IOP PUBLISHING PHYSICA SCRIPTA

Phys. Scr. T136 (2009) 014034 (5pp) doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2009/T136/014034
Numerical solution to the van der Pol
equation with fractional damping
Ali Konuralp
1
, Çi ˘ gdem Konuralp
2
and Ahmet Yıldırım
3
1
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Celal Bayar University,
Manisa 45047, Turkey
2
Muradiye High School, Muradiye, Manisa, Turkey
3
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Ege University, Bornova,
˙
Izmir, Turkey
E-mail: ali.konuralp@bayar.edu.tr
Received 27 January 2009
Accepted for publication 28 January 2009
Published 12 October 2009
Online at stacks.iop.org/PhysScr/T136/014034
Abstract
In this study, the van der Pol equation with fractional damping is investigated and the
numerical solution of the problem is obtained by means of the variational iteration method.
For this purpose, specific α values are considered and the emerged fractional differential
equations are solved approximately. Furthermore, these solutions are compared and the
relations between them are figured out.
PACS numbers: 02.60.Lj, 02.30.Mv, 02.60.Cb, 45.10.Db
(Some figures in this article are in colour only in the electronic version.)
1. Introduction
Recently, fractional calculus has found new applications
in assorted fields such as engineering, physics, finance,
chemistry, bioengineering [13–15, 19, 21–23], etc and is still
used in new numerical simulations of chaotic systems [5,
24], real-world applications [1] and control processing [20].
Also, fractional variational principles have been developed
and applied to fractional problems [2]. During the last years,
He’s variational iteration method has been extended to solve
the fractional differential equations [6–8, 11, 12, 16, 17].
In this study, the fractional van der Pol equation is solved
by means of the variational iteration method. The van der
Pol equation with fractional damping, which is governed by
the studies of Juhn–Horng Chen and Wei–Ching Chen [5], is
considered for its approximate solution. The problem is
¨ x(t ) +µ

x
2
(t ) −1

D
α
x(t ) + x(t ) = a sin wt,
with the initial conditions x(0) = ˙ x(0) = 0, (1)
where the initial conditions are homogeneous, µ is the
damping parameter, a the amplitude of periodic forcing, w
denotes the forcing frequency and D
α
the differential operator
that denotes the αth derivative of the related function with
respect to t . Because of not changing the structure of the
problem α is held in the interval 0 < α < 2.
The definitions of fractional derivatives differ from each
other. Some definitions, i.e. Riemann–Liouville or Caputo,
are the most usable fractional operators and are considered
by many authors [13, 20, 23]. During our investigations, the
definition of Caputo is focused on [4]. The basic definition of
the Caputo derivative is
c
D
α
x(t ) = J
m−α
x
(m)
(t ), α > 0,
where m = [α] is the value of α to be rounded up to the nearest
integer, x
(m)
is the ordinary mth derivative of x with respect
to t ,
J
β
z(t ) =
1
(β)

t
0
(t −s)
β−1
z(s) ds
is the Riemann–Liouville integral operator of order β > 0 and
(·) is the gamma function.
2. Application process of the variational iteration
method to the problem
2.1. Variational iteration method
The effective variational iteration method is used to solve
a wide class of differential equations [3, 9, 10, 16, 18]
and its methodology is also given from ordinary differential
equations to partial differential equations. Here we apply
0031-8949/09/014034+05$30.00 1 © 2009 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Printed in the UK
Phys. Scr. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al
the variational iteration method to problem (1) in order to
approach its approximate solution. Problem (1) becomes the
fractional differential equation in operator form
D
2
x(t ) +µ(x
2
(t ) −1)D
α
x(t ) + x(t ) = a sin wτ.
The basic process of the method is to take the closed form of
the problem
F(t, x,
c
D
α
x, D
2
x) = 0, (2)
where t is the independent time variable, x is the unknown
function and F has both linear part Lx and nonlinear part
Nx. Additionally, Rx represents the remaining terms after the
linear highest order term is removed from the equation. The
correction functional of (2) is
x
n+1
(t ) = x
n
(t ) +

t
0
λ(τ)F

τ, x
n
(τ),
c
D
α
x
n
(τ), D
2
x
n
(τ)

dτ.
(3)
In this functional, the Lagrange multiplier, λ(τ), can be
obtained as two different functions having asymptotically the
same expansion. In the linear one, sometimes the approximate
solutions are not valid for a larger time domain, i.e. blow-up
in finite time, so we specify both the linear and nonlinear
multiplier for (2).
2.2. Linear Lagrange multiplier
In order to find the optimized function of the Lagrange
multiplier, by considering only the highest order term in (1)
and making (3) stationary and noticing that δ ˜ x
n
is restricted
variation, i.e. δ ˜ x
n
= 0, (3) can be written as follows:
δx
n+1
(t ) = δx
n
(t ) +δ

t
0
λ(τ)

D
2
x
n
(τ) + R˜ x
n
(τ)

dτ. (4)
After neglecting the restricted variations, it is obtained as
δx
n+1
(t ) = δx
n
(t ) +δ

t
0
λ(τ)

D
2
x
n
((τ)

dτ.
Equation (4) is rearranged and the Lagrange multiplier is
computed in the following process:
δx
n+1
(t ) = δx
n
(t ) +λ(τ) δDx
n
(τ)|
τ=t
−λ(τ) δx
n
(τ)|
τ=t
+

x
0
{D
2
λ(τ)) δx
n
(τ)} dτ = 0.
The conditions of the Lagrange multiplier are
δx
n
(t ) : 1 − λ

(τ)

τ=t
= 0,
δDx
n
(τ) : λ(τ)|
τ=t
= 0,
δx
n
(τ) : D
2
λ(τ)

τ=t
= 0.
By the previous conditions, the Lagrange multiplier
is identified as λ(τ) = τ −t . Therefore, the correction
functional is
x
n+1
(t ) = x
n
(t ) +

t
0
(τ −t )

D
2
x
n
(τ)
+µ(x
2
n
(τ) −1)D
α
x
n
(τ) + x
n
(τ) −a sin wτ

dτ.
(5)
The linear initial approximation of the problem will
symbolically be taken as x
0
(t ) = 0 by considering the
homogeneous initial conditions. Putting n = 0, the first
iteration of (5) is
x
1
(t ) =

t
0
(t −τ) a sin wτ dτ
= a (wt −sin wt )/w
2
. (6)
In the second iteration, we obtain the solution with
dependence of α as
x
2
(t ) = x
1
(t ) +

t
0
(τ −t )
¸
D
2
x
1
(τ) +µ(x
2
1
(τ) −1)D
α
x
1
(τ)
+ x
1
(τ) −a sin wτ
¸
dτ,
x
2
(t ) =
a t
w

a sin wt
w
2
+

t
0
(τ −t )
¸
µ

(awτ −a sin wτ)
2
/w
4
−1

×D
α
(awτ −a sin wτ/w
2
)
+a τ/w−a sin wτ/w
2
¸
dτ. (7)
Now problem (1) is solved approximately including two
iteration steps. In the next section, some special values of α
as it varies in the interval 0 < α < 2 will be chosen.
2.3. Nonlinear Lagrange multiplier
Considering the linear part of differential equation (1), the
above process is again rearranged. Therefore making (3)
stationary and noticing that δ ˜ x
n
is restricted variation, i.e.
δ ˜ x
n
= 0, (3) can be written as follows:
δx
n+1
(t )=δx
n
(t ) +δ

t
0
λ(τ)

D
2
x
n
(τ) + x
n
(τ) + N ˜ x
n
(τ)

dτ.
(8)
Then neglecting the restricted variations, we obtain
δx
n+1
(t ) = δx
n
(t ) +δ

t
0
λ(τ)

D
2
x
n
(τ) + x
n
(τ)

dτ.
The Lagrange multiplier has to provide the following
statement:
δx
n+1
(t ) = δx
n
(t ) +λ(τ) δDx
n
(τ)|
τ=t
−λ(τ) δx
n
(τ)|
τ=t
+

x
0
{(D
2
+1)λ(τ) δx
n
(τ)} dτ = 0.
This means that the conditions of the multiplier are
δx
n
(t ) : 1 − λ

(τ)

τ=t
= 0,
δDx
n
(τ) : λ(τ)|
τ=t
= 0,
δx
n
(τ) : (D
2
+1)λ(τ)

τ=t
= 0
and the Lagrange multiplier is identified as λ(τ) = sin(τ −
t ). As is seen, the linear multiplier is the first term of the
expansion of the nonlinear one. Because of characterizing the
oscillatory behavior and obtaining better approximations, it
2
Phys. Scr. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al
is convenient to choose the nonlinear multiplier. Thus, the
correctional functional is
x
n+1
(t ) = x
n
(t ) +

t
0
sin(τ −t )

D
2
x
n
(τ) +µ(x
2
n
(τ) −1)
×D
α
x
n
(τ) + x
n
(τ) −a sin wτ) dτ. (9)
The linear initial approximation of the problem will
symbolically be taken as x
0
(t ) = 0 by considering the
homogeneous initial conditions. Putting n = 0, the first
iteration of (9) is
x
1
(t ) =

t
0
sin(t −τ) a sin wτ dτ
= a(sin(t )w−sin(wt ))(−1 +w
2
)
−1
. (10)
In the second iteration, we obtain a solution with dependence
of α as
x
2
(t ) = x
1
(t ) +

t
0
sin(τ −t )
¸
D
2
x
1
(τ) +µ(x
2
1
(τ) −1)
×
c
D
α
x
1
(τ) + x
1
(τ) −a sin wτ
¸
dτ, x
2
(t )
=
a(sin(t )w−sin(wt ))
(−1 +w
2
)
+

t
0
sin(τ −t )
¸
a
2
(−sin(t )w+w
2
sin(wt ))
2
(−1 +w
2
)
2

(a(sin(t )w−sin(wt )))
2
(−1 +w
2
)
4
−1

×
c
D
α

a(sin(τ)w−sin(wτ))
(−1 +w
2
)

+
a(sin(τ)w−sin(wτ))
(−1 +w
2
)
¸
dτ. (11)
3. Numerical results
In this section, we give some specific examples of problem (1)
that show the exactness and usefulness of the presented
process. In the following calculations, the parameters
mentioned in the first section were chosen to be µ = 1.02,
a = 1.31 and w = 0.5, according to [5].
3.1. Linear Lagrange multiplier
(i) For α = 1: it is taken that α = 1 to show the accuracy
of the used method, and (1) is reduced to the classical
van der Pol equation. Putting x
1
(t ) in (7), the correctional
functional is
x
2
(t ) =
a t
w

a sin wt
w
2
+

t
0
(τ −t )
×
¸
µ(awτ −a sin wτ)
2
w
4
−µ

×D

awτ −a sin wτ
w
2

+
a τ
w

a sin wτ
w
2
¸
dτ.
(12)
Therefore, the solution of (1) according to the second
iteration is
x
2
(t ) =
−73
36
a
3
µ
w
7


w
3
+
at
w
+
at
w
3
+
1
2
aµt
2
w

1
4
a
3
µt
2
w
5

1
6
at
3
w

1
12
a
3
µt
4
w
3

a sin(wt )
w
2
+
2a
3
µt sin(wt )
w
6

a sin(wt )
w
4
+
5a
3
µ cos(wt )
3w
7
+
aµ cos(wt )
w
3

a
3
µ cos(wt )
12w
7

a
3
µt
2
cos(wt )
w
5
+
1
36
a
3
µ cos(3wt )
w
7
+
1
8
a
3
µ(cos(2wt ) +1)
w
7
+
1
4
a
3
µt sin(2wt )
w
6
. (13)
The above solution x(t ) ≈ x
2
(t ) is an approximate
iterative solution of (1).
(ii) For α =
1
10
: the problem now becomes
¨ x(t ) +µ

x
2
(t ) −1

D
0.1
x(t ) + x(t ) = a sin wt,
with the initial conditions x(0) = ˙ x(0) = 0, (14)
where the correction functional of (14) is written as in (7).
Putting the value of α in (7) we obtain, therefore, the
approximate second iteration solution
x
2
(t ) ≈
a
w
t −
a
w
2
sin wt +
100000awµ
9476649(9/10)
t
49/10

aw
120
t
5

10000000aw
3
µ
38579438079(9/10)
t
69/10
+
aw
3
5040
t
7
+
1000000000aw
5
µ
271252029133449(9/10)
t
89/10

aw
5
362880
t
9
. (15)
(iii) For α =
1
2
: putting α =
1
2
, the problem becomes
¨ x(t ) +µ

x
2
(t ) −1

D
0.5
x(t ) + x(t ) = a sin wt,
with the initial conditions x(0) = ˙ x(0) = 0. (16)
Analogously, substituting the value of α in (7), and
iterating one more time, we obtain the approximate
solution
x
2
(t ) ≈
a
w
t −
a
w
2
sin wt +
32awµ
945

π
t
9/2

aw
120
t
5

128aw
3
µ
135135

π
t
13/2
+
aw
3
5040
t
7
+
512aw
5
µ
34459425

π
t
17/2

aw
5
362880
t
9

8a
3
w
3
µ
53865

π
t
21/2

2048aw
7
µ
13749310575

π
t
21/2
. (17)
3
Phys. Scr. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al
2
( ) x t
t
Figure 1. Approximate solution of problem (1) when α = 1 and the
parameters are µ = 1.02, a = 1.31 and w = 0.5.
2
x
Figure 2. Approximate solution of (1) by considering the nonlinear
multiplier and α = 1. The parameters are taken as µ = 1.02,
a = 1.31 and w = 0.5.
(iv) For α =
3
2
: putting α =
3
2
, the problem becomes
¨ x(t ) +µ

x
2
(t ) −1

D
1.5
x(t ) + x(t ) = a sin wt,
with the initial conditions x(0) = ˙ x(0) = 0. (18)
As in (ii), its second term approximate solution is
x
2
(t ) ≈
a
w
t −
a
w
2
sin wt +
16awµ
105

π
t
7/2

aw
120
t
5

64aw
3
µ
10395

π
t
11/2
+
aw
3
5040
t
7
+
256aw
5
µ
2027025

π
t
15/2

aw
5
362880
t
9

4a
3
w
3
µ
8721

π
t
19/2

1024aw
7
µ
654729075

π
t
19/2
. (19)
3.2. Nonlinear Lagrange multiplier
If we use the resulting numerical solution (11) after two
iteration steps and choose α = 1, the graph of the approximate
solution of the problem is figure 2.
4. Conclusions
The Maple algorithm is used for calculating iterations where
the decimal digits of calculations are taken as large so as to be
2
( ) x t
t
Figure 3. Approximate solution of (1) versus the different α values.
From up to down: the red curve is the solution of (1) for α = 0.1,
the green curve for α = 0.5, the yellow curve for α = 1 and the blue
one for α = 1.5. The parameters are taken as µ = 1.02, a = 1.31
and w = 0.5.
closer to the exact solutions. While making the calculations,
ninth order series expansions are made for the integral inside
the correctional functional. In figure 3, the linear multiplier is
taken into account and it is pointed out how solutions of (1)
having different α values are related to each other.
It is appropriate to choose a nonlinear multiplier in
order to determine the oscillatory behaviors of the problem.
Consequently, the variational iteration method has been
applied to fractional van der Pol differential equations for
its approximate solution. The results show that the applied
method is suitable and inexpensive for obtaining approximate
solutions. For α = 1 it is found that the accomplished method
worked exactly to obtain the numerical solution of the van der
Pol equation.
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Dynamics (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
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so we specify both the linear and nonlinear multiplier for (2). a t a sin wt − w w2 t In this functional. it . ˜ δ xn = 0. sometimes the approximate solutions are not valid for a larger time domain. by considering only the highest order term in (1) and making (3) stationary and noticing that δ xn is restricted ˜ variation. (2) where t is the independent time variable. it is obtained as t δxn+1 (t) = δxn (t) + δ 0 λ(τ ) D xn ((τ ) dτ. i. the linear multiplier is the first term of the expansion of the nonlinear one. Linear Lagrange multiplier In order to find the optimized function of the Lagrange multiplier. D2 x) = 0. D2 xn (τ ) dτ. δ xn = 0. 2. 2 δxn+1 (t)=δxn (t) + δ 0 λ(τ ) D2 xn (τ ) + xn (τ ) + N xn (τ ) dτ. the Lagrange multiplier. i.3.e. τ =t {(D2 + 1)λ(τ ) δxn (τ )} dτ = 0. we obtain the solution with dependence of α as t x2 (t) = x1 (t) + 0 2 (τ − t) D2 x1 (τ ) + µ(x1 (τ ) − 1)Dα x1 (τ ) xn+1 (t) = xn (t) + 0 λ(τ )F τ.e. 2. Because of characterizing the oscillatory behavior and obtaining better approximations. i. ˜ (8) t Equation (4) is rearranged and the Lagrange multiplier is computed in the following process: δxn+1 (t) = δxn (t) + λ(τ ) δDxn (τ )|τ =t − λ(τ ) δxn (τ )|τ =t x Then neglecting the restricted variations. the above process is again rearranged. As is seen. (3) can be written as follows: ˜ t δxn+1 (t) = δxn (t) + δ 0 λ(τ ) D2 xn (τ ) + R xn (τ ) dτ. + 0 {D2 λ(τ )) δxn (τ )} dτ = 0. Putting n = 0. Additionally. The basic process of the method is to take the closed form of the problem F(t. (3) can be written as follows: ˜ t + 0 (τ − t) µ (awτ − a sin wτ )2 /w4 − 1 × Dα (awτ − a sin wτ/w2 ) + a τ/w − a sin wτ/w2 dτ. = 0. Rx represents the remaining terms after the linear highest order term is removed from the equation.2. Nonlinear Lagrange multiplier Considering the linear part of differential equation (1). In the linear one. (3) x2 (t) = + x1 (τ ) − a sin wτ dτ. In the second iteration. This means that the conditions of the multiplier are δxn (t) : 1 − λ (τ ) τ =t By the previous conditions. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al the variational iteration method to problem (1) in order to approach its approximate solution. the Lagrange multiplier is identified as λ(τ ) = τ − t.c Dα xn (τ ). xn (τ ). Scr. Therefore. The Lagrange multiplier has to provide the following statement: δxn+1 (t) = δxn (t) + λ(τ ) δDxn (τ )|τ =t − λ(τ ) δxn (τ )|τ =t x The conditions of the Lagrange multiplier are δxn (t) : 1 − λ (τ ) δxn (τ ) : D2 λ(τ ) τ =t = 0. =0 δDxn (τ ) : λ(τ )|τ =t = 0. some special values of α as it varies in the interval 0 < α < 2 will be chosen. (4) ˜ After neglecting the restricted variations.Phys. can be obtained as two different functions having asymptotically the same expansion. (5) 2 and the Lagrange multiplier is identified as λ(τ ) = sin(τ − t). The correction functional of (2) is t The linear initial approximation of the problem will symbolically be taken as x0 (t) = 0 by considering the homogeneous initial conditions. λ(τ ). the first iteration of (5) is t x1 (t) = 0 (t − τ ) a sin wτ dτ (6) = a (wt − sin wt)/w2 . In the next section. δxn (τ ) : (D2 + 1)λ(τ ) τ =t xn+1 (t) = xn (t) + 0 (τ − t) D2 xn (τ ) 2 +µ(xn (τ ) − 1)Dα xn (τ ) + xn (τ ) − a sin wτ dτ. Problem (1) becomes the fractional differential equation in operator form D2 x(t) + µ(x 2 (t) − 1)Dα x(t) + x(t) = a sin wτ. blow-up in finite time. + 0 δDxn (τ ) : λ(τ )|τ =t = 0. Therefore making (3) stationary and noticing that δ xn is restricted variation. x. x is the unknown function and F has both linear part Lx and nonlinear part Nx. the correction functional is t = 0. we obtain δxn+1 (t) = δxn (t) + δ 0 λ(τ ) D2 xn (τ ) + xn (τ ) dτ. (7) Now problem (1) is solved approximately including two iteration steps. c Dα x.e.

and iterating one more time.31 and w = 0. In the following calculations. ˙ with the initial conditions x(0) = x (0) = 0. substituting the value of α in (7). the approximate second iteration solution x2 (t) ≈ (11) a 100000awµ 49/10 a t − 2 sin wt + t w w 9476649 (9/10) − + aw 5 10000000aw3 µ t − t 69/10 120 38579438079 (9/10) 1000000000aw5 µ aw 3 7 t + t 89/10 5040 271252029133449 (9/10) aw5 9 t . (13) 4 w6 xn+1 (t) = xn (t) + 0 α 2 sin(τ − t) D2 xn (τ ) + µ(xn (τ ) − 1) ×D xn (τ ) + xn (τ ) − a sin wτ ) dτ. and (1) is reduced to the classical van der Pol equation. (−1 + w2 ) 3. ˙ with the initial conditions x(0) = x (0) = 0. (12) 3 − . 362880 (15) + 0 a 2 (− sin(t)w + w 2 sin(wt))2 sin(τ − t) (−1 + w2 )2 (a(sin(t)w − sin(wt)))2 −1 (−1 + w2 )4 a(sin(τ )w − sin(wτ )) (−1 + w 2 ) +µ × c Dα + a(sin(τ )w − sin(wτ )) dτ. 3. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al is convenient to choose the nonlinear multiplier. the parameters mentioned in the first section were chosen to be µ = 1. therefore. Putting n = 0. we give some specific examples of problem (1) that show the exactness and usefulness of the presented process. (16) Analogously.02. In the second iteration. x2 (t) = a(sin(t)w − sin(wt)) (−1 + w2 ) t the problem now becomes ¨ x (t) + µ x 2 (t) − 1 D0. (9) The linear initial approximation of the problem will symbolically be taken as x0 (t) = 0 by considering the homogeneous initial conditions. the correctional functional is x2 (t) = a t a sin wt − + w w2 × ×D t − 1 (iii) For α = 2 : putting α = 1 . Linear Lagrange multiplier (i) For α = 1: it is taken that α = 1 to show the accuracy of the used method.1. Putting the value of α in (7) we obtain.Phys. we obtain the approximate solution x2 (t) ≈ a a 32awµ 9/2 aw 5 t − 2 sin wt + t √ t − w w 120 945 π − − 128aw 3 µ 13/2 aw3 7 512aw5 µ 17/2 + t + √ t √ t 5040 135135 π 34459425 π aw 5 9 8a 3 w3 µ 21/2 t − √ t 362880 53865 π 2048aw 7 µ √ t 21/2 . a = 1. Numerical results In this section. Scr. the solution of (1) according to the second iteration is x2 (t) = −73 a 3 µ aµ at at 1 aµt 2 1 a 3 µt 2 − 3+ + 3+ − 36 w 7 w w w 2 w 4 w5 3 3 4 1 at 1 a µt a sin(wt) − − − 3 6 w 12 w w2 3 2a µ t sin(wt) a sin(wt) 5a 3 µ cos(wt) + − + w6 w4 3w7 3 3 2 aµ cos(wt) a µ cos(wt) a µ t cos(wt) − − + w3 12w7 w5 3 3 1 a µ cos(3wt) 1 a µ(cos(2wt) + 1) + + 36 w7 8 w7 1 a 3 µt sin(2wt) + . the problem becomes 2 ¨ x (t) + µ x 2 (t) − 1 D0. the first iteration of (9) is t x1 (t) = 0 sin(t − τ ) a sin wτ dτ (10) = a(sin(t)w − sin(wt))(−1 + w2 )−1 . according to [5].5 x(t) + x(t) = a sin wt. (ii) For α = 1 : 10 ×c Dα x1 (τ ) + x1 (τ ) − a sin wτ dτ. the correctional functional is t Therefore.1 x(t) + x(t) = a sin wt. Putting x1 (t) in (7). Thus. we obtain a solution with dependence of α as t x2 (t) = x1 (t) + 0 2 sin(τ − t) D2 x1 (τ ) + µ(x1 (τ ) − 1) The above solution x(t) ≈ x2 (t) is an approximate iterative solution of (1). (14) where the correction functional of (14) is written as in (7). 13749310575 π (17) (τ − t) 0 µ(awτ − a sin wτ )2 −µ w4 awτ − a sin wτ w2 + a τ a sin wτ − w w2 dτ.5.

51 294–8 [2] Baleanu D and Trujillo J J 2008 On exact solutions of a class of fractional Euler–Lagrange equations Nonlinear Dyn. the linear multiplier is taken into account and it is pointed out how solutions of (1) having different α values are related to each other.5.31 and w = 0.02. 4. Simul. the green curve for α = 0. Eng. 34 699–708 .5. the variational iteration method has been applied to fractional van der Pol differential equations for its approximate solution. 2 1. Appl. R. Conclusions The Maple algorithm is used for calculating iterations where the decimal digits of calculations are taken as large so as to be 4 [1] Bagley R L and Torvik P J 1994 On the appearance of fractional derivative in the behaviour of real materials J.02. Phys. x2 Figure 2. 13 529–39 [5] Chen J-H and Chen W-C 2008 Chaotic dynamics of the fractionally damped van der Pol equation Chaos Solitons Fractals 35 188–98 [6] Das S 2009 Analytical solution of a fractional diffusion equation by variational iteration method Comput. Approximate solution of problem (1) when α = 1 and the parameters are µ = 1. a = 1. Appl. its second term approximate solution is x2 (t) ≈ a a 16awµ 7/2 aw 5 t − 2 sin wt + t √ t − w w 120 105 π − − − (18) 256aw5 µ 15/2 64aw3 µ 11/2 aw3 7 t + + √ t √ t 5040 10395 π 2027025 π aw5 9 4a 3 w 3 µ 19/2 t − √ t 362880 8721 π 1024aw7 µ 19/2 .5 ˙ with the initial conditions x(0) = x (0) = 0. Consequently. Scr. Approximate solution of (1) versus the different α values.Phys. the yellow curve for α = 1 and the blue one for α = 1. ninth order series expansions are made for the integral inside the correctional functional. The parameters are taken as µ = 1. Astron. Math. a = 1. The results show that the applied method is suitable and inexpensive for obtaining approximate solutions. √ t 654729075 π (19) 3. While making the calculations. Methods Appl. Meth. differential transform method and Adomian decomposition method for solving different types of nonlinear partial differential equations Int. J. In figure 3. Mech. the graph of the approximate solution of the problem is figure 2. 167 69–73 [10] He J H 1999a Variational iteration method—a kind of non-linear analytical technique: some examples Int. Approximate solution of (1) by considering the nonlinear multiplier and α = 1.31 and w = 0. Math.02. From up to down: the red curve is the solution of (1) for α = 0.1. As in (ii).31 and w = 0. Soc. Nonlinear Mech. For α = 1 it is found that the accomplished method worked exactly to obtain the numerical solution of the van der Pol equation. Numer.5. 47 082902 [8] He J H 1998a Approximate analytical solution for seepage flow with fractional derivatives in porous media Comput. t Figure 3. closer to the exact solutions. Mech. T136 (2009) 014034 A Konuralp et al x2 ( t ) x2 ( t ) t Figure 1. References (iv) For α = 3 : putting α = 3 . It is appropriate to choose a nonlinear multiplier in order to determine the oscillatory behaviors of the problem. 57 483–7 [7] Draganescu G E 2006 Application of a variational iteration method to linear and nonlinear viscoelastic models with fractional derivatives J. Appl. 7 65–70 [4] Caputo M 1967 Linear models of dissipation whose Q is almost frequency independent-II Geophys.2. The parameters are taken as µ = 1. the problem becomes 2 2 ¨ x (t) + µ x (t) − 1 D x(t) + x(t) = a sin wt. Nonlinear Lagrange multiplier If we use the resulting numerical solution (11) after two iteration steps and choose α = 1. Nonlinear Sci. J. J. a = 1. 167 57–68 [9] He J H 1998b Approximate solution of non-linear differential equations with convolution product nonlinearities Comput.5. 52 331–5 [3] Bildik N and Konuralp A 2006 The use of variational iteration method. Eng. Mech.5.

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