Information about the solutions for flame photometry

Status: August 2003 Specifications subject to change! 1. General information and measuring principle Light emissions of alkali and alkaline earth metal elements are measured with flame photometry. To this purpose, the measuring substance diluted in water is distributed as a fine aerosol into a non-luminous flame using an atomizer. During this process, the flame lights up due to the excitation of the individual atoms. The more atoms available, the greater the amount of radiated light. Therefore, the concentration of the measuring solution can be calculated by measuring the brightness of the flame. Every element has a characteristic light color, i.e., it radiates specifically defined wavelengths, determined by the structure of the atom. As several elements are available in the sample, the flame radiates a light mixture. With the aid of optical filters, the light from the desired element is isolated and transferred to a photodiode which converts the light into an electrical signal. This signal is amplified and digitalized. With the aid of the connected computer, the sample concentration is calculated, displayed and printed out. Flame photometry is a relative analytical method, i.e., the measuring signal of the unknown sample is compared with the signal of a known standard solution and the sample concentration is calculated based on this. As the concentration of Na, K and Ca is too high for direct determination and the matrix would disturb the measurement considerably, all samples are diluted automatically 1 + 50. Eppendorf flame photometers operate according to the reference line method. All samples are diluted with a diluting solution which contains lithium as a reference element. Every change in atomization, air pressure and gas pressure has approximately the same effect on the measuring element (Na, K, Ca) and reference element (Li). During standard adjustment, the lithium concentration is measured and set to "1". A correction factor is calculated from every lithium modification for correction of the measurement values for each appropriate sample. The curvature of the calibration graph is stored in the computer for every element and every measured value is corrected in accordance with the calibration fitting. Spectral interference (e.g. from Na with K and Ca when using the device with acetylene) is immediately mathematically corrected through the simultaneous measurement of the elements. The zero point is measured once. The standard adjustment is carried out three times. The current average of the measurements is displayed. Abnormal results are not taken into account. More exact calculation foundations for determining the average can be supplied upon request. Users can be referred to the following publications, among others, for information on the usage of solutions and standards in connection with the newer EFOX, EFIX and EFUX photometers: H. Schlebusch, B. Dürkop, I. Paffenholz Evaluation des Flammenphotometers EFOX 5053 GIT Labor-Medizin 14 (1991) Seiten 179 – 184 GIT-Verlag Darmstadt W. G. Guder, G. E. Hoffmann Analytische und medizinische Aspekte der Elektrolytbestimmung am Flammenphotometer Ergebnisse einer Evaluierung des EFIX 5055 GIT Labor-Medizin 15 (1992) Seiten 14 – 18 GIT-Verlag Darmstadt T. Hoff, E. Gurr Elektrolytbestimmungen mit Hilfe des Flammenatomemissionspektrometers EFUX 5057 in Kombination mit dem Vielkanalanalysator Hitachi 717 GIT Labormedizin 18 (1995) Seiten 320 – 324 GIT-Verlag Darmstadt
Additional information concerning sample preparation, function, etc., can be found in the respective flame photometer operating instructions. Solutions, standards and devices whose manufacture or sale were stopped more than 10 years ago are not described here.

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EFIX or EFUX . For the standard adjustment.5).000 The serum standard was offered prior to January 2001 exclusively in a three-pack (3 x 100 ml) with the order number 0030 311. EFIX and EFUX devices for the standard adjustment for the determination of – – – – sodium potassium calcium (only with acetylene. The standard is automatically diluted 1 + 50 in the EFOX.4). EFIX and EFUX. see Ch.1 Serum standard 100 ml Order number: 0030 357. K and Ca that are approx. The dilution is carried out with a ready-to-use blank value solution system (see Ch. the automatic dilution (1 + 50) in the device is carried out with the standby solution (ready-to-use system blank value solution. For the determination of Na. The error ( approx. EFIX 5055 – 5056 and EFUX 5057: 2.8 % too low.84 2. For the FCM. 0.3 % 0. the result will be values for Na. In the case of the older FCM. Overview of standards and solutions The following standards and solutions are relevant in connection with the older.000. 2. The serum standard is used with the EFOX. 2. deviation 0. EFIX and EFUX devices require the serum standard for the standard adjustment in the serum program and for the lithium determination. the serum standard 1 + 20 is used diluted for the Li determination.5). The EFOX. This is caused by the modified guideline signal when measuring the standard as a sample (see Ch. 2. MFM and AFM devices.Information about the solutions for flame photometry 2. 2.50 2. the automatic dilution in the device is carried out using a Li dilution solution (ready-to-use lithium stock solution. In this sub-chapter we also present superordinate information for all other flame photometry standards and solutions in addition to the special information applying only to this standard.5 3. EFIX and EFUX devices.8 %) resulting from the modified concentration of the Li signal in the guideline is automatically corrected for the standard by the program.00 Max. the serum standard serves exclusively for the standard adjustment for the determination of lithium in the serum.6343. and the newer flame photometer automated systems EFOX 5053 – 5054. The following manufacturer specifications apply for the serum standard: Element name Sodium Potassium Calcium Lithium Element symbol Na K Ca Li Value (mmol / l) 143. 0.4). AFM 5051 – 5052. the standard is used undiluted in special positions in the device. For the Li determination with EFOX.5 % 0. the 1 + 20 dilution takes place in the device. see Ch. no longer produced Eppendorf flame photometers such as FCM 6341. MFM 6350 – 6351. K and Ca.5 % 0. If the serum standard is measured as a sample in the EFOX. In the case of MFM and AFM.5 % 2 . does not apply to propane) lithium used in the serum.

You can find further information on the serum standard in the operating instructions of the relevant flame photometer.5 2.2 Serum standard stock solution 500 ml Order number: 0030 310.1. The evaluation of the measured values by curve adjustment (characteristic). The software of the new flame photometers provides the possibility to identify measured values outside of the normal range for serum/plasma. Thus. it is necessary that only this standard be used for the electrolyte determination in the serum for the standard adjustment.1 – 2. The expiration date is printed on the label as year and month. The manufacture and sale of the serum standard stock solution satisfies the specifications of guideline 98/79/EG for In vitro diagnostics. MFM und AFM flame photometers for the standard adjustment in the serum program. K and Ca in the same concentrations. 3 .5 Unit mmol / l mmol / l mmol / l mmol / l * The calcium total is determined for the flame photometry determination.3 – 1.0 – 3. in the case of the old flame photometers. the following factory settings are valid for the normal range: Element Sodium Potassium Calcium* Lithium** Warning limits 135 – 150 3.0 2. In the case of EFOX.Information about the solutions for flame photometry A reference standard using Suprapur® chemicals (Merck) is referred to. basic materials and manufacturing limits as the serum standard described in Ch. A batch-related certificate of quality for the serum standard can be requested through the hotline. Removal by "pouring from the bottle" can minimize the risk of contamination of the standard. A batch-related certificate of quality and a safety data sheet can be requested for the serum standard stock solution.5 – 5. Due to the high degree of agreement between the flame photometric measured values and the reference method values. A safety data sheet can be downloaded from this homepage. A minor surplus of heated hydrochloric acid is used for the transformation to the chloride form. The volumes for reference standards are gravimetrically tested.0 Repeat limits 130 – 155 3. The reference method value is taken as a control material reference value for the flame photometric measurements. the values published by INSTAND for the normal range also apply for the measurements carried out with our flame photometers. The scales used are checked using standard weights. 2. The standard has a useful life of 18 months. The manufacture and sale of the serum standard takes place in observance of the regulations of guideline 98/79/EG concerning In vitro diagnostics. Lithium carbonate for lithium. It is not possible for the old flame photometers to automatically carry out a Li correction for the standard.0 0. The serum standard stock solution contains no lithium.004 Serum standard stock solution is used exclusively in connection with the old FCM.5 – 1. averaging and correction of spectral interference on the old devices is comparable to the evaluation with the newer devices. ** In the case of lithium we are referring to the monitoring of the therapeutic range. Accidentally frozen standard must be completely thawed and then thoroughly mixed prior to usage. 2. The standard can be stored at room temperature or in the refrigerator.6 0. This durability is attained with the help of a preservative. EFIX and EFUX. Serum standard stock solution contains Na. Calcium carbonate serves as the basic material in the case of calcium.0 – 5. The elements are present in the standards as chloride.

2 – 8. A safety data sheet can be downloaded from this homepage. this is added to the solution by leavening with HCl. A minor surplus of heated hydrochloric acid is used for the transformation to the chloride form.5 100 5. The standard has a useful life of 18 months.5 % 0.3 Urine standard 100 ml Order number: 0030 358. The expiration date is printed on the label as year and month.003 prior to January 2001.8 % One reference standard is taken as a reference point when using Suprapur® chemicals (Merck). The standard can be stored at room temperature or in the refrigerator. The reference method value is taken as a control material reference value for the flame photometric measurements. You can find further information on the urine standard in the operating instructions of the relevant flame photometer. The elements are present in the standards as chloride. If abnormal Ca salt is also to be recorded. The following manufacturer specifications apply for the urine standard: Element name Sodium Potassium Calcium* Element symbol Na K Ca Value (mmol / l) 143. 4 . EFIX and EFUX devices for the standard adjustment for the determination of – – – sodium potassium calcium in urine. A batch-related certificate of quality for the urine standard can be requested through the hotline. The urine standard is used with the EFOX. the total dissolved calcium is determined. The scales used are controlled with standard weights. deviation 0.00 Max.5 % 0.007 The urine standard was offered only as a three-pack (3 x 100 ml) with the order number 0030 313. Chemie" concerning the normal values of urine: Potassium Sodium Calcium* 35 – 80 mmol / 24 hours 100 – 220 mmol / 24 hours 3. MFM and AFM devices for the standard adjustment for the determination of – – sodium and potassium in urine. Calcium serves as the basic material for calcium carbonate. For reference standards the volumes are gravimetrically tested. Removal by "pouring from the bottle" can minimize the risk of contamination of the standard. Statements form the Rick "Lehrbuch der klin. This durability is attained with the help of a preservative.2 mmol / 24 hours * In the case of flame photometrical determination. The urine standard is used with the FCM.Information about the solutions for flame photometry 2. Accidentally frozen standard must be completely thawed and then thoroughly mixed prior to usage.

The useful life of the lithium stock solution is 18 months.5 to 1. if the diluted Li solution is changed. Example: Measured value EFOX: Total urine volume: Calculation: Result: 35 mmol K / Liter 1. The solution contains 0. K und Ca-Messwerte um ca.Information about the solutions for flame photometry Because the flame photometer supplies a measured value in the mmol / liter unit. 0.1. The diluted lithium solution has a Li content of approx. The manufacture and sale of the lithium-stock solution satisfies the specifications of guideline 98/79/EG concerning In vitro diagnostics. Samples containing lithium influence the signal of the guideline and thus also the accuracy of the determination of NA.2 % of the non-ionogenic tenside Triton X-100. The maximum fluctuation range of the Li content is 4.5 mmol Li / l erniedrigt die Na.5 mmol Li / l . K and Ca via the quotient generation as follows: 0. The dispensation of Li salt as an anti-depressant generally occurs at between 0. A safety data sheet can be downloaded from this homepage. The diluted lithium solution attained in this way is then used in the devices for the dilution of the standard and samples in the serum and urine program. The expiration date is printed on the label as year and month.4 Lithium stock solution 500 ml Order number: 0030 306.5 mmol Li / l. A batch-related certificate of quality for the lithium stock solution can be requested over the hotline. the zero and standard adjustments must be repeated for the new diluted Li solution. 0. the Li content of the Li heparinate tube batch should be requested from the relevant manufacturer and tested with the Li program of the flame photometer.2 l / hours 42 mmol K / 24 hours The manufacture and sale of the urine standard satisfies the specifications of guideline 98/79/EG concerning In vitro diagnostics.8 % The deviation of 1. 0.0 mmol Li / l is within the range of normal coincidental measured value fluctuations (imprecision) of the flame photometer. It is important that the same diluted Li solution is always used throughout one analysis run. The signal of the diluted lithium solution is used as the reference element for quotient generation (see Ch.2 Liter / 24 hours 35 mmol K / l x 1. K und Ca-Messwerte um ca. the result should be multiplied by the total urine volume (Unit: liter / 24 hours). In case it is necessary to use Li-heparinate plasma. K und Ca-Messwerte um ca. Greater concentrations of Li are toxic. 5 .4 mmol Li / l.2 % 1. 1. Serum plasma with a basis of Li heparinate contains considerably less than 0. The lithium stock solution is diluted 1 + 100 by the user with demineralised or distilled water (recommended conductivity of the water < 2 µS / cm at 20°C). 1). 5 mmol / l. The solution can be stored at room temperature or in the refrigerator.4 % 2. Or in other words. 2.0 mmol Li / l erniedrigt die Na.007 The lithium stock solution has a lithium chloride content of 500 mmol Li / l. The solution has a pH value of approx.0 mmol Li / l erniedrigt die Na.

· One Cantiague Road · P. Eppendorf AG · 22331 Hamburg · Germany · Phone: +49 40 538 01 0 · Fax: +49 40 538 01 556 · E-mail: eppendorf@eppendorf. EFIX and EFUX devices.937-00/0903 .5 System blank value solution 500 ml Order number: 0030 340. The solution can be stored at room temperature or in the refrigerator.003 as of November 1996. Disinfection concentrate 100 ml Order number: 0030 341.IVD reagents The following cleaning and disinfection solution is not categorized as an IVD reagent: Detergent D 100 ml Order number: 0030 359. The system blank value solution is diluted 1 + 250 by the user with demineralised or distilled water (recommended conductivity of the water < 2 µS / cm at 20° C) for usage with the flame photometer. Inc.eppendorf. New York 11590-0207 (USA) Phone: 800-645-3050 · Fax: 516-334-7506 · E-mail: info@brinkmann. A safety data sheet for detergent D and the disinfection concentrate can be downloaded from this homepage. During measurement pauses in the urine or serum program. the standby solution is taken in by the atomizer of the flame photometer. the solution has a purifying effect within the tube system of the flame photometer. A batch-related certificate of quality can be requested over the hotline. The standby solution is used for the serum standard and for sample dilution when undertaking lithium determination in the serum.000.com 0030 306. 2. A safety data sheet can be downloaded from this homepage. The expiration date is printed on the label as year and month. Detergent D will be automatically dispensed in diluted form (dilution with standby solution) as a cleaning solution at the end of an analysis run with EFOX – EFUX and taken in by the atomizer. as well as for the zero adjustment for Li determination.007 The disinfection concentrate is used prior to maintenance and service work for the disinfection of surfaces and cannula.6 Non. The undiluted solution has a useful life of 18 months. The old and new solutions contain the same wetting agent in an unchanged concentration.com · Internet: www.com Internet: www.brinkmann. In addition. The earlier sorbic acid preservative has been replaced by an isothiazoline-based preservative. Detergent D is especially good for removing protein deposits. Sufficient pre-rinsing with the standby solution prior to Li determination is important. due to the wetting agent content. The system blank value solution contains 1 % of the non-ionogenic tenside Triton X-100.Information about the solutions for flame photometry 2. 24 hours prior to usage in order to enable the degasification of the water. The manufacture and sale of the system blank value solution satisfies the specifications of guideline 98/79/EG for In vitro diagnostics. Box 1019 · Westbury.com 6 Brinkmann Instruments. The permanent taking in of liquid is of decisive importance for maintaining a constant atomizer temperature in order to prevent drift effects.000 The system blank value solution superseded the wetting agent solution 0030 307.O. Detergent D is used during maintenance work to boil out the atomizer or gas mixing chamber. The dilution process should be carried out approx. This is regulated automatically in the EFOX. detergent D was exclusively available as a three-pack (3 x 100 ml) with the order number 0030 334.com · Application Hotline: Phone: +49 180 366 67 89 · E-mail: application-hotline@eppendorf.003 Prior to January 2001. The 1 + 250 dilution is referred to as a "standby solution". It therefore also serves a protective function for the user.