FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
Teaching vocabulary to young learners
Author: Lenka Přibilová
Supervisor: Mgr. Naděžda Vojtková
Lenka Přibilová, Teaching vocabulary to young learners: Bakalářská práce. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, Fakulta pedagogická, Katedra anglického jazyka a literatury, 2006, 43 stran a 5 příloh. Vedoucí bakalářské práce: Mgr. Naděžda Vojtková
Bakalářská práce Výuka slovní zásoby u mladších žáků pojednává o potřebe učitele poznat své žáky a rozumět jejich potřebám a problémům. Dalším bodem, o kterém tato práce pojednává, je otázka motivace a zapojení her a zábavy do výuky. Posledním bodem, kterým se tato práce zaobírá, je využití různých metod a přístupů ve výuce u mladších žáků.
The thesis Teaching vocabulary to young learners deals with the need of a teacher to know his or her learners and to understand their needs and problems. Other issue mentioned in the thesis is the question of motivation and icluding fun and games into the teaching process. The last issue the thesis deals with is the usage of different methods and approaches for teaching young learners.
Mladší žák, motivace, slovní zásoba, přístup, metoda, hra, zábava
Young learner, motivation, vocabulary, approach, method, game, fun
Prohlašuji, že jsem bakalářskou práci zpracovala samostatně
pod vedením Mgr. N. Vojtkové. Dále prohlašuji, že jsem uvedla všechny literární prameny, z nichž jsem čerpala. Souhlasím s uložením práce v archivu Masarykovy univerzity a se zpřístupněním ke studijním účelům. V Brně dne 30. července 2006 Lenka Přibilová
Naděžda Vojtková for her valuable advice and help.Acknowledgements
I would like to express gratitude to my supervisor Mgr.
2. 4. 6. 3. 1. 7. 2. 3. 2. 2. 2. 5. 2. 3. 2. 2.CONTENT
INTRODUCTION THEORETICAL PART YOUNG LEARNER-WHO IS A YOUNG LEARNER? VOCABULARY WHAT IS VOCABULARY? HOW ARE WORDS LEARNED? WHICH WORDS AND WHAT SHOULD BE TAUGHT? VOCABULARY PRESENTATION BE REALISTIC CHOOSING ACTIVITIES THE ROLE OF FUN AND GAMES IN THE LESSONS PRACTICAL PART LESSON PLAN # 1 LESSON PLAN # 2 LESSON PLAN # 3 LESSON PLAN # 4 LESSON PLAN # 5 LESSON PLAN # 6 LESSON PLAN # 7 CONCLUSION RESUMÉ BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES APPENDIX I 6
8 10 10 13 13 15 17 19 21 22 24 26 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 42 43 45 45
. 4. 2. 2. 3. 2. 3. 2. 3. 3. 2. 1. 3. 2. 4. 4. 3. 4. 3. 7. 1. 6. 2. 5. 2. 2. 1.
APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX
II III IV V
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In the second part of my thesis I would like to present my system of work and also different methods I use while teaching. also didactic aids and methodology books. different. Introduction
“Why? What is it good for ? Is it good for them at all? Do they really need it? Is it not only a useless worry? Why do we have to make them learn something more than what they really need and have to? How much hope shall we place in it? “
These are the most frequent questions I have been thinking about. Reactions and opininons were. In the theoretical part I will introduce the aim of this thesis. I have discussed them with many pupils.
I ran against a lot of troubles that I would like to share in my final thesis and also I would like to share some ideas for teaching vocabulary to young learners.
I divided my thesis into the theoretical and the practical part – the practical part follows the theoretical part. Therefore I would like to refer to the possibilities which teaching a foreign language to young learners brings. of course. I have been teaching English for eleven years now – seven years at a language school here in Brno. During the time I began to realize chances and occasions that English language can offer to children and I started to be a big fan of teaching English to young learners. At the begining during the discussions with my colleagues we found out that some kind of conception was needed. In the next chapter I will focus on what is vocabulary and how it is learned and also the ways how vocabulary can be presented. teachers and parents.
The aim of this work is to show several ways that can be used for teaching vocabulary to young learners.. I have to admit that at the beginning I doubted about any acquisition for young learners and many arguments seemed cogent to me.1. I would like to show why and how teaching vocabulary to young learners can be more efficient. I will enclose some materials and games that I use in
. next we pointed out that there were missing good textbooks or materials. the rest at two primary schools also in Brno. then I will try to describe who is a young learner. Frequent complain of many teachers is that it is extremely difficult to teach children that seem to lack the basic talent for learning languages.
.books (used literature) which I used for my thesis and the appendices where I included some materials and exercises with the keys. After that follows the list of sources . In conclusion I will briefly summarize my thesis.my lesssons.
which is starting to be adopted from September 2006. In the Czech Republic children have started learning a foreign language in the 4th grade so far. they are happy to present it and they feel more important. I achieved quite good results with kindergarten children so I do not see any problems for older learners. When they know it. it is not possible to say that every child of six will know this and that. Some children develop faster. In my opinion. others need more time. From my personal experience.who was able to “communicate” with a native speaker.1. Their brain and memory is ready for learning and most of them can learn quite well. the better for them. However.
It is generally known that the Czech system officially allows children to start learning a foreign language in the 4th grade.
.5th grade . Young learner . Understanding these differences can help me as a teacher to develop methods and a system of work that I will use in the process of teaching. But it is possible to pick out some chracteristics which I as a teacher should know and should be aware of. Teaching young learners requires the knowledge of knowing all the development differences. Her joy was the best reward for me. Theoretical part
2.2. There have been many disputes and discussions over this. the sooner they start. From my own personal experience I have to admit that learners at this age are grateful when someone invest time in them.
I have decided to focus on young learners – age group 7-11. I think the older ones can do it too.who is a young learner?
A young learner – who is he or she? This term covers a wide age range. this can be anybody from the age of three to the age of eighteen. We should consider their development too. There is a big difference between what a –three-year-old child can do and what a child of fifteen can do. In the 7th grade they will have to start learning a second foreign language. The results are seen quite easily and of course teachers demand this kind of satisfaction. according to the new school curricula. the children will start a year earlier and in some schools the foreign language will be introduced from the 1st grade. I remember a girl . I think these debates will be run over and over because nobody is able to say the exact time for beginning to learn foreign languages. I think if very young learners are able to achieve good results. Of course. I have chosen this age group because I like working with young learners. These children still want to learn something new.
They love to be praised for what they have done and learnt.I would like to point out some characteristics about this age group. They love to share their experiences. They want to learn and are happy when they learn something. They understand situations and through situations – they use several senses.
They are happy when they can play. this is very important fact to keep their motivation.. discuss and they are able to interact with both children and adults. they love when people pay attention to them and their talking. They are able to concentrate for certain time. argue. They use imagination a lot. 1992. then they have to share it with somebody and they are proud that they learnt something.
Halliwell states that: young children are already very good at interpreting meaning without necessarily understanding the individual words already have great skill in using limited language creatively frequently learn indirectly rather than directly take great pleasure in creating fun in what they do their imagination is ready “above all take great delight in talking” (Halliwell. It is very important to choose the right way of teaching for these little children. They can think. These examples of characteristics I have mentioned above are great hints how to teach young learners and what kind of methods we should use. They do not realize what is fact and what is fiction sometimes. My observations are the same as hers. the 11
. They are able to talk about what they are doing. They are able to use language skills not even realizing them. The teacher definitely has to be very sensitive to the children´s needs and has to prepare the lessons well. We should avoid a stereotype. Very often they pretend they understand everything and they know everything. Often they “teach” each other. they can show off a little bit. p 3)
I do agree with Halliwell and her observations.
lessons have to be creative and lively.
. Otherwise this could have really bad consequences for the learners´ further improvement in the language.
We come across completely new words that are made up according to new technologies and according to the needs of real life. the learner while learning the vocabulary of a second language can come across several challenges: “making the correct connections. between the form and meaning of words when producing language. Learners of a second language experience something similar. and in terms of the way each of us learned our first and any subsequent languages. which are made up of two or three words but express a single idea. Languages emerge first as words. a verb to google is used frequently a lot. p 60)
All languages consist of words.2. Vocabulary
2. A useful convention is to cover all such cases by talking about vocabulary „items“ rather than „words“. roughly. 2003. (Ur. Moreover. using the correct form of a word for the meaning intended ( i. be able to recall them readily
. or being used in ways that for them are novel and possibly obscure. However. 2.
To summarize this. and mother-in-law. Czech word pošta.e. This used to mean just the post office or simple letters but nowadays it also means emails. nose not noise)
To meet these challenges the learner needs to: acquire a critical mass of words for use in both understanding and producing the language remember words over time. What is vocabulary?
“Vocabulary can be defined. vocabulary is still widening. Even in our native language we are continually learning new words and meanings of old words. both historically. when understanding the second language. Some words can be entirely new to us. 2. Thornbury states that they can be confronted by words that are totally unfamiliar. For example. post office. as the words we teach in the foreign language. To find the right word to fit the meaning can be very frustrating. 1. For example. a new item of vocabulary may be more than just a single word: for example. especially if the store of words is limited.
. including coping with unknown words.develop strategies for coping with gaps in word knowledge. 2002. or unfamiliar uses of known words have to take responsibility themselves for vocabulary expansion” (Thornbury.
The mother tongue is never used. there are no translations. homonyms etc.” (Thornbury. Very many children are nowadays very hyper and physically active
. A little bit of shocking method is the direct method or the direct approach. I will mention just some of them that can be used for teaching young learners. This method stimulates the learner´s brain by music while learning but nowadays teachers seem to be leaving this method. for example. 2.2.TPR. The child needs to learn how far to extend the concept of a cat. But of course not every animal is a cat. linguist
To know a word is one thing but we have to pause on the fact how this knowledge is acquired. “In other words. We need to let them repeat it in different ways and they should be given a chance to listen to the teacher talking about it. Culture is considered an important aspect. not just cats. How are words learned? “Without grammar very little can be conveyed. Thornbury states that the children have to develop some kind of network building – constructing some complex idea. then they always start with words used for labelling.” David Wilkins. p 18) The child has to realise that these common words like cat can be replaced by superordinate terms like animals.
There are many different methods and approaches how to teach a foreign language.
To help the learners understand it is important to visualize the item and get the pupils to repeat or use the item actively. without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. 2. 2002. acquiring a vocabulary requires not only labelling but also categorising skills. Than during this process they will realise there also exist words like synonyms. so that the concept. Only target language is used in the calssrooms and only complete sentences are used. One good way of doing this is to let them see or perhaps touch the vocabulary item. including vocabulary. Suggestopedia is a very successful method in helping learners to memorize words. And to this category also belongs other animals. of a cat has a name cat. for instance a house. Thinking about little children who learn to speak. What really works especially for young learners is the Total Physical Response method .
. This method is used a lot by teachers. games.and to concentrate for a long time can be very difficult for them. changing topics and using a variety of activities is very appreeciated by them. Communicative Language Approach (Teaching) – CLT – stresses the meaning of a language in context. Using this method. Communicative competence is highly developed here and learners are encouraged to communicate.
we need to consider the frequency too.
.2. using hyphenated words etc. 2. Thus. 3. meaning and word formation. also regular and irregular ( girl-girls. There is a choice for us. If there is a theme “Animals”. what they eat etc. we would like to present their plural forms. a teacher. 1996. For example when teaching nouns. p 60) The grammar of a new item also needs to be taught.
mouse-mice). collocations. We can relate items together – for example words like “a school. p 61) In my opinion it is important to inform learners about the meaning of the word as well as their form and grammar. then grammar. Especially with young learners words that they are familiar with and they can stick to them should be taught. Which words and what should be taught?
The significant point in teaching vocabulary is the selection of words we as teachers want to teach. Nowadays all the course books are organised into themes and they provide vocabulary according to it. “The meaning of a word is primarily what it refers to in the real world. (Ur. maybe we would like to present their past forms. then we can expect words like naming animals. Thus. Learners find this sometimes very difficult and discouraging because some words do not have just one meaning. its denotation”. a blackboard and a break” are all associated with education.
Ur states the learners need to be taught the form of the word. is too difficult for young learners. It is quite easy to teach concrete words at lower level and then become more abstract. Again. we can decide which words to teach on the basis of frequency. it is good when the learners know the synonyms (smart – intelligent) or antonyms (rich – poor). depending what level the learners are they should be taught to follow some grammatical rules. Collocations – I do not think these are important for young learners. Very often words are taught according to themes and topics. 1996. Words that have quite specific meaning should be avoided with young learners. especially if the verb is irregular (forget-forgot). In the form pronunciation and spelling should be mentioned. also where they live. When teaching verbs. “The learner has to know what a word sounds like (its pronunciation) and what it looks like (its spelling). how often the words are used by the speaker of the language.” (Ur. Word formation – using prefixes and suffixes. Context helps them to find the right meaning.
But as said above they also need to know other aspects of the words they learn. it is important to teach them all these aspects. I think that if we keep repeating the plural form “mice”. hear or with whar they can touch. Young learners often put words together with what they can see. it is easier to remember concrete words like a chair or a dog than abstract words. firstly I think that knowing the word and understanding its meaning go hand in hand. after some time most of them will not say “mouses”.To summarize this. Of course. we will not teach them. for example the irregular plural form right away. but they need to know it.
. In my opinion. Secondly.
intermediate etc. several realia
. This is closely connected with several factors: the level of the pupils – beginners. In my opinion. are they easily pronounced. p 75)
Firstly. 2002. I think every teacher tends to use and prefers some technique that he or she finds interesting.
A number of techniques can be adopted to present new vocabulary items. placing the new items in context. Some techniques are more popular and more often used than others. and revising them. wall charts. the older ones can manage pretty well abstract explanations or even definitions. blackboard drawings.2. And of course there are techniques that we as teachers try to avoid.? can the words be easily demonstrated ? shall we use realia or anything that the pupils can become familiar with? can pictures be used to elicit vocabulary?
After the teacher chooses what items to teach. Another factor that is worth considering is the age of the learners.” (Thornbury. There are techniques that are particularly appropriate for certain types of words – for example actions can be explained through pantomime. word pictures. Vocabulary presentation
“By presentation we mean those pre-planned lesson stages in which learners are taught
pre-selected vocabulary items. Younger ones react quite well when we show them concrete illustrations. 3. their familiarity with the words – have they come across these words or are they completely new? words difficulty – are the words abstract. can we find similar words in the learner´s native language etc. The presentation of new vocabulary can be classified for example according to verbal and visual techniques. posters. this includes teaching the vocabulary "in spoken form first" to prevent students from pronouncing the words in the form they are written.flashcards. photographs and magazine pictures. he or she should follow certain guidelines. Among visual techniques we can find pictures . Also it is up to the teacher which techniques he or she decides to use but always the effectiveness of teaching should be considered. we should consider how many words should be presented during the lesson.
learners can learn how to use dictionaries. Translation is one of the traditional ways of explaining the meaning of words. action and gestures can be used especially for explaining actions and times. definition by abstraction. It could be done by the teacher or with using a dictionary. and definition by translation. Verbal techniques consist of using illustrative situations. Learners can label pictures or objects or perform an action. and using various forms of definition: for example. They have to be told there are two parts – English-Czech and CzechEnglish. Words can be organised into sets. subclasses and subcategories often aided by visual presentation.that teachers can hold up or point to. This technique is not used much recently. Explanation can become extremely difficult especially with beginner levels. Teachers can prepare quite interesting lesson where the learners learn how to use dictionaries. Mime. They cannot interact with the words. Another way that can be used is translation. In my opinion it is good to use both picture dictionaries and classical dictionaries where they find the meaning with young learners. contextual definitions. collocations. scales. Most of the young learners have never used a dictionary before so it is a need to teach them to use dicitonaries first. definition by demonstration (visual definition). It has its advantages but also disadvantages. descriptions. Then they have to be told about the alphabetical order and about other things they can find there. even though it is quick and easy but can be very discouraging for learners. Using this technique.
. synonyms and antonyms.
4.. And we hope it will be worthwile. or not very able.2. or poorly motivated. very honestly. And their lessons then turn to be boring. We should evaluate the lesson ourselves. draw flashcards. Or if we have an observer in the lesson. we want to praise the children as much as possible but on the other hand we want to be realistic and. We draw pictures.
. our expectations are sometimes very high. independent. Be realistic
Nowadays. We want to be flexible. It does not mean. Language classrooms are noisy. cut paper into small pieces. 1992. There are teachers who would never do such activities again. for example. But sometimes something goes wrong. we should reject the idea of pairwork because our clasess are big. sensible. . p 19) After every lesson we should ask ourselves whether the lesson was productive or unproductive and we should go back to our objectives and aims. being realistic should mean taking realities into account in such a way that good things can still happen. and we do it even at midnight. This of course leads to the fact the children will become silly and they will really enjoy it. Quite often the children are not “angels”. “We need to be realistic in our expectations of ourselves and the learners. creative. There are many of them in circulation that it is quite easy to get carried away. teachers can come across many language teaching ideas and techinques. creative. be active.. there are at least fifteen pupils – usually even more. The classes with high number of students put exceptional demands on teacher`s preparation for the lesson and there is obviously a requirement of larger classrooms too. We encourage them to interact. On the contrary. make crosswords etc. we should discuss it with him/her.” (Halliwell.
. The children´s minds have to jump from one topic to another with not much time to let things sink in effectively. competitions.” (Halliwell. Once the idea of context playing a decisive role in the choice of language is firmly established. there should be considered what kind of activities should be choosen knowing the effect of them.
We should not forget context developing activities. there are activities that have the opposite effect. Some language activities can stir a class.2. We often try to make our lessons varied. too many activities and changing the activities all the time can destroy the lesson well.
“We will not help the children to develop their capacity to concentrate if we jump inconsequentially from one topic to the next. This is good but can lead to misunderstanding. we can begin to introduce varieties of the language used in different contexts. Another aspect we should think about are activities which engage children´s minds and which keep them physically occupied. dialogues” etc”. They may seem to settle the pupils.
There are ways of varying the oral work so that it is making different demands on the children and therefore feels different even when the topic remains the same. 1. Many coursebooks provide learners with plenty of opportunities to develop their own context for the language presented. It needs to be considered well. for example. But this can mean we may produce a lesson which is a disaster. Activities that can stir the class are. warm them up. Before the lesson is planned. “If we are to help the learners acquire independent second language lexicons. Choosing activities
It is up to the teacher mostly to choose the right activity. Thinking about the positive way of the word “stir”. for example activities like “odd one out. 4. We should realise some important things. Of course. we need to highlight the importance of the context in which the language naturally occurs. games. it means these activities will wake up the class. filling-in exercises. The lesson can be varied by doing lots of activities on different topics. 
Another factor that teachers should bear in their minds is to keep the lessons simple. 1992. oral work. This is not easy and teachers should spend really quality time to think about this.
” (Halliwell. we can come up with new things but always the activities should be simple in principle. They can become truly the core of your language teaching.org. We can reuse materials all the time.. Variation comes in the forms of activity as Halliwell states. they will take to them easily when they appear. Then they can transfer to different topics and situations.teachingenglish.shtml
. p 38 )
 http://www.Variation does not only mean changing the topics and materials but also the change of work we do.. “Because you use them regularly you will quickly get to know the best way to set them up with your classes.1992..uk/think/vocabulary/context_developing. Using different methods and ways of teaching should become a regular part of our lessons. Because the classes know them.
. What is a game? “A game is played when one or moreplayers compete or co-operate for playoffs according to a set of rules. such as parental and social attitudes. The role of fun and games in the lessons
“By ´fun and games´ I mean all those activities that we loosely think of as involving play and enjoyment. model-making. Again. p 33)
It is evident that young learners learn through play much easier and they enjoy it more.1995) Games may focus on oral or written part of the language. Children need to be involved and even excited in order to learn effectively. In playing together we can see elements of interaction and during interacting the learners develop language skills. in Teaching English to Chidren) Games are activities with rules and goals. 1995. Language can also be picked as a result of an enjoyable activity. Teachers can come up 24
. (Khan. And J. 1995.” (Jones.2. Quite often the learners do not realize they are learning. they offer a vast selection of activities. 1995. clapping hands. “ For young learners. chanting rhymes. Many games can be looked at as drill exercises but they have an added fun and competition element. I and J. is likely to be weaker than that created by events in the classroom itself. They play and love to play. 2. This is quite a natural way for them to learn. 4.” (Khan. the stories need to be picked carefully.” (Opie. Piaget (1967) (Piaget in Teaching English to Children) saw chidlren´s games as.” (Rixon. motivation deriving from the factors outside the classroom. games. Singing. 1969) (Opie. Khan states that the achievement of these goals signals the end of the game. “Telling stories to students can result in natural language acquisition on their part. ´the most admirable social institutions´. p 37) Teachers can tell stories the learners are familiar with in their own language. For example. Children are very often concerned with controlling whether everybody follows the rules and whether they are not broken. I. The language learnt by heart can often be a part of the activities. solving puzzles. commands for the games can be remembered quite easily. Then the learners are able to follow it better. For example. 1986) (Jones in Teaching English to Children) “A true game is one that frees the spirit.. Learning can be absorbed really well. It allows of no cares but those fictitious ones engendered by the game itself. drawing. a game that works like this is well-known game “Simon says”. the level of the learners need to be considered and the teacher has to investigate time into preparation.. p 143) It is obvious that the games need to be motivating. colouring. Fun and games should have an important role in the children´s education.” (Rixon.
Example .” or “If you are happy and you know it.”.a song “This is the way. The teachers should not forget the values of games and fun activities in the lessons. New sentences and activities can be produced by the children themselves....
. Several activities can allow and involve more creative use of the language. All this can be applied to teaching vocabulary too.
As said above games and fun are important parts of the lesson. There are many possibilities for adapting games we can find. then they can be extended. Songs are most grateful way for this.. Appreciated story can be The Story of the Big Enormous Turnip. Teachers can “play” with vocabulary while teaching it. A play is in the essential nature of the child. I . It is very appreciated by the learners. The learners can make up new verses.with a simple version of the story.
some have just started. we work with handouts that they get from me and place them into a folder. Practical part
In my final thesis I have decided to focus on teaching English vocabulary to young learners . I try to use English in the classes as much as possible and I want their reactions in English too.
It is evident that some learners have been learning the English language for several years.age group 7-11. The younger ones do not use any course books. their age and their abilities. of course if possible. Hicks. some started in the kindergarten. Most of the pupils only started with learning English in the 4th grade.3. I always have to consider that in each class there are more children and some with learning disabilities.15 pupils at the age of 5 – 11. Littlejohn and D. I would like to enclose several lesson plans and also reflect on some observations from the theoretical part. Most of the classes use the course book Cambridge English for Schools by A. they do not have almost any troubles with motivation and as I have said in the theoretical part. I have to admit that it is a lot of fun to teach these children.
All the activities reflect the level of the learners. they still want to learn. most of them consisted of 10 .
. I tried out all the activities described here during my teacher´s career. These handouts are given to them so that their parents know what we learned in the lesson and can practice during the week. The activities have been piloted in at least 10 classes.
it is your time to show me who is who. sister etc. “this is my daughter Kristyna”. And so on. After each sentence I make the learners say whose picture they are showing me. 1.. they all have to tell me a “password” to leave. Do you live in a family? Who belongs to your family? Do you have any brothers or sisters? What is your brother´s / sister´s name? How often do you see your grandmother and grandfather?. Talking about families: Today we are going to talk about families.the learners get to know my family . father.) 2. Before they leave the classroom. Is this your mother? Is this your sister? Is this your grandfather? After some time we will play a game.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know .. Now. handouts Assumptions: .after the lesson the learners will know at least 5 new words Aids: . mother. Working with their pictures: (The learners were supposed to bring to the class pictures of their family members.3. I have to count on the fact.they are ready to share and are ready to play
1. Lesson plan # 1
Topic = My family Aims: . While doing this I read a story about a family from a book. At the end we sum up the lesson and I tell them that next lesson we will play a family pexeso. a story book. Ok.) Now. Reading and colouring: I distribute the handouts (Appendix I) that I have prepared for them and the colour pencils and the learners will colour the people. I stand behind the door and as they leave I ask them for example for the word “maminka”. colour pencils. (On the black board there is a family poster all the time. Who is this? Your. they forgot. we are going to play a game and the winner gets a reward! I will say a sentence. 3.. pieces of paper. I use pictures of my family and point to the right person and repeat who he/she is. I repeat the word “daughter”. a family poster. for example:” Show me your mother!” And you have to show me your mother´s picture..learners know each other and their families . now I will talk about my family. so I distribute either my pictures or pictures from magazines. They have to say “mother” and can leave. So I ask. While talking.to get to know the learners´ families.pictures and photos.
. the learners know them well so I suppose they will be very active and will want to share . so that I can point to it anytime. For example.
again according to the age and level of the learners and also depending on the fact how long the lesson is – 40.
. I let them jump while showing me their family members. the children can come to black board and point to the right person on the poster. It is very natural for them to learn this phrase. 45 or 60 minutes. they put their hands above their heads etc. the children are able to remember it without any explanation and real “learning”. But as I have said in the theoretical part. Learners have a chance to hear and see. In this lesson I decided to use the TPR method too. What needs to be said here is that during this activity the children are able to learn a phrase “This is my mother/father etc.” Because this phrase is repeated in the lesson many times.Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 1st grade learners or even kindergarten children. This lesson can be varied in many ways. too much variety can spoil the lesson so this is very important factor that should be considered. In this lesson I decided to use one of the visual methods that I talked about in the theoretical part.
. You can see this classroom is full of colours.3. listen up! Black. Well done! Now you know we will talk about colours today.. pieces of paper. a story book. Usually they do really well and are happy they were succesfull with their “dictation”. Well done... Working with “colours”: Let´s take your exercise books now and you can see what I draw on the board. they swap the drawings with their partners and we check it together. are you ready? Let´s start. I will pick up different colour pencils and you can shout out the name of the colour. Lesson plan # 2
Topic = Colours Aims: . I know you do not like dictations but this one is going to be different. I also point out to the right colour on the poster.pictures. Now when you have finished.) 2. Talking about colours: I will say several words and you tell me what I am speaking about. Finishing up the topic: (After the learners finished their drawings. Let´s start now.the learners get to know the names of the colours . So. I willshout out a name of the colour and you must run to touch this colour... white.. Ok.. picture of rainbow. I want you to do the same. to get to know how they feel about colours .to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know . Let´s start now. are you ready?I do not want you to shout or look to your friend´s paper... Potom si vezmi black a nakresli three birds. I have a special reward for you.) Well. You can touch a chair.. anything.to get to know the learners´ favourite colours.. 2. colour pencils.. We will play a game. After some minutes the learners get back to their seats and we repeat all the colours once more. We will do it as a game called “silent post”. children! Now you know the English names for colours. green. Since we stil lhave time left. your friend´s trousers. 3.) Well done. Every time I call out some colour. (After each shout I repeat the colour after them so that they have a chance to hear the pronunciation well. blue. I take a colour chalk and draw a big circle on the board. Do you any colours? Which one is your favourite? What does black mena for you? How do you feel about yellow? What does it evoke?I will tell you a story about rainbow. a colour poster. But to each colour you will write down the name. The very first person who knows will tell me and then we will send it to others and the last person says that outloud. a blackboard.they are ready to play . now exchange your drawings with your partner and let´s check it. I put the poster on the wall.colour dictation should be easy and fun for them
1..after the lesson the learners will know at least 7 new words including the word rainbow Aids: . (While we are talking.´Well.learners probably already know the colours .
. colour chalk Assumptions: . I say:´Vezmi si yellow a nakresli sun. You need to be careful about the spelling!. now we will write a “dictation”.
Again. Therefore this lesson cannot be boring so that even these children would be able to be active.
. I have to count on the fact most of the learners already know the colours from previous classes. as I have mentioned in lesson plan # 1. After they have finished that. The learners can hear. This topic is quite easy and children have a lot of fun with this. I think using TPR is very productive and learners can learn and remember it better. This lesson can be varied in many ways again. I have to be careful because the learners try to write down the names of the colours. see and touch and later they can run in the classrooms.Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 3rd or 4th grade learners. in this lesson I used one of the visual methods and also TPR. I usually check the spelling in their exercise books.
they want to express their feelings
1. mimes and actions. Simon says Sit down! and you will sit down.. While explaining all these actions. A pupil with the less points is the winner. (This activity can last as long as the learners are not bored. I always use the English language for explaining the actions and adjectives because the motion help the children to understand. If you do.after the lesson the learners will know at least 8 new words Aids: . handouts Assumptions: ..using gestures. I am deaf. I am asleep. The game
.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know .4. I am writing etc. Then we will play a game. I am blind. I am showing them the motions. (As I was explaining the rules. Of course during this acitvity we will practice the adjectives too.) Now I need a volunteer who will say the sentence instead of me. you can be the teacher now. I will say Simon says Stand up! and you will stand up. Revision of some basic commands and adjectives: Well. The teacher also needs to know how many words the learners know. Verbs Aims: . it is time for a game. I ma dancing. for example. Lesson plan # 3
Topic = Adjectives. What are verbs and adjectives? Can you tell me an example? Is the word ´sit´a verb? Is theword ˇhappy´an adjective? So. I always start with the easier and already known ones.colour pencils. today we are going to practice some verbs and adjectives. I am drinking. you’ll get a point. I am bored. I was doing what I was saying.learners know some basic commands . Are you reday? Stand up! Sit down! Close your books!. Learning new vocabulary: I want to teach the learners new vocabulary. Together we repeat the words and do the actions.Smile! Be happy! Be sad!. it can be used as a revision of what the learners have already known.” Does anybody know this game? I will explain the rules to you.the learners get to know the the basic verbs and adjectives .
Evaluation: This activity is designed for 4th grade. I decided to show another way of teaching vocabulary to young learners . At the end of the lesson I always check whether they undrestand all the practised commands and adjectives. We will play the game “Simon says.they are ready to play . For this activity I decided to choose the well-known commands as a warm-up. then I go on with the newer ones..) 2. 3. now I will say some basic commands and you will do what I say. BUT if I don’t say Simon says you mustn’t do anything. Now..
The learners are very competitive and active because everybody wants to be the winner. This activity can be used as a warm-up or we can fill in some part of the lesson if minutes are left. they usually tell me they like it more when they can give the commands.
. Very important aspect of this game is discipline. When I get feedback from the children. The learners need to pay attention to what I say. Very often I play this game in groups where more children can practise the phrase Simon says.Simon says practises the language in reality.
. To make it easier I distributed a set of pictures among you and you will hear all these animals.to get to know the basic animals in English .) Well done. we are going to talk about animals today. an animal poster. 4.after the lesson the learners will know at least 5 new words Aids: .to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know . I get ready the tape recorder. You are going to hear several sounds of animals and I want you to write their names on a piece of paper. You cannot talk. Do you understand? ( The learners are ready to listen now. the topic of today´s lesson. I will write something on the blackboard and you have to find out a hidden word in it. WHAT SONG P ICTURE MOTHER CARD LOVE CH R I S T M A S In these words you can find 1 word. children. Listening: Now. I will start up the lesson in a little bit different way than usually. colour pencils.. What animals do you know? What is your favourite animal? Have you ever been to the zoo? Do you like big animals? Areyou scared of any? Do you know any exotic animals? Do you have an animal at home?… (During this talking I write down on the blackboard all the animals the learners name and distribute pictures of animals among the children.) 2.3. it is a toy dog. a tape recorder Assumptions: .learners will probably know some English names of animals . Lesson plan # 4
Topic = Animals Aims: ..learners like animals . the winner gets a price! If you think you know. So as you can see.they are ready to share and lsiten
1. you can just write down number to each picture. you are very good! Now we will listen again but this time you do not have the pictures. Talking about animals. You will hear 5 sounds and I think you will know all of them. just put your hand above your head. handouts.pictures. Well done! The word is ANIMALS! And the winner is Honza? Here is your price! What is it? Yes. So. brainstorming: Well. we will listen to a tape recorder.
because you can work with dictionaries. (Usually the learners want to be creative and work on their own. This is very active time. So now. I help them. I ask questions – Honzo. This lesson can be varied in many ways and can be done with younger learners too.) 3. If you need help. (This is a little bit more difficult but the sounds are of well-known animals so the chidlren will not have any troubles with it. Of course. you can use them. So you need to know some animals and also something about them. Then I let them be creative and let them work on the project. I do not tell them which animals they have to choose or what exactly needs to be written there or how exactly it has to be done. so the teacher would have to come up with a different activity.
Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 3rd or 4th grade. the learners usually remember at least 1 new word. make groups of 4 and each group has to prepare a poster. each child can talk and I pay attetnion to this. which is not as easy for them. therefore after this activity I need to calm them down and we listen to the sounds of animals. Through brainstorming. You can either draw or glue animals. so the children do not usually have any troubles with this. so I can show them so that they get ideas. do you know any animals?. they do not need my help. where they live. Right at the beginning of the lesson the learners have a chance to brainstorm. imagine you are going to take a friend of yours to the zoo soon and you want to give him/her a tour. everybody is included. Also usually this activity takes longer time. you can either ask me or. what is your favourite animal? etc.must guess which animals you hear. Jano. so I let them work in the next lesson too. The topic is also very grateful and from my personal experience the children always have a lot of fun with it. Project: Now. anything you like. Again.
. Probably the hidden word would be too difficult for them. I usually have examples with me in the lesson. you can write about them – what they eat. Then they have to guess the hidden word. if nobody is able to guess this word. If somebody remains quiet. All the sounds are of known animals.
I will go on like this for a while.
. Practise: I usually ask the children to find out three vocabulary items to practise the finding. Introducing dictionaries: This mornig as I was getting ready for your lesson I realised I would need helpers. I need to be sure they are familier with working with the dictionaries. the window is the odd one. I will give you the handouts and you have to work on them. the English one. Which one is the odd one? Yes.3. which part will you be looking in?Yes.Well done! At the end of the lesson we can sing the alpabet song if you want to. If you find id.“apple. I will say an English word and you can find the Czech equivalent in the dicitonary. If I say an English word. 2. You can work in pairs and you must circle the odd ones. distribute these dictionaries. If you open them.but even this fact the learners need their time to get used to working with the dictionaries
1. pear. Thses books are called dictionaries. 5. I distribute the handouts (Appendix II) and the learners work on the handout. Do you understand it? Well.various kinds of dicitonaries. window”. So the word is a lemon.to revise some basic terminology .. Let´s quickly revise the aplhabet. 3. As homework they have to prepare similar exercise. put your hands above.. At the end we check the exercixe together. one into each desk.learners know the alphabet so this should not be that difficult . Working with the dictionaries: Now it is time to start “working” with the dicitonaries. you can find it here. So. So if you do not understand some word. Lesson plan # 5
Topic = Fruit Aims: . Now. Each child says one letter from the aplhabet. If their answer is right.. flashcards Assumptions: . It is orgaized according to the alphabetwhich you already know. So thank you for coming and helping me to bring the dictionaries. English-Czech and Czech-English.. you can see there are two parts.to teach and practise using dicitonaries . Now check these three items .after the lesson the learners will know 5 new words
Aids: . you can start working.to find out the odd words . handouts.
This is probably their first time using and working with dictionaries. I have to admit that when I first taught this topic and was teaching how to use dicitonaries.
. I did not manage to do everything that I planned for the lesson. From my own personal experience I have to say that children usually like working with dictionaries and like the exercises. Now I have to make sure that children know the alphabet really well.This activity is designed for learners in the 4th grade.Evaluation:
I talk about using dictionaries as a way for teaching vocabulary in the theoretical part. Every time there is a child who has troubles with it but it is normal. I said that it is very traditional and maybe an old way but I wanted to show that translation can be used and sometimes should not be avoided. But it cannot be long because the learners easily get bored with it.
. each child reads a line. The learners can see the whole poem on the blackboard. If not. I am tired and I would like to be at home in my bed with a hot cup of tea and my favourite book.to understand the text about weather . This is all because of the weather. When this is done. I have to give you a homework. a poem Assumptions: .to find out the odd words . I read it outloud and then we read it together. You will have to answer some questions too. I have to say it myself. Odd one out: (Appendix V) Thank you very much for your work today and so that you can practise these new words at home. we start learning the poem. 6.) I am not happy today.the learners usually are not as willing to talk so I have to ask right and direct questions
1. Lesson plan # 6
Topic = The Weather Aims: . so all you have to do is to find the odd word out.to revise some basic terminology . Poem: (Appendix IV) Well. I assume the children will ask me what is wrong with me. I will write it on the blackboard.reading texts. Reading: Now. now it is time to learn a short poem. enjoy it and see you next lesson. so that the children would have to memorize it. (Appendix III) I distribute the texts and I read first. Every time we read it. children! ( I look very tired and I am not happy. You all know this type of exercise.after the lesson the learners will know 5 new words Aids: . 3. flashcards. We talk about the text and after that they answer the questions all by themselves. we will read a short text about the weather and then we will talk about it. After that. So. because you have been working hard.3. Talking about weather: Good morning.learners already know some weather terminology . The children just listen. 4. 2. This won´t take you long. Do you like this kind of weather? What do you like to do in this kind of weather? What is your favourite season? Why? Do you prefer hot weather to cold weather? etc. I wil lwrite the questions on the blackboard. I erase 1 word.
I have to admit this is not easy but I as a teacher have to adjust my vocabulary and talking to the learners´ level. I have to be really well prepared for this lesson. The lesson does not have to seem interesting to the learners at first but later they start to like it. Usually next lesson I go on in this topic. This lesson makes use of it. In the theoretical part I talk about CLT as a way of teaching vocabulary to young learners. Working with a text is important for them. I work with the learned vocabulary and I build on it. This lesson is done completely in English and the communicative competence is highly encouraged and used here.
. At the end they memorize the poem by heart and I have to confess that 99% of the class always remember the poem. looking for information is another way to learn the language.Evaluation: This activity is designed for 5th grade.
I only focus on the prepositions. Maybe. Maybe next time we could try adjectives. I met a man IN a town.
Evaluation: This activity is designed for 5th grade but can be adopted for any grade. let´s use them in reality. 7. I decided we will not learn anything new and we will have kind of relaxing lesson.3. did you learn anything new today? You could see that we can have fun and play with prepositions in English too. And it is not just prepositions you can use in a story. Don´t forget it has to be a story and not just several sentences put together. then we finish and I usually let them mime it or do the actions. we go on. Lesson plan # 7
Topic = A Story telling Aims: .to come up with a story focusing on prepositions . maybe you can use nouns. Once upon a time. The story time: So.to come up with own story is not always easy
1.to revise some basic prepositions Aids: . I bet she will like it. are you ready? Do you still think it is difficult? Ok. the English equivalents. The brainstorming: Today. If not. The only time the learners are allowed to speak Czech is when I ask them about the Czech prepositions.) 2. Then it is only English and again the communicative competence is encouraged here. right? Can you tell me any examples of Czech prepositions? …Well done! And now. Are you happy? But don´t worry. ( I tell the learners we will come up with a story. we will have regular English lesson. Now it is your turn! (Now each child has to say a sentence and we go on as long as needed. It has to make sense. only the level and age of the learners have to be considered. So. I usually do not correct grammar mistakes. I will start now.none Assumptions: . another way of using CLT in the lesson. you can suggest this kind of activity to your Czech language teacher. All the children are curious about the story so they pay attetnion to it.) 3. Discipline is not usually
. If they come up with the story after the first round. numerals etc. Revision: Well.learners already know some prepositions . I will start so that you have some more time to think. I heardthat in the lessons of Czech language you are talking about prepositions. As you can see. It is only up to you. Tell me some English prepositions! …Well done again! Since you know the English prepositions. I tell them they have to focus on the prepositions and each of them has to say a sentence.
a problem even though it is always just 1 person speaking. I have really good experience with this kind of activity eventhough when I started to teach it was hard for me. they are even happier. I tried it usually with older learners and there was a problem with discipline and the learners tried to use words they are not allowed to use in the classes.
. If they are allowed to act it out later.
From the theory. I deal with the subject of teaching vocabulary to young learners. The teacher needs to understand their differences. their hobbies and interests and just basic information about the learners. as the title prompts. It is important to understand their needs. In the Practical Part.
. I also talk about vocabulary – what it is. we as teachers have to consider the learning disabilities too. All this the teacher is learning while working with the learners. there are several lesson plans. Also. When teaching young learners. I have to admit that in practice I tried out all the lesson plans and it worked well. which words should be taught and ways that vocabulary can be presented. The Practical Part proved what I mentioned in the theory.4. I tried to show how some methods and approaches can be used in the lessons while teaching young learners. the teacher has to be strong at the knowledge but also needs to connect with the children. The focus of this thesis is the personality of young learners and teaching vocabulary to them. especially nowadays. As said in the theoretical part. Every learner is different and we need to view each person individually. I also tried to show that variety is important because young learners get bored if they do the same activities in the same way all the time. Testing and assessment will be the theme of my next future research. the results are seen easily and the learners at this age are very grateful when someone invest time in them. their expectations with which each child comes to the lessons. Conclusion
In my final thesis. their cultural and family background etc. During my teacher´s training I have learned that it is important to learn about their personalities and also to get to know them. I wanted to show that working with them offers many possibilities and we can use many methods and approaches. Sometimes. There are more and more chidlren with these problems and we as teachers need to help them to enjoy the lessons and help them to learn too. how it can be taught. The teachers get to know their families. They need to feel the teacher likes them and wants to teach them something new. The teacher has to know his or her pupils. In the Theoretical Part I have mentioned some characteristics of young learners. some activity took longer time so the learners were assigned a homework. also ways how to motivate them and last but not least their learning style.
These lesson plans focus on using different methods while teaching vocabulary to young learners. Every activity mentioned in the lesson plans was tried out during my teacher´s profession. Another subject of this thesis is the vocabulary itself – how it can be presented. One of the subjects of this thesis is to show the characteristics of a young learner. Jsou zde zmíněny i metody a přístupy.
. There are mentioned some methods and approaches that can be used in the lessons. several lesson plans are presented. které mohou být v hodinách využívány. V praktické části jsou prezentovány přípravy na hodiny. Resumé
Understanding the personality of a young learner plays an important role in effective teaching. also what should be taught.5.
Poznání osobnosti mladšího žáka hraje důležitou roli při efektivní výuce. In the Practical Part. Dalším předmětem této práce je slovní zásoba – jak může být prezentována. taught. Tyto přípravy jsou zaměřeny na využití různých výukových metod vhodných k výuce slovní zásoby u mladších žáků. Každá aktivity zmíněná v přípravě byla vyzkoušena během mé učitelské praxe. vyučována a také co by se vlastně mělo vyučovat. Jedním z předmětů této bakalářské práce je ukázat charakteristiku mladšího žáka.
Longman Group Essex.. In: BRUMFIT. Cambridge University Press. Christopher. 1991 10. Longman Essex. 1988. 370 s. ISBN 0-19-437133-6.Bibliography
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