Oracle Work In Process (WIP) - Release 11.

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Purpose of the document ................................................................................................................................ 3 What is needed for debugging? ...................................................................................................................... 3 Common Requirements......................................................................................................................... 3 Requirements specific to a Component................................................................................................. 3 HOW TO GENERATE THE LOG AND TRACE FILES ................................................................................... 7 How to generate form trace? ................................................................................................................. 7 How to generate database trace? ......................................................................................................... 7 How to generate Forms Runtime Diagnostics (FRD)?........................................................................... 8 How to generate INV transaction log file in ONLINE cases? ................................................................. 8 How to generate INV txn log file in BACKGROUND cases? ................................................................. 8 How to generate WIP log files in ONLINE cases? ................................................................................. 9 How to generate WIP log files in BACKGROUND cases?..................................................................... 9 How to generate CTO debug log files?.................................................................................................10 STEPS TO GENERATE LOG AND TRACE FILES - COMPONENT WISE ...................................................11 WIPTXSFM – Move Transactions ........................................................................................................11 Online means ..................................................................................................................................11 Background means..........................................................................................................................11 Steps to generate Log file in ONLINE cases ...................................................................................11 Steps to generate Log file in BACKGROUND cases .......................................................................12 WIPTXCMP – Completion Transactions...............................................................................................14 Online means ..................................................................................................................................14 Background means..........................................................................................................................14 Steps to generate Log file in ONLINE cases ...................................................................................14 Steps to generate Log file in BACKGROUND cases .......................................................................15 WIPTXMAT – WIP Material Transactions.............................................................................................16 Online means ..................................................................................................................................16 Background means..........................................................................................................................16 Steps to generate Log file in ONLINE cases ...................................................................................16 Steps to generate Log file in BACKGROUND cases .......................................................................17 WIPTXRSC – Resource Transactions..................................................................................................18 WIPTXCFM – Work Order-less Completions .......................................................................................20 Online means ..................................................................................................................................20 Background means..........................................................................................................................20 Steps to generate Log file in ONLINE cases ...................................................................................20 Steps to generate Log file in BACKGROUND cases .......................................................................21 MOBILE.....................................................................................................................................................22

DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE

Oracle Work In Process (WIP) - Release 11.5

For Mobile UI log files................................................................................................................................22 ATO AND CTO..........................................................................................................................................23

DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE

Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . Answer to “Has all recommended patches (RPL) been applied to the instance?” If not. What is needed for debugging? Common Requirements 1. 4. Refer to Metalink note 215187. output of appscheck. For all performance issues.sql showing all the WIP files. Also. For all datafix issues. why? Requirements specific to a Component DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE .Release 11.dmp and sqltx. 2.1 that will guide you how to get them from the customer env.txt) against the update statement. Output of Wipjob11i.5 Purpose of the document The objective of this paper is to provide detailed instructions for generating log and trace files for debugging purposes.sql 3. please provide sqltx output (stats. raw and tkprof output of the process. For all bugs.

WIP log files For 11. No wip log file will be generated for nonconsigned orgn.5 Transaction Move Transaction Online mode binds if possible) UI Related issues Inventory Transaction Log Files For 11. CTO debug file Inventory Worker database trace – WIP log file For ATO related issues.5.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) .10 and above. need Forms Trace – raw and tkprof (with binds if possible) Forms Runtime Diagnostics (FRD) for UI Related issues file – raw and tkprof DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE .5.Release 11. however if issues related to UI or Resource Worker Database Trace performance. WIP log files Background mode Inventory Transaction log file raw and tkprof Forms Trace – raw and tkprof (with Move Worker Log file Forms Runtime Diagnostics (FRD) for Database Trace of Move Worker – Material Transactions/ Completions Forms Trace – raw and tkprof (with Inventory Worker Log file binds if possible) UI Related issues Inventory Transaction Log Files For 11. WIP log files Inventory Worker database trace – WIP log file Forms Runtime Diagnostics (FRD) for raw and tkprof Resource Transaction There’s no online mode for resource Resource Worker Log file txns.5. CTO debug file Forms Runtime Diagnostics (FRD) for raw and tkprof WorkOrderLess Completions Forms Trace – raw and tkprof (with Inventory Worker Log file binds if possible) UI Related issues Inventory Transaction Log Files For 11. wip log file.10 and above.10 and above. For ATO related issues.9 and consigned inventory organizations.5.

Release 11. provide log and trace for WIP concurrent exploder. CTO debug file Background mode Same as desktop txns Auto Create FAS log file Omse11i. provide log files as background mode. check WIP parameter “Requisition If requisitions are not getting Creation Time”. If the value is move form. REPORT WORK_ORDER N/A If UI related. Receiving txn database trace file. trace of discrete job form. FRD and form trace. If the ‘at job/schedule release’. ‘at job/schedule release’. created. If processing related. provide form ‘at operation’.5 Component Mobile txns) ATO_CTO (for Online mode all MWA server log file Same as desktop txns For completion txns. check WIP parameter value is indicated in move txns – ‘at operation’. OSP If issues found in receiving txns and If issues found in receiving txns RCV:Transaction Mode is ‘On-line’ .. and RCV:Transaction Mode is provide form trace of receiving ‘Batch’ or ‘Concurrent’ provide Receiving txn worker log file transaction form If requisitions are not getting created.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . Dump of errors from interface error tables Corresponding worker log files Corresponding worker database trace files – raw and tkprof Inventory Transaction Log files.sql output Database trace file – raw and tkprof Open Interface / N/A WIP Mass Load Dump of open interface tables for sample jobs/txns that are failing. provide form trace of “Requisition Creation Time”. log and database trace file of the process Output of the report clearly indicating the problem DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE .

DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . change it to Form is ‘Concurrent Definition’ get steps for the Background Mode.Release 11.5 WORKBENCH Job Creation / If WIP:Discrete Job Definition Form is If ‘Concurrent Definition’ and follow us The log file of WIP Concurrent Exploder request Raw and tkprofed trace file of WIP Concurrent Explider OTHERS/MISC Lead Calculation OTHERS/MISC Close Jobs OTHERS/MIS Purge Jobs Log file and trace files for Concurrent Log file for Concurrent request for request for ‘Close Jobs’ request for ‘Purge Jobs’ ‘Close Jobs’ ‘Purge Jobs’ Log file and trace files for Concurrent Log file for Concurrent request for Time N/A Log file for Concurrent request for LeadTime Calculation WIP:Discrete Job Definition Scheduling Issues ‘Interactive Definition’.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) .

Release 11. (Navigation: Concurrent -> Program).5 HOW TO GENERATE THE LOG AND TRACE FILES How to generate form trace? 1. check ls –l *123456* if 123456 was the process_id obtained in step 5. Please keep a note of the trace file name from this note. For example. 4. This will give a note saying “You have enabled SQL tracing for this form…. Disable trace and exit form. select oracle_process_id from fnd_concurrent_requests where request_id = &request_id. Open the concurrent program definition form. You can use the following query to find out this directory. Enable Trace. (Reproduce issue). 5. Get the trace file that is generated – both the raw trace and tkprof output with explain plan. Wait for move worker to complete. Go to the directory where database trace files are generated. Now. 6. Check the “Enable Trace” checkbox and save. 7. Get the trace file that is generated – both the raw trace and tkprof output with explain plan. Query the program for which you need to enable the trace. then query on Program = “WIP Move Transaction Worker” 3. 4. if you need a database trace for move worker. 2. For example. 5. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . Perform the transaction that causes the problem.”. (Toolbar Menu: Help->Diagnostic->Trace->Trace with Binds). How to generate database trace? 1. 3.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . 2. select value from v$parameter where name=’user_dump_dest’. activate the move manager and note the request_id for the move worker. Search the tracefile that contains the process_id obtained in step 5. Get the process_id of this request using the following query. Open the form that has the problem.

INV: Debug File = <valid directory from v$parameter> 4. How to generate INV txn log file in BACKGROUND cases? For all releases. and the log file name being constructed from the UNIX pid. INV: Debug Level 3. INV: Debug Trace 2. Please refer to the Metalink Note 150168. INV: Debug Trace = Yes 2. Perform the move transaction You can use the following query to find out a valid directory. You can use the following query to find out a valid directory.5 standard CGI cartridge configuration file and base HTML.txt Using the Application Release 11.Release 11. How to generate INV transaction log file in ONLINE cases? For all releases.cfg file and the base HTML. For example. set the following profiles: 1. Omitting the log parameter results in the FRD log file being written placed in the current directory (where the forms server was started from). set the following profiles: 1.5 How to generate Forms Runtime Diagnostics (FRD)? FRD is enabled by passing two parameters to Forms: record=collect and log=/mydir/frd. Collect_1234. it is possible to pass the parameters in the URL. select value from v$parameter where name=’utl_file_dir’.1 for additional information on generating the FRD. since records and collect are both defined in the appsweb.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . select value from v$parameter where name=’utl_file_dir’.log. INV: Debug Level = 11 3. INV: Debug File = Yes = 11 = <valid directory from v$parameter> 4. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . eg.

This will create an output called MoveON.10 and above.9 and prior. FND: Debug Log Filename 2. FND: Debug Log Level = Statement 4.txt set pagesize 500 col message_text format a99 = (Make sure this is null) DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE .5. there will be NO WIP log files generated for online cases.5.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . FND: Debug Log Enabled 3. FND: Debug Log Module = WIP% To get the log file. run the following SQL script. How to generate WIP log files in BACKGROUND cases? For 11. the WIP debug log files will be created if 1. FND: Debug Log Enabled= Yes 3. FND: Debug Log Level 4. For 11. the WIP debug log files will be created if 1. spool off. run the following SQL script.txt select message_text from fnd_log_messages where audsid=(select oracle_session_id from fnd_concurrent_requests where request_id = &MOVE_TRNX_WORKER_REQUEST_ID) order by log_sequence. FND: Debug Log Module = (Make sure this is null) = Yes = Statement = WIP% To get the log file.5. This will create an output called MoveBG.10 and above.5 How to generate WIP log files in ONLINE cases? For 11.txt set pagesize 500 col message_text format a99 spool MoveON.Release 11. FND: Debug Log Filename 2.

dbg where DD is the date. Log file will be generated in the last directory specified in v$parameter select value from v$parameter where name=’utl_file_dir’. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . Note: 1.9 and prior. HH24MISS is the hour.Release 11. For 11. CTO debug log will be created if OM: Debug Level = 5.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . TP:WIP Debug File 4. minute and seconds.5 spool MoveBG.txt select from where message_text fnd_log_messages audsid=(select oracle_session_id from fnd_concurrent_requests where request_id = &MOVE_TRNX_WORKER_REQUEST_ID) order by log_sequence. = Message Level 2 = <valid directory from v$parameter> You can use the following query to find out a valid directory. the WIP debug log files will be created if 1. MRP: Debug Mode = <valid filename> = Yes How to generate CTO debug log files? For all releases. spool off.5. TP: WIP Debug Directory select value from v$parameter where name=’utl_file_dir’. 2. TP: WIP Concurrent Message Level 2. 3. File name generated will be of format ctoDDHH24MISS.

Enable the INV and WIP profiles for debugging.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) .10 and later 1. After the form comes back with the following message ‘Shop Floor transaction(s) completed’.5 STEPS TO GENERATE LOG AND TRACE FILES COMPONENT WISE TRANSACTIONS There are 5 forms available for performing WIP transactions. Go to the Move transaction form. and perform the move transaction. 2. Form Name WIPTXSFM WIPTXCMP WIPTXMAT WIPTXRSC WIPTXCFM Form Function Move Transactions Completion Transactions WIP Transactions Resource Transactions Work Completions Navigation Path WIP Move Transactions WIP Material Transactions Transactions Material WIP Material Transactions Transactions WIP Resource Transactions Work Orderless Completions Transactions Resource WIP Material Completion Transactions Move Order-less WIP Material Transactions WIPTXSFM – Move Transactions Online means TP: WIP Move Transaction TP: INV Transaction processing mode = Online processing = Online Processing Background means TP: WIP Move Transaction TP: INV Transaction processing mode Steps to generate Log file in ONLINE cases 11. run the following sql = Background processing = Background Processing DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE .Release 11. click on Help About Oracle Application and find the ‘AUDSID’ and the value associated with it.5. click on save button.

2. and perform the move transaction. Go to the Move transaction form.Release 11.txt DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . spool off 3. Enable the INV and WIP profiles for debugging.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . and perform the move transaction. click on save button. 11. Note: If you are having difficulties generating debug log files for ONLINE cases. please set the profiles to background and provide the logs.5. Upload the INV transaction log file from the directory specified in INV: Debug file profile option. click on Help About Oracle Application and find the ‘AUDSID’ and the value associated with it. Steps to generate Log file in BACKGROUND cases 11.5.10 and later 1. After the form comes back with the following message ‘Shop Floor transaction(s) completed’.txt generated from the above sql script 4. run the following sql script: set pagesize 500 col message_text format a99 spool MoveBG.5 script: set pagesize 500 col message_text format a99 spool MoveON. click on save button.txt select message_text from fnd_log_messages where audsid=&audsid order by log_sequence. Go to the Move transaction form. After the form comes back with the following message ‘Shop Floor transaction(s) completed’. Upload the INV transaction log file from the directory specified in INV: Debug file profile option.9 and prior 1. 2. Upload the MoveON. 3. Enable the INV and WIP profiles for debugging.

click on save button. and perform the move transaction. Go to the Move transaction form. Upload the MoveBG.5. The move worker will process the records from WMTI. 11. Upload the Move Worker concurrent log file.9 and prior 1.Release 11. After the form comes back with the following message ‘Shop Floor transaction(s) completed’. Upload the INV transaction log file from the directory specified in INV: Debug file profile option. 3. Upload the INV transaction log file from the directory specified in INV: Debug file profile option.txt generated from the above sql script 4.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) .5 select message_text from fnd_log_messages where audsid=&audsid order by log_sequence. Launch the Move Transaction Interface Manager. 2. 4. 5. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . Set the INV and WIP debug profiles. spool off 3.

5 WIPTXCMP – Completion Transactions Online means TP: WIP Completion Material Processing TP: INV Transaction processing mode Background means TP: WIP Completion Material Processing TP: INV Transaction processing mode = Background processing = Background Processing = Online processing = Online Processing Steps to generate Log file in ONLINE cases 11. Go to the WIP Material Transactions form. After the form comes back with the following message ‘WIP completion transaction(s) completed’ DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . and perform a Completion Transactions click on Done button.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . Go to the WIP Material Transactions form.txt generated from the above sql script 4.9 and prior 1. and perform a Completion Transactions click on Done button. After the form comes back with the following message ‘WIP completion transaction(s) completed’. Enable the INV and WIP profiles for debugging. spool off 3. 2.5. run the following sql script: set pagesize 500 col message_text format a99 spool CompON.Release 11.10 and later 1. 11.5. Upload the INV transaction log file from the directory specified in INV: Debug file profile option. 2. click on Help About Oracle Application and find the ‘AUDSID’ and the value associated with it. Enable the INV and WIP profiles for debugging.txt select message_text from fnd_log_messages where audsid=&audsid order by log_sequence. Upload the CompON.

Release 11.9 and prior 1.txt select message_text from fnd_log_messages where audsid=&audsid order by log_sequence.10 and later 1. and perform a Completion Transactions click on Done button. Make sure material transaction manager is running. Go to the WIP Material Transactions form. After the form comes back with the following message ‘WIP completion transaction(s) completed’. 11. and perform a Completion Transactions click on Done button. upload the worker log file. Steps to generate Log file in BACKGROUND cases 11.5 3. 3. Go to the WIP Material Transactions form. please set the profiles to background and provide the logs. After the form comes back with the following message ‘WIP completion transaction(s) completed’. Once the material worker completes. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE .5.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . Upload the CompBG.txt generated from the above sql script 4. Enable the INV and WIP profiles for debugging. click on Help About Oracle Application and find the ‘AUDSID’ and the value associated with it. The material transaction worker will process the records. 2. Upload the INV transaction log file from the directory specified in INV: Debug file profile option. 4. Launch the Inventory Material Transaction Manager. spool off 3. Upload the Material Transaction Worker log file. Note: If you are having difficulties generating debug log files for ONLINE cases. run the following sql script: set pagesize 500 col message_text format a99 spool CompBG. Set the INV and WIP debug profiles. 2.5.

Release 11. 2. and perform a Material Transactions (Component Issue) click on Done button. After the form comes back with the following message ‘Material transaction(s) completed’. Go to the WIP Material Transactions form. and perform a Material Transactions (Component Issue) click on Done button. 11. After the form comes back with the following message ‘Material transaction(s) completed’.10 and later 1. Upload the INV transaction log file from the directory specified in INV: Debug file profile option. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . run the following sql script: set pagesize 500 col message_text format a99 spool MatON. Go to the WIP Material Transactions form.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . click on Help About Oracle Application and find the ‘AUDSID’ and the value associated with it.5.9 and prior 1. Enable the INV and WIP profiles for debugging.5. 2. spool off 3. Upload the MatON. Enable the INV and WIP profiles for debugging.txt select message_text from fnd_log_messages where audsid=&audsid order by log_sequence.5 WIPTXMAT – WIP Material Transactions Online means TP: WIP Material Transaction Form TP: INV Transaction processing mode Background means TP: WIP Material Transaction Form TP: INV Transaction processing mode = Background processing = Background Processing = Online processing = Online Processing Steps to generate Log file in ONLINE cases 11.txt generated from the above sql script 4.

Release 11. click on Help About Oracle Application and find the ‘AUDSID’ and the value associated with it. run the following sql script: set pagesize 500 col message_text format a99 spool MatBG. 4. 3. The material transaction worker will process the records. Enable the INV and WIP profiles for debugging. Upload the INV transaction log file from the directory specified in INV: Debug file profile option. and perform a Material Transactions (Component Issue) click on Done button. 11. Go to the WIP Material Transactions form.10 and later 1. upload the worker log file.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . After the form comes back with the following message ‘WIP completion transaction(s) completed’. Upload the Material Transaction Worker log file. spool off 3. 2.5. Once the material worker completes. Invoke the material transaction manager.txt select message_text from fnd_log_messages where audsid=&audsid order by log_sequence. 2. Note: If you are having difficulties generating debug log files for ONLINE cases. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . please set the profiles to background and provide the logs.txt generated from the above sql script 4. Steps to generate Log file in BACKGROUND cases 11.5 3. After the form comes back with the following message ‘Material transaction(s) completed’.9 and prior 1. Upload the MatBG.5. Launch the Inventory Material Transaction Manager. Set the INV and WIP debug profiles. and perform a Completion Transactions click on Done button. Go to the WIP Material Transactions form.

Release 11. TYPE Overhead Cost Worker CMCOCW 1 . Cost Manager CMCTCM The Cost Manager invokes the material cost manager and if WIP is installed. Resource Cost CMCCTW Worker Processes transactions that are assigned by the transaction manager through the group_id. the resource cost manager. The type specifies the type of transactions within a group.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) .Overhead Operation Yield Processor CSTPOYLD CSTPOYLD. the appropriate cost processing routine will be invoked. The cost Manager processes resource transactions. This actual cost worker processes material transactions that are assigned by the actual cost manager in chronological order based on the transaction_date and transaction_id. TYPE 2 . Depending on the transaction origination (INV or WIP).Resource / OSP transaction processes transactions that are assigned by the transaction manager through the group_id.5 WIPTXRSC – Resource Transactions The resource transactions are processed in batch. The type specifies the type of transactions within a group. Cost Manager controls the following processes.process_op_yield DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . Material worker Actual Worker Cost CMCACW cost CMCMCW This subroutine polls the transaction table for uncosted transactions. they are populated in wip_cost_txn_interface table. and costs them by calling the cost_trx library function.

and relaunch the Cost Manager. Material Cost Transaction worker.Release 11. MRP:Debug Mode CST:Cost update debug level to = Yes = Full Please provide the Cost Manager. and Overhead Cost worker concurrent log files.5 To Enable Debug for Cost Manager. Stop the Cost Manager and set the following profile options. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . Resource Cost Worker.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) .

2.9 and prior.5. Enable the INV and WIP profiles for debugging.10 and later 1. spool off 3. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . and perform a WOL Completion Transaction click on Save button.txt select message_text from fnd_log_messages where audsid=&audsid order by log_sequence.5. Note: If you are having difficulties generating debug log files for ONLINE cases. Go to the Work Order less Transactions form.9 and prior There was no online mode for WOL completions in 11.5. run the following sql script: set pagesize 500 col message_text format a99 spool WolON.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . Upload the WolON.5 WIPTXCFM – Work Order-less Completions Online means TP: WIP Work Order-less Completion Transaction Form TP: INV Transaction processing mode Background means TP: WIP Work Order-less Completion Transaction Form TP: INV Transaction processing mode = Background processing = Background Processing = Online processing = Online Processing Steps to generate Log file in ONLINE cases 11. Click on Help About Oracle Application and find the ‘AUDSID’ and the value associated with it. 11.txt generated from the above sql script 4. Upload the INV transaction log file from the directory specified in INV: Debug file profile option. please set the profiles to background and provide the logs.Release 11.

3. Once the material worker completes. upload the worker log file. Enable the INV and WIP profiles for debugging. 2. Activate the material transaction manager. 11.Release 11. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE .Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . 4. and perform a WOL Completion Transaction click on Save button.5.txt select message_text from fnd_log_messages where audsid=&audsid order by log_sequence. Launch the Inventory Material Transaction Manager. run the following sql script: set pagesize 500 col message_text format a99 spool WolBG. Set the INV and WIP debug profiles. and perform a WOL Completion Transaction click on Save button.10 and later 1. Upload the WolBG. 2. The material transaction worker will process the records.txt generated from the above sql script 4. Go to the Work Order less Transactions form. Click on Help About Oracle Application and find the ‘AUDSID’ and the value associated with it. spool off 3.9 and prior 1. Go to the Work Order less Transactions form. Upload the Material Transaction Worker log file.5 Steps to generate Log file in BACKGROUND cases 11.5.

logdir <portno>/System.WIP.Release 11.log <portno>. see Metalink note 277655. reproduce the issue. Open $MWA_TOP/secure/mwa. 2. 3. For generating trace for mobile transactions. For mobile transaction errors Set the appropriate transaction profiles similar to transactions using forms application.INV. Note the directory specified for mwa. connect to this new port.log <portno>. Set mwa.1.MaxLogFileSize=10000000 Start mobile server on a new port for logging a particular transaction. If is is invalid / not writable. The following log files will be available in the location specified under wma. perform the transaction.logdir. Set mwa.Oracle Work In Process (WIP) .cfg. Set mea.5 MOBILE For Mobile UI log files Do the following: 1.enableLogLocation=Yes 6.log <portno>. mwa.log 4.Loglevel = trace 5. only some of the above list of log files could be generate and that is normal. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE . exit from the mobile device and bring down the port.Systemlog = system. please correct it.log Based on the type of transaction performed.WMS.

Run auto-create final assembly program (WIP: Discrete -> AutoCreate Orders) and provide the concurrent request log file. Also. provide the CTO Debug log file.Release 11. Enable the following debug profiles MRP: Debug = Yes OM: Debug Level = 5 2.5 ATO AND CTO 1. DEBUGGING WIP TRANSACTION ISSUE .Oracle Work In Process (WIP) . 3.