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**Phys. Scr. T136 (2009) 014034 (5pp) doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2009/T136/014034
**

Numerical solution to the van der Pol

equation with fractional damping

Ali Konuralp

1

, Çi ˘ gdem Konuralp

2

and Ahmet Yıldırım

3

1

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Celal Bayar University,

Manisa 45047, Turkey

2

Muradiye High School, Muradiye, Manisa, Turkey

3

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Ege University, Bornova,

˙

Izmir, Turkey

E-mail: ali.konuralp@bayar.edu.tr

Received 27 January 2009

Accepted for publication 28 January 2009

Published 12 October 2009

Online at stacks.iop.org/PhysScr/T136/014034

Abstract

In this study, the van der Pol equation with fractional damping is investigated and the

numerical solution of the problem is obtained by means of the variational iteration method.

For this purpose, speciﬁc α values are considered and the emerged fractional differential

equations are solved approximately. Furthermore, these solutions are compared and the

relations between them are ﬁgured out.

PACS numbers: 02.60.Lj, 02.30.Mv, 02.60.Cb, 45.10.Db

(Some ﬁgures in this article are in colour only in the electronic version.)

1. Introduction

Recently, fractional calculus has found new applications

in assorted ﬁelds such as engineering, physics, ﬁnance,

chemistry, bioengineering [13–15, 19, 21–23], etc and is still

used in new numerical simulations of chaotic systems [5,

24], real-world applications [1] and control processing [20].

Also, fractional variational principles have been developed

and applied to fractional problems [2]. During the last years,

He’s variational iteration method has been extended to solve

the fractional differential equations [6–8, 11, 12, 16, 17].

In this study, the fractional van der Pol equation is solved

by means of the variational iteration method. The van der

Pol equation with fractional damping, which is governed by

the studies of Juhn–Horng Chen and Wei–Ching Chen [5], is

considered for its approximate solution. The problem is

¨ x(t ) +µ

x

2

(t ) −1

D

α

x(t ) + x(t ) = a sin wt,

with the initial conditions x(0) = ˙ x(0) = 0, (1)

where the initial conditions are homogeneous, µ is the

damping parameter, a the amplitude of periodic forcing, w

denotes the forcing frequency and D

α

the differential operator

that denotes the αth derivative of the related function with

respect to t . Because of not changing the structure of the

problem α is held in the interval 0 < α < 2.

The deﬁnitions of fractional derivatives differ from each

other. Some deﬁnitions, i.e. Riemann–Liouville or Caputo,

are the most usable fractional operators and are considered

by many authors [13, 20, 23]. During our investigations, the

deﬁnition of Caputo is focused on [4]. The basic deﬁnition of

the Caputo derivative is

c

D

α

x(t ) = J

m−α

x

(m)

(t ), α > 0,

where m = [α] is the value of α to be rounded up to the nearest

integer, x

(m)

is the ordinary mth derivative of x with respect

to t ,

J

β

z(t ) =

1

(β)

t

0

(t −s)

β−1

z(s) ds

is the Riemann–Liouville integral operator of order β > 0 and

(·) is the gamma function.

2. Application process of the variational iteration

method to the problem

2.1. Variational iteration method

The effective variational iteration method is used to solve

a wide class of differential equations [3, 9, 10, 16, 18]

and its methodology is also given from ordinary differential

equations to partial differential equations. Here we apply

0031-8949/09/014034+05$30.00 1 © 2009 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Printed in the UK

Phys. Scr. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al

the variational iteration method to problem (1) in order to

approach its approximate solution. Problem (1) becomes the

fractional differential equation in operator form

D

2

x(t ) +µ(x

2

(t ) −1)D

α

x(t ) + x(t ) = a sin wτ.

The basic process of the method is to take the closed form of

the problem

F(t, x,

c

D

α

x, D

2

x) = 0, (2)

where t is the independent time variable, x is the unknown

function and F has both linear part Lx and nonlinear part

Nx. Additionally, Rx represents the remaining terms after the

linear highest order term is removed from the equation. The

correction functional of (2) is

x

n+1

(t ) = x

n

(t ) +

t

0

λ(τ)F

τ, x

n

(τ),

c

D

α

x

n

(τ), D

2

x

n

(τ)

dτ.

(3)

In this functional, the Lagrange multiplier, λ(τ), can be

obtained as two different functions having asymptotically the

same expansion. In the linear one, sometimes the approximate

solutions are not valid for a larger time domain, i.e. blow-up

in ﬁnite time, so we specify both the linear and nonlinear

multiplier for (2).

2.2. Linear Lagrange multiplier

In order to ﬁnd the optimized function of the Lagrange

multiplier, by considering only the highest order term in (1)

and making (3) stationary and noticing that δ ˜ x

n

is restricted

variation, i.e. δ ˜ x

n

= 0, (3) can be written as follows:

δx

n+1

(t ) = δx

n

(t ) +δ

t

0

λ(τ)

D

2

x

n

(τ) + R˜ x

n

(τ)

dτ. (4)

After neglecting the restricted variations, it is obtained as

δx

n+1

(t ) = δx

n

(t ) +δ

t

0

λ(τ)

D

2

x

n

((τ)

dτ.

Equation (4) is rearranged and the Lagrange multiplier is

computed in the following process:

δx

n+1

(t ) = δx

n

(t ) +λ(τ) δDx

n

(τ)|

τ=t

−λ(τ) δx

n

(τ)|

τ=t

+

x

0

{D

2

λ(τ)) δx

n

(τ)} dτ = 0.

The conditions of the Lagrange multiplier are

δx

n

(t ) : 1 − λ

(τ)

τ=t

= 0,

δDx

n

(τ) : λ(τ)|

τ=t

= 0,

δx

n

(τ) : D

2

λ(τ)

τ=t

= 0.

By the previous conditions, the Lagrange multiplier

is identiﬁed as λ(τ) = τ −t . Therefore, the correction

functional is

x

n+1

(t ) = x

n

(t ) +

t

0

(τ −t )

D

2

x

n

(τ)

+µ(x

2

n

(τ) −1)D

α

x

n

(τ) + x

n

(τ) −a sin wτ

dτ.

(5)

The linear initial approximation of the problem will

symbolically be taken as x

0

(t ) = 0 by considering the

homogeneous initial conditions. Putting n = 0, the ﬁrst

iteration of (5) is

x

1

(t ) =

t

0

(t −τ) a sin wτ dτ

= a (wt −sin wt )/w

2

. (6)

In the second iteration, we obtain the solution with

dependence of α as

x

2

(t ) = x

1

(t ) +

t

0

(τ −t )

¸

D

2

x

1

(τ) +µ(x

2

1

(τ) −1)D

α

x

1

(τ)

+ x

1

(τ) −a sin wτ

¸

dτ,

x

2

(t ) =

a t

w

−

a sin wt

w

2

+

t

0

(τ −t )

¸

µ

(awτ −a sin wτ)

2

/w

4

−1

×D

α

(awτ −a sin wτ/w

2

)

+a τ/w−a sin wτ/w

2

¸

dτ. (7)

Now problem (1) is solved approximately including two

iteration steps. In the next section, some special values of α

as it varies in the interval 0 < α < 2 will be chosen.

2.3. Nonlinear Lagrange multiplier

Considering the linear part of differential equation (1), the

above process is again rearranged. Therefore making (3)

stationary and noticing that δ ˜ x

n

is restricted variation, i.e.

δ ˜ x

n

= 0, (3) can be written as follows:

δx

n+1

(t )=δx

n

(t ) +δ

t

0

λ(τ)

D

2

x

n

(τ) + x

n

(τ) + N ˜ x

n

(τ)

dτ.

(8)

Then neglecting the restricted variations, we obtain

δx

n+1

(t ) = δx

n

(t ) +δ

t

0

λ(τ)

D

2

x

n

(τ) + x

n

(τ)

dτ.

The Lagrange multiplier has to provide the following

statement:

δx

n+1

(t ) = δx

n

(t ) +λ(τ) δDx

n

(τ)|

τ=t

−λ(τ) δx

n

(τ)|

τ=t

+

x

0

{(D

2

+1)λ(τ) δx

n

(τ)} dτ = 0.

This means that the conditions of the multiplier are

δx

n

(t ) : 1 − λ

(τ)

τ=t

= 0,

δDx

n

(τ) : λ(τ)|

τ=t

= 0,

δx

n

(τ) : (D

2

+1)λ(τ)

τ=t

= 0

and the Lagrange multiplier is identiﬁed as λ(τ) = sin(τ −

t ). As is seen, the linear multiplier is the ﬁrst term of the

expansion of the nonlinear one. Because of characterizing the

oscillatory behavior and obtaining better approximations, it

2

Phys. Scr. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al

is convenient to choose the nonlinear multiplier. Thus, the

correctional functional is

x

n+1

(t ) = x

n

(t ) +

t

0

sin(τ −t )

D

2

x

n

(τ) +µ(x

2

n

(τ) −1)

×D

α

x

n

(τ) + x

n

(τ) −a sin wτ) dτ. (9)

The linear initial approximation of the problem will

symbolically be taken as x

0

(t ) = 0 by considering the

homogeneous initial conditions. Putting n = 0, the ﬁrst

iteration of (9) is

x

1

(t ) =

t

0

sin(t −τ) a sin wτ dτ

= a(sin(t )w−sin(wt ))(−1 +w

2

)

−1

. (10)

In the second iteration, we obtain a solution with dependence

of α as

x

2

(t ) = x

1

(t ) +

t

0

sin(τ −t )

¸

D

2

x

1

(τ) +µ(x

2

1

(τ) −1)

×

c

D

α

x

1

(τ) + x

1

(τ) −a sin wτ

¸

dτ, x

2

(t )

=

a(sin(t )w−sin(wt ))

(−1 +w

2

)

+

t

0

sin(τ −t )

¸

a

2

(−sin(t )w+w

2

sin(wt ))

2

(−1 +w

2

)

2

+µ

(a(sin(t )w−sin(wt )))

2

(−1 +w

2

)

4

−1

×

c

D

α

a(sin(τ)w−sin(wτ))

(−1 +w

2

)

+

a(sin(τ)w−sin(wτ))

(−1 +w

2

)

¸

dτ. (11)

3. Numerical results

In this section, we give some speciﬁc examples of problem (1)

that show the exactness and usefulness of the presented

process. In the following calculations, the parameters

mentioned in the ﬁrst section were chosen to be µ = 1.02,

a = 1.31 and w = 0.5, according to [5].

3.1. Linear Lagrange multiplier

(i) For α = 1: it is taken that α = 1 to show the accuracy

of the used method, and (1) is reduced to the classical

van der Pol equation. Putting x

1

(t ) in (7), the correctional

functional is

x

2

(t ) =

a t

w

−

a sin wt

w

2

+

t

0

(τ −t )

×

¸

µ(awτ −a sin wτ)

2

w

4

−µ

×D

awτ −a sin wτ

w

2

+

a τ

w

−

a sin wτ

w

2

¸

dτ.

(12)

Therefore, the solution of (1) according to the second

iteration is

x

2

(t ) =

−73

36

a

3

µ

w

7

−

aµ

w

3

+

at

w

+

at

w

3

+

1

2

aµt

2

w

−

1

4

a

3

µt

2

w

5

−

1

6

at

3

w

−

1

12

a

3

µt

4

w

3

−

a sin(wt )

w

2

+

2a

3

µt sin(wt )

w

6

−

a sin(wt )

w

4

+

5a

3

µ cos(wt )

3w

7

+

aµ cos(wt )

w

3

−

a

3

µ cos(wt )

12w

7

−

a

3

µt

2

cos(wt )

w

5

+

1

36

a

3

µ cos(3wt )

w

7

+

1

8

a

3

µ(cos(2wt ) +1)

w

7

+

1

4

a

3

µt sin(2wt )

w

6

. (13)

The above solution x(t ) ≈ x

2

(t ) is an approximate

iterative solution of (1).

(ii) For α =

1

10

: the problem now becomes

¨ x(t ) +µ

x

2

(t ) −1

D

0.1

x(t ) + x(t ) = a sin wt,

with the initial conditions x(0) = ˙ x(0) = 0, (14)

where the correction functional of (14) is written as in (7).

Putting the value of α in (7) we obtain, therefore, the

approximate second iteration solution

x

2

(t ) ≈

a

w

t −

a

w

2

sin wt +

100000awµ

9476649(9/10)

t

49/10

−

aw

120

t

5

−

10000000aw

3

µ

38579438079(9/10)

t

69/10

+

aw

3

5040

t

7

+

1000000000aw

5

µ

271252029133449(9/10)

t

89/10

−

aw

5

362880

t

9

. (15)

(iii) For α =

1

2

: putting α =

1

2

, the problem becomes

¨ x(t ) +µ

x

2

(t ) −1

D

0.5

x(t ) + x(t ) = a sin wt,

with the initial conditions x(0) = ˙ x(0) = 0. (16)

Analogously, substituting the value of α in (7), and

iterating one more time, we obtain the approximate

solution

x

2

(t ) ≈

a

w

t −

a

w

2

sin wt +

32awµ

945

√

π

t

9/2

−

aw

120

t

5

−

128aw

3

µ

135135

√

π

t

13/2

+

aw

3

5040

t

7

+

512aw

5

µ

34459425

√

π

t

17/2

−

aw

5

362880

t

9

−

8a

3

w

3

µ

53865

√

π

t

21/2

−

2048aw

7

µ

13749310575

√

π

t

21/2

. (17)

3

Phys. Scr. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al

2

( ) x t

t

Figure 1. Approximate solution of problem (1) when α = 1 and the

parameters are µ = 1.02, a = 1.31 and w = 0.5.

2

x

Figure 2. Approximate solution of (1) by considering the nonlinear

multiplier and α = 1. The parameters are taken as µ = 1.02,

a = 1.31 and w = 0.5.

(iv) For α =

3

2

: putting α =

3

2

, the problem becomes

¨ x(t ) +µ

x

2

(t ) −1

D

1.5

x(t ) + x(t ) = a sin wt,

with the initial conditions x(0) = ˙ x(0) = 0. (18)

As in (ii), its second term approximate solution is

x

2

(t ) ≈

a

w

t −

a

w

2

sin wt +

16awµ

105

√

π

t

7/2

−

aw

120

t

5

−

64aw

3

µ

10395

√

π

t

11/2

+

aw

3

5040

t

7

+

256aw

5

µ

2027025

√

π

t

15/2

−

aw

5

362880

t

9

−

4a

3

w

3

µ

8721

√

π

t

19/2

−

1024aw

7

µ

654729075

√

π

t

19/2

. (19)

3.2. Nonlinear Lagrange multiplier

If we use the resulting numerical solution (11) after two

iteration steps and choose α = 1, the graph of the approximate

solution of the problem is ﬁgure 2.

4. Conclusions

The Maple algorithm is used for calculating iterations where

the decimal digits of calculations are taken as large so as to be

2

( ) x t

t

Figure 3. Approximate solution of (1) versus the different α values.

From up to down: the red curve is the solution of (1) for α = 0.1,

the green curve for α = 0.5, the yellow curve for α = 1 and the blue

one for α = 1.5. The parameters are taken as µ = 1.02, a = 1.31

and w = 0.5.

closer to the exact solutions. While making the calculations,

ninth order series expansions are made for the integral inside

the correctional functional. In ﬁgure 3, the linear multiplier is

taken into account and it is pointed out how solutions of (1)

having different α values are related to each other.

It is appropriate to choose a nonlinear multiplier in

order to determine the oscillatory behaviors of the problem.

Consequently, the variational iteration method has been

applied to fractional van der Pol differential equations for

its approximate solution. The results show that the applied

method is suitable and inexpensive for obtaining approximate

solutions. For α = 1 it is found that the accomplished method

worked exactly to obtain the numerical solution of the van der

Pol equation.

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[23] Trujillo J J 1999 On a Riemann–Liouville generalized Taylor’s

formula J. Math. Anal. Appl. 231 255–65

[24] Zaslavsky G M 2005 Hamiltonian Chaos and Fractional

Dynamics (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

5

so we specify both the linear and nonlinear multiplier for (2). a t a sin wt − w w2 t In this functional. it . ˜ δ xn = 0. sometimes the approximate solutions are not valid for a larger time domain. by considering only the highest order term in (1) and making (3) stationary and noticing that δ xn is restricted ˜ variation. (2) where t is the independent time variable. it is obtained as t δxn+1 (t) = δxn (t) + δ 0 λ(τ ) D xn ((τ ) dτ. i. the linear multiplier is the ﬁrst term of the expansion of the nonlinear one. Linear Lagrange multiplier In order to ﬁnd the optimized function of the Lagrange multiplier. D2 x) = 0. D2 xn (τ ) dτ. δ xn = 0. 2. 2 δxn+1 (t)=δxn (t) + δ 0 λ(τ ) D2 xn (τ ) + xn (τ ) + N xn (τ ) dτ. the Lagrange multiplier. i.3.e. τ =t {(D2 + 1)λ(τ ) δxn (τ )} dτ = 0. we obtain the solution with dependence of α as t x2 (t) = x1 (t) + 0 2 (τ − t) D2 x1 (τ ) + µ(x1 (τ ) − 1)Dα x1 (τ ) xn+1 (t) = xn (t) + 0 λ(τ )F τ.e. 2. Because of characterizing the oscillatory behavior and obtaining better approximations. i. ˜ (8) t Equation (4) is rearranged and the Lagrange multiplier is computed in the following process: δxn+1 (t) = δxn (t) + λ(τ ) δDxn (τ )|τ =t − λ(τ ) δxn (τ )|τ =t x Then neglecting the restricted variations. the above process is again rearranged. As is seen. (3) can be written as follows: ˜ t δxn+1 (t) = δxn (t) + δ 0 λ(τ ) D2 xn (τ ) + R xn (τ ) dτ. + 0 {D2 λ(τ )) δxn (τ )} dτ = 0. Putting n = 0. Additionally. The basic process of the method is to take the closed form of the problem F(t. (3) can be written as follows: ˜ t + 0 (τ − t) µ (awτ − a sin wτ )2 /w4 − 1 × Dα (awτ − a sin wτ/w2 ) + a τ/w − a sin wτ/w2 dτ. = 0. Rx represents the remaining terms after the linear highest order term is removed from the equation.2. Nonlinear Lagrange multiplier Considering the linear part of differential equation (1). In the linear one. (3) x2 (t) = + x1 (τ ) − a sin wτ dτ. In the second iteration. This means that the conditions of the multiplier are δxn (t) : 1 − λ (τ ) τ =t By the previous conditions. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al the variational iteration method to problem (1) in order to approach its approximate solution. the Lagrange multiplier is identiﬁed as λ(τ ) = τ − t.c Dα xn (τ ). xn (τ ). Scr. Therefore. The Lagrange multiplier has to provide the following statement: δxn+1 (t) = δxn (t) + λ(τ ) δDxn (τ )|τ =t − λ(τ ) δxn (τ )|τ =t x The conditions of the Lagrange multiplier are δxn (t) : 1 − λ (τ ) δxn (τ ) : D2 λ(τ ) τ =t = 0. =0 δDxn (τ ) : λ(τ )|τ =t = 0. some special values of α as it varies in the interval 0 < α < 2 will be chosen. (4) ˜ After neglecting the restricted variations.Phys. can be obtained as two different functions having asymptotically the same expansion. (5) 2 and the Lagrange multiplier is identiﬁed as λ(τ ) = sin(τ − t). The correction functional of (2) is t The linear initial approximation of the problem will symbolically be taken as x0 (t) = 0 by considering the homogeneous initial conditions. λ(τ ). the ﬁrst iteration of (5) is t x1 (t) = 0 (t − τ ) a sin wτ dτ (6) = a (wt − sin wt)/w2 . In the next section. δxn (τ ) : (D2 + 1)λ(τ ) τ =t xn+1 (t) = xn (t) + 0 (τ − t) D2 xn (τ ) 2 +µ(xn (τ ) − 1)Dα xn (τ ) + xn (τ ) − a sin wτ dτ. Problem (1) becomes the fractional differential equation in operator form D2 x(t) + µ(x 2 (t) − 1)Dα x(t) + x(t) = a sin wτ. blow-up in ﬁnite time. + 0 δDxn (τ ) : λ(τ )|τ =t = 0. Therefore making (3) stationary and noticing that δ xn is restricted variation. x. x is the unknown function and F has both linear part Lx and nonlinear part Nx. the correction functional is t = 0. we obtain δxn+1 (t) = δxn (t) + δ 0 λ(τ ) D2 xn (τ ) + xn (τ ) dτ. (7) Now problem (1) is solved approximately including two iteration steps. c Dα x.e.

and iterating one more time.31 and w = 0. In the following calculations. ˙ with the initial conditions x(0) = x (0) = 0. substituting the value of α in (7). the approximate second iteration solution x2 (t) ≈ (11) a 100000awµ 49/10 a t − 2 sin wt + t w w 9476649 (9/10) − + aw 5 10000000aw3 µ t − t 69/10 120 38579438079 (9/10) 1000000000aw5 µ aw 3 7 t + t 89/10 5040 271252029133449 (9/10) aw5 9 t . (13) 4 w6 xn+1 (t) = xn (t) + 0 α 2 sin(τ − t) D2 xn (τ ) + µ(xn (τ ) − 1) ×D xn (τ ) + xn (τ ) − a sin wτ ) dτ. and (1) is reduced to the classical van der Pol equation. (−1 + w2 ) 3. ˙ with the initial conditions x(0) = x (0) = 0. (12) 3 − . 362880 (15) + 0 a 2 (− sin(t)w + w 2 sin(wt))2 sin(τ − t) (−1 + w2 )2 (a(sin(t)w − sin(wt)))2 −1 (−1 + w2 )4 a(sin(τ )w − sin(wτ )) (−1 + w 2 ) +µ × c Dα + a(sin(τ )w − sin(wτ )) dτ. 3. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al is convenient to choose the nonlinear multiplier. the parameters mentioned in the ﬁrst section were chosen to be µ = 1. therefore. Putting n = 0. we give some speciﬁc examples of problem (1) that show the exactness and usefulness of the presented process. (16) Analogously.02. In the second iteration. x2 (t) = a(sin(t)w − sin(wt)) (−1 + w2 ) t the problem now becomes ¨ x (t) + µ x 2 (t) − 1 D0. (9) The linear initial approximation of the problem will symbolically be taken as x0 (t) = 0 by considering the homogeneous initial conditions. the correctional functional is x2 (t) = a t a sin wt − + w w2 × ×D t − 1 (iii) For α = 2 : putting α = 1 . Linear Lagrange multiplier (i) For α = 1: it is taken that α = 1 to show the accuracy of the used method.1. Putting the value of α in (7) we obtain.Phys. we obtain the approximate solution x2 (t) ≈ a a 32awµ 9/2 aw 5 t − 2 sin wt + t √ t − w w 120 945 π − − 128aw 3 µ 13/2 aw3 7 512aw5 µ 17/2 + t + √ t √ t 5040 135135 π 34459425 π aw 5 9 8a 3 w3 µ 21/2 t − √ t 362880 53865 π 2048aw 7 µ √ t 21/2 . a = 1. Numerical results In this section. Scr. the solution of (1) according to the second iteration is x2 (t) = −73 a 3 µ aµ at at 1 aµt 2 1 a 3 µt 2 − 3+ + 3+ − 36 w 7 w w w 2 w 4 w5 3 3 4 1 at 1 a µt a sin(wt) − − − 3 6 w 12 w w2 3 2a µ t sin(wt) a sin(wt) 5a 3 µ cos(wt) + − + w6 w4 3w7 3 3 2 aµ cos(wt) a µ cos(wt) a µ t cos(wt) − − + w3 12w7 w5 3 3 1 a µ cos(3wt) 1 a µ(cos(2wt) + 1) + + 36 w7 8 w7 1 a 3 µt sin(2wt) + . the problem becomes 2 ¨ x (t) + µ x 2 (t) − 1 D0. the ﬁrst iteration of (9) is t x1 (t) = 0 sin(t − τ ) a sin wτ dτ (10) = a(sin(t)w − sin(wt))(−1 + w2 )−1 . according to [5].5 x(t) + x(t) = a sin wt. (ii) For α = 1 : 10 ×c Dα x1 (τ ) + x1 (τ ) − a sin wτ dτ. the correctional functional is t Therefore.1 x(t) + x(t) = a sin wt. Putting x1 (t) in (7). Thus. we obtain a solution with dependence of α as t x2 (t) = x1 (t) + 0 2 sin(τ − t) D2 x1 (τ ) + µ(x1 (τ ) − 1) The above solution x(t) ≈ x2 (t) is an approximate iterative solution of (1). (14) where the correction functional of (14) is written as in (7). 13749310575 π (17) (τ − t) 0 µ(awτ − a sin wτ )2 −µ w4 awτ − a sin wτ w2 + a τ a sin wτ − w w2 dτ.5.

51 294–8 [2] Baleanu D and Trujillo J J 2008 On exact solutions of a class of fractional Euler–Lagrange equations Nonlinear Dyn. the linear multiplier is taken into account and it is pointed out how solutions of (1) having different α values are related to each other.5.31 and w = 0.02. 4. Simul. the green curve for α = 0. Eng. 34 699–708 .5. the variational iteration method has been applied to fractional van der Pol differential equations for its approximate solution. 2 1. Appl. R. Conclusions The Maple algorithm is used for calculating iterations where the decimal digits of calculations are taken as large so as to be 4 [1] Bagley R L and Torvik P J 1994 On the appearance of fractional derivative in the behaviour of real materials J.02. Phys. x2 Figure 2. 13 529–39 [5] Chen J-H and Chen W-C 2008 Chaotic dynamics of the fractionally damped van der Pol equation Chaos Solitons Fractals 35 188–98 [6] Das S 2009 Analytical solution of a fractional diffusion equation by variational iteration method Comput. Approximate solution of problem (1) when α = 1 and the parameters are µ = 1. a = 1. Appl. its second term approximate solution is x2 (t) ≈ a a 16awµ 7/2 aw 5 t − 2 sin wt + t √ t − w w 120 105 π − − − (18) 256aw5 µ 15/2 64aw3 µ 11/2 aw3 7 t + + √ t √ t 5040 10395 π 2027025 π aw5 9 4a 3 w 3 µ 19/2 t − √ t 362880 8721 π 1024aw7 µ 19/2 .5 ˙ with the initial conditions x(0) = x (0) = 0. Consequently. Scr. Approximate solution of (1) versus the different α values.Phys. the yellow curve for α = 1 and the blue one for α = 1. ninth order series expansions are made for the integral inside the correctional functional. The parameters are taken as µ = 1. Astron. Math. a = 1. The results show that the applied method is suitable and inexpensive for obtaining approximate solutions. √ t 654729075 π (19) 3. While making the calculations. Methods Appl. Meth. differential transform method and Adomian decomposition method for solving different types of nonlinear partial differential equations Int. J. In ﬁgure 3. Mech. the graph of the approximate solution of the problem is ﬁgure 2. 167 69–73 [10] He J H 1999a Variational iteration method—a kind of non-linear analytical technique: some examples Int. Approximate solution of (1) by considering the nonlinear multiplier and α = 1.31 and w = 0. Math.02. From up to down: the red curve is the solution of (1) for α = 0.1. As in (ii).31 and w = 0. Soc. Nonlinear Mech. For α = 1 it is found that the accomplished method worked exactly to obtain the numerical solution of the van der Pol equation. Numer.5. 47 082902 [8] He J H 1998a Approximate analytical solution for seepage ﬂow with fractional derivatives in porous media Comput. t Figure 3. closer to the exact solutions. Mech. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al x2 ( t ) x2 ( t ) t Figure 1. References (iv) For α = 3 : putting α = 3 . It is appropriate to choose a nonlinear multiplier in order to determine the oscillatory behaviors of the problem. 57 483–7 [7] Draganescu G E 2006 Application of a variational iteration method to linear and nonlinear viscoelastic models with fractional derivatives J. Appl. 7 65–70 [4] Caputo M 1967 Linear models of dissipation whose Q is almost frequency independent-II Geophys.2. The parameters are taken as µ = 1. the problem becomes 2 2 ¨ x (t) + µ x (t) − 1 D x(t) + x(t) = a sin wt. Nonlinear Lagrange multiplier If we use the resulting numerical solution (11) after two iteration steps and choose α = 1. Nonlinear Sci. J. J. a = 1. 167 57–68 [9] He J H 1998b Approximate solution of non-linear differential equations with convolution product nonlinearities Comput.5. 52 331–5 [3] Bildik N and Konuralp A 2006 The use of variational iteration method. Eng. Mech.5.

Comput. Luchko Yu and Pagnini G 2001 The fundamental solution of the space–time fractional diffusion equation Frac. Anal. Calc. 231 255–65 [24] Zaslavsky G M 2005 Hamiltonian Chaos and Fractional Dynamics (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 5 . Math. Anal. 207 96–110 [17] Odibat Z and Momani S 2006 Application of variational iteration method to nonlinear differential equations of fractional order Int. 345 476–84 [13] Kilbas A A. J. 4 153 [16] Momani S and Odibat Z 2007 Numerical approach to differential equations of fractional order J. Simul. Calc. Appl. 306 372 [19] Podlubny I 1999 Fractional Differential Equations (New York: Academic Press) [20] Ross B 1974 Fractional Calculus and its Applications (Lecture Notes in Mathematics) (Berlin: Springer) [21] Stanislavsky A A 2004 Fractional oscillator Phys.Phys. 15 86–90 [12] ˙ M 2008 The approximate and exact solutions of the Inç space. Appl. Sound Vib. Sci. Appl. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al [11] He J H 1999b Some applications of nonlinear fractional differential equations and their approximations Bull. Nonlinear Sci. Technol. Math. 7 15–27 [18] Özi¸ T and Yıldırım A 2007 A study of nonlinear oscillators s with u 1/3 force by He’s variational iteration method J. Math. Rev. Appl. Anal. E 70 051103 [22] Tenreiro Machado J A 2001 Discrete-time fractional-order controllers Frac. 4 47–66 [23] Trujillo J J 1999 On a Riemann–Liouville generalized Taylor’s formula J. Numer. Srivastava H M and Trujillo J J 2006 Theory and Applications of Fractional Differential Equations (Amsterdam: Elsevier) [14] Magin R L 2006 Fractional Calculus in Bioengineering (Connecticut: Begell House) [15] Mainardi F. Anal. Appl.and time-fractional Burgers equations with initial conditions by variational iteration method J. Scr.

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