CHAPTER THREE

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF SMPS POWER PLANT SMPS
What is SMPS ? SMPS means Switch Mode Power Supply. This is used for D.C to D.C conversion. This works on the principle of switching regulation. The SMPS system is highly reliable, efficient, noiseless and compact because the switching is done at very high rate in the order of several KHz to MHz. Necessity The SMPS regulators are used in B.S.N.L at various locations like CDOT, E10B Transmission systems etc. Principle of Switching Regulator

A pulse train drives the base of ‘switching or pass transistor’. When the voltage to the base is high, the transistor saturates, when the voltage is low, the transistor turns off. Here the transistor functions as a switch. When the transistor is ON, load current is drawn through the transistor and choke L. When the transistor is OFF the load current is maintained by the energy stored in the choke L. The current flows through earth, Diode D, choke, load and earth. Hence this diode is called ‘Retrieval Diode’. Duty cycle of the Transistor = On Time On Time + Off Time (one cycle time) =D

The output voltage

=

Input voltage x D

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This makes the pulse that drives the base of the switching transistor narrower. The output of the comparator then drives the input of the triangular to pulse converter. Regulation is achieved by modifying the Duty cycle. That means duty cycle is reduced. The square wave is integrated to get a triangular wave. the output of the comparator decreases the reference voltage of the triangular -to pulse converter.For example If I/P voltage is 200 volts and D=0. which drives the non-inverting input of a triangular to pulse converter. Since the duty cycle is lower the output becomes less which tries to cancel almost all the original increase in output voltage. The output is sampled by a voltage divider and fed to a comparator. This makes RTTC NAGPUR Page 22 of 35 . Conversely. which is controlled by ‘Pulse width modulation’ by regulator circuit. Duty cycle depends on onetime of transistor.25 O/P voltage = 200 x 0. which in turn depends on the width of the pulse applied to the base of the transistor.to pulse converter. The pulse train out of this circuit then drives the Pass Transistor. If the output voltage tries to increase the comparator produces a higher output voltage which raises the reference voltage of the triangular.25 = 50V. if the regulated output voltage tries to decrease. The feed back voltage is compared with a reference voltage. Principle of Regulation The relaxation oscillator produces a square wave.

320 V to 480 V 45 Hz TO 65 Hz RTTC NAGPUR Page 23 of 35 . adj range -48 V to -56V : -55. Specification of SMPS Power Plant 1) Input Voltage Frequency 2) Output Voltage in Float Mode in charge mode 3) Input power factor -54.95 Lag with 25% to 100% load at nominal input. we can vary the width of the output pulse and hence the duty cycle. As long as the triangular voltage exceeds the reference voltage.the pulse wider and the transistor conducts for larger time and more voltage comes out of the L.5 V.filter.2 V ± 0.5V >0. Switching regulators are more efficient than conventional regulators as the power loss in the switching element is reduced to minimum as it conducts only for a fraction of a cycle.C. Now a days SMPS technology is extended to power plants also. For maximum efficiency the duty cycle should be less than 0.0 ± 0. Since Vref is adjustable. the output is high. This cancels out the original decrease in output voltage. Power plants upto 2000A capacity have been developed using SMPS principle.5.

The system has provision to connect three sets of VRLA batteries and facility to charge them simultaneously to ensure that uninterrupted DC power supply is always available to the exchange. Technical Specification For Module (1) Input Voltage : (a) 320V to 480V r m s three phase (Nominal Voltage – 400V). Facility to parallel a maximum of 21 nos.2 volts.0 V -55. (2) Output Voltage : Float mode : Nominal voltage Adjustment range Charge mode Voltage : : : -54. the output DC voltage is maintained at 54. -48. battery and equipment.50V – 2000A POWER PLANT (Multi Rack Type) Suitable for VRLA Batteries with 100A SMPS Rectifier Modules Introduction The power system is intended primarily to provide uninterrupted DC power to Telecom equipments and current for charging the batteries in the presence of AC Mains. (or 22 nos. The exchange battery and rectifier modules are connected in parallel. DC output distribution. Termination for three sets of VRLA batteries and exchange. The power system –50V. During auto charge the maximum DC voltage reached across the bus is 55. 50Hz AC input. The system works from commercial AC mains which is rectified and regulated to –50V DC and is fed to the equipment (exchange). (b) Frequency : 45 Hz …. The power system as a single DC bus called auto float/charge bus. System input : Three phase. 400V.0 + 0.5 V under auto float condition. Depending upon the status of the batteries.5 V Page 24 of 35 RTTC NAGPUR . 65 Hz.2 + 0.) of 100A (5600W) Rectifier modules operation from three phase. The system employ natural convection cooling and has AC input distribution.5V.0 + 0. 50 Hz supply. protection and alarm circuitry for rectifiers. 2000A has the following features : (a) (b) (c) (d) Multi-rack configuration. 4-wire.0 to –56.

65 Hz. In auto float/charge mode. Input power factor : Greater than 0. (c) Battery/Equipment over voltage protection. Efficiency : Greater than 90% at full Load and nominal input. Psophometric noise : Less than 4 mV without battery floated.0 + 0. Each (4) Protection (a) Short circuit/Over load protection.(3) (4) Rated current : 100 Amps. 300 Amps. Less than 2 mV with battery floated. Alarms and indicating lamps : (a) FR/BC on Auto Float/Charge : (b) Rectifier module over voltage : (c) DC output fail/Under voltage : (d) FR/BC Over Load (Voltage Drop): (e) Mains Available : (5) (6) (7) (8) Green LED Red LED Red LED Amber/Yellow LED Green LED For System (1) Input Voltage : (a) 3 Phase. (b) Input over/under voltage protection. (c) Output over voltage protection. (b) Input over/under voltage protection. Output Voltage : Float mode Voltage Charge mode Voltage (2) : : -54. 50 Hz (Range – 320V to 480V RMS) (b) Frequency : 45 Hz ….5V -55. To 110 Amps.2 + 0. Page 25 of 35 RTTC NAGPUR . 4 Wire. Protection : (a) Short circuit protection.95 lag with 25% to 100% load at nominal input. (d) Constant current features settable from 80 Amps.5V (3) Rated Current : Equipment Batteries : : 1100 Amps.

A small signal transformer is mounted on the PSC panel to provide AC input to power system controller card. The door accommodates display and alarm enunciator. Rectifier modules (A maximum of three modules in extension rack and two each in main rack and auxiliary rack). Depending upon the load requirement (Equipment and Batteries). DC distribution module in each rack. Power system controller in main rack. RTTC NAGPUR Page 26 of 35 . neutral and earthing cabinet are terminated on moulded plug which is fixed to the respective sockets on the rectifier module. Air baffles are provided for better heat transfer. one auxiliary and six extension racks. Rack : The rack is made of mild steel profiles with hinged front door. AC Distribution module in each rack. The rack is convection cooled and has ventilator slots in the front and sides.(5) Alarms and indicating lamps : (a) Load Voltage High (b) Load Voltage Low (c) Fuse Fail (d) FR/BC Fail (FR/BC No Output MCB Trip) (e) Mains available (f) Mains out of range (g) Mains Fail (h) System (Exchange) Overload (i) FR/BC Float/Charge Mode (j) Mains “ON”/Battery Discharge - Red LED Red LED Red LED Red LED Green LED Red LED Red LED Red LED Green LED Red LED Functional description of power system This Power System is of multi rack type and consists of the following : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (a) Eight racks – One main. The cabinet accommodates 19” subsystems. The bottom and top also have ventilator features. The DC power termination and distribution is done at the top. additional modules can be added. Metering in each rack. To monitor AC input current. Individual AC circuit breakers are provided for each module. The rear panel is screw type and can be dismantled. 3 nos. The line. of single phase AC current transformers are mounted on the panel of main rack. (b) AC Distribution Panel : The AC input to the rack is terminated at the bottom of the rack on screw type terminals. The AC power termination and distribution is done at the bottom.

Fuses for battery 1. Metering : The front panel of main rack consists of two AC meters to monitor individual line to line voltage and current. DC output over voltage.(c) Rectifier module : The SMPS rectifier module – 50V. The panel incorporates the following : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (e) Input from individual rectifier modules terminated on cabinet. The input is through 9 pin AC socket and the DC output is through terminals. DC shunts to monitor current in various paths. It also controls the operation of the module so as to make it work in auto float or auto charge mode. The control signal is taken through 8 pin telephone jack and is terminated on to the power system controller card. The DC meters monitor both voltage and current of batteries and exchange. The rectifier modules are convection cooled and can be jacked in and out of the cabinet easily. the same is displayed and for faults like input voltage beyond limits. The various alarms as per following details are displayed on the front panel with audible alarm. over load etc. Termination of equipment positive and negative. The selector switch selects the relevant phases. In case of faults. Termination of battery 1. 5600 watts works on 400V AC input and provides – 50V DC for system. The module has front panel to indicate status and faults in the module. The current signals are monitored continuously to ensure equal sharing of current. it shuts off the module. (f) Power system controller : The Power system controller card consists of an electronic circuit which monitors the state of each rectifier module and display their status. The DC output from each module is terminated on the respective DC bus bar mounted on the DC distribution panel. 2 and 3. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Mains out of range Load voltage high (above 57V) Load Voltage low (below 42V) Mains fail System overload Mains available System over load Mains on battery discharge FR/BC in Float-charge mode : : : : : : : : : Red Red Red Red Red Green Red Red Green Page 27 of 35 RTTC NAGPUR . (d) DC Distribution Panel : This panel is mounted at the top of the cabinet. 2 and 3.

These signals are encoded by an encoder to obtain suitable coded signals M1 and M2. The full-bridge circuit is operated by phase-shift pulse with modulation with current mode control. the ATM circuit either gives a signal for float or charge.(10) FR/BC Fail : Red Functional Description of Rectifier The SMPS 50V-5600W rectifier is a state-of-the-art switch-mode power conversion equipment. RTTC NAGPUR Page 28 of 35 . The boost converter has the inherent advantage of continuous input current waveform which relaxes the input filter requirements. The mode of operation of rectifier modules depends on the coded signal M1 and M2 from the controller. The performance of the basic boost cell is improved by a proprietary snubber circuit which reduces the switching losses of the power semiconductors due to non-zero switching times. The output of the boost converter is a stabilized 400V DC voltage. Further conversion of the stabilized high voltage output of the power factor corrector circuit is necessary to generate the isolated low voltage output and to provide the required protection functions for telecommunication application. An advanced solution reduces the stresses of the output rectifier diodes. This control method provides zero voltage switching condition for all primary side power semiconductors effectively reducing switching losses and electromagnetic interference. The power stages are synchronized and working with constant switching frequency of 100 kHz. Proper operation of the power converters is managed by individual controller circuits and supervised by the housekeeping electronics. Remote commanding and monitoring of the modules are possible through a power system controller housed in the system. acknowledge and displays the status of rectifiers and system and controls parameters of rectifiers. The rectified AC mains voltage is processed first in the power factor corrector circuit which is based on a boost topology. the snubber circuit also decreases the electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated primarily during the turn-off process of the boost diode. The unit consists of two cascaded power converters performing power factor correction and DC/DC conversion. The controller accepts signal from individual rectifiers through 8 pin telephone jack and controls the operation of each individual rectifiers. Functional Description of Power System Controller Power system controller is designed to control the modes of operation of rectifiers. Furthermore. These tasks are achieved in the DC/DC converter circuit which is based on a full-bridge topology. Depending on the state of batteries.

as well as over voltage. For detailed technical data. SMPS 48V – 5600W . The output of the rectifier conforms to the generic requirements of telecommunication power supplies in terms of noise. The total battery current can be suitably programmed to limit the current supplied from the modules through current programming pin in modules. The convection cooled unit may be operated up to 60oC ambient air temperature.P. It fulfills the specification of TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING CENTRE (DOT) for the S. The mains frequency may vary from 45 Hz to 65 Hz.Introduction The SMPS 48V-5600W is a three-phase.Depending upon the mode of operation of Rectifier modules.S. This unit has been developed for cost effective but highly intelligent modular telecommunication power systems. RTTC NAGPUR Page 29 of 35 . unity power factor power supply with a wide input voltage range of 3 X 185 Vac to 275 Vac (with neutral wire) and with a useful output power of 5600W delivered to the load. they acknowledge coded signals S1 and S2. voltage programmability. overload and short-circuit protection. These signals are decoded to display whether the modules are in auto float/charge or fail condition. G7SMP/-01/01 JULY 04) Primary application of the rectifiers SMPS 48V-5600W are in the supply of Telecom equipment. BASED POWER PLANT GENERIC REQUIREMENTS (No. please refer to Chapter 2. Total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input current wave form is below 5%.M. The rectifier SMPS 48V-5600W can be set in the 3 modes ‘auto float’. The rectifier operates from a nominal 3 X 230 Vac rms (with neutral wire) source. ‘auto charge’ and ‘manual boost’ by the power system controller.

The power stages are synchronized and working with constant switching frequency of ~100 kHz. The boost converter has the inherent advantage of continuous input current wave form which relaxes the input filter requirements. and in parallel on the output. Each of the sub-modules consists of two cascaded power converters performing over factor correction and dc/dc conversion. 2. 3. The rectified ac mains voltage is processed first in the power factor corrector circuit which is based on a boost topology. S and T) as shown in the block diagram : The sub-modules are connected between neutral and one of the phases (R. the snubber circuit also decreases the electromagnetic RTTC NAGPUR Page 30 of 35 . S or T) on the input. Furthermore. The performance of the basic boost cell is improved by a proprietary snubber circuit which reduces the switching losses of the power semiconductors due to nonzero switching times. It is composed of 3 identical single-phase sub-modules (R. All ‘-‘ wires are protected by circuit breakers. Signalization and manual interface (adjustment potentiometers and test jacks) for the whole unit. and Communication with power system controller ‘ITI’.General description of operation The SMPS 48V-5600W rectifier is a state-of-the-art switch-mode power supply. The interface card IFC 52 provides : 1. all reference voltages and protections to the sub-modules. which are mechanically coupled.

The output of boost converter is a stabilized 400 Vdc voltage. The circuit limits the input current of the rectifier during the initial charging of the energy storage capacitors connected to the output of the boost power factor corrector circuit.interference generated primarily during the turn-off process of the boost diode. S or T This chapter gives more detailed information about the technical merit of single submodule based on the functional blocks shown in the diagram below (R. In normal operation the current limiting components are by-passed through relay which is controlled by the housekeeping electronics. The fixed frequency. Remote commanding and monitoring of the modules are possible through a power system controller. It has only one differential and one common mode filter stage. Block 2 represents the Inrush Current Limiter circuit which consists of series combination of surge rated power resistors and fuse. RTTC NAGPUR Page 31 of 35 . synchronized operation of the different circuits allowed to optimize the filter’s performance. These tasks are achieved in the dc/dc converter circuit which is based on a full-bridge topology. This control method provides zero voltage switching conditions for all primary side power semiconductors effectively reducing switching losses and electromagnetic interference. Further conversion of the stabilized high voltage output of the power factor corrector circuit is necessary to generate the isolated low voltage output and to provide the required protection functions for telecommunication application. Proper operation of the power converters is managed by individual control circuits and supervised by the housekeeping electronics. Block diagram of a single sub-module R. The full-bridge circuit is operated by phase-shift pulse-width modulation with current-mode control. Input Section Block 1 of the drawing presented above is the input EMI filter of the rectifier. S and T). An advanced solution reduces the stresses on the output rectifier diodes.

Block 12 is the controller of the Power Factor Corrector. The technical literature refers to this technique as the resistor emulation mode which is the most preferred load by the utility companies. Due to the nature of ac sources the energy absorbed at the input of the unit varies according to the mains cycle. The circuit operates with 100 kHz constant frequency in continuous inductor current mode. DC/DC Converter The heart of the module is the dc/dc Converter shown in Blocks 6-9. It is directly mounted on the heat sink. Therefore. The control principle implemented in the UC3854B is average current mode control. RTTC NAGPUR Page 32 of 35 . The secondary side of the dc/dc stage provides rectification (Block 8) and filtering (Block 9) functions which are realized using current-doubler topology. high voltage 450V electrolytic capacitors are used at the output of the boost converter to provide cost and volume effective energy storage. This integrated solution takes care about all sensing. This energy is transferred to the output through the transformer immediately. It uses the UC3854B integrated circuit which had been developed to control boost converters in power factor corrector applications. the transformer coupling is emphasized in Block 7. Because of the relatively high switching frequency a loss-less snubber has been added to the basic boost converter to reduce switching losses and semiconductor stresses. Power factor corrector The power stage of the Power Factor Corrector is a boost converter represented by Block 4. The energy will be stored in the output filter inductor showed in Block 9 and transferred to the output capacitor of the dc/dc converter during the passive interval when energy is not absorbed from the source. During the off-state of the transistor energy is transferred from the inductor to the output capacitor through the boost diode. The output Capacitor of the boost converter is marked by number 5 in the block diagram. Particularity of the implemented solution is integration of two inductors on a common ferrite core. This capacitor is used for low-frequency energy storage as well. controlling and protection functions which are necessary to achieve proper input current wave form and to stabilize the output voltage of the power factor corrector circuit. When the boost transistor conducts the energy being stored in the boost inductor increases. The full-bridge converter takes energy from its input when two diagonally located switches are turned on at the same time. Block 6 shows the primary arrangement of the full-bridge power converter employing a safety isolated highfrequency transformer. This sequence can be achieved by different ways depending on the implemented control strategy.A general purpose full-wave Bridge Rectifier circuit forms Block 3. In order to deliver constant power at the output energy must be stored inside the unit. The inductor current is measured with a sense resistor and it is forced to follow the input voltage wave form. Because of its important role in providing safety isolation between the input and the output of the module.

under. Output Characteristics The power system controller can set the rectifier into the 3 modes of operation. Housekeeping The name Housekeeping refers to the auxiliary power supply and to all internal primary side supervisory functions necessary for the operation of the unit. Output Section Block 10 forms the physical Output Section of the sub-module. zero voltage turn-on condition for the primary side semiconductors.The dc/dc Controller. The output characteristic is different for these 3 modes as shown below : RTTC NAGPUR Page 33 of 35 . and start-up sequence generator.and over-voltage lock-out. ‘auto charge’ and ‘manual boost’. i. low-pass filter stage to reduce conducted electromagnetic interferences to the required level. Major part of the dc/dc controller is referred to as Secondary Controller in Block 15. Like the power stage. is using the phase-shift pulse width modulation technique which provides loss-less. Communication between the separated parts are realized using optical isolators marked by number 14. Besides the auxiliary power converter (current-mode controlled fly-back converter). ‘auto float’. the controller circuit of the dc/dc converter is also divided between the primary and the secondary side of the rectifier. The secondary side controller is responsible for output voltage and current regulation functions.e. It is a shielded. Block 11 also includes the master clock. common-mode. Further benefit is the greatly reduced electromagnetic interference generated by the converter. shown in Block 13. The control principle is peak current mode control.

‘auto float’ mode Vout (V) 56 48 0 ‘auto charge’ mode Vout (V) 80 110 lout(A) ( 66 54 0 80 ‘manual boost’ mode 110 lout(A) ( Vout (V) 65 56 0 25 50 lout(A) ( RTTC NAGPUR Page 34 of 35 .

1800 RTTC NAGPUR Page 35 of 35 .