may seem to settle the pupils. oral work. competitions.
Variation comes in the forms of activity as Halliwell states. Using different methods and ways of teaching should become a regular part of our lessons.. we can come up with new things but always the activities should be simple in principle. We can reuse materials all the time. Because the classes know them. Then they can transfer to different topics and situations.. they will take to them easily when they appear.Variation does not only mean changing the topics and materials but also the change of work we do. “Because you use them regularly you will quickly get to know the best way to set them up with your classes.” (Halliwell..teachingenglish. p 38 )  http://www. They can become truly the core of your language teaching.1992.shtml 23 .uk/think/vocabulary/context_developing.org.
What is a game? “A game is played when one or moreplayers compete or co-operate for playoffs according to a set of rules. In playing together we can see elements of interaction and during interacting the learners develop language skills. 2. I and J. 1969) (Opie. a game that works like this is well-known game “Simon says”. p 37) Teachers can tell stories the learners are familiar with in their own language. I. 1995. Khan states that the achievement of these goals signals the end of the game.” (Khan. They play and love to play. Quite often the learners do not realize they are learning. drawing. Then the learners are able to follow it better. model-making. This is quite a natural way for them to learn. such as parental and social attitudes. Teachers can come up 24 . is likely to be weaker than that created by events in the classroom itself. the stories need to be picked carefully. “ For young learners.1995) Games may focus on oral or written part of the language. p 143) It is obvious that the games need to be motivating. colouring. The role of fun and games in the lessons “By ´fun and games´ I mean all those activities that we loosely think of as involving play and enjoyment. 4. 1986) (Jones in Teaching English to Children) “A true game is one that frees the spirit.” (Rixon. clapping hands. Many games can be looked at as drill exercises but they have an added fun and competition element. they offer a vast selection of activities. Again. Learning can be absorbed really well. solving puzzles. p 33) It is evident that young learners learn through play much easier and they enjoy it more.2. the level of the learners need to be considered and the teacher has to investigate time into preparation. The language learnt by heart can often be a part of the activities. in Teaching English to Chidren) Games are activities with rules and goals.” (Rixon. Fun and games should have an important role in the children´s education. “Telling stories to students can result in natural language acquisition on their part. games. motivation deriving from the factors outside the classroom. Piaget (1967) (Piaget in Teaching English to Children) saw chidlren´s games as. ´the most admirable social institutions´. It allows of no cares but those fictitious ones engendered by the game itself. 1995. For example. (Khan.. For example. 1995.. Children need to be involved and even excited in order to learn effectively. Singing. Children are very often concerned with controlling whether everybody follows the rules and whether they are not broken.. And J. commands for the games can be remembered quite easily. chanting rhymes. Language can also be picked as a result of an enjoyable activity.” (Jones.” (Opie.
There are many possibilities for adapting games we can find.. Teachers can “play” with vocabulary while teaching it. 25 . Example . It is very appreciated by the learners. I . Appreciated story can be The Story of the Big Enormous Turnip. then they can be extended. The teachers should not forget the values of games and fun activities in the lessons. New sentences and activities can be produced by the children themselves.. The learners can make up new verses.” or “If you are happy and you know it. Songs are most grateful way for this. As said above games and fun are important parts of the lesson. Several activities can allow and involve more creative use of the language. All this can be applied to teaching vocabulary too.”.. A play is in the essential nature of the child.with a simple version of the story..a song “This is the way.
It is evident that some learners have been learning the English language for several years. The younger ones do not use any course books. we work with handouts that they get from me and place them into a folder. Most of the pupils only started with learning English in the 4th grade. I would like to enclose several lesson plans and also reflect on some observations from the theoretical part. some started in the kindergarten.3. I try to use English in the classes as much as possible and I want their reactions in English too. I always have to consider that in each class there are more children and some with learning disabilities. most of them consisted of 10 .age group 7-11. Most of the classes use the course book Cambridge English for Schools by A. Practical part In my final thesis I have decided to focus on teaching English vocabulary to young learners . they do not have almost any troubles with motivation and as I have said in the theoretical part. These handouts are given to them so that their parents know what we learned in the lesson and can practice during the week. All the activities reflect the level of the learners. I tried out all the activities described here during my teacher´s career. 26 . of course if possible. Littlejohn and D. their age and their abilities. they still want to learn. The activities have been piloted in at least 10 classes.15 pupils at the age of 5 – 11. I have to admit that it is a lot of fun to teach these children. Hicks. some have just started.
after the lesson the learners will know at least 5 new words Aids: . sister etc.3. At the end we sum up the lesson and I tell them that next lesson we will play a family pexeso. While talking. Now.. I repeat the word “daughter”. they forgot..pictures and photos. pieces of paper. a family poster. I have to count on the fact. colour pencils. 3. Is this your mother? Is this your sister? Is this your grandfather? After some time we will play a game. For example. Reading and colouring: I distribute the handouts (Appendix I) that I have prepared for them and the colour pencils and the learners will colour the people.they are ready to share and are ready to play 1. After each sentence I make the learners say whose picture they are showing me. Do you live in a family? Who belongs to your family? Do you have any brothers or sisters? What is your brother´s / sister´s name? How often do you see your grandmother and grandfather?. (On the black board there is a family poster all the time.the learners get to know my family . Before they leave the classroom. for example:” Show me your mother!” And you have to show me your mother´s picture.) Now. Lesson plan # 1 Topic = My family Aims: . father.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know .) 2. “this is my daughter Kristyna”. 27 . And so on. the learners know them well so I suppose they will be very active and will want to share . Ok..learners know each other and their families . a story book. 1. handouts Assumptions: . They have to say “mother” and can leave. Talking about families: Today we are going to talk about families. mother. Working with their pictures: (The learners were supposed to bring to the class pictures of their family members. they all have to tell me a “password” to leave. While doing this I read a story about a family from a book. so I distribute either my pictures or pictures from magazines. we are going to play a game and the winner gets a reward! I will say a sentence. I use pictures of my family and point to the right person and repeat who he/she is. I stand behind the door and as they leave I ask them for example for the word “maminka”.to get to know the learners´ families.. So I ask. now I will talk about my family. it is your time to show me who is who. Who is this? Your. so that I can point to it anytime.
they put their hands above their heads etc. In this lesson I decided to use one of the visual methods that I talked about in the theoretical part. In this lesson I decided to use the TPR method too. 28 . It is very natural for them to learn this phrase. the children can come to black board and point to the right person on the poster. 45 or 60 minutes.Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 1st grade learners or even kindergarten children. I let them jump while showing me their family members. This lesson can be varied in many ways. What needs to be said here is that during this activity the children are able to learn a phrase “This is my mother/father etc. the children are able to remember it without any explanation and real “learning”.” Because this phrase is repeated in the lesson many times. But as I have said in the theoretical part. again according to the age and level of the learners and also depending on the fact how long the lesson is – 40. Learners have a chance to hear and see. too much variety can spoil the lesson so this is very important factor that should be considered.
I put the poster on the wall. 2. I take a colour chalk and draw a big circle on the board..´Well. Well done. green. Lesson plan # 2 Topic = Colours Aims: . We will do it as a game called “silent post”. picture of rainbow. 3. Let´s start now..3. white.the learners get to know the names of the colours .. Potom si vezmi black a nakresli three birds. to get to know how they feel about colours . Every time I call out some colour. a story book. colour pencils. a colour poster.. You need to be careful about the spelling!. But to each colour you will write down the name. they swap the drawings with their partners and we check it together. Usually they do really well and are happy they were succesfull with their “dictation”. 29 . a blackboard. Finishing up the topic: (After the learners finished their drawings. blue. You can see this classroom is full of colours. pieces of paper. colour chalk Assumptions: .) 2. We will play a game. Working with “colours”: Let´s take your exercise books now and you can see what I draw on the board. I know you do not like dictations but this one is going to be different. I want you to do the same.. Talking about colours: I will say several words and you tell me what I am speaking about.) Well done.. After some minutes the learners get back to their seats and we repeat all the colours once more. children! Now you know the English names for colours. The very first person who knows will tell me and then we will send it to others and the last person says that outloud... Since we stil lhave time left. You can touch a chair. anything.they are ready to play ... are you ready?I do not want you to shout or look to your friend´s paper. Well done! Now you know we will talk about colours today. Let´s start now. (While we are talking. I willshout out a name of the colour and you must run to touch this colour. Do you any colours? Which one is your favourite? What does black mena for you? How do you feel about yellow? What does it evoke?I will tell you a story about rainbow. I say:´Vezmi si yellow a nakresli sun. now exchange your drawings with your partner and let´s check it. I have a special reward for you.. your friend´s trousers. now we will write a “dictation”. Ok.learners probably already know the colours .colour dictation should be easy and fun for them 1. listen up! Black. So.) Well. Now when you have finished. (After each shout I repeat the colour after them so that they have a chance to hear the pronunciation well.after the lesson the learners will know at least 7 new words including the word rainbow Aids: .to get to know the learners´ favourite colours..pictures. I also point out to the right colour on the poster..to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know .. are you ready? Let´s start. I will pick up different colour pencils and you can shout out the name of the colour.
see and touch and later they can run in the classrooms. as I have mentioned in lesson plan # 1. After they have finished that. I think using TPR is very productive and learners can learn and remember it better. I have to be careful because the learners try to write down the names of the colours. Therefore this lesson cannot be boring so that even these children would be able to be active. I usually check the spelling in their exercise books. This lesson can be varied in many ways again. 30 . The learners can hear. This topic is quite easy and children have a lot of fun with this.Again. in this lesson I used one of the visual methods and also TPR. I have to count on the fact most of the learners already know the colours from previous classes.Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 3rd or 4th grade learners.
For this activity I decided to choose the well-known commands as a warm-up. If you do.” Does anybody know this game? I will explain the rules to you. Then we will play a game. Verbs Aims: . today we are going to practice some verbs and adjectives.colour pencils.) Now I need a volunteer who will say the sentence instead of me. Now. I always start with the easier and already known ones. At the end of the lesson I always check whether they undrestand all the practised commands and adjectives. I always use the English language for explaining the actions and adjectives because the motion help the children to understand. The teacher also needs to know how many words the learners know. I am writing etc. Of course during this acitvity we will practice the adjectives too. it can be used as a revision of what the learners have already known.. mimes and actions. 3.after the lesson the learners will know at least 8 new words Aids: . then I go on with the newer ones. I will say Simon says Stand up! and you will stand up. Are you reday? Stand up! Sit down! Close your books!. you’ll get a point. I am drinking. it is time for a game. I am bored. The game 31 . you can be the teacher now. for example.they are ready to play . We will play the game “Simon says. BUT if I don’t say Simon says you mustn’t do anything. I am asleep.. While explaining all these actions..learners know some basic commands .4. Revision of some basic commands and adjectives: Well. I am deaf. Evaluation: This activity is designed for 4th grade. I was doing what I was saying. What are verbs and adjectives? Can you tell me an example? Is the word ´sit´a verb? Is theword ˇhappy´an adjective? So. handouts Assumptions: .. I decided to show another way of teaching vocabulary to young learners . A pupil with the less points is the winner.) 2. (This activity can last as long as the learners are not bored.using gestures. I am showing them the motions. now I will say some basic commands and you will do what I say. Lesson plan # 3 Topic = Adjectives. I ma dancing. Learning new vocabulary: I want to teach the learners new vocabulary. Simon says Sit down! and you will sit down. (As I was explaining the rules. I am blind.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know .Smile! Be happy! Be sad!. Together we repeat the words and do the actions.the learners get to know the the basic verbs and adjectives .they want to express their feelings 1.
Very important aspect of this game is discipline. they usually tell me they like it more when they can give the commands. This activity can be used as a warm-up or we can fill in some part of the lesson if minutes are left.Simon says practises the language in reality. 32 . Very often I play this game in groups where more children can practise the phrase Simon says. When I get feedback from the children. The learners need to pay attention to what I say. The learners are very competitive and active because everybody wants to be the winner.
the winner gets a price! If you think you know. So as you can see. You 33 .learners like animals . handouts. I get ready the tape recorder.after the lesson the learners will know at least 5 new words Aids: . brainstorming: Well. Well done! The word is ANIMALS! And the winner is Honza? Here is your price! What is it? Yes. So. I will start up the lesson in a little bit different way than usually. You will hear 5 sounds and I think you will know all of them. 4. the topic of today´s lesson. you can just write down number to each picture. a tape recorder Assumptions: ..pictures.) Well done.they are ready to share and lsiten 1. you are very good! Now we will listen again but this time you do not have the pictures. You cannot talk.. Lesson plan # 4 Topic = Animals Aims: . children. You are going to hear several sounds of animals and I want you to write their names on a piece of paper. Do you understand? ( The learners are ready to listen now. I will write something on the blackboard and you have to find out a hidden word in it. colour pencils. an animal poster. WHAT SONG P ICTURE MOTHER CARD LOVE CH R I S T M A S In these words you can find 1 word.) 2. just put your hand above your head. we will listen to a tape recorder.to get to know the basic animals in English . What animals do you know? What is your favourite animal? Have you ever been to the zoo? Do you like big animals? Areyou scared of any? Do you know any exotic animals? Do you have an animal at home?… (During this talking I write down on the blackboard all the animals the learners name and distribute pictures of animals among the children.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know . it is a toy dog.learners will probably know some English names of animals . Talking about animals. Listening: Now. To make it easier I distributed a set of pictures among you and you will hear all these animals. we are going to talk about animals today.3.
imagine you are going to take a friend of yours to the zoo soon and you want to give him/her a tour.must guess which animals you hear. Of course. Jano. anything you like. This lesson can be varied in many ways and can be done with younger learners too. I help them. so the children do not usually have any troubles with this. make groups of 4 and each group has to prepare a poster. do you know any animals?. I ask questions – Honzo. you can either ask me or. what is your favourite animal? etc. All the sounds are of known animals. The topic is also very grateful and from my personal experience the children always have a lot of fun with it. Also usually this activity takes longer time. so the teacher would have to come up with a different activity. Probably the hidden word would be too difficult for them. You can either draw or glue animals. If you need help. Again. Project: Now. which is not as easy for them. so I can show them so that they get ideas. (This is a little bit more difficult but the sounds are of well-known animals so the chidlren will not have any troubles with it. so I let them work in the next lesson too. everybody is included. you can use them.) 3. each child can talk and I pay attetnion to this. therefore after this activity I need to calm them down and we listen to the sounds of animals. you can write about them – what they eat. if nobody is able to guess this word. This is very active time. If somebody remains quiet. So now. they do not need my help. Right at the beginning of the lesson the learners have a chance to brainstorm. So you need to know some animals and also something about them. I usually have examples with me in the lesson. 34 . (Usually the learners want to be creative and work on their own. where they live. the learners usually remember at least 1 new word. Through brainstorming. Then they have to guess the hidden word. I do not tell them which animals they have to choose or what exactly needs to be written there or how exactly it has to be done. because you can work with dictionaries. Then I let them be creative and let them work on the project. Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 3rd or 4th grade.
to teach and practise using dicitonaries .“apple. distribute these dictionaries.various kinds of dicitonaries. Thses books are called dictionaries. Now check these three items . English-Czech and Czech-English. 2.to find out the odd words . Working with the dictionaries: Now it is time to start “working” with the dicitonaries. handouts.. It is orgaized according to the alphabetwhich you already know. Practise: I usually ask the children to find out three vocabulary items to practise the finding. I distribute the handouts (Appendix II) and the learners work on the handout. the window is the odd one. Now. So. I will say an English word and you can find the Czech equivalent in the dicitonary. I need to be sure they are familier with working with the dictionaries. You can work in pairs and you must circle the odd ones.Well done! At the end of the lesson we can sing the alpabet song if you want to. pear. If you find id. As homework they have to prepare similar exercise. the English one. Let´s quickly revise the aplhabet. flashcards Assumptions: . At the end we check the exercixe together. you can start working.learners know the alphabet so this should not be that difficult . Lesson plan # 5 Topic = Fruit Aims: . you can find it here. So if you do not understand some word. So thank you for coming and helping me to bring the dictionaries. If you open them. Introducing dictionaries: This mornig as I was getting ready for your lesson I realised I would need helpers. put your hands above. which part will you be looking in?Yes. Each child says one letter from the aplhabet. So the word is a lemon. 5. Do you understand it? Well. you can see there are two parts. I will give you the handouts and you have to work on them.. I will go on like this for a while.3. 3.after the lesson the learners will know 5 new words Aids: .. If I say an English word. one into each desk.. Which one is the odd one? Yes. If their answer is right.to revise some basic terminology .but even this fact the learners need their time to get used to working with the dictionaries 1. 35 . window”.
From my own personal experience I have to say that children usually like working with dictionaries and like the exercises. I have to admit that when I first taught this topic and was teaching how to use dicitonaries. But it cannot be long because the learners easily get bored with it. Now I have to make sure that children know the alphabet really well. Every time there is a child who has troubles with it but it is normal. This is probably their first time using and working with dictionaries.This activity is designed for learners in the 4th grade. 36 .Evaluation: I talk about using dictionaries as a way for teaching vocabulary in the theoretical part. I did not manage to do everything that I planned for the lesson. I said that it is very traditional and maybe an old way but I wanted to show that translation can be used and sometimes should not be avoided.
each child reads a line. Reading: Now. 3. I read it outloud and then we read it together. I erase 1 word.reading texts.after the lesson the learners will know 5 new words Aids: . (Appendix III) I distribute the texts and I read first.to revise some basic terminology . So. Bye bye! 37 . we start learning the poem. This won´t take you long. This is all because of the weather. If not. a poem Assumptions: . I have to say it myself. we will read a short text about the weather and then we will talk about it.3. After that.learners already know some weather terminology . Lesson plan # 6 Topic = The Weather Aims: . When this is done. Talking about weather: Good morning. so all you have to do is to find the odd word out.to understand the text about weather . Do you like this kind of weather? What do you like to do in this kind of weather? What is your favourite season? Why? Do you prefer hot weather to cold weather? etc. The learners can see the whole poem on the blackboard. Odd one out: (Appendix V) Thank you very much for your work today and so that you can practise these new words at home. Every time we read it. You all know this type of exercise. 4. 2. The children just listen. children! ( I look very tired and I am not happy. We talk about the text and after that they answer the questions all by themselves. 6. because you have been working hard. so that the children would have to memorize it. I will write it on the blackboard. Poem: (Appendix IV) Well. I have to give you a homework.to find out the odd words . You will have to answer some questions too. now it is time to learn a short poem.) I am not happy today. I assume the children will ask me what is wrong with me. enjoy it and see you next lesson. I am tired and I would like to be at home in my bed with a hot cup of tea and my favourite book.the learners usually are not as willing to talk so I have to ask right and direct questions 1. flashcards. I wil lwrite the questions on the blackboard.
I work with the learned vocabulary and I build on it. Working with a text is important for them. The lesson does not have to seem interesting to the learners at first but later they start to like it. I have to be really well prepared for this lesson. This lesson is done completely in English and the communicative competence is highly encouraged and used here. At the end they memorize the poem by heart and I have to confess that 99% of the class always remember the poem. 38 . Usually next lesson I go on in this topic. This lesson makes use of it.Evaluation: This activity is designed for 5th grade. looking for information is another way to learn the language. I have to admit this is not easy but I as a teacher have to adjust my vocabulary and talking to the learners´ level. In the theoretical part I talk about CLT as a way of teaching vocabulary to young learners.
let´s use them in reality.to come up with a story focusing on prepositions . I decided we will not learn anything new and we will have kind of relaxing lesson. So. If they come up with the story after the first round. I only focus on the prepositions. Are you happy? But don´t worry.) 2. I will start now. It has to make sense.) 3.3.to revise some basic prepositions Aids: . Maybe next time we could try adjectives. did you learn anything new today? You could see that we can have fun and play with prepositions in English too. I bet she will like it. All the children are curious about the story so they pay attetnion to it. then we finish and I usually let them mime it or do the actions.none Assumptions: . I usually do not correct grammar mistakes. numerals etc. I heardthat in the lessons of Czech language you are talking about prepositions. Evaluation: This activity is designed for 5th grade but can be adopted for any grade. the English equivalents. Don´t forget it has to be a story and not just several sentences put together.to come up with own story is not always easy 1. Discipline is not usually 39 . right? Can you tell me any examples of Czech prepositions? …Well done! And now. are you ready? Do you still think it is difficult? Ok. It is only up to you. Tell me some English prepositions! …Well done again! Since you know the English prepositions. Now it is your turn! (Now each child has to say a sentence and we go on as long as needed. I will start so that you have some more time to think. another way of using CLT in the lesson. The only time the learners are allowed to speak Czech is when I ask them about the Czech prepositions. I met a man IN a town. we go on. maybe you can use nouns. And it is not just prepositions you can use in a story. ( I tell the learners we will come up with a story. Once upon a time. The story time: So. only the level and age of the learners have to be considered. Then it is only English and again the communicative competence is encouraged here.learners already know some prepositions . 7. Maybe. If not. The brainstorming: Today. Lesson plan # 7 Topic = A Story telling Aims: . Revision: Well. we will have regular English lesson. As you can see. I tell them they have to focus on the prepositions and each of them has to say a sentence. you can suggest this kind of activity to your Czech language teacher.
a problem even though it is always just 1 person speaking. I tried it usually with older learners and there was a problem with discipline and the learners tried to use words they are not allowed to use in the classes. 40 . If they are allowed to act it out later. I have really good experience with this kind of activity eventhough when I started to teach it was hard for me. they are even happier.
I also tried to show that variety is important because young learners get bored if they do the same activities in the same way all the time. I have to admit that in practice I tried out all the lesson plans and it worked well. Sometimes. All this the teacher is learning while working with the learners.4. I deal with the subject of teaching vocabulary to young learners. The focus of this thesis is the personality of young learners and teaching vocabulary to them. In the Theoretical Part I have mentioned some characteristics of young learners. the results are seen easily and the learners at this age are very grateful when someone invest time in them. their expectations with which each child comes to the lessons. During my teacher´s training I have learned that it is important to learn about their personalities and also to get to know them. I also talk about vocabulary – what it is. They need to feel the teacher likes them and wants to teach them something new. The teachers get to know their families. Testing and assessment will be the theme of my next future research. their cultural and family background etc. As said in the theoretical part. how it can be taught. we as teachers have to consider the learning disabilities too. When teaching young learners. I wanted to show that working with them offers many possibilities and we can use many methods and approaches. the teacher has to be strong at the knowledge but also needs to connect with the children. The Practical Part proved what I mentioned in the theory. especially nowadays. The teacher needs to understand their differences. I tried to show how some methods and approaches can be used in the lessons while teaching young learners. some activity took longer time so the learners were assigned a homework. In the Practical Part. The teacher has to know his or her pupils. It is important to understand their needs. also ways how to motivate them and last but not least their learning style. their hobbies and interests and just basic information about the learners. as the title prompts. Conclusion In my final thesis. there are several lesson plans. There are more and more chidlren with these problems and we as teachers need to help them to enjoy the lessons and help them to learn too. Also. From the theory. which words should be taught and ways that vocabulary can be presented. 41 . Every learner is different and we need to view each person individually.
taught. vyučována a také co by se vlastně mělo vyučovat. Každá aktivity zmíněná v přípravě byla vyzkoušena během mé učitelské praxe. Resumé Understanding the personality of a young learner plays an important role in effective teaching. V praktické části jsou prezentovány přípravy na hodiny. Jedním z předmětů této bakalářské práce je ukázat charakteristiku mladšího žáka. Every activity mentioned in the lesson plans was tried out during my teacher´s profession.5. There are mentioned some methods and approaches that can be used in the lessons. Another subject of this thesis is the vocabulary itself – how it can be presented. Dalším předmětem této práce je slovní zásoba – jak může být prezentována. Tyto přípravy jsou zaměřeny na využití různých výukových metod vhodných k výuce slovní zásoby u mladších žáků. One of the subjects of this thesis is to show the characteristics of a young learner. also what should be taught. Jsou zde zmíněny i metody a přístupy. several lesson plans are presented. Resumé Poznání osobnosti mladšího žáka hraje důležitou roli při efektivní výuce. které mohou být v hodinách využívány. These lesson plans focus on using different methods while teaching vocabulary to young learners. In the Practical Part. 42 .
345 s. Ray (edd. Christopher. Stuart: A Way with Words.Book 2.18-34232-9. ISBN 0-19-437133-6. Longman Group Essex. Longman Essex. 1991 10. Tony. SCOTT.. 124 s. DOFF. Christopher.). 7. THORNBURY. TONGUE. Adrian. 1991. YTREBERG. 2002. 1991. Longman Group Essex. Cambridge University Press. Penny. 4. Cambridge University Press. Teaching English to Children. HARMER. REDMAN. KHAN. 375 s. Ray: Teaching English to Children. 309 s. HALLIWELL. 1995. Essex: Longman.UK: Cambridge University Press. Jayne. 1992. UK: Longman. 124 s. Longman Essex. 160 s. 3.UK: Oxford University Press. In: BRUMFIT. 2005. ISBN-0521-35919-8. Scott: How to teach vocabulary. UR. Roles of Teachers & Learners. Teach English: A training course for teachers. TONGUE. s. 5. 370 s. 12. 169 s. 2005. 9. Susan: Teaching English in the Primary Classrooms. Wendy A. A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and theory. ISBN-0-582-42966-8. Cambridge University Press. BRUMFIT. ISBN-0-582-42082-2. 1999. ISBN 0. Julia: Using games in teaching English to young learners. 110 s.Bibliography 1. ISBN0-17-556889-8. ISBN 0-582-40385-5. The Practice of English Language Teaching. 1995. 8. 11. Stuart: A Way with Words. ISBN-0521-44994-4. 43 . 142-157. Vocabulary Development Activities for Learners of English. Jeremy. RIXON. Jayne. 1996. Lisbeth H: Teaching English to Children. Vocabulary Development Activities for Learners of English. Book 3. From Practice to Principle. Shelagh: Young Learners of English: Some Research Perspectives. REDMAN. 1988. ISBN-0-582-07109-7. WRIGHT. 2. 6. 185 s. UK: Longman Group Essex. MOON. MOON. ISBN-0521-35921-X.
teachingenglish.longman.com/young_learners 3.org.Other resources 1.com/ 44 . http://www. http://www. http://www.uk 2.eslkidstuff.
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