Teaching vocabulary to young learners

Bachelor work

Brno 2006

Author: Lenka Přibilová

Supervisor: Mgr. Naděžda Vojtková

Bibliografický záznam

Lenka Přibilová, Teaching vocabulary to young learners: Bakalářská práce. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, Fakulta pedagogická, Katedra anglického jazyka a literatury, 2006, 43 stran a 5 příloh. Vedoucí bakalářské práce: Mgr. Naděžda Vojtková


Bakalářská práce Výuka slovní zásoby u mladších žáků pojednává o potřebe učitele poznat své žáky a rozumět jejich potřebám a problémům. Dalším bodem, o kterém tato práce pojednává, je otázka motivace a zapojení her a zábavy do výuky. Posledním bodem, kterým se tato práce zaobírá, je využití různých metod a přístupů ve výuce u mladších žáků.

The thesis Teaching vocabulary to young learners deals with the need of a teacher to know his or her learners and to understand their needs and problems. Other issue mentioned in the thesis is the question of motivation and icluding fun and games into the teaching process. The last issue the thesis deals with is the usage of different methods and approaches for teaching young learners.

Klíčová slova
Mladší žák, motivace, slovní zásoba, přístup, metoda, hra, zábava

Key words
Young learner, motivation, vocabulary, approach, method, game, fun


Prohlašuji, že jsem bakalářskou práci zpracovala samostatně

pod vedením Mgr. N. Vojtkové. Dále prohlašuji, že jsem uvedla všechny literární prameny, z nichž jsem čerpala. Souhlasím s uložením práce v archivu Masarykovy univerzity a se zpřístupněním ke studijním účelům. V Brně dne 30. července 2006 Lenka Přibilová


5 . Naděžda Vojtková for her valuable advice and help.Acknowledgements I would like to express gratitude to my supervisor Mgr.



1. I have been teaching English for eleven years now – seven years at a language school here in Brno.. I ran against a lot of troubles that I would like to share in my final thesis and also I would like to share some ideas for teaching vocabulary to young learners. different. of course. Frequent complain of many teachers is that it is extremely difficult to teach children that seem to lack the basic talent for learning languages. I divided my thesis into the theoretical and the practical part – the practical part follows the theoretical part. Therefore I would like to refer to the possibilities which teaching a foreign language to young learners brings. also didactic aids and methodology books. I have discussed them with many pupils. then I will try to describe who is a young learner. The aim of this work is to show several ways that can be used for teaching vocabulary to young learners. I will enclose some materials and games that I use in 8 . In the next chapter I will focus on what is vocabulary and how it is learned and also the ways how vocabulary can be presented. next we pointed out that there were missing good textbooks or materials. I would like to show why and how teaching vocabulary to young learners can be more efficient. I have to admit that at the beginning I doubted about any acquisition for young learners and many arguments seemed cogent to me. During the time I began to realize chances and occasions that English language can offer to children and I started to be a big fan of teaching English to young learners. In the second part of my thesis I would like to present my system of work and also different methods I use while teaching. Introduction “Why? What is it good for ? Is it good for them at all? Do they really need it? Is it not only a useless worry? Why do we have to make them learn something more than what they really need and have to? How much hope shall we place in it? “ These are the most frequent questions I have been thinking about. the rest at two primary schools also in Brno. At the begining during the discussions with my colleagues we found out that some kind of conception was needed. Reactions and opininons were. In the theoretical part I will introduce the aim of this thesis. teachers and parents.

After that follows the list of sources .books (used literature) which I used for my thesis and the appendices where I included some materials and exercises with the lesssons. In conclusion I will briefly summarize my thesis. 9 .

In the 7th grade they will have to start learning a second foreign language. Their brain and memory is ready for learning and most of them can learn quite well.1. Of course.2. Teaching young learners requires the knowledge of knowing all the development differences. 10 . In my opinion. Her joy was the best reward for me. The results are seen quite easily and of course teachers demand this kind of satisfaction. it is not possible to say that every child of six will know this and that. others need more time. It is generally known that the Czech system officially allows children to start learning a foreign language in the 4th grade. I think these debates will be run over and over because nobody is able to say the exact time for beginning to learn foreign languages. These children still want to learn something new. this can be anybody from the age of three to the age of eighteen. In the Czech Republic children have started learning a foreign language in the 4th grade so far.who was able to “communicate” with a native speaker. I achieved quite good results with kindergarten children so I do not see any problems for older learners. the children will start a year earlier and in some schools the foreign language will be introduced from the 1st grade. We should consider their development too. I have decided to focus on young learners – age group 7-11. I remember a girl . according to the new school curricula. I think the older ones can do it too. Understanding these differences can help me as a teacher to develop methods and a system of work that I will use in the process of teaching. But it is possible to pick out some chracteristics which I as a teacher should know and should be aware of. From my own personal experience I have to admit that learners at this age are grateful when someone invest time in them. I have chosen this age group because I like working with young learners. There is a big difference between what a –three-year-old child can do and what a child of fifteen can do. Some children develop faster. the sooner they start. However. Theoretical part 2. From my personal experience. they are happy to present it and they feel more important. the better for them. Young learner . I think if very young learners are able to achieve good results. which is starting to be adopted from September 2006.who is a young learner? A young learner – who is he or she? This term covers a wide age range. There have been many disputes and discussions over this.5th grade . When they know it.

Often they “teach” each other. They are happy when they can play. These examples of characteristics I have mentioned above are great hints how to teach young learners and what kind of methods we should use.. then they have to share it with somebody and they are proud that they learnt something. Halliwell states that: young children are already very good at interpreting meaning without necessarily understanding the individual words already have great skill in using limited language creatively frequently learn indirectly rather than directly take great pleasure in creating fun in what they do their imagination is ready “above all take great delight in talking” (Halliwell. They understand situations and through situations – they use several senses. They are able to concentrate for certain time. argue. They use imagination a lot. The teacher definitely has to be very sensitive to the children´s needs and has to prepare the lessons well. They love to be praised for what they have done and learnt. It is very important to choose the right way of teaching for these little children. the 11 . Very often they pretend they understand everything and they know everything. They can think. We should avoid a stereotype. They are able to talk about what they are doing. They are able to use language skills not even realizing them. They love to share their experiences. They do not realize what is fact and what is fiction sometimes. 1992. discuss and they are able to interact with both children and adults.I would like to point out some characteristics about this age group. this is very important fact to keep their motivation. they can show off a little bit. They want to learn and are happy when they learn something. p 3) I do agree with Halliwell and her observations. they love when people pay attention to them and their talking. My observations are the same as hers.

12 .lessons have to be creative and lively. Otherwise this could have really bad consequences for the learners´ further improvement in the language.

roughly. For example. vocabulary is still widening. What is vocabulary? “Vocabulary can be defined. Some words can be entirely new to us. 1. 2. a verb to google is used frequently a lot. or being used in ways that for them are novel and possibly obscure. p 60) All languages consist of words. Vocabulary 2. as the words we teach in the foreign language. 2003. using the correct form of a word for the meaning intended ( i. This used to mean just the post office or simple letters but nowadays it also means emails. Thornbury states that they can be confronted by words that are totally unfamiliar. when understanding the second language. especially if the store of words is limited. Moreover. the learner while learning the vocabulary of a second language can come across several challenges: “making the correct connections. and in terms of the way each of us learned our first and any subsequent languages. post office. Languages emerge first as words. Czech word pošta. We come across completely new words that are made up according to new technologies and according to the needs of real life. which are made up of two or three words but express a single idea. Even in our native language we are continually learning new words and meanings of old words. a new item of vocabulary may be more than just a single word: for example. be able to recall them readily 13 . (Ur. However. between the form and meaning of words when producing language.e. 2. both historically. A useful convention is to cover all such cases by talking about vocabulary „items“ rather than „words“.2. To find the right word to fit the meaning can be very frustrating. For example. nose not noise) To meet these challenges the learner needs to: acquire a critical mass of words for use in both understanding and producing the language remember words over time. To summarize this. and mother-in-law. Learners of a second language experience something similar.

develop strategies for coping with gaps in word knowledge. p 31) 14 . including coping with unknown words. or unfamiliar uses of known words have to take responsibility themselves for vocabulary expansion” (Thornbury. 2002.

2.” David Wilkins. not just cats. To help the learners understand it is important to visualize the item and get the pupils to repeat or use the item actively. for instance a house. And to this category also belongs other animals. Thornbury states that the children have to develop some kind of network building – constructing some complex idea. linguist To know a word is one thing but we have to pause on the fact how this knowledge is acquired. A little bit of shocking method is the direct method or the direct approach. including vocabulary. Culture is considered an important aspect. One good way of doing this is to let them see or perhaps touch the vocabulary item. I will mention just some of them that can be used for teaching young learners. This method stimulates the learner´s brain by music while learning but nowadays teachers seem to be leaving this method. How are words learned? “Without grammar very little can be conveyed. then they always start with words used for labelling. The child needs to learn how far to extend the concept of a cat. What really works especially for young learners is the Total Physical Response method . We need to let them repeat it in different ways and they should be given a chance to listen to the teacher talking about it.TPR. without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. so that the concept. 2. acquiring a vocabulary requires not only labelling but also categorising skills. p 18) The child has to realise that these common words like cat can be replaced by superordinate terms like animals. Thinking about little children who learn to speak. there are no translations. for example. But of course not every animal is a cat. There are many different methods and approaches how to teach a foreign language. 2002. The mother tongue is never used.” (Thornbury. Very many children are nowadays very hyper and physically active 15 . of a cat has a name cat. Suggestopedia is a very successful method in helping learners to memorize words. Than during this process they will realise there also exist words like synonyms. Only target language is used in the calssrooms and only complete sentences are used. homonyms etc. “In other words. 2.

Using this method. Communicative Language Approach (Teaching) – CLT – stresses the meaning of a language in context. Communicative competence is highly developed here and learners are encouraged to communicate. This method is used a lot by teachers.and to concentrate for a long time can be very difficult for them. 16 . games. changing topics and using a variety of activities is very appreeciated by them.

its denotation”. Nowadays all the course books are organised into themes and they provide vocabulary according to it. how often the words are used by the speaker of the language. is too difficult for young learners. p 60) The grammar of a new item also needs to be taught. (Ur. using hyphenated words etc. If there is a theme “Animals”. 1996. 17 . especially if the verb is irregular (forget-forgot). “The meaning of a word is primarily what it refers to in the real world. Context helps them to find the right meaning. There is a choice for us. When teaching verbs. 1996. meaning and word formation. Ur states the learners need to be taught the form of the word. 2. For example when teaching nouns.” (Ur. Learners find this sometimes very difficult and discouraging because some words do not have just one meaning. We can relate items together – for example words like “a school. a teacher.2. mouse-mice). Again. “The learner has to know what a word sounds like (its pronunciation) and what it looks like (its spelling). collocations. It is quite easy to teach concrete words at lower level and then become more abstract. a blackboard and a break” are all associated with education. we need to consider the frequency too. p 61) In my opinion it is important to inform learners about the meaning of the word as well as their form and grammar. we would like to present their plural forms. Word formation – using prefixes and suffixes. Especially with young learners words that they are familiar with and they can stick to them should be taught. Thus. what they eat etc. Words that have quite specific meaning should be avoided with young learners. maybe we would like to present their past forms. depending what level the learners are they should be taught to follow some grammatical rules. Collocations – I do not think these are important for young learners. In the form pronunciation and spelling should be mentioned. Thus. then we can expect words like naming animals. we can decide which words to teach on the basis of frequency. Very often words are taught according to themes and topics. also regular and irregular ( girl-girls. also where they live. it is good when the learners know the synonyms (smart – intelligent) or antonyms (rich – poor). then grammar. Which words and what should be taught? The significant point in teaching vocabulary is the selection of words we as teachers want to teach. 3.

for example the irregular plural form right away.To summarize this. it is important to teach them all these aspects. hear or with whar they can touch. Secondly. In my opinion. 18 . Young learners often put words together with what they can see. but they need to know it. But as said above they also need to know other aspects of the words they learn. I think that if we keep repeating the plural form “mice”. it is easier to remember concrete words like a chair or a dog than abstract words. after some time most of them will not say “mouses”. Of course. firstly I think that knowing the word and understanding its meaning go hand in hand. we will not teach them.

can we find similar words in the learner´s native language etc. The presentation of new vocabulary can be classified for example according to verbal and visual techniques. This is closely connected with several factors: the level of the pupils – beginners. In my opinion. And of course there are techniques that we as teachers try to avoid. I think every teacher tends to use and prefers some technique that he or she finds interesting. intermediate etc. we should consider how many words should be presented during the lesson.2. 3. Some techniques are more popular and more often used than others. this includes teaching the vocabulary "in spoken form first" to prevent students from pronouncing the words in the form they are written. Vocabulary presentation “By presentation we mean those pre-planned lesson stages in which learners are taught pre-selected vocabulary items. and revising them. Younger ones react quite well when we show them concrete illustrations. word pictures. several realia 19 . p 75) Firstly. 2002. A number of techniques can be adopted to present new vocabulary items. are they easily pronounced.” (Thornbury. he or she should follow certain guidelines. the older ones can manage pretty well abstract explanations or even definitions. placing the new items in context.flashcards. photographs and magazine pictures. Also it is up to the teacher which techniques he or she decides to use but always the effectiveness of teaching should be considered. Among visual techniques we can find pictures . There are techniques that are particularly appropriate for certain types of words – for example actions can be explained through pantomime. blackboard drawings. their familiarity with the words – have they come across these words or are they completely new? words difficulty – are the words abstract.? can the words be easily demonstrated ? shall we use realia or anything that the pupils can become familiar with? can pictures be used to elicit vocabulary? After the teacher chooses what items to teach. Another factor that is worth considering is the age of the learners. wall charts. posters.

Words can be organised into sets. and using various forms of definition: for example. It has its advantages but also disadvantages. scales. This technique is not used much recently. descriptions. collocations. even though it is quick and easy but can be very discouraging for learners. Verbal techniques consist of using illustrative situations. In my opinion it is good to use both picture dictionaries and classical dictionaries where they find the meaning with young learners. definition by demonstration (visual definition). subclasses and subcategories often aided by visual presentation. Learners can label pictures or objects or perform an action. definition by abstraction.that teachers can hold up or point to. action and gestures can be used especially for explaining actions and times. Then they have to be told about the alphabetical order and about other things they can find there. and definition by translation. Teachers can prepare quite interesting lesson where the learners learn how to use dictionaries. learners can learn how to use dictionaries. 20 . Translation is one of the traditional ways of explaining the meaning of words. synonyms and antonyms. Using this technique. They have to be told there are two parts – English-Czech and CzechEnglish. They cannot interact with the words. Most of the young learners have never used a dictionary before so it is a need to teach them to use dicitonaries first. Mime. It could be done by the teacher or with using a dictionary. contextual definitions. Explanation can become extremely difficult especially with beginner levels. Another way that can be used is translation.

we should discuss it with him/her. there are at least fifteen pupils – usually even more. We draw pictures.. or not very able. and we do it even at midnight. And we hope it will be worthwile. This of course leads to the fact the children will become silly and they will really enjoy it. we want to praise the children as much as possible but on the other hand we want to be realistic and. independent. Language classrooms are noisy. . Quite often the children are not “angels”. for example. “We need to be realistic in our expectations of ourselves and the learners. There are many of them in circulation that it is quite easy to get carried away. we should reject the idea of pairwork because our clasess are big. teachers can come across many language teaching ideas and techinques. It does not mean. draw flashcards. 21 . very honestly. And their lessons then turn to be boring. The classes with high number of students put exceptional demands on teacher`s preparation for the lesson and there is obviously a requirement of larger classrooms too. sensible. But sometimes something goes wrong. We encourage them to interact. creative. Or if we have an observer in the lesson. be active.” (Halliwell. or poorly motivated. On the contrary. cut paper into small pieces. We want to be flexible. our expectations are sometimes very high. make crosswords etc.. creative. There are teachers who would never do such activities again.2. We should evaluate the lesson ourselves. Be realistic Nowadays. being realistic should mean taking realities into account in such a way that good things can still happen. p 19) After every lesson we should ask ourselves whether the lesson was productive or unproductive and we should go back to our objectives and aims. 4. 1992.

This is good but can lead to misunderstanding.2. But this can mean we may produce a lesson which is a disaster. games. we need to highlight the importance of the context in which the language naturally occurs. “We will not help the children to develop their capacity to concentrate if we jump inconsequentially from one topic to the next. Activities that can stir the class are. Some language activities can stir a class. p 27) 22 . filling-in exercises. too many activities and changing the activities all the time can destroy the lesson well. We should not forget context developing activities. Before the lesson is planned. It needs to be considered well. for example. There are ways of varying the oral work so that it is making different demands on the children and therefore feels different even when the topic remains the same. oral work. “If we are to help the learners acquire independent second language lexicons. competitions. dialogues” etc”. Many coursebooks provide learners with plenty of opportunities to develop their own context for the language presented. 1. there are activities that have the opposite effect. there should be considered what kind of activities should be choosen knowing the effect of them. [1] Another factor that teachers should bear in their minds is to keep the lessons simple. This is not easy and teachers should spend really quality time to think about this. We often try to make our lessons varied. Of course. warm them up. They may seem to settle the pupils. The children´s minds have to jump from one topic to another with not much time to let things sink in effectively. Another aspect we should think about are activities which engage children´s minds and which keep them physically occupied. we can begin to introduce varieties of the language used in different contexts. for example activities like “odd one out. Thinking about the positive way of the word “stir”. The lesson can be varied by doing lots of activities on different topics. We should realise some important things.” (Halliwell. 1992. it means these activities will wake up the class. 4. Choosing activities It is up to the teacher mostly to choose the right activity. Once the idea of context playing a decisive role in the choice of language is firmly established.

Then they can transfer to different topics and situations.Variation does not only mean changing the topics and materials but also the change of work we do. we can come up with new things but always the activities should be simple in principle. they will take to them easily when they appear. “Because you use them regularly you will quickly get to know the best way to set them up with your classes. Because the classes know Using different methods and ways of teaching should become a regular part of our lessons. They can become truly the core of your language teaching.shtml 23 .” (Halliwell.. We can reuse materials all the time. p 38 ) [1] http://www. Variation comes in the forms of activity as Halliwell states.

1969) (Opie. p 37) Teachers can tell stories the learners are familiar with in their own language. “ For young learners. commands for the games can be remembered quite easily. solving puzzles. 2. clapping hands.. is likely to be weaker than that created by events in the classroom itself. 1986) (Jones in Teaching English to Children) “A true game is one that frees the spirit. For example. 1995.. drawing.2. Children need to be involved and even excited in order to learn effectively. Khan states that the achievement of these goals signals the end of the game. What is a game? “A game is played when one or moreplayers compete or co-operate for playoffs according to a set of rules. ´the most admirable social institutions´. In playing together we can see elements of interaction and during interacting the learners develop language skills. Singing.” (Jones. I. p 33) It is evident that young learners learn through play much easier and they enjoy it more.1995) Games may focus on oral or written part of the language. Then the learners are able to follow it better. Children are very often concerned with controlling whether everybody follows the rules and whether they are not broken. The language learnt by heart can often be a part of the activities. chanting rhymes. It allows of no cares but those fictitious ones engendered by the game itself. “Telling stories to students can result in natural language acquisition on their part. They play and love to play.” (Rixon. Learning can be absorbed really well. Teachers can come up 24 . the level of the learners need to be considered and the teacher has to investigate time into preparation. the stories need to be picked carefully. in Teaching English to Chidren) Games are activities with rules and goals. 1995. (Khan. colouring. 4.” (Khan. such as parental and social attitudes.” (Rixon. model-making. p 143) It is obvious that the games need to be motivating. And J. games. 1995. a game that works like this is well-known game “Simon says”.” (Opie. they offer a vast selection of activities. Many games can be looked at as drill exercises but they have an added fun and competition element. Piaget (1967) (Piaget in Teaching English to Children) saw chidlren´s games as. This is quite a natural way for them to learn. Quite often the learners do not realize they are learning. Again. The role of fun and games in the lessons “By ´fun and games´ I mean all those activities that we loosely think of as involving play and enjoyment. motivation deriving from the factors outside the classroom. For example. Language can also be picked as a result of an enjoyable activity. Fun and games should have an important role in the children´s education.. I and J.

I .with a simple version of the story. The learners can make up new verses. then they can be extended.. There are many possibilities for adapting games we can find. As said above games and fun are important parts of the lesson. Several activities can allow and involve more creative use of the language.. 25 . It is very appreciated by the learners.. Teachers can “play” with vocabulary while teaching it. Example . The teachers should not forget the values of games and fun activities in the lessons. New sentences and activities can be produced by the children themselves.. Songs are most grateful way for this. Appreciated story can be The Story of the Big Enormous Turnip.”.” or “If you are happy and you know it. A play is in the essential nature of the child.a song “This is the way. All this can be applied to teaching vocabulary too.

they do not have almost any troubles with motivation and as I have said in the theoretical part.15 pupils at the age of 5 – 11. they still want to learn. These handouts are given to them so that their parents know what we learned in the lesson and can practice during the week. I have to admit that it is a lot of fun to teach these children. It is evident that some learners have been learning the English language for several years. I tried out all the activities described here during my teacher´s career.3. Most of the classes use the course book Cambridge English for Schools by A. The younger ones do not use any course books. Hicks. Littlejohn and D. some have just started. All the activities reflect the level of the learners. Most of the pupils only started with learning English in the 4th grade. I try to use English in the classes as much as possible and I want their reactions in English too. I always have to consider that in each class there are more children and some with learning disabilities. I would like to enclose several lesson plans and also reflect on some observations from the theoretical part. 26 . of course if possible. The activities have been piloted in at least 10 classes. some started in the kindergarten. we work with handouts that they get from me and place them into a folder.age group 7-11. most of them consisted of 10 . their age and their abilities. Practical part In my final thesis I have decided to focus on teaching English vocabulary to young learners .

. Who is this? Your. I repeat the word “daughter”. I use pictures of my family and point to the right person and repeat who he/she get to know the learners´ families. mother.3. Do you live in a family? Who belongs to your family? Do you have any brothers or sisters? What is your brother´s / sister´s name? How often do you see your grandmother and grandfather?. a story book. 1. father. For example.the learners get to know my family . we are going to play a game and the winner gets a reward! I will say a sentence. So I ask. colour pencils. Talking about families: Today we are going to talk about families. it is your time to show me who is who. pieces of paper. I stand behind the door and as they leave I ask them for example for the word “maminka”. After each sentence I make the learners say whose picture they are showing me. While doing this I read a story about a family from a book. 3.. Reading and colouring: I distribute the handouts (Appendix I) that I have prepared for them and the colour pencils and the learners will colour the people. At the end we sum up the lesson and I tell them that next lesson we will play a family pexeso. Lesson plan # 1 Topic = My family Aims: .after the lesson the learners will know at least 5 new words Aids: . Is this your mother? Is this your sister? Is this your grandfather? After some time we will play a game. “this is my daughter Kristyna”.to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know . 27 . I have to count on the fact. so I distribute either my pictures or pictures from magazines. They have to say “mother” and can leave. And so on. While talking.. handouts Assumptions: . a family poster. Working with their pictures: (The learners were supposed to bring to the class pictures of their family members. sister and photos.) 2. they forgot.) Now. now I will talk about my family. Ok.they are ready to share and are ready to play 1.learners know each other and their families . they all have to tell me a “password” to leave. (On the black board there is a family poster all the time. for example:” Show me your mother!” And you have to show me your mother´s picture. the learners know them well so I suppose they will be very active and will want to share .. so that I can point to it anytime. Now. Before they leave the classroom.

the children can come to black board and point to the right person on the poster. 45 or 60 minutes. In this lesson I decided to use one of the visual methods that I talked about in the theoretical part. This lesson can be varied in many ways. In this lesson I decided to use the TPR method too. Learners have a chance to hear and see. the children are able to remember it without any explanation and real “learning”. too much variety can spoil the lesson so this is very important factor that should be considered. 28 . It is very natural for them to learn this phrase. But as I have said in the theoretical part.Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 1st grade learners or even kindergarten children. I let them jump while showing me their family members. again according to the age and level of the learners and also depending on the fact how long the lesson is – 40. What needs to be said here is that during this activity the children are able to learn a phrase “This is my mother/father etc.” Because this phrase is repeated in the lesson many times. they put their hands above their heads etc.

. your friend´s trousers.. We will do it as a game called “silent post”. children! Now you know the English names for colours.) 2. I willshout out a name of the colour and you must run to touch this colour. blue. Well done! Now you know we will talk about colours today.the learners get to know the names of the colours . Lesson plan # 2 Topic = Colours Aims: . are you ready?I do not want you to shout or look to your friend´s paper.. I know you do not like dictations but this one is going to be different... Working with “colours”: Let´s take your exercise books now and you can see what I draw on the board. a story book. a blackboard. they swap the drawings with their partners and we check it together. Do you any colours? Which one is your favourite? What does black mena for you? How do you feel about yellow? What does it evoke?I will tell you a story about rainbow. I will pick up different colour pencils and you can shout out the name of the colour. Ok. I say:´Vezmi si yellow a nakresli sun. Since we stil lhave time left. 3..learners probably already know the colours . Let´s start now. (After each shout I repeat the colour after them so that they have a chance to hear the pronunciation well. colour chalk Assumptions: .. Talking about colours: I will say several words and you tell me what I am speaking about. Let´s start now. now we will write a “dictation”.´Well. to get to know how they feel about colours . listen up! Black. Now when you have finished.after the lesson the learners will know at least 7 new words including the word rainbow Aids: .to get to know the learners´ favourite colours. a colour poster. But to each colour you will write down the name. I also point out to the right colour on the poster.. You can see this classroom is full of colours.. 29 . are you ready? Let´s start..colour dictation should be easy and fun for them 1. picture of rainbow. colour pencils. You can touch a chair.3. I want you to do the same. I take a colour chalk and draw a big circle on the board. Usually they do really well and are happy they were succesfull with their “dictation”. I have a special reward for you. now exchange your drawings with your partner and let´s check it. Well done.. You need to be careful about the spelling!. pieces of paper.) Well done.) Well. After some minutes the learners get back to their seats and we repeat all the colours once more. revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know .pictures. Potom si vezmi black a nakresli three birds.. (While we are talking. Every time I call out some colour.. Finishing up the topic: (After the learners finished their drawings. white. So.they are ready to play . We will play a game. 2. green.. I put the poster on the wall. The very first person who knows will tell me and then we will send it to others and the last person says that outloud.

This lesson can be varied in many ways again. 30 .Again. I usually check the spelling in their exercise books. I have to be careful because the learners try to write down the names of the colours.Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 3rd or 4th grade learners. The learners can hear. I think using TPR is very productive and learners can learn and remember it better. I have to count on the fact most of the learners already know the colours from previous classes. in this lesson I used one of the visual methods and also TPR. see and touch and later they can run in the classrooms. After they have finished that. as I have mentioned in lesson plan # 1. Therefore this lesson cannot be boring so that even these children would be able to be active. This topic is quite easy and children have a lot of fun with this.

Of course during this acitvity we will practice the adjectives too. today we are going to practice some verbs and adjectives. I was doing what I was saying. Lesson plan # 3 Topic = Adjectives. What are verbs and adjectives? Can you tell me an example? Is the word ´sit´a verb? Is theword ˇhappy´an adjective? So. I am writing revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know .the learners get to know the the basic verbs and adjectives . A pupil with the less points is the winner. (This activity can last as long as the learners are not bored. I always start with the easier and already known ones. then I go on with the newer ones. 3.. Then we will play a game. BUT if I don’t say Simon says you mustn’t do anything.Smile! Be happy! Be sad!.4. it can be used as a revision of what the learners have already known. Now.) Now I need a volunteer who will say the sentence instead of me. Evaluation: This activity is designed for 4th grade.using gestures.) 2.. I decided to show another way of teaching vocabulary to young learners .. I am deaf. Revision of some basic commands and adjectives: Well. now I will say some basic commands and you will do what I say. I am asleep. We will play the game “Simon says.they are ready to play . The game 31 . I am bored. Are you reday? Stand up! Sit down! Close your books!.colour pencils. you’ll get a point. I ma dancing. The teacher also needs to know how many words the learners know. Simon says Sit down! and you will sit down. Together we repeat the words and do the actions. you can be the teacher now. handouts Assumptions: . for example. At the end of the lesson I always check whether they undrestand all the practised commands and adjectives. I am drinking. I am blind.after the lesson the learners will know at least 8 new words Aids: . Learning new vocabulary: I want to teach the learners new vocabulary. I always use the English language for explaining the actions and adjectives because the motion help the children to understand. I will say Simon says Stand up! and you will stand up.. If you do. mimes and actions. it is time for a game.learners know some basic commands .they want to express their feelings 1. Verbs Aims: . While explaining all these actions.” Does anybody know this game? I will explain the rules to you. For this activity I decided to choose the well-known commands as a warm-up. (As I was explaining the rules. I am showing them the motions.

Simon says practises the language in reality. they usually tell me they like it more when they can give the commands. Very important aspect of this game is discipline. Very often I play this game in groups where more children can practise the phrase Simon says. This activity can be used as a warm-up or we can fill in some part of the lesson if minutes are left. When I get feedback from the children. 32 . The learners are very competitive and active because everybody wants to be the winner. The learners need to pay attention to what I say.

WHAT SONG P ICTURE MOTHER CARD LOVE CH R I S T M A S In these words you can find 1 word.after the lesson the learners will know at least 5 new words Aids: . You 33 . colour pencils. brainstorming: Well. a tape recorder Assumptions: . Lesson plan # 4 Topic = Animals Aims: . So as you can see. I will start up the lesson in a little bit different way than usually. you can just write down number to each picture. revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know .they are ready to share and lsiten 1.learners will probably know some English names of animals . Talking about animals. I will write something on the blackboard and you have to find out a hidden word in it.) Well done. What animals do you know? What is your favourite animal? Have you ever been to the zoo? Do you like big animals? Areyou scared of any? Do you know any exotic animals? Do you have an animal at home?… (During this talking I write down on the blackboard all the animals the learners name and distribute pictures of animals among the children. Listening: Now. just put your hand above your head. Well done! The word is ANIMALS! And the winner is Honza? Here is your price! What is it? Yes.) 2. I get ready the tape recorder. an animal poster. the topic of today´s lesson. To make it easier I distributed a set of pictures among you and you will hear all these animals. You will hear 5 sounds and I think you will know all of them. we will listen to a tape recorder.learners like animals . You are going to hear several sounds of animals and I want you to write their names on a piece of paper.. Do you understand? ( The learners are ready to listen now. we are going to talk about animals today.. handouts. 4.3. You cannot talk. you are very good! Now we will listen again but this time you do not have the get to know the basic animals in English . the winner gets a price! If you think you know. So. it is a toy

so the teacher would have to come up with a different activity. (This is a little bit more difficult but the sounds are of well-known animals so the chidlren will not have any troubles with it.) 3. You can either draw or glue animals. Also usually this activity takes longer time. This is very active time. the learners usually remember at least 1 new word. if nobody is able to guess this word. If somebody remains quiet. Probably the hidden word would be too difficult for them. which is not as easy for them. you can either ask me or. everybody is included.must guess which animals you hear. So now. I ask questions – Honzo. Then I let them be creative and let them work on the project. Again. imagine you are going to take a friend of yours to the zoo soon and you want to give him/her a tour. Right at the beginning of the lesson the learners have a chance to brainstorm. I help them. All the sounds are of known animals. anything you like. what is your favourite animal? etc. Then they have to guess the hidden word. This lesson can be varied in many ways and can be done with younger learners too. so I can show them so that they get ideas. make groups of 4 and each group has to prepare a poster. each child can talk and I pay attetnion to this. so the children do not usually have any troubles with this. because you can work with dictionaries. I do not tell them which animals they have to choose or what exactly needs to be written there or how exactly it has to be done. you can write about them – what they eat. Jano. Of course. Project: Now. If you need help. do you know any animals?. 34 . Through brainstorming. so I let them work in the next lesson too. therefore after this activity I need to calm them down and we listen to the sounds of animals. The topic is also very grateful and from my personal experience the children always have a lot of fun with it. they do not need my help. you can use them. where they live. (Usually the learners want to be creative and work on their own. I usually have examples with me in the lesson. So you need to know some animals and also something about them. Evaluation: This lesson is designed for 3rd or 4th grade.

to teach and practise using dicitonaries . Introducing dictionaries: This mornig as I was getting ready for your lesson I realised I would need helpers. If I say an English word. put your hands above.Well done! At the end of the lesson we can sing the alpabet song if you want to. I need to be sure they are familier with working with the dictionaries. Thses books are called dictionaries.3. 2. you can start working.. Now. Each child says one letter from the aplhabet. the window is the odd one. the English one. you can see there are two parts. Do you understand it? Well. distribute these dictionaries.“apple. I will go on like this for a while. which part will you be looking in?Yes. English-Czech and Czech-English. If you find id. 3.. window”.various kinds of dicitonaries. If you open them. flashcards Assumptions: . Lesson plan # 5 Topic = Fruit Aims: . 5. Now check these three items .learners know the alphabet so this should not be that difficult . I will give you the handouts and you have to work on them. Let´s quickly revise the aplhabet. So the word is a lemon.. you can find it here. Which one is the odd one? Yes.but even this fact the learners need their time to get used to working with the dictionaries 1. one into each desk. handouts. It is orgaized according to the alphabetwhich you already know. So thank you for coming and helping me to bring the dictionaries.after the lesson the learners will know 5 new words Aids: . find out the odd words . So if you do not understand some word. Working with the dictionaries: Now it is time to start “working” with the dicitonaries. I distribute the handouts (Appendix II) and the learners work on the handout. So. At the end we check the exercixe together. I will say an English word and you can find the Czech equivalent in the revise some basic terminology . Practise: I usually ask the children to find out three vocabulary items to practise the finding.. 35 . If their answer is right. You can work in pairs and you must circle the odd ones. As homework they have to prepare similar exercise.

This is probably their first time using and working with dictionaries. But it cannot be long because the learners easily get bored with it.This activity is designed for learners in the 4th grade. I have to admit that when I first taught this topic and was teaching how to use dicitonaries.Evaluation: I talk about using dictionaries as a way for teaching vocabulary in the theoretical part. I said that it is very traditional and maybe an old way but I wanted to show that translation can be used and sometimes should not be avoided. 36 . Now I have to make sure that children know the alphabet really well. Every time there is a child who has troubles with it but it is normal. From my own personal experience I have to say that children usually like working with dictionaries and like the exercises. I did not manage to do everything that I planned for the lesson.

3. This is all because of the weather. We talk about the text and after that they answer the questions all by themselves. You all know this type of exercise.3. When this is done. I assume the children will ask me what is wrong with me. so that the children would have to memorize it. enjoy it and see you next lesson. so all you have to do is to find the odd word out. we start learning the poem. You will have to answer some questions too. After understand the text about weather . I am tired and I would like to be at home in my bed with a hot cup of tea and my favourite book. The learners can see the whole poem on the blackboard. 2. because you have been working find out the odd words . Talking about weather: Good morning. I have to say it myself. revise some basic terminology . Poem: (Appendix IV) Well. Every time we read it.reading texts.) I am not happy today. children! ( I look very tired and I am not happy.learners already know some weather terminology . I read it outloud and then we read it together. now it is time to learn a short poem.the learners usually are not as willing to talk so I have to ask right and direct questions 1. Lesson plan # 6 Topic = The Weather Aims: . The children just listen. Do you like this kind of weather? What do you like to do in this kind of weather? What is your favourite season? Why? Do you prefer hot weather to cold weather? etc. If not. So. I have to give you a homework. flashcards. 4. (Appendix III) I distribute the texts and I read first. I will write it on the blackboard. each child reads a line. Odd one out: (Appendix V) Thank you very much for your work today and so that you can practise these new words at home. Reading: Now. I wil lwrite the questions on the blackboard. a poem Assumptions: . I erase 1 word. This won´t take you long.after the lesson the learners will know 5 new words Aids: . we will read a short text about the weather and then we will talk about it. Bye bye! 37 .

I have to be really well prepared for this lesson.Evaluation: This activity is designed for 5th grade. This lesson makes use of it. I work with the learned vocabulary and I build on it. I have to admit this is not easy but I as a teacher have to adjust my vocabulary and talking to the learners´ level. looking for information is another way to learn the language. Usually next lesson I go on in this topic. At the end they memorize the poem by heart and I have to confess that 99% of the class always remember the poem. 38 . In the theoretical part I talk about CLT as a way of teaching vocabulary to young learners. Working with a text is important for them. This lesson is done completely in English and the communicative competence is highly encouraged and used here. The lesson does not have to seem interesting to the learners at first but later they start to like it.

Then it is only English and again the communicative competence is encouraged here.none Assumptions: .3. then we finish and I usually let them mime it or do the actions. So. maybe you can use nouns. I decided we will not learn anything new and we will have kind of relaxing lesson. It is only up to you. The story time: So. It has to make sense. only the level and age of the learners have to be considered. Maybe. you can suggest this kind of activity to your Czech language teacher. If not. All the children are curious about the story so they pay attetnion to it. I met a man IN a town. let´s use them in reality. we will have regular English lesson. Revision: Well. The only time the learners are allowed to speak Czech is when I ask them about the Czech prepositions. Don´t forget it has to be a story and not just several sentences put together. If they come up with the story after the first round. numerals etc. we go on. Once upon a time. I will start now. did you learn anything new today? You could see that we can have fun and play with prepositions in English too. are you ready? Do you still think it is difficult? Ok. right? Can you tell me any examples of Czech prepositions? …Well done! And now. I will start so that you have some more time to think. Tell me some English prepositions! …Well done again! Since you know the English prepositions. Are you happy? But don´t worry. the English equivalents. Evaluation: This activity is designed for 5th grade but can be adopted for any grade.learners already know some prepositions .) 2. Lesson plan # 7 Topic = A Story telling Aims: . As you can see. The brainstorming: Today. I only focus on the prepositions. 7. And it is not just prepositions you can use in a story.) 3. I bet she will like it. I heardthat in the lessons of Czech language you are talking about prepositions. Now it is your turn! (Now each child has to say a sentence and we go on as long as needed. ( I tell the learners we will come up with a story. Maybe next time we could try come up with own story is not always easy 1. Discipline is not usually 39 .to revise some basic prepositions Aids: . I tell them they have to focus on the prepositions and each of them has to say a sentence. I usually do not correct grammar come up with a story focusing on prepositions . another way of using CLT in the lesson.

I tried it usually with older learners and there was a problem with discipline and the learners tried to use words they are not allowed to use in the classes.a problem even though it is always just 1 person speaking. they are even happier. If they are allowed to act it out later. 40 . I have really good experience with this kind of activity eventhough when I started to teach it was hard for me.

we as teachers have to consider the learning disabilities too. Sometimes. Conclusion In my final thesis. All this the teacher is learning while working with the learners. I tried to show how some methods and approaches can be used in the lessons while teaching young learners. Every learner is different and we need to view each person individually. also ways how to motivate them and last but not least their learning style. as the title prompts. 41 . There are more and more chidlren with these problems and we as teachers need to help them to enjoy the lessons and help them to learn too. how it can be taught. the teacher has to be strong at the knowledge but also needs to connect with the children. which words should be taught and ways that vocabulary can be presented. The teacher has to know his or her pupils. the results are seen easily and the learners at this age are very grateful when someone invest time in them.4. In the Practical Part. From the theory. They need to feel the teacher likes them and wants to teach them something new. I also talk about vocabulary – what it is. It is important to understand their needs. The focus of this thesis is the personality of young learners and teaching vocabulary to them. During my teacher´s training I have learned that it is important to learn about their personalities and also to get to know them. In the Theoretical Part I have mentioned some characteristics of young learners. their expectations with which each child comes to the lessons. some activity took longer time so the learners were assigned a homework. especially nowadays. Testing and assessment will be the theme of my next future research. The Practical Part proved what I mentioned in the theory. As said in the theoretical part. The teachers get to know their families. their hobbies and interests and just basic information about the learners. I have to admit that in practice I tried out all the lesson plans and it worked well. When teaching young learners. The teacher needs to understand their differences. Also. their cultural and family background etc. I wanted to show that working with them offers many possibilities and we can use many methods and approaches. I deal with the subject of teaching vocabulary to young learners. I also tried to show that variety is important because young learners get bored if they do the same activities in the same way all the time. there are several lesson plans.

Resumé Understanding the personality of a young learner plays an important role in effective teaching. 42 . taught. Jedním z předmětů této bakalářské práce je ukázat charakteristiku mladšího žáka. These lesson plans focus on using different methods while teaching vocabulary to young learners. Jsou zde zmíněny i metody a přístupy. Resumé Poznání osobnosti mladšího žáka hraje důležitou roli při efektivní výuce. vyučována a také co by se vlastně mělo vyučovat. Každá aktivity zmíněná v přípravě byla vyzkoušena během mé učitelské praxe. Another subject of this thesis is the vocabulary itself – how it can be presented. In the Practical Part. One of the subjects of this thesis is to show the characteristics of a young learner. also what should be taught. several lesson plans are presented. Every activity mentioned in the lesson plans was tried out during my teacher´s profession. Dalším předmětem této práce je slovní zásoba – jak může být prezentována. které mohou být v hodinách využívány. V praktické části jsou prezentovány přípravy na hodiny. There are mentioned some methods and approaches that can be used in the lessons.5. Tyto přípravy jsou zaměřeny na využití různých výukových metod vhodných k výuce slovní zásoby u mladších žáků.

Book 3. Teaching English to Children. 1992. Christopher. DOFF. 1991. 7.). 1995. Longman Essex.UK: Cambridge University Press. In: BRUMFIT. ISBN 0. 370 s.UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN-0521-44994-4. Wendy A. ISBN0-17-556889-8. Julia: Using games in teaching English to young learners.Book 2. Stuart: A Way with Words. 11. 8..18-34232-9. Cambridge University Press. Roles of Teachers & Learners. 375 s. 2. SCOTT. From Practice to Principle. Longman Group Essex. s. 1991. Jayne. 345 s. 142-157. ISBN-0521-35921-X. UR. 1996. ISBN-0-582-42082-2. Vocabulary Development Activities for Learners of English. Susan: Teaching English in the Primary Classrooms. 1991 10. Jayne. ISBN-0521-35919-8. 9. KHAN. YTREBERG. 124 s. REDMAN. 1988. Vocabulary Development Activities for Learners of English. ISBN 0-582-40385-5. Longman Group Essex. Cambridge University Press. 43 . 2005. RIXON. ISBN-0-582-42966-8. BRUMFIT. Teach English: A training course for teachers. Ray (edd. 185 s. REDMAN. WRIGHT. Ray: Teaching English to Children. 169 s. HARMER. 1995. Jeremy. Cambridge University Press. A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and theory. THORNBURY. ISBN-0-582-07109-7. 110 s. HALLIWELL. MOON. 6. Scott: How to teach vocabulary. ISBN 0-19-437133-6. Lisbeth H: Teaching English to Children. 4. UK: Longman Group Essex. 124 s. Tony. Longman Essex. 160 s. TONGUE. Christopher. The Practice of English Language Teaching. MOON. 1999. 3. 5. Shelagh: Young Learners of English: Some Research Perspectives.Bibliography 1. 2005. Adrian. Essex: Longman. 309 s. 2002. TONGUE. Penny. 12. Stuart: A Way with Words. UK: Longman.

com/young_learners 3.Other resources 2. 44 .eslkidstuff. http://www. http://www.

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