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FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
Teaching vocabulary to young learners
Author: Lenka Přibilová
Supervisor: Mgr. Naděžda Vojtková
Lenka Přibilová, Teaching vocabulary to young learners: Bakalářská práce. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, Fakulta pedagogická, Katedra anglického jazyka a literatury, 2006, 43 stran a 5 příloh. Vedoucí bakalářské práce: Mgr. Naděžda Vojtková
Bakalářská práce Výuka slovní zásoby u mladších žáků pojednává o potřebe učitele poznat své žáky a rozumět jejich potřebám a problémům. Dalším bodem, o kterém tato práce pojednává, je otázka motivace a zapojení her a zábavy do výuky. Posledním bodem, kterým se tato práce zaobírá, je využití různých metod a přístupů ve výuce u mladších žáků.
The thesis Teaching vocabulary to young learners deals with the need of a teacher to know his or her learners and to understand their needs and problems. Other issue mentioned in the thesis is the question of motivation and icluding fun and games into the teaching process. The last issue the thesis deals with is the usage of different methods and approaches for teaching young learners.
Mladší žák, motivace, slovní zásoba, přístup, metoda, hra, zábava
Young learner, motivation, vocabulary, approach, method, game, fun
Prohlašuji, že jsem bakalářskou práci zpracovala samostatně
pod vedením Mgr. N. Vojtkové. Dále prohlašuji, že jsem uvedla všechny literární prameny, z nichž jsem čerpala. Souhlasím s uložením práce v archivu Masarykovy univerzity a se zpřístupněním ke studijním účelům. V Brně dne 30. července 2006 Lenka Přibilová
Acknowledgements I would like to express gratitude to my supervisor Mgr. 5 . Naděžda Vojtková for her valuable advice and help.
1. 1. 6. 3. 4. 3. 1. 7. 4. 2. 3. INTRODUCTION THEORETICAL PART YOUNG LEARNER-WHO IS A YOUNG LEARNER? VOCABULARY WHAT IS VOCABULARY? HOW ARE WORDS LEARNED? WHICH WORDS AND WHAT SHOULD BE TAUGHT? VOCABULARY PRESENTATION BE REALISTIC CHOOSING ACTIVITIES THE ROLE OF FUN AND GAMES IN THE LESSONS PRACTICAL PART LESSON PLAN # 1 LESSON PLAN # 2 LESSON PLAN # 3 LESSON PLAN # 4 LESSON PLAN # 5 LESSON PLAN # 6 LESSON PLAN # 7 CONCLUSION RESUMÉ BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES APPENDIX I 6 8 10 10 13 13 15 17 19 21 22 24 26 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 42 43 45 45 . 3. 3.CONTENT 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 7. 2. 3. 6. 2. 5. 4. 2. 2. 2. 3. 4. 2. 2. 4. 3. 3. 2. 2. 5. 3. 2. 2. 3.
APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX II III IV V 47 48 49 50 7 .
Therefore I would like to refer to the possibilities which teaching a foreign language to young learners brings. The aim of this work is to show several ways that can be used for teaching vocabulary to young learners. I have been teaching English for eleven years now – seven years at a language school here in Brno. I would like to show why and how teaching vocabulary to young learners can be more efficient.1. different. also didactic aids and methodology books. teachers and parents. I will enclose some materials and games that I use in 8 . then I will try to describe who is a young learner. During the time I began to realize chances and occasions that English language can offer to children and I started to be a big fan of teaching English to young learners. Frequent complain of many teachers is that it is extremely difficult to teach children that seem to lack the basic talent for learning languages. the rest at two primary schools also in Brno. I have to admit that at the beginning I doubted about any acquisition for young learners and many arguments seemed cogent to me. of course. Reactions and opininons were. next we pointed out that there were missing good textbooks or materials. In the theoretical part I will introduce the aim of this thesis. In the next chapter I will focus on what is vocabulary and how it is learned and also the ways how vocabulary can be presented. I divided my thesis into the theoretical and the practical part – the practical part follows the theoretical part. At the begining during the discussions with my colleagues we found out that some kind of conception was needed. I ran against a lot of troubles that I would like to share in my final thesis and also I would like to share some ideas for teaching vocabulary to young learners.. I have discussed them with many pupils. In the second part of my thesis I would like to present my system of work and also different methods I use while teaching. Introduction “Why? What is it good for ? Is it good for them at all? Do they really need it? Is it not only a useless worry? Why do we have to make them learn something more than what they really need and have to? How much hope shall we place in it? “ These are the most frequent questions I have been thinking about.
my lesssons.books (used literature) which I used for my thesis and the appendices where I included some materials and exercises with the keys. After that follows the list of sources . 9 . In conclusion I will briefly summarize my thesis.
In the 7th grade they will have to start learning a second foreign language. Theoretical part 2. I have decided to focus on young learners – age group 7-11. they are happy to present it and they feel more important. The results are seen quite easily and of course teachers demand this kind of satisfaction. I think the older ones can do it too. I think these debates will be run over and over because nobody is able to say the exact time for beginning to learn foreign languages.who is a young learner? A young learner – who is he or she? This term covers a wide age range.1. the sooner they start. which is starting to be adopted from September 2006. I remember a girl . Of course.5th grade . There is a big difference between what a –three-year-old child can do and what a child of fifteen can do. Understanding these differences can help me as a teacher to develop methods and a system of work that I will use in the process of teaching. Young learner . We should consider their development too. Their brain and memory is ready for learning and most of them can learn quite well. These children still want to learn something new. this can be anybody from the age of three to the age of eighteen. the children will start a year earlier and in some schools the foreign language will be introduced from the 1st grade. However. the better for them.who was able to “communicate” with a native speaker. it is not possible to say that every child of six will know this and that. But it is possible to pick out some chracteristics which I as a teacher should know and should be aware of. There have been many disputes and discussions over this. From my personal experience. I have chosen this age group because I like working with young learners. Her joy was the best reward for me. I think if very young learners are able to achieve good results. In my opinion. In the Czech Republic children have started learning a foreign language in the 4th grade so far. Some children develop faster. When they know it. others need more time. From my own personal experience I have to admit that learners at this age are grateful when someone invest time in them. It is generally known that the Czech system officially allows children to start learning a foreign language in the 4th grade. I achieved quite good results with kindergarten children so I do not see any problems for older learners.2. 10 . Teaching young learners requires the knowledge of knowing all the development differences. according to the new school curricula.
They use imagination a lot. They are happy when they can play. It is very important to choose the right way of teaching for these little children.I would like to point out some characteristics about this age group. They can think. These examples of characteristics I have mentioned above are great hints how to teach young learners and what kind of methods we should use. they can show off a little bit. Often they “teach” each other. They are able to use language skills not even realizing them. p 3) I do agree with Halliwell and her observations. We should avoid a stereotype. this is very important fact to keep their motivation. Very often they pretend they understand everything and they know everything. They are able to concentrate for certain time. The teacher definitely has to be very sensitive to the children´s needs and has to prepare the lessons well. They love to be praised for what they have done and learnt. the 11 . They love to share their experiences. They do not realize what is fact and what is fiction sometimes. argue. discuss and they are able to interact with both children and adults. My observations are the same as hers. they love when people pay attention to them and their talking. Halliwell states that: young children are already very good at interpreting meaning without necessarily understanding the individual words already have great skill in using limited language creatively frequently learn indirectly rather than directly take great pleasure in creating fun in what they do their imagination is ready “above all take great delight in talking” (Halliwell. 1992. They want to learn and are happy when they learn something. They are able to talk about what they are doing. then they have to share it with somebody and they are proud that they learnt something.. They understand situations and through situations – they use several senses.
lessons have to be creative and lively. Otherwise this could have really bad consequences for the learners´ further improvement in the language. 12 .
2. a verb to google is used frequently a lot. when understanding the second language. especially if the store of words is limited. Even in our native language we are continually learning new words and meanings of old words. a new item of vocabulary may be more than just a single word: for example. and in terms of the way each of us learned our first and any subsequent languages. using the correct form of a word for the meaning intended ( i. Languages emerge first as words. Learners of a second language experience something similar. nose not noise) To meet these challenges the learner needs to: acquire a critical mass of words for use in both understanding and producing the language remember words over time. vocabulary is still widening. post office. For example. Thornbury states that they can be confronted by words that are totally unfamiliar. However. 2. both historically. (Ur. as the words we teach in the foreign language. p 60) All languages consist of words. Moreover. roughly. be able to recall them readily 13 . the learner while learning the vocabulary of a second language can come across several challenges: “making the correct connections. and mother-in-law. between the form and meaning of words when producing language. Czech word pošta. which are made up of two or three words but express a single idea. Vocabulary 2.e. Some words can be entirely new to us. A useful convention is to cover all such cases by talking about vocabulary „items“ rather than „words“. 2003.2. For example. or being used in ways that for them are novel and possibly obscure. To find the right word to fit the meaning can be very frustrating. To summarize this. We come across completely new words that are made up according to new technologies and according to the needs of real life. 1. What is vocabulary? “Vocabulary can be defined. This used to mean just the post office or simple letters but nowadays it also means emails.
develop strategies for coping with gaps in word knowledge. including coping with unknown words. p 31) 14 . 2002. or unfamiliar uses of known words have to take responsibility themselves for vocabulary expansion” (Thornbury.
But of course not every animal is a cat. Thornbury states that the children have to develop some kind of network building – constructing some complex idea.TPR. How are words learned? “Without grammar very little can be conveyed. acquiring a vocabulary requires not only labelling but also categorising skills. The child needs to learn how far to extend the concept of a cat. of a cat has a name cat. There are many different methods and approaches how to teach a foreign language. And to this category also belongs other animals. Suggestopedia is a very successful method in helping learners to memorize words. there are no translations. without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. Only target language is used in the calssrooms and only complete sentences are used. for example. This method stimulates the learner´s brain by music while learning but nowadays teachers seem to be leaving this method. for instance a house.2. homonyms etc.” David Wilkins. so that the concept. What really works especially for young learners is the Total Physical Response method . We need to let them repeat it in different ways and they should be given a chance to listen to the teacher talking about it. 2. not just cats.” (Thornbury. Than during this process they will realise there also exist words like synonyms. including vocabulary. 2. Culture is considered an important aspect. A little bit of shocking method is the direct method or the direct approach. Very many children are nowadays very hyper and physically active 15 . I will mention just some of them that can be used for teaching young learners. The mother tongue is never used. p 18) The child has to realise that these common words like cat can be replaced by superordinate terms like animals. linguist To know a word is one thing but we have to pause on the fact how this knowledge is acquired. then they always start with words used for labelling. One good way of doing this is to let them see or perhaps touch the vocabulary item. Thinking about little children who learn to speak. “In other words. 2002. To help the learners understand it is important to visualize the item and get the pupils to repeat or use the item actively.
changing topics and using a variety of activities is very appreeciated by them. Using this method. Communicative competence is highly developed here and learners are encouraged to communicate. 16 . games.and to concentrate for a long time can be very difficult for them. Communicative Language Approach (Teaching) – CLT – stresses the meaning of a language in context. This method is used a lot by teachers.
3. Especially with young learners words that they are familiar with and they can stick to them should be taught. Learners find this sometimes very difficult and discouraging because some words do not have just one meaning. Thus. Ur states the learners need to be taught the form of the word. what they eat etc.2. how often the words are used by the speaker of the language. For example when teaching nouns. Word formation – using prefixes and suffixes. Again. Thus. we can decide which words to teach on the basis of frequency. Collocations – I do not think these are important for young learners. we would like to present their plural forms. especially if the verb is irregular (forget-forgot). using hyphenated words etc. its denotation”. is too difficult for young learners. p 61) In my opinion it is important to inform learners about the meaning of the word as well as their form and grammar. Nowadays all the course books are organised into themes and they provide vocabulary according to it. it is good when the learners know the synonyms (smart – intelligent) or antonyms (rich – poor).” (Ur. Very often words are taught according to themes and topics. We can relate items together – for example words like “a school. 1996. “The learner has to know what a word sounds like (its pronunciation) and what it looks like (its spelling). then grammar. a teacher. we need to consider the frequency too. depending what level the learners are they should be taught to follow some grammatical rules. 1996. mouse-mice). (Ur. 2. It is quite easy to teach concrete words at lower level and then become more abstract. Words that have quite specific meaning should be avoided with young learners. collocations. meaning and word formation. also where they live. 17 . If there is a theme “Animals”. maybe we would like to present their past forms. Context helps them to find the right meaning. “The meaning of a word is primarily what it refers to in the real world. There is a choice for us. p 60) The grammar of a new item also needs to be taught. When teaching verbs. a blackboard and a break” are all associated with education. Which words and what should be taught? The significant point in teaching vocabulary is the selection of words we as teachers want to teach. also regular and irregular ( girl-girls. In the form pronunciation and spelling should be mentioned. then we can expect words like naming animals.
Of course. firstly I think that knowing the word and understanding its meaning go hand in hand. we will not teach them. I think that if we keep repeating the plural form “mice”. 18 . But as said above they also need to know other aspects of the words they learn. after some time most of them will not say “mouses”. In my opinion. it is important to teach them all these aspects. hear or with whar they can touch. but they need to know it.To summarize this. Young learners often put words together with what they can see. for example the irregular plural form right away. Secondly. it is easier to remember concrete words like a chair or a dog than abstract words.
several realia 19 . And of course there are techniques that we as teachers try to avoid. Another factor that is worth considering is the age of the learners. I think every teacher tends to use and prefers some technique that he or she finds interesting. posters. Some techniques are more popular and more often used than others. In my opinion. placing the new items in context. photographs and magazine pictures. Also it is up to the teacher which techniques he or she decides to use but always the effectiveness of teaching should be considered. the older ones can manage pretty well abstract explanations or even definitions. p 75) Firstly. wall charts. Among visual techniques we can find pictures . There are techniques that are particularly appropriate for certain types of words – for example actions can be explained through pantomime. this includes teaching the vocabulary "in spoken form first" to prevent students from pronouncing the words in the form they are written. can we find similar words in the learner´s native language etc. 2002. we should consider how many words should be presented during the lesson. Younger ones react quite well when we show them concrete illustrations. 3. word pictures.” (Thornbury. their familiarity with the words – have they come across these words or are they completely new? words difficulty – are the words abstract.2. and revising them. The presentation of new vocabulary can be classified for example according to verbal and visual techniques. A number of techniques can be adopted to present new vocabulary items. This is closely connected with several factors: the level of the pupils – beginners. blackboard drawings. intermediate etc.flashcards.? can the words be easily demonstrated ? shall we use realia or anything that the pupils can become familiar with? can pictures be used to elicit vocabulary? After the teacher chooses what items to teach. are they easily pronounced. he or she should follow certain guidelines. Vocabulary presentation “By presentation we mean those pre-planned lesson stages in which learners are taught pre-selected vocabulary items.
Most of the young learners have never used a dictionary before so it is a need to teach them to use dicitonaries first. Another way that can be used is translation. and using various forms of definition: for example. collocations.that teachers can hold up or point to. action and gestures can be used especially for explaining actions and times. It has its advantages but also disadvantages. and definition by translation. subclasses and subcategories often aided by visual presentation. scales. They cannot interact with the words. synonyms and antonyms. 20 . contextual definitions. Teachers can prepare quite interesting lesson where the learners learn how to use dictionaries. Translation is one of the traditional ways of explaining the meaning of words. Using this technique. This technique is not used much recently. Learners can label pictures or objects or perform an action. definition by demonstration (visual definition). In my opinion it is good to use both picture dictionaries and classical dictionaries where they find the meaning with young learners. Words can be organised into sets. even though it is quick and easy but can be very discouraging for learners. Explanation can become extremely difficult especially with beginner levels. learners can learn how to use dictionaries. Verbal techniques consist of using illustrative situations. Mime. descriptions. definition by abstraction. It could be done by the teacher or with using a dictionary. Then they have to be told about the alphabetical order and about other things they can find there. They have to be told there are two parts – English-Czech and CzechEnglish.
make crosswords etc. or poorly motivated. p 19) After every lesson we should ask ourselves whether the lesson was productive or unproductive and we should go back to our objectives and aims.” (Halliwell. or not very able. be active. We should evaluate the lesson ourselves. Quite often the children are not “angels”. This of course leads to the fact the children will become silly and they will really enjoy it. 4. We draw pictures. very honestly.2. It does not mean. there are at least fifteen pupils – usually even more. But sometimes something goes wrong. Be realistic Nowadays. for example. And we hope it will be worthwile.. There are many of them in circulation that it is quite easy to get carried away. our expectations are sometimes very high.. 1992. independent. There are teachers who would never do such activities again. creative. Language classrooms are noisy. draw flashcards. teachers can come across many language teaching ideas and techinques. We encourage them to interact. And their lessons then turn to be boring. we want to praise the children as much as possible but on the other hand we want to be realistic and. being realistic should mean taking realities into account in such a way that good things can still happen. and we do it even at midnight. creative. “We need to be realistic in our expectations of ourselves and the learners. we should reject the idea of pairwork because our clasess are big. The classes with high number of students put exceptional demands on teacher`s preparation for the lesson and there is obviously a requirement of larger classrooms too. sensible. we should discuss it with him/her. . 21 . Or if we have an observer in the lesson. cut paper into small pieces. On the contrary. We want to be flexible.
there are activities that have the opposite effect. 4. dialogues” etc”. There are ways of varying the oral work so that it is making different demands on the children and therefore feels different even when the topic remains the same. Once the idea of context playing a decisive role in the choice of language is firmly established. “We will not help the children to develop their capacity to concentrate if we jump inconsequentially from one topic to the next. We should not forget context developing activities. there should be considered what kind of activities should be choosen knowing the effect of them. 1992.2. it means these activities will wake up the class. But this can mean we may produce a lesson which is a disaster. too many activities and changing the activities all the time can destroy the lesson well. This is not easy and teachers should spend really quality time to think about this. The children´s minds have to jump from one topic to another with not much time to let things sink in effectively. games. Another aspect we should think about are activities which engage children´s minds and which keep them physically occupied. Before the lesson is planned. Of course. The lesson can be varied by doing lots of activities on different topics. Many coursebooks provide learners with plenty of opportunities to develop their own context for the language presented. Activities that can stir the class are. oral work.” (Halliwell. We should realise some important things. p 27) 22 . They may seem to settle the pupils. we can begin to introduce varieties of the language used in different contexts. Thinking about the positive way of the word “stir”. Some language activities can stir a class. Choosing activities It is up to the teacher mostly to choose the right activity. filling-in exercises. competitions. we need to highlight the importance of the context in which the language naturally occurs. This is good but can lead to misunderstanding. for example. for example activities like “odd one out. It needs to be considered well.  Another factor that teachers should bear in their minds is to keep the lessons simple. “If we are to help the learners acquire independent second language lexicons. warm them up. We often try to make our lessons varied. 1.
.org.shtml 23 .1992. Using different methods and ways of teaching should become a regular part of our lessons. they will take to them easily when they appear.teachingenglish.Variation does not only mean changing the topics and materials but also the change of work we do. “Because you use them regularly you will quickly get to know the best way to set them up with your classes.. Because the classes know them. p 38 )  http://www. we can come up with new things but always the activities should be simple in principle. We can reuse materials all the time.. They can become truly the core of your language teaching.” (Halliwell. Variation comes in the forms of activity as Halliwell states.uk/think/vocabulary/context_developing. Then they can transfer to different topics and situations.
And J. 1969) (Opie. For example.” (Khan. 1995. chanting rhymes. p 37) Teachers can tell stories the learners are familiar with in their own language.. games. Fun and games should have an important role in the children´s education.” (Rixon.. Teachers can come up 24 . ´the most admirable social institutions´. p 143) It is obvious that the games need to be motivating. Learning can be absorbed really well. colouring. drawing. 1995. Khan states that the achievement of these goals signals the end of the game. Singing.2. In playing together we can see elements of interaction and during interacting the learners develop language skills. It allows of no cares but those fictitious ones engendered by the game itself. Children are very often concerned with controlling whether everybody follows the rules and whether they are not broken. (Khan. This is quite a natural way for them to learn. commands for the games can be remembered quite easily. “Telling stories to students can result in natural language acquisition on their part. I and J. Again. Then the learners are able to follow it better. Children need to be involved and even excited in order to learn effectively. The role of fun and games in the lessons “By ´fun and games´ I mean all those activities that we loosely think of as involving play and enjoyment. the stories need to be picked carefully. What is a game? “A game is played when one or moreplayers compete or co-operate for playoffs according to a set of rules.” (Jones. 1986) (Jones in Teaching English to Children) “A true game is one that frees the spirit. They play and love to play.” (Rixon. clapping hands. Many games can be looked at as drill exercises but they have an added fun and competition element. in Teaching English to Chidren) Games are activities with rules and goals. model-making. Language can also be picked as a result of an enjoyable activity.1995) Games may focus on oral or written part of the language.. solving puzzles. Quite often the learners do not realize they are learning. p 33) It is evident that young learners learn through play much easier and they enjoy it more. “ For young learners. Piaget (1967) (Piaget in Teaching English to Children) saw chidlren´s games as. 2. 1995. I. For example. the level of the learners need to be considered and the teacher has to investigate time into preparation. 4. such as parental and social attitudes. motivation deriving from the factors outside the classroom.” (Opie. they offer a vast selection of activities. is likely to be weaker than that created by events in the classroom itself. The language learnt by heart can often be a part of the activities. a game that works like this is well-known game “Simon says”.
. As said above games and fun are important parts of the lesson.. The learners can make up new verses.”. A play is in the essential nature of the child. 25 . then they can be extended. Songs are most grateful way for this. It is very appreciated by the learners. Several activities can allow and involve more creative use of the language... Example .” or “If you are happy and you know it. Teachers can “play” with vocabulary while teaching it.a song “This is the way. The teachers should not forget the values of games and fun activities in the lessons. I . There are many possibilities for adapting games we can find. Appreciated story can be The Story of the Big Enormous Turnip. New sentences and activities can be produced by the children themselves.with a simple version of the story. All this can be applied to teaching vocabulary too.
I always have to consider that in each class there are more children and some with learning disabilities. most of them consisted of 10 .3. These handouts are given to them so that their parents know what we learned in the lesson and can practice during the week. we work with handouts that they get from me and place them into a folder. The activities have been piloted in at least 10 classes. Most of the classes use the course book Cambridge English for Schools by A. I would like to enclose several lesson plans and also reflect on some observations from the theoretical part. some have just started.age group 7-11. I try to use English in the classes as much as possible and I want their reactions in English too. of course if possible. they still want to learn. Practical part In my final thesis I have decided to focus on teaching English vocabulary to young learners . All the activities reflect the level of the learners. Littlejohn and D.15 pupils at the age of 5 – 11. Hicks. their age and their abilities. they do not have almost any troubles with motivation and as I have said in the theoretical part. Most of the pupils only started with learning English in the 4th grade. The younger ones do not use any course books. I have to admit that it is a lot of fun to teach these children. some started in the kindergarten. 26 . I tried out all the activities described here during my teacher´s career. It is evident that some learners have been learning the English language for several years.
the learners get to know my family .they are ready to share and are ready to play 1. pieces of paper. At the end we sum up the lesson and I tell them that next lesson we will play a family pexeso. Ok. 1. father. Is this your mother? Is this your sister? Is this your grandfather? After some time we will play a game. Before they leave the classroom. they forgot.pictures and photos.learners know each other and their families .) Now. So I ask. For example. colour pencils.to get to know the learners´ families. I have to count on the fact. Lesson plan # 1 Topic = My family Aims: . While doing this I read a story about a family from a book.3. After each sentence I make the learners say whose picture they are showing me. so that I can point to it anytime. While talking. now I will talk about my family. And so on. I use pictures of my family and point to the right person and repeat who he/she is. 3. sister etc. they all have to tell me a “password” to leave. for example:” Show me your mother!” And you have to show me your mother´s picture. Do you live in a family? Who belongs to your family? Do you have any brothers or sisters? What is your brother´s / sister´s name? How often do you see your grandmother and grandfather?. 27 .. mother. I stand behind the door and as they leave I ask them for example for the word “maminka”. so I distribute either my pictures or pictures from magazines.. They have to say “mother” and can leave. a family poster. Talking about families: Today we are going to talk about families. “this is my daughter Kristyna”. (On the black board there is a family poster all the time. handouts Assumptions: . it is your time to show me who is who.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know .. Who is this? Your. Working with their pictures: (The learners were supposed to bring to the class pictures of their family members.) 2. I repeat the word “daughter”. Now.after the lesson the learners will know at least 5 new words Aids: . we are going to play a game and the winner gets a reward! I will say a sentence. the learners know them well so I suppose they will be very active and will want to share . Reading and colouring: I distribute the handouts (Appendix I) that I have prepared for them and the colour pencils and the learners will colour the people. a story book..
What needs to be said here is that during this activity the children are able to learn a phrase “This is my mother/father etc. the children are able to remember it without any explanation and real “learning”. It is very natural for them to learn this phrase. again according to the age and level of the learners and also depending on the fact how long the lesson is – 40. In this lesson I decided to use the TPR method too. Learners have a chance to hear and see. This lesson can be varied in many ways.” Because this phrase is repeated in the lesson many times. too much variety can spoil the lesson so this is very important factor that should be considered. But as I have said in the theoretical part. 28 . 45 or 60 minutes.Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 1st grade learners or even kindergarten children. the children can come to black board and point to the right person on the poster. they put their hands above their heads etc. In this lesson I decided to use one of the visual methods that I talked about in the theoretical part. I let them jump while showing me their family members.
The very first person who knows will tell me and then we will send it to others and the last person says that outloud.. pieces of paper.pictures. a story book. (After each shout I repeat the colour after them so that they have a chance to hear the pronunciation well. colour chalk Assumptions: . Well done.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know . Working with “colours”: Let´s take your exercise books now and you can see what I draw on the board.. Now when you have finished. to get to know how they feel about colours .they are ready to play . green.´Well.to get to know the learners´ favourite colours. colour pencils.) Well done. 29 . Every time I call out some colour. blue. 3.) 2. are you ready? Let´s start. After some minutes the learners get back to their seats and we repeat all the colours once more.colour dictation should be easy and fun for them 1. 2. I take a colour chalk and draw a big circle on the board. I put the poster on the wall. are you ready?I do not want you to shout or look to your friend´s paper.. Let´s start now. Usually they do really well and are happy they were succesfull with their “dictation”. I know you do not like dictations but this one is going to be different... Potom si vezmi black a nakresli three birds.) Well. I will pick up different colour pencils and you can shout out the name of the colour. now we will write a “dictation”.... You need to be careful about the spelling!. Do you any colours? Which one is your favourite? What does black mena for you? How do you feel about yellow? What does it evoke?I will tell you a story about rainbow. children! Now you know the English names for colours. Well done! Now you know we will talk about colours today. Lesson plan # 2 Topic = Colours Aims: . anything. Talking about colours: I will say several words and you tell me what I am speaking about. I want you to do the same.. But to each colour you will write down the name.. I say:´Vezmi si yellow a nakresli sun.. So. I willshout out a name of the colour and you must run to touch this colour.. now exchange your drawings with your partner and let´s check it. I also point out to the right colour on the poster. Ok. You can see this classroom is full of colours. Finishing up the topic: (After the learners finished their drawings. your friend´s trousers. We will do it as a game called “silent post”. Since we stil lhave time left. a blackboard.. You can touch a chair.. they swap the drawings with their partners and we check it together. picture of rainbow. (While we are talking.after the lesson the learners will know at least 7 new words including the word rainbow Aids: . white. a colour poster. listen up! Black.learners probably already know the colours .the learners get to know the names of the colours . We will play a game. I have a special reward for you. Let´s start now.3.
I have to count on the fact most of the learners already know the colours from previous classes. in this lesson I used one of the visual methods and also TPR. This lesson can be varied in many ways again.Again. I think using TPR is very productive and learners can learn and remember it better. I usually check the spelling in their exercise books. 30 . The learners can hear.Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 3rd or 4th grade learners. Therefore this lesson cannot be boring so that even these children would be able to be active. After they have finished that. see and touch and later they can run in the classrooms. This topic is quite easy and children have a lot of fun with this. I have to be careful because the learners try to write down the names of the colours. as I have mentioned in lesson plan # 1.
.learners know some basic commands .4. I am deaf.. 3. I am writing etc.colour pencils. (As I was explaining the rules. I am showing them the motions. BUT if I don’t say Simon says you mustn’t do anything. What are verbs and adjectives? Can you tell me an example? Is the word ´sit´a verb? Is theword ˇhappy´an adjective? So. now I will say some basic commands and you will do what I say. Of course during this acitvity we will practice the adjectives too. Evaluation: This activity is designed for 4th grade. At the end of the lesson I always check whether they undrestand all the practised commands and adjectives. I am bored. Lesson plan # 3 Topic = Adjectives.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know . For this activity I decided to choose the well-known commands as a warm-up. I always use the English language for explaining the actions and adjectives because the motion help the children to understand. Now. then I go on with the newer ones. I will say Simon says Stand up! and you will stand up. you’ll get a point. If you do.) Now I need a volunteer who will say the sentence instead of me.they are ready to play . for example. Together we repeat the words and do the actions. I am asleep.the learners get to know the the basic verbs and adjectives . The game 31 . it is time for a game. Then we will play a game. We will play the game “Simon says. Verbs Aims: .they want to express their feelings 1.after the lesson the learners will know at least 8 new words Aids: . While explaining all these actions.” Does anybody know this game? I will explain the rules to you. you can be the teacher now. Are you reday? Stand up! Sit down! Close your books!. I am blind. I decided to show another way of teaching vocabulary to young learners . it can be used as a revision of what the learners have already known. I ma dancing. mimes and actions. Revision of some basic commands and adjectives: Well. today we are going to practice some verbs and adjectives. (This activity can last as long as the learners are not bored.. I was doing what I was saying.using gestures.) 2. handouts Assumptions: ..Smile! Be happy! Be sad!. Simon says Sit down! and you will sit down. I always start with the easier and already known ones. Learning new vocabulary: I want to teach the learners new vocabulary. The teacher also needs to know how many words the learners know. I am drinking. A pupil with the less points is the winner.
The learners are very competitive and active because everybody wants to be the winner. This activity can be used as a warm-up or we can fill in some part of the lesson if minutes are left. The learners need to pay attention to what I say. Very important aspect of this game is discipline.Simon says practises the language in reality. they usually tell me they like it more when they can give the commands. When I get feedback from the children. Very often I play this game in groups where more children can practise the phrase Simon says. 32 .
WHAT SONG P ICTURE MOTHER CARD LOVE CH R I S T M A S In these words you can find 1 word. a tape recorder Assumptions: . I will start up the lesson in a little bit different way than usually. brainstorming: Well. 4.they are ready to share and lsiten 1.to get to know the basic animals in English .to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know .pictures. You will hear 5 sounds and I think you will know all of them.learners will probably know some English names of animals . Listening: Now.after the lesson the learners will know at least 5 new words Aids: .learners like animals . To make it easier I distributed a set of pictures among you and you will hear all these animals. an animal poster. handouts.. just put your hand above your head. You 33 . we will listen to a tape recorder. Talking about animals. You cannot talk. Do you understand? ( The learners are ready to listen now.) Well done.3. you can just write down number to each picture. What animals do you know? What is your favourite animal? Have you ever been to the zoo? Do you like big animals? Areyou scared of any? Do you know any exotic animals? Do you have an animal at home?… (During this talking I write down on the blackboard all the animals the learners name and distribute pictures of animals among the children. I get ready the tape recorder. So as you can see.. the topic of today´s lesson. So. children. it is a toy dog. You are going to hear several sounds of animals and I want you to write their names on a piece of paper. Well done! The word is ANIMALS! And the winner is Honza? Here is your price! What is it? Yes. Lesson plan # 4 Topic = Animals Aims: . you are very good! Now we will listen again but this time you do not have the pictures. I will write something on the blackboard and you have to find out a hidden word in it. colour pencils. we are going to talk about animals today.) 2. the winner gets a price! If you think you know.
therefore after this activity I need to calm them down and we listen to the sounds of animals. I do not tell them which animals they have to choose or what exactly needs to be written there or how exactly it has to be done. You can either draw or glue animals. so I can show them so that they get ideas. Through brainstorming. If somebody remains quiet. which is not as easy for them. Also usually this activity takes longer time. they do not need my help. This lesson can be varied in many ways and can be done with younger learners too. anything you like.) 3. Of course. So you need to know some animals and also something about them. (Usually the learners want to be creative and work on their own. if nobody is able to guess this word. This is very active time. make groups of 4 and each group has to prepare a poster. so the children do not usually have any troubles with this. So now. If you need help. The topic is also very grateful and from my personal experience the children always have a lot of fun with it. Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 3rd or 4th grade. you can either ask me or. imagine you are going to take a friend of yours to the zoo soon and you want to give him/her a tour. so I let them work in the next lesson too. Jano. what is your favourite animal? etc. Again. Probably the hidden word would be too difficult for them. everybody is included. because you can work with dictionaries. so the teacher would have to come up with a different activity. I usually have examples with me in the lesson. where they live. the learners usually remember at least 1 new word. Right at the beginning of the lesson the learners have a chance to brainstorm. (This is a little bit more difficult but the sounds are of well-known animals so the chidlren will not have any troubles with it. All the sounds are of known animals. Project: Now. each child can talk and I pay attetnion to this. I help them. do you know any animals?. I ask questions – Honzo.must guess which animals you hear. 34 . Then I let them be creative and let them work on the project. Then they have to guess the hidden word. you can write about them – what they eat. you can use them.
distribute these dictionaries. I will say an English word and you can find the Czech equivalent in the dicitonary.but even this fact the learners need their time to get used to working with the dictionaries 1. Introducing dictionaries: This mornig as I was getting ready for your lesson I realised I would need helpers. So if you do not understand some word. I will give you the handouts and you have to work on them. the window is the odd one. It is orgaized according to the alphabetwhich you already know. Which one is the odd one? Yes. pear.various kinds of dicitonaries. you can find it here. 35 . Do you understand it? Well. one into each desk.. Each child says one letter from the aplhabet. Thses books are called dictionaries. Now check these three items . If you open them. you can see there are two parts.. which part will you be looking in?Yes. So. So the word is a lemon. window”. Lesson plan # 5 Topic = Fruit Aims: .3.“apple. Practise: I usually ask the children to find out three vocabulary items to practise the finding. I need to be sure they are familier with working with the dictionaries. If you find id. I will go on like this for a while. 3. As homework they have to prepare similar exercise. Now. put your hands above. you can start working. So thank you for coming and helping me to bring the dictionaries.to revise some basic terminology . 2.learners know the alphabet so this should not be that difficult . Let´s quickly revise the aplhabet.after the lesson the learners will know 5 new words Aids: .to find out the odd words . If I say an English word. handouts. flashcards Assumptions: . If their answer is right.to teach and practise using dicitonaries ..Well done! At the end of the lesson we can sing the alpabet song if you want to. You can work in pairs and you must circle the odd ones. I distribute the handouts (Appendix II) and the learners work on the handout. English-Czech and Czech-English. the English one. Working with the dictionaries: Now it is time to start “working” with the dicitonaries.. At the end we check the exercixe together. 5.
This is probably their first time using and working with dictionaries. Every time there is a child who has troubles with it but it is normal. From my own personal experience I have to say that children usually like working with dictionaries and like the exercises. Now I have to make sure that children know the alphabet really well. I have to admit that when I first taught this topic and was teaching how to use dicitonaries. I did not manage to do everything that I planned for the lesson. I said that it is very traditional and maybe an old way but I wanted to show that translation can be used and sometimes should not be avoided.Evaluation: I talk about using dictionaries as a way for teaching vocabulary in the theoretical part. 36 .This activity is designed for learners in the 4th grade. But it cannot be long because the learners easily get bored with it.
after the lesson the learners will know 5 new words Aids: . we start learning the poem.the learners usually are not as willing to talk so I have to ask right and direct questions 1. Every time we read it. 4. I read it outloud and then we read it together. so all you have to do is to find the odd word out. 6. because you have been working hard.to revise some basic terminology . I will write it on the blackboard. we will read a short text about the weather and then we will talk about it. 2. The children just listen. I wil lwrite the questions on the blackboard. This is all because of the weather.to find out the odd words . Do you like this kind of weather? What do you like to do in this kind of weather? What is your favourite season? Why? Do you prefer hot weather to cold weather? etc. We talk about the text and after that they answer the questions all by themselves. Poem: (Appendix IV) Well. children! ( I look very tired and I am not happy.reading texts. a poem Assumptions: . So. You all know this type of exercise. Reading: Now. Talking about weather: Good morning. 3.3.learners already know some weather terminology .to understand the text about weather . I have to give you a homework. enjoy it and see you next lesson. You will have to answer some questions too. I have to say it myself. If not. each child reads a line. The learners can see the whole poem on the blackboard. Bye bye! 37 . (Appendix III) I distribute the texts and I read first. so that the children would have to memorize it. This won´t take you long.) I am not happy today. After that. I am tired and I would like to be at home in my bed with a hot cup of tea and my favourite book. Odd one out: (Appendix V) Thank you very much for your work today and so that you can practise these new words at home. I assume the children will ask me what is wrong with me. now it is time to learn a short poem. flashcards. When this is done. Lesson plan # 6 Topic = The Weather Aims: . I erase 1 word.
looking for information is another way to learn the language. I have to admit this is not easy but I as a teacher have to adjust my vocabulary and talking to the learners´ level. Working with a text is important for them. The lesson does not have to seem interesting to the learners at first but later they start to like it. Usually next lesson I go on in this topic. I work with the learned vocabulary and I build on it. I have to be really well prepared for this lesson. This lesson is done completely in English and the communicative competence is highly encouraged and used here. At the end they memorize the poem by heart and I have to confess that 99% of the class always remember the poem.Evaluation: This activity is designed for 5th grade. In the theoretical part I talk about CLT as a way of teaching vocabulary to young learners. 38 . This lesson makes use of it.
Maybe next time we could try adjectives. we go on.3. I decided we will not learn anything new and we will have kind of relaxing lesson. I only focus on the prepositions.to come up with own story is not always easy 1. Evaluation: This activity is designed for 5th grade but can be adopted for any grade. The story time: So. I will start now. Lesson plan # 7 Topic = A Story telling Aims: . I usually do not correct grammar mistakes.to revise some basic prepositions Aids: . Now it is your turn! (Now each child has to say a sentence and we go on as long as needed. Once upon a time.) 3.to come up with a story focusing on prepositions . numerals etc.learners already know some prepositions . another way of using CLT in the lesson.none Assumptions: . did you learn anything new today? You could see that we can have fun and play with prepositions in English too. It is only up to you. I tell them they have to focus on the prepositions and each of them has to say a sentence. are you ready? Do you still think it is difficult? Ok. I met a man IN a town. Are you happy? But don´t worry. Maybe. It has to make sense. the English equivalents. If not. The only time the learners are allowed to speak Czech is when I ask them about the Czech prepositions. The brainstorming: Today. Don´t forget it has to be a story and not just several sentences put together. you can suggest this kind of activity to your Czech language teacher. I will start so that you have some more time to think. As you can see. 7. right? Can you tell me any examples of Czech prepositions? …Well done! And now. Tell me some English prepositions! …Well done again! Since you know the English prepositions. Then it is only English and again the communicative competence is encouraged here. only the level and age of the learners have to be considered. I bet she will like it. Revision: Well.) 2. let´s use them in reality. I heardthat in the lessons of Czech language you are talking about prepositions. And it is not just prepositions you can use in a story. All the children are curious about the story so they pay attetnion to it. ( I tell the learners we will come up with a story. maybe you can use nouns. So. then we finish and I usually let them mime it or do the actions. Discipline is not usually 39 . we will have regular English lesson. If they come up with the story after the first round.
I have really good experience with this kind of activity eventhough when I started to teach it was hard for me.a problem even though it is always just 1 person speaking. I tried it usually with older learners and there was a problem with discipline and the learners tried to use words they are not allowed to use in the classes. If they are allowed to act it out later. 40 . they are even happier.
When teaching young learners. The teachers get to know their families. The focus of this thesis is the personality of young learners and teaching vocabulary to them. From the theory. The teacher has to know his or her pupils. Sometimes. It is important to understand their needs. Testing and assessment will be the theme of my next future research. Also. Every learner is different and we need to view each person individually. They need to feel the teacher likes them and wants to teach them something new. I have to admit that in practice I tried out all the lesson plans and it worked well. we as teachers have to consider the learning disabilities too. also ways how to motivate them and last but not least their learning style. especially nowadays. In the Practical Part. their cultural and family background etc. There are more and more chidlren with these problems and we as teachers need to help them to enjoy the lessons and help them to learn too. I wanted to show that working with them offers many possibilities and we can use many methods and approaches. which words should be taught and ways that vocabulary can be presented. I also tried to show that variety is important because young learners get bored if they do the same activities in the same way all the time. Conclusion In my final thesis. I tried to show how some methods and approaches can be used in the lessons while teaching young learners. During my teacher´s training I have learned that it is important to learn about their personalities and also to get to know them. All this the teacher is learning while working with the learners. the teacher has to be strong at the knowledge but also needs to connect with the children. the results are seen easily and the learners at this age are very grateful when someone invest time in them. I deal with the subject of teaching vocabulary to young learners. there are several lesson plans. As said in the theoretical part. their expectations with which each child comes to the lessons. some activity took longer time so the learners were assigned a homework. I also talk about vocabulary – what it is. In the Theoretical Part I have mentioned some characteristics of young learners. The Practical Part proved what I mentioned in the theory. how it can be taught. as the title prompts.4. The teacher needs to understand their differences. 41 . their hobbies and interests and just basic information about the learners.
Every activity mentioned in the lesson plans was tried out during my teacher´s profession. Dalším předmětem této práce je slovní zásoba – jak může být prezentována. Jsou zde zmíněny i metody a přístupy. vyučována a také co by se vlastně mělo vyučovat. Resumé Understanding the personality of a young learner plays an important role in effective teaching. One of the subjects of this thesis is to show the characteristics of a young learner. There are mentioned some methods and approaches that can be used in the lessons. Resumé Poznání osobnosti mladšího žáka hraje důležitou roli při efektivní výuce.5. Tyto přípravy jsou zaměřeny na využití různých výukových metod vhodných k výuce slovní zásoby u mladších žáků. V praktické části jsou prezentovány přípravy na hodiny. Každá aktivity zmíněná v přípravě byla vyzkoušena během mé učitelské praxe. 42 . Another subject of this thesis is the vocabulary itself – how it can be presented. several lesson plans are presented. In the Practical Part. These lesson plans focus on using different methods while teaching vocabulary to young learners. Jedním z předmětů této bakalářské práce je ukázat charakteristiku mladšího žáka. taught. also what should be taught. které mohou být v hodinách využívány.
1991. ISBN-0521-35919-8. Julia: Using games in teaching English to young learners. Longman Group Essex. DOFF. Longman Essex.UK: Oxford University Press. Essex: Longman. 110 s. REDMAN. ISBN-0521-35921-X. 160 s.. ISBN-0521-44994-4. Teaching English to Children. Vocabulary Development Activities for Learners of English. 7. Penny. 1999. THORNBURY. Cambridge University Press. BRUMFIT. Jayne. In: BRUMFIT. ISBN0-17-556889-8. 370 s. 375 s. 2002. MOON. 8. MOON. Ray (edd. ISBN 0-582-40385-5. 1988. s. Longman Essex. Wendy A. Lisbeth H: Teaching English to Children. TONGUE. Cambridge University Press. TONGUE. KHAN. HARMER. Cambridge University Press. 6. 1995. YTREBERG. Teach English: A training course for teachers. 169 s. Jayne. ISBN 0. The Practice of English Language Teaching. 124 s. 2005. Ray: Teaching English to Children. Susan: Teaching English in the Primary Classrooms. 1991. 4. Tony. Roles of Teachers & Learners. Longman Group Essex. Stuart: A Way with Words. Scott: How to teach vocabulary. 2005. ISBN 0-19-437133-6. UK: Longman. 2. SCOTT. 1992. UR. Christopher. 1995. 1996. HALLIWELL.Bibliography 1. A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and theory.Book 2. Shelagh: Young Learners of English: Some Research Perspectives. RIXON. 142-157.). Jeremy. 11. 9. ISBN-0-582-42966-8. 345 s. Christopher. ISBN-0-582-07109-7. UK: Longman Group Essex. ISBN-0-582-42082-2.UK: Cambridge University Press. 309 s. From Practice to Principle. Stuart: A Way with Words. 124 s. REDMAN. 1991 10. 5. 3. Adrian. 12. WRIGHT. Vocabulary Development Activities for Learners of English.18-34232-9. Book 3. 43 . 185 s.
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