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2nd Edition

FIRST PRINTI NG

The Stomp Box Cookbook, Second Edition
BuHd Advanced Effect.s for Electric Guitar& Bass
by Nicholas Boscorelli P ri nted and bou n din the United Sta tes 01America. All rights rese rved. No part olthi s book may ;be re produced, tra nsm itted, 0 r stored without writte n pe rm ission Iro m the publisher. Regi stered trademarks and service marks mentioned identification and without intent to infringe. Copy right © 1998, 1999 N ich olas Boscorelli Produced by Guitar Project Books IS B N 0- 9663824-1-2 here in are used sol ely for

Contents Author's

.Note

__

_

_

3 4

Preface & Disclaimer General Considerations Project No.1 Sustaln·O-MilIIC Project No.2 D,slon·O-MaIIC Project No.3 Project NO.4 Dlstort-O-Mallc Project NO.5 II _ _ I

5 6
8

Project No. 26 Tremolo-Malic Project No. 27

Co Ie
III , Power Supply _ _

s
88 100 129 135 141 150 152

10
13 16

Append-A-Board, Project No. 28 Axe-a-Matic Project No. 29._

Perarnetro-Mauc

Tremolo-Mane IV
Project No. 30 Vibrato-Malic Project No. 31 'Verb-O-Ma Echo-Malic Project No. 33 _ _ 181 184 240 II , V , II _".. _ 249 248 244 Bursl-a-Malic Project No. 34 Ramp-O-Mallc Project No. 35 Squeeze-O-Mallc Project No. 36 Tremolo-Malic Project No. 37 Axe-O-Malic Project No. 38 Sustaln-O-Malic tic

19
24 27 31 III 34 36 IV 40 42 46 49 _ 52 54 56 V _. _ _ __ 59 63 VI 66 69 73 II 76 _ l.ue 86 II 80

Tremolo-Mauc
Project No.6 Ga Ie-O- Ma IIC Project NO.7 Squeeze-O-Mallc Project NO.8 D,stort-O-Malic Project NO.9 Dlrect-O-MatIC Project No.1 0 Distort·O-Malic Project No. 11 Super Play-AI'ong Project No. 12 Pan Tremolo-Marie Project No. 13 Tone-O-MaliC Project No. 14

Project No. 32

II

Appendices: Stomp Box Ingredients
Anatomy Switching Hum Electronic , Noise __ .. _ Of A Stomp Options Box _ 94 97 101 105 109 112 115 125 Power Supply

lso-Mauc
Project NO.1 5 Split·O-Malic Project No. 16 Mlx-O-Mallc Project No. 17 Dlstort-O-Malic Project No. 18 .. _ Envelo-MaliC Project No. 19 Drsrort-Ouvlatic Project No. 20 Modu-Matic Project No. 21 Quad Pararnetro-Mauc Project No. 22 Trernolo-Mauc Project No. 23

Preamp Design Tone Control Active Tremolo Vibrato & Phase Effects Delay Effects Dynamic Distortion Tube Sound Noise Reduction Voltage Cooking Stomp Symbol Control Techniques Adjuncts Miscellaneous Troubleshooting Box Glossary Legend _ __ Effects _ _ Electronics

131
139 144 154 186 198 , 211 218 232 238 253 255 257 258 258

Up New Effects

Phase-Ovlvlauc
Project No. 24 Compand-O-Manc Project No. 25 Tone-O-Malic

Parts Sources References

canned effects live with limits imposed by retail viability. or unavailable in a specific form desired. The author and the publisher make no assurances or guarantees as to any project's performance. The Appendices detad stomp-box 'ingredients' to help the builder create effects unavailable commercially. Rolling your own saves money. to the extent of his having built functional prototypes largely according to the instructions given. And good as they are. bot h typographic and otherwise. besides being loads of fun. or inability to use the information contained herein. The author se es th is pa noply as a hunger for new sound. improper use. and can take a journeyman builder to the next level. and that's what this book is about. the reade r is wa rned that th e lex t may conta in errors. The author has vetted information presented herein. Writing for an adept audience means not having to reinvent the wheel. Anyone who is not absolutely certain that he or she can build projects competently and safely is warned not to attempt to build any project. The author and the publisher disclaim any and ailliabilitv and responsibility to any party for damage or loss caused. nor should the reader infer that such assurances or guarantees have been made. by the use. and who have mastered the skills needed to build 'intermediate to advanced projects. the reader might wond er why a nyone be Iieves t ha t we need more. directly orconsequentially. The text offers each project as a paradigm of the possible. or alleged to be caused. Beginners would profit from building simpler projects than these. Building from scratch breaks those limits. or alleged to be caused. These include. and drilling and cutting common materials. or suitability to a particular application. All instructions are offered on the presumption that the builder can carry them out competently and safely. fabricating printed circuit boards. 1/ and without expressed or implied warranty of any kind. by an omission 01information from this book. . but are not limited to: wiring.PREFACE Given the vast array of commercia I stomp-box effects. The References list books that brief readers from a standing start. negligent use. safety. Good luck-and good stomping! DISCLAIMER The author and the publisher presume the reader to be prottcient in skills needed to build intermediate to advanced electronic projects. Unfilled niches remain. soldering. The author and the publisher present this book "as-is. The text is written at the level of those who understand basic electronics. Nevert heless. or caused.

if brief and 10 the point. stamped envelope. A soft-knee compressor with auto-variable attack and decay goes together as easily as a fully manual box. and accompanied by an addressed. To all who sent comments and questions: Thanks. It also made clear that much remained unsaid. Nick Boscorelli . Most analog effects lie within the builder's grasp. As a concession to those who build these boxes sooner than they should. this volume outlines the procedure I follow when a board fails to work. For obvious reasons Icannot troubleshoot anybody's projects. and to create new sounds. I will try to answer letters.AUTHOR1S NOTE The response to the First Edition of this book confirmed a hunch that many stomp-box builders were ready for afterburners. This volume answers many of your questions. This revision fills out the card with techniques whose simplicity belies their power. The point 01the exercise is to take control of your sound. classic or not. The text hasn't sought to duplicate specific pedals. including many that have no counterpart among commercial products. though keys to that avenue abound. I appreciate your input.

To regain f. with same lass of fine con t rol alth e Clockwise extreme . The principles underlYing design are discussed at lenqth in the Appendices. Th e bui Ide r m BY have \0. mev rerer to. or AF shunt caps..irnplerna n l noisetess switching. will destroy some semicand'uctors.re of powe r su pply bypa 5S caoact tors.oF This is what wiring diagrams show. Circuitdescriptions do not list individual passive componen IS til a t Iorrn a larger functional block. 6 . V-. but reverse the connections to the end terminals af the po t. but will not protect pans that have been wired incorrecuv. Thi s op lion also reverses the directian af knob rota tio nl rom Ih arwh ich hel d tor Ihe RA pOl. rather. This holds panicularly for power supply bypass capaei tors. "a precision lu Ilwave rect if j.tecuon diodes into. While some players expect this feature in commercial boxes. Nor do.circui I descrip lions rna ke no. To rnlnlrnlze cl une r on wiring diagram fordual-9V -ba aery-powered projects. All resistors are YaW or %W 5% carbon film types unless otherwise specified. as might occur during banery replacement with the power switch ON. power switch and battery >~~d I-Z ~ III. RA pots can hard ro lind in hobby channels. The diodes preveru tnis. Na at temp I has bee n made to. and ground. srrav-capaci tance compensation caps. al rer the preamp gain 10 accommodate different levels. Several projects specify reverse-audio-taper (RAl potentiometers because that taper gives best control in those circuits. The level-dependent nature af certaineflects means they respond di Iferen tly 10 in srrurnents havi ng dispa raIe QU tpu tleve Is. "W' CIRCUIT BOARD rThiS is what they mean.llsge to which they will be subject. er made up of IC1-b & -c. and associated components. lhe circuit. me builder can substitute an audio-taper pot tor the RA POI. Use this w. cececuors' rated working voltages must exceed the greenest AC or DC Vo. lor exa mple.it adds at least one chip 10.ine control. Unfartunately. Brief wronq-wavappllcarion of power.General Considerations Project discussions cover only the essen rials needed to build and use each box. The necessary power switch connections are shown bel ow. ______ _. connect ions are not shown. function 01 each box is described with it running aff a pair af freshly charged nicad '9V' batteries. RED (+) I CIRCUIT BOARD \. Banery-powered projects incorparate pola rity pro. The projects use a hardwired bypass that removes the circuit completely from the signal path." The associated components are the resistars. ceoacuors. V+. Unless otherwise specified.rams show only connections to. Substituting a linear-raper pOI lor the RA pot is generally satistacrorv.iri ng arrangement s. or diodes connecieo to ICl-b and -c. the power fe·eds. Power ieeo indications given on schematics and lavou: diag.

The novice attempting these projects is courting frustration. Circuit Board Patterns Printed circuit templates given in this book are shown full size and are laid out for easy duplication using rubon pads and rape. whether introduced inten tionallv or not. but the builder should not feel bound to this enclosure. to let the builder compensate for distortion that might have accompanied the printing process. Each board appears inside a box with labeled dimensions. The projects work equally well when mounted in small hobby boxes or rackmount cases. The player who does not Iind "the sound" straight off should feel neither frustrated nor surprised. non-commercial use. Most projects demand familiarization to live up to their potential. Necessary Skills & Hardware The presentation assu mes that the reader has considerable experience building electronic projects. does not relieve anyone of obligations to patent holders. 8. such as pertbcard or universal printed circuit boards. This avoids cacophony in case a malfunction causes an unusually large ou tpu t signat. Chips appearing in proiorvpe photos are those that happened to be socketed at the time of the photo. Many feature interactive controls. of course. to aid orientation of parts and identification of wiring points. The presence of patented elements in these projects. The builder can. Board layout and wiring diagrams appear as X-ray views in which the foil side of the board is visible in gray. Several boxes are difficult to set up without a signal generator and oscilloscope. MOSlboards are designed to fit a rradi ional stompbox-style housing. Assembly and testing require a digital rnultimeter. serious troubleshooting demands a scope. build projects on any platform. Thecopyright holder grants individual builders permission 10 copy the printed circuit palterns to build boards for their own personal.This simple step is discussed in an Appendix. Patient experimentation is the best way to find the useful control sattinqs.S well as access (Q the necessary construction tools and electronic lest gear. Initial Checkout Set volume low when connecting a box \0 an amp for the first time. not necessarily those given in the parts list. 7 .

9V batteries. 1-1.4 1N4001 diode IC1 TL072 dual op amp IC2 TL074 quad op amp Miscellaneous CLM6000optocoupier Sl nsor switch enclosure. 8 .7K A9 50K audio. the LED dims. knobs. This mode sustains the note by reducing the amount of gain reduction as the note decays.20-20 by R16.taper pot R11 100 R16 SDK reverse-audio POI Capacitors C1. Increase output level if necessary to bring compressed level back up to match that of the unprocessed feed. and the setting of pot R6. Signal couples through Rll & C8 to the output path. an inverting amp with gain variable 0. IC1-a output couples through R4 to IC2-a. R16fullyeW In this state the box acts as a preamp with gain of abou t 3. 12. The output polarity is positive and couples through RlO to the anode of the LED palled with the LOR in the CLM6000. Fig. The sweet spots are between 2 and 8. with variable upward sustain. Turning A16 ecw lowers the downward compression threshold.9. a preamp with gain 01 3. Connect the unit 10 instrument and amp. IC1-b output couples through ell (0 a precision fullwave rectifier made up 01 IC2-c & -d. etc.104.5. When signal level drops. 14. thai gain being limited by the setting of R6. IC2-a output couples through R7 to IC2-b. 10 100pF ell llJF electrolytic Semiconductors 01. esta bli sh desired vol ume. Control Path: IC2-a output couples through R8 to input of IC1-b.7. Sustain-O-Matic Downward sustain. suitable forguitar and bass. The unit's compression ratio is high enough to qualify as limiting. an inverting amp whose voltage gain 15 variable from 0 to 5 by R9. respectively.522K R6 2S0K audio-taper pot R7. Avoid the temptation to turn everything up to max. raising gain of IC2-a. The result of the control path is for a rise in signal level to generate a voltage that lights the LED acting on the LOR. V4" jacks. 13 10IJF electrolytic C2 . change R10 10 10K or 15K 10 reduce the ra tio. R9 straight up. let it decay past the point of downward compression. depending on the state 01 the lightdependenl resistor (LOR) in the feedback loop.Project No.7. Use Switches and pots have these functions: Sl RB H9 R1B sustain/bypass upward compression limit. mounting hardware. OIJF nonpolar electrolytic C3. R6 fully cew. 13. . Sustain-O-Matic prototype board.6.8. The boost limit can be raised to +27 or +33 dB by changing R6 to 500K or 1 M. SUSTAIN-O-MATIC PARTS LIST Resistors Al 1SDK A2. Strike and hold a note. Slowly turn A6 CW and note the boost applied. 12 lOpF C4.7K A4. 0-22 dB output level sustain threshold (-70 mvp-p to -4Vp-p) Initial set1ings: 51 sustain. and their associated components. 15 10K RB. an op amp configured as an inverting amplifier whose voltage gain can vary from +22 dB to -35 dB. wire. Sustain-O-Malic lakes practice 10 apply 10 full advantage.7. and LOR resistance rises.21N914diode 03. lowering its resistance and reducing gain of IC2-a. 17 1K H32. Circuit Function Signal Path: tnstrurnem teed couples through C2 to IC1-a. at the cost of runaway gain in the absence of an input signal.

7----U n y-tJ u 0 -~l~II 0" O_5U_~_T_A j :." J (U J LBK ------~ ______ [hiFUl ..H3IlL re . Fig.:.3" x 2."' --' 9 . 1-2. 1-3. ).tain-O-Matic circuit board.5" reference box Fig. Sustain-O-Malic schematic. -[ 1 N'100: -1f:---'vV' v 1 ~ •• > LI 1'' ' If • / Cl3 I. Fig. 1-4. Sus. Sustain-O-Matic layout & wiring diagram.0. -..

Use Switches and potS have these functions: 51 52 R3 distort/bypass select soft/harsh distortion preamp gain I prototype board. I R6 RS R13 hex buffer bias (distortion threshold) clean level distortion level Initial settings./F nonpolar electrolytic Semiconductors 01.lI1F C7 lOj. just enough to hear the disionec feed when A6 hits the "sweet spot.2 istort-O-Matic Enough distortion modes exist to build dozens of boxes.2 1N4001 diode IC1 TL072 dual op amp IC2 4069 hex inverting buffer le3 TL071 op amp Miscellaneous 51 DPOT switch S2 SPOTswitch 1. S2 selects output from pin 2 (passage through a single buffer. IC1-a output couples through divider R7-8 to R9.etc. enclosure. IC1-a output feeds Ihrough twa more butlers that square up the signal. R13 fully CCW. IC1-a output also couples through R4 & C4 to input of IC2-a.. R3. Simple but versatile box. Circuit Function Instrument feed couples through C7 to input of IC1-a. raise and lower preamp gain and note the ettect on (One.9 10pF electrolytic C2. resembles tube-stage overload.8 10K audio-taper pot R4. Distort-O-Matic DISTORT-O-MATle I PARTS LIST Resistors Al lK R2 150K R3. In this configuration the box acts as a clean preamp with gain of about 11. 'soft') or pin 6 (passage through two additiona I buffers. 'harsh'). an Inverting amp whose gain is variable from 0-1. 10 100pF C4. Distort-O-Matic I combines a full squarewave fuzz with a soft effect whose transfer function. S2 center terminal couples through C6-R1410 IC3. knobs. 10 10K AS.'4" jacks. 2-1. an op amp configured as a nonmvertinq amp whose gain is variable from 1-11 by R3.Project No.5 by pal R13. 11 22K R610Kpot R94.7K Rl2 100 R13 SOK audio-taper POl R1433K Capacitors ct 5. 10 . Lower the distorted output level before toggling S2 to the harsh setting. a CMOS hex Inverting buffer. IC3 output couples through Rll to summing amplifier IC1-b. at some settings.7. establish desired volume. 10 input of summing amp IC1-b. Fig. R6 straight up. IC2-a Input is biased through R5 and pot R6. 8. S1 distort. S2soh. Connect unit to instrument and amp. Advance R13 a few degrees. to avoid an abrupt jump in volume. Signal couples through R12-CSto the output path. each giving a singular sound. Clean and distorted feeds can mix in any ratio.6 O.' which is only 10-15° wide. R8 fullyCW. Kill the clean feed by turning R8 fully CCw. Once the distorted feed is obtained. 9V battery snaps. n lOpF C3. wire.

Fig. 2-3.H~R5" v- . s Fig.'9 ~~L C6 . Distort-O-Matic I layout & wiring diagram. Distort-O-Matic I schematic. 11 .1 "'. 2-2.

Distor t·O·Malic I circuit board. 2-5. harsh output selected. d. B-Preamp gain max. Fig. 12 . clean level 0.lny level. dirty level 50%.. but clean level has baenadva need to 50%. mixing clean and dirty. E-Same as 0..2-4. top trace (in· put) 100 mv/div. D-Preamp gain max. boxacts as Ilat preamp. bouom trace (OUtPUI) 500 mv/div. which will gradually change 10 resemble photo B as input level rises or as preamp gaihis raised. 50%. distortion threshold in middle 01 sweet spot. Alii photos 1-KHz sinewave..Fig. OMlI10. dirty level 50%. claen output 50%. distortion swltch in 'soft' position. notethat low-level input generates sine-like output tram dir ty channel. C-Preamp gain minimum. A-Preamp g'ain max.

Gain for those frequencies becomes 1.610pF C4. change Cl & C2 [0 0.whose gain is fixed at3. In sroc« configuration.1pF values of Cl & C2 give the device a range of -20-400 Hz. R7 varies frequency over the range -20-400 Hz. note eftect on sound.3 Parametro-Matic By enabling con tin uous con t ral ave r boos I. the signal emerges from IC1-d and couples through Rll to the input of IC1-b. It can notch out a bothersome peak.15_ With R7 centered. R7. Modifying Pararnetro-Matic The 0. Gain for those frequencies then becomes 10K+l. 16 WK 1. the bandpass is placed in the feedback loop of IC1-b.5_ When R7 is turned fully CCw. 4. wire. 15. an Use Switches and POlS have these functions: Sl R3 R7 R12 R17 eq ua Iize/bvpa ss bandwidth center frequency output level boost/cut Initial settings: 51 equalize.033jJF. IC2. but only for the frequencies passed by the bandpass filler. 2. It can emphasize the fundamental on the open E without boosting the octave above. depending on frequency and bandwidth senlnq. R3 varies bandwidth from <1j4 octave to >1 octave. or apply quasi-emphasis to the low bass notes by notchinq OUttheir harmonics. 5.Project No.056pF or 0. again only for the frequencies passed by [he bandpass lilter. Para metro-Malic provides versatile bass EO. Turn R3 fully 13 . Independent control over boost.Boost/cut is achieved by divider action of R17 passing the signal through a state-variable bandpass filter comprised of IC1-d.2" R191K R2Q150K Capacitors C1. again lake R7 though its full range and note the eHect 01 narrowed bandwidth.5 (1. IC1-b sees an input impedance reduced by a factor of -6. CCW (minimum bandwidth). an inverting amp whose gain varies 0-5 by R12. lowering feedback resistance to 1. Signal couples through R13 & C4 to the output path. 6. parametric EO can apply a touch as fine as a scalpel or as broad as a scvihe. etc.10 lOpF electrolytic C5100RF C8 1OpF nonpola r electrolytic Semiconductors D1. 9.R12.2 lN4001 diQde IC1. Circuit Function Instrument feed couples through C8 to input of preamp IC1-a.5K. and frequency defines a parametric equalizer. Connect unit to bass guitar and amp. R3 fully CW. knobs. 14. IGl-b output couples through R14 to input of IC1-c. IC1-b exhibits no frequency emphasis and passes all Signals at unity gain.the value of RlI).7K R3 50Kdual pot R7 lOOK reverse-audio dual pot R9. 7.5K R12 50K audio-taper POL R13100 R1710Kpot R1B 2.SK= -6. R17 centered. bandwidth. and associated componen ts.2 OJ pF polypropylene C3. when R7 is turned fully CW. enclosure.5K+lOK = 0.5K. To cover a range suitable for guitar. 10. frequency. battery snaps. take R7 through full range. and bandwidth. suiting bass. Now slowly rotate R17CW pas t center and explore bOOSI functions. The result is that. Finer control 01 center frequency (at the cost of a PARAMETRO-MATIC PARTS LIST Resistors Rl.8 4.2 TL074 quad op amp Miscellaneous 81 PPDT switch W'jacks. Turn R17fully CCW (full cut). Boost/cut of [he prototype measured ±13-15 dB. establish desired volume. an inverting amp with nominal gain of 1.2_ IC1-a output couples through R16 [Q IC1-b.

Parametro-Matic prototype board.?K RI 7 '-----'Vv"v------J 10vF \/10K NP 51 !Ni>UTvf1 nV ll_ l:r---:=~ 8YP~5S ~ 6-v OUTPUT Fig. Fig.7K R? II'HIK-RA OU~L --------------- 1 I R9 50K \__ I I I IN'eel '1- !:~~ u RI 4. 3-2. 14 . Parametro-Matic schematic.01 IN4001 V+~--DI--'-------C~9+ I~ 10uF RS 4. 3-1.

it will peak a13. Parametro-Matic provides enough boos to demand careful level management.Param et ro.. BYPASS Fig.~ ~& v r~{~\ I1 1 111~. SOK·A OUTPUT LEVEL Fig. Boscorenl ~~~t 1~'. Parametro-Matic makes a great candidate for a ±18V supply to extend headroom beyond 30Vp-p. R7 should have a reverse-audio taper.. a SOKor 20K bv making R7 .Ma tic layout & wiring diagram. When R7 is fully CW. 3-4. where Cl is in farads. narrower tuning range) can be obtained 3" x 3. but dual RA pots are hard 10 find._ 15 .5 will clip in a unit running off a pair of 9V batteries... When R7 is fully CCW.~ J ~~ . . center frequency = 1-7(6.5" reference box dual pOl. highest frequency occurs with R7 fully CCw.28 x 4700 x C1). 3-3. Lower volume on the instrument if clipping occurs with boost. Parametro-Matic circuit board (below right). Ideally. center frequency = 1-7[6. One means to get liner control overfrequency is 10 use a dual audio-taper pOI and reverse the wiring 10 the pot end-terminals. Thos e f requ encles boos ted by a facto r 0 f 6..2V coming atll C l-a.28 x (4700 + value of R7) x C 1]. In this configuration. If raw instrument output measures peaks at 1\/.

13. 5.Toggle 52 between x 1 and x2frequency. IC2-a output couples through R13 to IC2-b. Distort-Q-Matic II is a clipper-based box that throws in a sound-fattening frequency doubler. whose other throw ties to IC1-a output.41N4001 ICl TL074 quad op amp ICl TL072 dual OJ:) amp 3. Note effect on tone and volume of distortion contour control R14. forms a precision fullwave rectifier. Distort-O-Malic 16 II circuit board. Slowlv advance R12 to sample the distorted feed.. a preamp with gain of 3.111F C8 lOI1F nonpolar electrolytic C9 1l1F electrolytic Semiconductors 01. Audio couples through R16-Cll to the output path. 9V banery snaps. 12. 10 100pF C70. knobs.2.5.7K R4.4 Distort O-Matic II The basic diode clipper can produce an astounding variety of sounds. an op amp configured as a simple diode clipper.7K R14l00Kpot R16100 Capacitors ci 3.5. 11. This alters amplitude and shape olthe clipped waveform. 12 10K audio-taper pot R94. circuit board. note the fattening effect of doubling the fuzz frequency.6. 52's pole couples signal through C9-R15 !O input of IC2-a. 6. . IC1-c output couples to one throw of 52. modified by variable resistance R14 in series with 05-6.6 lN914 D3.7. Eliminate clean level by turning R8 fully CCw. Either R8 or R12 must be open for any output to exist. IC1-a output also couples to pal RS whose wiper ties through R9 to the input of summing amp IC1-d. IC1-a output couples through C7 to input of IC1-b which. Distorted and clean feeds mix In any ratio.5" reference box Miscellaneous S1 DPDT switch 52 SPDT switch W' jacks. x 1 or x2 Initial settings: 51 distort. R14 fully CCW Connect unit to instrument and amp. 15 10K 8.MATIC Resistors II PARTS L15T Rl lK R2150K R32. establish suitable listening level. 11. 14 lOJ. Fig. 10. Box suits guitar and bass. 13 lOpF C4.25" x 2.7. Use Switches and pots have these functions: 51 52 distort/bypass distortion feed select. RS straight up. etc. fundamental frequency clean level distortion level distortion contour RS Rl2 R14 Circuit Function Instrument feed couples through CB to input of IC1-a.. 4-1. DISTORT-O. R12. with IC1-c and associated components. wire. R12 varies gain applied to the distorted feed from zero to one. as described below.Project No. 51 x 1.lF electrolytic C2.

17 . ~' .. Distort-O-Matic II schematic. Fig. LC r------~n~i·O~R'~D~--ily.... 4-2. 4-3.. Distort-O-Matic II layout & wiring diagram..pASS . "U'PUl Fig. 0-0 '"PUT OJ'.

top scale (input) 100 mv/div. distorted level 40%. Distort-O-Matic Fig. distoned level O. E-Same as 0. but)(2 selected. II prototype board. DM2 110. but shape control R14 straight up. 4-5. 4-4. RB fully CCW. D-Same as B. B-Clean level a. bottom scale (output) 500 mv/div. 18 .. C-Same as B.Fig. but shape control R14 straight up. AClean level60%. All photos 1 KHz sinewave.

hall an NE570 configured as a VCA whose gain varies 0-1. Use Switches and pots have these functions: R4 RS R9 R14 RIG RIB R21 51 preampgain VCA feedthrough output level static gain tremolo depth sine trim tremolo rate tremolo/bypass trim Resistors A1.IC3 and R5-R6 form a feedthrough trim network. VCA output pin 10 couples through pot R9tooutput path R10·C4. 7.Project No.2K R1B 200 ohm multiturn trirnpot pot A20lS0K R21 2M reverse-audio-taper Capacitors First. 2.7K R9 10K audio-taper pot R10 100 All. 19 47K A12. Positive control peaks clip In !C2-b and canTREMOLO-MATIC PARTS LIST Tremolo-Matic Tremolo contains greater nuance than rate and depth imply. 22. R4 centered. 23. wire.2. Clear tremolo should be heard With these settinqs. to soften on negauve ones. trim the sinewave generator. establish desired listening level. connect OSCilloscope probe to sinewave output pin 7 of IC2. Circuit Function Signal Path: Instrument feed couples through C7-R3 10 inverting preamp IC]. V4" etc. 19 . Trim R18to give 3Vp-p. Configure settings as above. With static gain at maximum and depth at -50%. whose gain varies 0-5 by trirnpot R4. Take R21 through Its range and note change In rate. 8. Trim R4 for desired preamp gain. short the signal input. C1. 15 36K R322K R4 250K trirnpot R5 50K multiturn rrimpot R6220K R74. Connect unit to amp whose volume is turned all the way down. 16 10K POI Rl7. Apply scope probe to IC4 pin 10. R161ully Cw. Slowly Increase amp volume until beating is heard. according to the control voltage supplied through Rll. Sinewave control voltage couples through Rll to VCA control port. R1B straight up.5 lruual settings: S1 tremolo. R9.. II no scope is available. R21 fully CW. the control feed causes Instrument volume to intensifv on positive control peaks. trim R5 for least feedthrough. pin 16 at IC4. Instrument volume softens only during negative control peaks. Pot R14 varies the DC oftset present at IC2-c's output. turn output level pot R9 fully Cw. The signal path is noninverting. solder.ICI output couples through C5-R7 10 signal input of IC4. IC2-b output couples to depth control pot R16. Tremolo-Malic offers three distinct modes In onebox. Connect unit to axe and amp. Exercise care. Control Path: IC2-a/-b and associated components form a sinewave oscillator whose frequency varies -1-10 Hz under control of R21. Rl4. B. With static gain centered and depth al-40%. trim VCA feed through. 9 lOpF aluminum electrolytic C647pF Semiconductors 01 lN4001 02. Trim RS for least feedthrough. Next. In this slate the con trol voltage coming 01llC2 pin 8 cI ips at bo th ex Ire mes. 13 lOOK A14. 9V battery..3 lN914 IC1 MC33171 low-power op amp IC2 TL064 quad low-power op amp IC3 78L05 5V positive regulator (TO-92) IC4 NE570/571 dual-channel VCA Miscellaneous 51 DPoT SWitch jacks. because the pulses coming off IC4 pin 10 could measure up to several voltsp-p. 2. tnrn feedthrough by ear. Specific settings of depth and stalic gain let Tremoto-Mane provide three drstinct tvpes of tremolo: . Set R21 fully CW. through RIS to summing amp IC2·c. circuit board.4 2.SlpF C310pF C4. Set R14 straight up. .

The use of an inverting preamp breaks one of the rules for low noise.SV on the positive power bus .. Notes TM is a true 9V box. but in this case keeps a noninvening signal path without having to add an inverting output buffer. 5-2.Wi th static gain at minimum and depth at -60%.® 0' l/2v. Running off higher voltage requires increasing the value of R7LOaccommodate greater sig- 20 . not further allect volume. . Preamp gain should be adjusted for an average output of lVp-p. (OUTP I or IC2-~ I Fig. and reducing the value of RS to keep IC4's OU!PU t offset near Y2V+. Fig. The system has -SVp-p of headroom. optimized for 7. nal amplitude. This leaves plenty of room lor peaks. Tremolo-Matic schematic. 5-1. sound pulses from a background of silence... Tremolo-Matic prototype board. lending the effect a percussive air.

Tremolo-Matic circuit board. 5-3.25" x 2. 21 . 5-4.3.75" referencebox C 1999 Bo6corelh Fig. Fig. Tremolo-Matic layout & wiring diagram.

A-Control voltage and static voltage at their lower limits. Input is a 5-KHz sinewave. D-Static VeA gain back to 0. H~ ~~~ " ~' ~y " .. C-Staticvoltage is at maximum. slnewave impressed on static resting gain modulates Instrument volume. Top trace shows control voltage. VeA output is O. not the tremolo circuit. 5-5. VCA gain is -1. Tremolo-Matic output displayed with VCA control voltage. 2. 1V/div. Pulse artifacts (most visible in photo B..B-Static voltage (determined by setting of R14) rises to about 40%. signal output rises. top trace) result from an external sync generator. F-Amplitude of sine feed contlnues to rise.5V1div. E. Signal Output lV/oi" sweep 20 ms Fig. with resultant effect on signal volume. 22 . bottom trace shows TM output.

I. Now only the negative pari of the sinewave modulates the signal.5-6. K-A more typical tremolo control setting: static VCA gain is -45%. attained by specific combinationsof static gain and sinewave amplitude. I & J-Sinewaveamplitude is progressively reduced. Figs. G-Sinewave voltage has reached maximum. 23 . F. clipping al both extremes. sinewave amplitude -60%.Fig. H-Sinewave amplitude still at maximum. VCA gain swings from zero to one with each cycle. and K represent three audibly distinct manifestations of tremolo. bul stattc gain has been shifted upward.

Only when signal falls below the level needed to overcome 01's forward drop does a negative voltage get to IC3 pin 5. threshold. Circuit Function Signal Path: Line-level input couples through Cl-Rl to unity-gain inverting butfer IC1-b. 1K 18 R13 lOOKpot R14. whose OUtput COUples through R4-C4 (0 IC3 signal input. R22 varies the output level. and ratio.Kz-b buffers the ou tput of the decay network and leeds the control voltage to a variable-attack network made up of 02/C7/R16_ R16varies attack from instantaneous to -40 ms. 3 lN914 021N34A 04. Output of the variable-attack network feeds buffer IC1-a. acts as a buffer with gain of about 1.51N4001 ICl TL074 quad op amp IC2 TL072 dual op amp IC3 SSM2120 dual-channel dynamic ccnrroller Miscellaneous 51 OPOT switch 1. Vary attack and release to suit taste. Attack controls how quickly GOM opens alter closing Rl6 covers the range <1 ms to -40 ms. decay. longer transitions sounding less abrupt.0022pF C60.which varies the percentage let through to buffer IC1-d. Using program material suitable to detect gating. IC3 signal outpu t (pin 4) ties to input 01 currenr-ro-voltaqe converter IC1-c. In this condition the unit 24 . R16 fully CCW. 4/9.1pF Semiconductors 01.19 39K R1B 250K audio-taper pot R2020Kpot R2l 2. R20 fully CW. biased through R1Sto allow its output to swing below qround. such as an amp. preventing any control voltage from reaChing the VCA. Control voltage couples through 01 to R13. Establish desired volume level. knobs. 11 lOJJFaluminum electrolytic C50. circuit board.7200 R81. turn threshold control R20 CCW until obvious gating action is noted.4" jacks. A22 straight up. An input Signal generates a positive voltage that keeps the potential at the anode 0101 at ground. Note the effect of aherinq the downward expansion ratio.IC2-a output feeds variable-decay network 03/Ql/C6 and associated resistors. Gate-OMatic (GOM) offers independent control of attack. to.6 Gate-O-Matic Like sophisticated rackmount noise gales. whose output feeds final divider R12-R7. Connect unit to line-level feed and line-level target device. 10 10K R436K R547 R6. the VCA '+' control port. etc. The resul t of (his control path is for a strongly negative voltage to exist at the output oflCl-a in the absence of an input signal. Use Swi tches & po ts have these func [ions: 51 Rll R13 R16 A20 R22 gate/bypass decay downward expansion ratio attack expansion threshold output level Initial settings: 51 gate. 15. which boosts the voltage by a factorof40. Control Path: IC1-b output couples through R3-C3 to IC3 rectifier input pin9. A variable DC bias supplied by R20varies the gating threshold. Raw level detector output (pin 2) couples to noninverting amp IC2-a. wire. R13. 17.Project No. R5-CS acts as a snubber.which ties to IC3 pin 5. Decay controls how GATE-O-MATIC PARTS LIST ReSistors Rt222K R3.01pF C70. audio couples through R23-C9 to the output path.5M R910M Rll 250Kpot R12_. An varies decay from -5 ms to several ssccnds. Rll.2K A22 lOOK audio-teperpot R23 100 R2415DK Capacitors Cl lOpF nonpolar electrolytic C2/8 10pF C3.

.... Lowering the supply 10 the ±7.5Vtypical of '9V' batteries will require shorting R2l.. Gate-O-Matic layout & wiring diagram. Maximum ratio mutes the signal. Rll varies decay from ~5 rns to several seconds.. Theprotctvpewas rested using a ±15V supply. Gate-O-Matic schematic. Fig. to keep a useful threshold range. minimum ratio is 1:1. 25 . which results in no change in gain. 6-2. Ratio controls now much gain reduction the unit applies. Fig. and possibly lowering the value of R19. 6-1. OND +lSV 2120 long GOM lakes to close once input level drops below threshold.

C-Decay has been extended to maximum. expansion ratio maximum. Top trace input. D-Decay back \0 minimum. sweep 20 ms/div. bottom trace GOM output. resulting In Instant opening of gate. 6-5.Attack is at minimum. Fig. Decay is at its 5-ms minimum.. In this case. 26 . A-Gating threshold is below large pulse but above small pulse . gate stays open between pulses. B-Decay has been lengthened to about 40 ms.. Note delay for gate to open after being closed.3" x 3" reference box Fig. Gate-O-Malic's effect on tone burst. 6-3 Gate-O-Matic prototype board.. 6-4. attack: extended to -10 ms. Fig. Gate-OMatic circuit board. scale lV/div. Note delay belore gate closes.

ratio. 18 36K RS lOOK pot R6. 12 39K RlllK R13. enclosure.4.5 lN400l lel TL074 quad op amp le2 TL072 dual op amp IC3 SSM2120 dual-channel dynamic controller IC4 TL071 op amp Q1 2N3904 NPN transistor Miscellaneous Sl OPO. wire. all on a board [hat fits a stomp box with roomto spare. these pathsare parallel and feedback.25200 R261. and decay. with no voltage applied to controlpln 7. cay. an op ampconfigured as a curren t.3 lN914 021N34A 04.Project No.19 lOOK audio-taper pot R7. biased through Al6. 1:1-25:1 (feedback) attack Circuit Function Signal Path: line-Ievelleed couples through C1-Rl to unity-gaininverting buffer IC1-b.222K R3.7 Squeeze 0 Matic The essential features (and specs) of a rackmount compressor. 16. whosegain is fixed at 40. Sl 52 RS RS compress/bypass con trol pa th selee I feedba ckzpa ra Ilel compression ratio. 15 6.and C7. R14 and su rrou nding resistorsapply a variable DC offset to the output of IC2-a. SOM is a downward compressor with variable threshold. is 1." jacks. 4. mounting hardware. which varIes the magnitude of the control voltage applied to bufferIC4. 21 10K RS 250Kpot R910M R10. Raw level detector output is taken off pin 2. IC1-aoutput couples through 01 to R5. switch 52 SPOT switch JA. 10. whichvaries compression Ihresh old.lpF Sem iconductors 01. IC3output (as a current) couples to input of IC1-c. solder/etc.0022pF C7 O. IC4 outpot couples to the final control voltage divider. which selects a control leedfrom the output of the input buffer through R3. Unlike mOSI commercial umts. pius an extra seldom found in commercial products. R8 varies de- SQUEEZE~O-MATIC PARTS LIST Resistors Rl. batteries. Control Path: The level detector input of IC3 (pin 9) connects through C4 to S2. attack. 11 1OpF aluminum electrolytic C5.Netgain of this path.9 10pF C3. C6. IC2-boutput feeds a variable-attack network made up 01 02. IC2-aoutput teeds a positive peak detector made up of 03. Audio couples \0 the output path through R20-C12.IC1-coutput couples through R 18 to input 01 Inverting buffer IC1-d.8. or the OUtput of the I-V converter through R2l. R22-24.5M Capacitors Cl. and buffer fC2-b.this box lets the user sel ect a feedba ck or a feedforwardcontrol path. 6 0. feeding directly to noninverting amp IC2-a.to-vel tage co nver ler. respectively.and thus varies compression ratio. 01.buffered by IC1-a. Switches and pots have these fu n C Iions: Use 27 . circuit board. 12 10pF nonpolar electrolytic C2. IC1-b output couples throughR4-C3 to signal input of IC3. RS. R7-9.aK R1410K pot R17 150K R20100 R2215K R2347 A24. R23 & C5 form a snubber. which varies output level accordingto setting of R19.

vary ratio and note the effect on sound. repeat the checkout sequence. Initial settings: 51 compress.G '___~_____.. The threshold range can be restored by reducing the values 01R13& A15. 52 feedback. to avoid distortion 01low frequencies. the major change noted is a drop in maximum threshold to about2Vp-p/ but only with S2 in feedback position. In fact.5\f. Squeeze-O-Matic schematic.A/'~-----. install the polarily protection drodes shown on the wiring diagram. keepthe decay control at 10 o'clock or higher. but this introduces something of a see-saw effect.A.. The parallel control path requires a much lower ratio for natural-sounding compression. Once lamiliarwilh feedback operation. the softer the output. and for that reason does not include the rectifier diodes. can emulate 'sag' 01 some lube Notes The prototype board was hardwired to a discrete ver· sion of the Append-A-Board power supply (Project No. because ahering the input levei effectively alters the threshold. 7-1. the device exhibits paradoxical dynamics: the louder the input.Connect unit to line-level feed and target output device. If you elect to run SOM off batteries. take attack and decay through their ranges and note the effects. At ±7. return to initial settings and toggle 52 to parallel control path. The user can replace A2 with a suitable pot if widely variant input levels are expected. Unless extremely rapid decay is needed. Vary the input level.-__I1 '" ~ '" '" .. RS R14 R19 decay compression threshold output level allel compression amps..C"'-_ ____"__ 1-----. In this state the box acts as a une-tevel buffer with gain of about 1. Function described above was ascertained with the unit running off ±15V. Note audible distortion of low-frequency feeds when decay is at minimum. Using appropriate progl'€lm material.. Turn R14CCW until obvious compression is noted. RS fully CCw. with the ratio pot set past halfway. par- 28 . R8 9 o'clock. R192 o'clock. At the proper selling. R5. establish desired audio level. :8 I? 1G Fig. 27). R14lui· Iy CW. Parallel compression tends to be more obvious.

Squeeze-O-Matic circuit board. 29 . Squeeze-O-Matic layout & wiring diagram. 7-3. 2120 -1SV Fig. 7-4.3" x 3" reference box Fig.

All figures: rep trace input. speed 20 ms/div.. E-Back to feedback mode. 30 . box acts as unity-gain buffer. compression ratio maximum. attack & decay at minimum. feedback mode. note paradoxical dynamics: the part of the burst above threshold is attenuated so that Its amplitude actually falls below mat of the low-level burst. Input/output of bl-leval tone burst for selected control settings of SOM.Fig..BVp-p. bottom trace SOM output. C-Anack has been lengthened 10 ebout B ms. SOM output trimmed to match input. F-Decay has been increased to -100 ms. decay takes about 3 ms. Threshold is at maximum. A-Bi-Ievel tone burst input. 7-5.Threshold has been lowered to -3.does not have time to decay fully between bursts. no detectable attack lag. D-Mode switched 10 parallel. scale 2V/div.decay has been increased to -20 ms. B.

Disl ort-O -Matlc II r prototype board. and that retains dynamic tracking.. and their associated cornporents. enclos ure.c.h 52. 3. (he" 2 feed ties to sumrninq node through A10. S3. -b. 10.3 SPDTswilches orer solder. pin 6) through .ition. R22 varies the output revel. feed couples through amp 10-B.2 Tl074 quad op amp IC3 Tl072 dual op amp cua 12.inversion block made up of IC2-c. l2~14.IClod 0 U tpu t couples to a swi 1c ha ble polarity. and (he "4 teed lies to surnming node !hroughR12.& associated components. Seriallullwave rectification --- distorted and proqressivelv higher-frequency ucts.2. 15.CIII PARTS LIST node Resistors Rl-4. 8.9.R19-20.Project No.R8.18 10j..IC2-c output feeds to a variable gain blOCk made up of IC2-d and a ssocia ted compon en ts. edsemponerus . Distort-Q-Malic 3. asscciat- 52 53 AS A9 A19 A22 Initial settings: Sl effect in. whose gain is fixed at 3.17..6. IC3-a output couples through C10 to a precision fullwave rectifier made up of IC1-a &.16 lOpF Semiconductors 01-4 lN914 05. Rll 4. The process makes a distortion device (IC3-b.JFelectrolytic tic Miscellaneous I/(jacks 51 switc. e tc.20 22K RS. -d and a ssoc ia ted component's.7K R19 10K eudio-teper pot R2ll00 R232. 9V bat teries. IC1-boutput also couples through C1 to a second fullwave rectitler made up of ICl. Signal couples through R21-C15 to the output path. Circuit Function Instrument Use Switches C14 to input of pre81 & pots have these functions: effect/bypass x2invert x4invert x41evel x21evel clean. S2.61N4001 IC1... 11 lOOpF C14 10pF nonpela r elsctrolv C4-7.&. ICH output couples to a swirchabls pola ritvliwersion block made up oIIC2-a.2K R241K R25150K Capacitors C2. S2& 3eilher Fig.(x 1)I'evel mast er au tpu Ileve I pos. -ZZ lOOK audio -ta per pot Fig. IC3-aoutpul (the clean feed) lies to summing DISTORT~O.13. 7. 31 .MATI.15·181DK RS. 8-2.8 Distort-O-Matic III genera res prog ressivelv prodthat sounds distinct from squ arewave devices.5" x 3" reference box III circuit board.wire. 8-1. 9. IC2-a output couples to a variable gain block made up of IC2-b a nd a ssoci a ted compon en ts.

M" L l'l IErFE"C' I"' .I.iagram. J II~Js~l IHJlU' !:!U~PI. R22 straight up. Fig.Inven polarity of processed feeds and note the eff. 8-3. Connect unit to axe & amp. 32 .:I IB. Turn R19 fully CCw. r J. slowly rotate "4 level control R8 CW.c III layout & wiring d..D-----li. slowly [urn "2 control A9 Cw. Return R9 to fully CCw. R19. Dlstort-Oi-Matic III schernatic.. Distort-O-Mati.. R9 fully CCW.J r Fig. note the sound. Experiment with mixt ures of cI ea nand distorted feeds . Note the sound..<I ----ll-----D~.ect on the output mix. 8-4. establish desired vOlume..

. _J-l.. C-'2 0 & '1 levels 0%.OM3IfO.AlI photos: top trace 1 KHz sinewave (lnpurj.Flg. E & F-Variable mixtures of xl. 0-"4 . A-Clean & "4 levels 0. ~2 100%iappearance1 output is characteristic of fullwave rectification. 8-x2 phase inverted. -" phaseinverted. 33 . "v.B-5.. "2.boucrn trace output. x4 .. scale lV/div.. & "4..

34 ~~ ~~ . Direct-O-Malic delivers two channels of clean gain for quitar or bass. preamp gain can be increased by changing R2 & R11 to any 2. IC1·d output couples through R4C410 one balanced output terminal.uFnonpolar electrolvttc C2. Instrurnen t feed cou pies th rough C 1to inpu I of IC1-d. 9-1. DIRECT-O-MATlC PARTS LIST Resistors R1. 16 lOpF aluminum electrolytic C6. which could cause a loud 'pop' in gear plugged into the charged caps. invert lift lift inver! Connect unit to axe and target input device. 14.75" reference box l~tfh . 12 150K R4. the 837 has studio-quality specs and can drive 600ohms.4. 12. To ensure ground-lift capability. Use Pots & switches have these functions: R2 R1l 51 52 53 54 channell gain channel 2 gain channell polarity channell ground channel 2 ground channel2 polaritv practical value. establish desired level... 14 100pF Semiconductors O1. 15 51 RS.7. Direct-O-Matic circuit board. 6.52 provides ground-lifl._='. only channell is desc ribed.10 1K R2. 16.. etc.11 lOpF C3. with balanced outpu Land low-impedance drive capabilltv.4 DPDr switch S2.Project No. 18 22K R8.5..21N4001 ICl LM837 quad op amp Miscellaneous XLRjacks S1. wire. 17 lOOK Capacitors C1. use plastic XLR jacks with a metal case. IC1-d output also couples through RS to unity-gain inverting buffer IC1c. or a plastic insert/case with metal XLR jacks. 9-2_ Direct-O-Matic prototype board.9. 13. While most quad op amps will work fine in this circult.3 5PST switch W' shorting jacks. 11 10K audio -taper pot R3. 15.9.9 Direct-O-M otic Going direct demands a clean drive stage and a balanced output. 10. circuit board. Fig. Both caps couple to polarity-inversion SWiLCh 51. 8. R8 & R9 act as bleeder resistors to prevent charge build-up in the output caps. Circuit Function Both channels are identical.. Use is self-evident. whose output couples through R7-CS to the other balanced output.75" x 2.. solder. 13 lO. If needed. llo. 7. Fig. a noninverting amp whose gain varies 1-11 under control of R2.

schematic.J. Direct-O-Matic . FlQ.. Direct-O-Matic layout & wiring diag ram. 3.91'""4. 35 .elG C3 C1uIPI.I 1 INPU1 I · g--.

254. IC1-a output also couples through R24-25 to ICl-d.7K R3 150K R4. configured as a noninverting amp with gain of 3. (IS i IS effects are too subtle for bass. 5. Distort~O-Matic 36 . %" jacks.in se~ ries. Fig. varies gain of inverting amp IC1-c from l-Y6. dual pot R6 boosts the amplitude of the signal entering the 324 chain by a factorof up l06. resembling the crossover distortion seen In certain vintage tube amps. The effect is absent with both pots fully CCw. 9V batteries. This stage demands level management DI5TORT-O-MATIC IV PAATS LIST Resistors Al lK A22. Use Switches & pots have these functions: 51 effect in/ou I 52 A6 enecr select AlB effect B extent IV prototype board. 10 Distort-O-Matic IV DM41urks at the subtle end of the spectrum.22 1M R23.Project No. configured by associated components R20-23 and 01-4 as a variable distortion device whose function IS detailed below. the Signal passes through four 324~type op amps . the other to crossover distortion in the output stage of the op amp. This box SUits only gUItar. etc. defini lely not a box to build if you hanker for flagrant fuzz. To accentuate these subtle effects.7K R24 lOOK dual POI Capacitors C1. Effect A generates a dead band with variable shape (R20) and variable extent (R24). 7.6. The function of this block is detailed below. IC3 gain is variable from 0-5 by pot R17. 7-16.6 lN400l le1 TL074 quad op amp IC2 LM324 quad op amp IC3 TL071 op amp Miscellaneous 51 OPOT switch 52 5PDT switch wire. Signal couples through R18-C7 to the output path. S2 selects output of either IC1-d (effect A) or IC1-c (elfect B) and couples to input of inverting amp IC3 through C5-R19. Between the output of IC1-b and the input of IC1-c are interposed four unity-gain inverting amplifiers in series (IC2). A20 A24 effect A shape effect. 9 lOtJF aluminum electrolytic C2. printed clrcult board. and simultaneously reduces gain by a tactor of 6 at the end of the chain. IC1-a output couples through R4 to inverting amp IC1-b. Because both types of distortion are arnplirudedependent. solder.19 10K A6 50K dual pot R 17 50K aud io. II mighl be a good idea to test the unit on the ~readboard before €{chinq a circuit board. 10-1.4 10pF C3100pF C5 1 tJF aluminum electrolytic C8 lOtJF nonpolar electrolytic Semiconductors 01-4 lN914 05.fa per pot R18 100 R20100Kpot R21. Effect B takes advantage 01 disrortron introduced by the LM324 on audio Signals greater than 3Vp-p. One type appears related to the 324's low slew rate. simultaneously. A depth Circuit Function Ins irument feed couples through C8 to input of IC1-a.7. whose gain varies from 1-6 by dual pot R6 which.

Fig. 37 . Only the LM324 enerates this distortion. Distort-O-MaticIV layout & wiring diagram.ASS -0avoId cUpping. --------~aH----~ t::__:. 0 istort. ~~.----------------_.A~~ Fig. 06 IN-4r. Most op amps act as unityain buffers tnat do not in trouee audible dlsror (ion.v. Effect B is subtle. Th pugh ramade in appearance on e scope. these changes ateel only harmonics on some ssds.'" ~ " '"eo' ~. 10-3. RIS LDC T~.0 -Matie IV sche matico SYP. and may require tre_ e boost from the amp to rceive. 0-0 B'. 0-2.'301 RL L.""H " ". ..

(input). RS fully CCw. effect B. Top trace 100 mv/div.High level needed to put effect A in best mode. R6 fully CCW G-3 KHz. effect is absent. bottom trace (output) lV/div. KHz. 38 . scale top trace (input) 200 mv/div. Facing page: OM4 110. all controls fully CWoB-Shape control@50%. low input level needed to avoid when using effect B. RS fully CWoJ-IO KHz. trace IV/div. RS fully CW H-3 KHz. E-l KHz.C-Shapecontrol@ minimum. u-~:sn8D11 back to max. A-Effect A.Fig.. (output). AS fully CCW. extent control fully CCW. 10-4 (this and facing page) DM4 I/O. photos taken with preamp gain @ 11. R6 fully CWoF-l KHz. I-KHz sinewave.

39 .5" x 3.3. Distort-OMatic IV circuit board.25" reference box Fig. 10-5.

tape deck. W' phon e jack. or other source. 5. a preamp With gain of 5.8k A27.8/ 10. 3.5" reference box R.lpF Semicol1ductors :01.AC vol tag e follower IC2. 15. wire. 21. IC ].21.e IC4-b a nd a prec isio n f u Ilwave recti 1ler made up 01 IC4-c&-d & surrounding components..C 11 (0 the ou tpu ( pa th. Super Play-Along circuit board. 100 A23-266. n-2. whose output couples to inpu ts of IC3-a & -b. 14 100pF C15~18 O. etc.2847K Capacitors ci 19. " Super Play-Along A play-along is a mixer thai blends aninstrument feed with a stereo feed from a CD player. .and to a hig hpass lilter made up otlC2-b and surrounding components. 4 TL072 dua I op amp Miscellaneous 51 DPOT switch Vee-Tee VTL2C2 oprocoupler RCA jacks. solder. 11. 10. Sl selects between straiqht and highpass feed to couple lO lhe inputs 01 outpu 1 bufters IC3-a & -b.a.13. Not exactly a stomp box.17-20. IC4-d output couples through A14 to the LED in the LOR.422K AS1S0K A6. Control Path: I C 4-a outpu 1 couples through RS te a level oeiecror made up of variable gain 5lag. The result of tbis arrangement is a downward compressor whose SUPER PLAY~ALONG PARTS LIST Resistors Al lK R2.IC1-a output couples (hrough R 3 10 IC4-a.75" x 3.ong" with the feed.uF alum lnurn ic C3. 14 4. Audio couples through R 16. but something many players lind handy. Each lin e -Ieve I signa I pa th is ide n tical. Li n e-Ievel input couples C ircuitFunction Signal Path: instrument reed couples through C1 to th rough C 19 to . circuit board.41N4001 ICl.2 TL074 quad op amp I C3. a n inver Ii ng amp whose gain var- a ies with the state of the LOR in the feedback loop. 40 .22 F.Project No.9..7 50 K a udio-taper pot udio pot 10K 'A9 50 K reverse-a Al6.22 1O. tur ns any stereo system in to a pra c lice a mp.IC4output couples through RS 10 variable gain slage IC l-b. so only the Ieft channel wi II be described. 6. 21N914 03.7K R3.20 10pF e21 nonpolar electrolyt- 8. 7 rdpF C4.ig.. 11-13. incorporales switchable hiqhpass filter tor bass. whose output cou pies to one th row of S 1. 12. enabling one to "playal.a. and limiter for bass and guitar.7.

.. Super PlayAlong schematic.Rg. Switch highpass filler Inlout 10 note effect on stereo feed. This feature Jetsbassplayers kill bass tones in the stereo feed.. Fig. CWoConnect unit to axe and stereo (e.. 11-3. 41 . R7 straight up. estabIIsh desired program volume and instrument voltine. the tape loop of an FM reo ceiver). Super PlayAlong layout & wiring diagram. settings: Sl highout.g. 11-4. Power up.

12. 12. 15.l/.7K R23. 19 lOJ. 4. Pot R14 applies an identical static DC voltage to the inverting inputs of IC6-a & -c. IC4 's two outpu ts couple to inverting buffers IC2-a & b that yield a net noninverting signal path. an NE570 configured as (WO VCAs. Special effect that suits many instrumenrs. Attach scope probe to pin 10 of IC4. 26. trim R32 tor minimum feedthrough.2 trim feedthrough for their respective channels. 16. 15.220K A22. etc. Set Rl for maximum rare: trim the sine generator (R7) to give 3Vp-p at pin 1 01 IC5-b. ICS-b OUtput couples to pot R9 which varies the sinewave level feeding two pa ths. 28 10K A29. 9V battery snap mounting hardware. a preamp whose gain varies 1-21 depending on setting of R36. Signals couple through R30-ClO and R29-C1l to their respective outputs. the other VCA sees a trough and reduces gain. 27. The result of the control path IS that R14 sets an identical resting DC voltage applied to both VCA control pons 01lC4 (Rl9/pin 16. IC1 output couples through C4R34 and C3-R22 to ditlerent channels of IC4. one otwhich inverts the control Voltage. turn R9 fully CW In this state the control voltage clips at both extremes. If no scope is available.iF C16 10j. set R24 lully CW Slowly aovance PAN TREMOLO-MATIC PARTS LIST Resistors Rl 2M reverse-audio pot R2. 18 33K R13. lending the sound a phasey air.32 lOOK multiturn trlrnpor R21. This crosslades the signal between channels.2K RS. R20 and R3. Control Path: IC5 and its associared components form a sinewave oscillator whose frequency is variable by Rllrom -1-10 Hz. When one VCA sees a peak and increases gain. 17 lOOK R14 lOOK pot R20. 11.lF aluminum e Iectrolyti c C5. 19.Project No. 8 2.4. 34 4.35 47K R6 1. 12 Pan Tremolo-Matic Same basic specs as Trernolo-Matic. each of whose gain varies 0-1. 18. short the mpu t..IF tantalum. but generates stereo output that crosstades between channels. trim feedlhrough by ear Connect Outpu 1 1 to a n amp whose volume is turned all the way down. 1f4" jacks.. Circuit Function Signal Path: Instrument feed couples through C16 to input 01'IC1.lFnonpolar electrolytic C17 lOpF Semiconductors 01. Dual pot R24 controls the output level. move scope probe to pin 7 of IC4. the other softens. Offers option to invert potaruv 01 one output. depending on (he control voltaqe input. 14 lOOpF O. When one channel intensifies. wire. including vocals. trim R20 for rnlnimum feed through.2 1N914 03 1N4001 IC1 OP-27 low-noise op amp IC2 TL072 dual op amp IC3 78L05 SV positive regulator (TO-92) IC4 NE570/571 dual-channel compande le5 TL062 dual low-power op amp IC6 TL064 quad low-power op amp Miscellaneous Sl DPDT switch 52 SPDT switch solder.33 . 38. circuit board.622pF C7. R35/pin 1). Center R14. 30 100 R36 10K trimpot R37470 Capacitors Cl. 8 1J1F nonpolar electrolytic C9.2 1j. The sinewave feed is inverted between the channels. 10"10 C3. 39 36K A24 10K dual audio-taper pot R25. 10. 31. 52 allows polarity Inversion of Output 2.38 150K R3. C13 Use Pots and switches S1 S2 Rt R9 R14 R24 R36 have these functions: effect/bypass output 2 polarity invert tremolo rate tremolo depth static gain of both VCAs output level preamp gain SetR36 at minimum. 42 .5K R7 1K multi turn trimpot R91OKpot R10. 11.

connect Ou tpu 1 2 to Qmp mpu r."1" . HUt ·Ht . lowly advance A9 and conhrrn Ihal Signal cross- PTM IS a 9V box desiqned 10 ru n on 7.. Toggle 52 [0 note Ihe etrect 01 invert in 9 pha se of 0 ne chan ne I. Pan TremoloMalic circuit board. [rim R36 for esired preamp gain. . ~----c>~ •• (t)~ (Of . A36 1ully CC W.Tes I 1he [h ree 1ype 5 01 trernotoettecrs descnbed under Tremolo-Mane. . Depending on initia! setunq ofleedthrough rimpols. note [he w<ly Notes stereo drarnauzes static gain 01 both VCAs is abou 1 0. ee f"" v --1"'''. R14straight. turn R24 fully Cw.li.5 Vall he oosiuve supptv {all er drop ac ross 03). amp volume control until feedthrough artitectsare heard.. Tnm H20 for minimum ieedlhroLlgh..' o~•• tp. 43 . 12-1.. Turn (Imp volume all the ay down.. this could reach several vollsp-p.. Se 1 R36 10 give an average prea rnp au [PU 1 01 -I Vp_p. slowly ad vanced amp volume until J·eedlhrough artitacts arc eard. Rl IuHy C W.. R9. '"-I. The srnewave oscillator may lake i'l few seconds 10 S I a r I up. A24. In I hi S S [(I te lades between channels.~. trim A32 for minimum lesdihrouch. I t can ru n a 1 higher vonaqes.. Inilial sanings: Slelfect 10. Pan Tremolo-Matic schematic. 4" x 3" reference box Fig. "'H . up.. S2 normal.j:Ollh U~(i.b .5. Connec t urn ( [0 xe and stereoamp. Tru s leaves reasonable headroom.oJ!:!' Fig.u. 12-2. them.but R23 & R31 Will have 10 be changed [0 keep DC output bias of borh VCAs near lit V .

12-3. Fig. Pan Tremolo-Matic prototype board. Pan Tremolo-Matic layout & wiring diagram.10K·A DUAL OUTPUT LEVEL Fig. 12-4. 44 .

Pan Tremolo-Malic simultaneous output phOIOS. 45 . Scale 1V. Pulse artifact is due to external sync generator. Unit generales the same spectrum of \~ldullati(>nmodesas Tremolo-Malic. sweep 20 ms.12-5.

7. it attenuates frequencies below 100 Hz. either inTONE-O-MATIC PARTS LIST Resistors Al lK R2 2.033pF C1802pF Semiconductors 01.11 O. as it will have no effect with RlO fully Cw. whose output is buffered by IC1-b. Mouser pIn 42TL016 or equivalent Sl OPOTswitch S2. POIR10 acts as master volume control. The rnidranqe tre- 46 .T1. Signal couples through A19-Cl to the output path.2K Capacitors C1.4. jacks. or she II below 220 Hz master volume bass Ireble midrange boost/CUI Initial settings: Sl effect in.1F C170. 54 centered. 3. bypass or neutralize the amp's tone circuits. Use Pots and switches have these functions: S1 S2 S3 S4 R10 R12 R1S R20 effect/bypass bass cutJbypass/ultra-low ultra-hi midrange 5elecl3000 Hz.21.20 10pF aluminum electrolytic C2 10pF nonpelar electrolvtic C3 lOpF C5 100pF C6. 13 Tone-O-Matic Tone-O-Malic duplicates the passive and active tone control functions of the original Ampeg® SVT. & S4. with 54 successively in the three positions.lpF C"l8.0047pF C14.6.18 10K R19 100 szo 50Kpot A2l 2. 16 O. IC1-b output couples through Cll 10 passive bassi treble control network comprised of Rll-15 & C12-16. 2 lN400l ICl MC33174quadopamp Miscellaneous T1 600:600 ohm transformer. In "bass cut" position. Return !O initial set ings. Test the effect of the "ultra-hi" switch with volume pot R10 centered.& 20 centered. Connec t uni t to a xe and amp. Sl acts as a straight wire feed when centered. The 47K value of R4 preserves some of the loading found in [he original circuit. The output is taken at the juncture of R14and the wiper of A15.Rl0. circuit board. S3 open. Circuit Function Instrument feed couples through C2 to input of noninverting preamp IC1-a whose gain is. and S2.4 DP3T switch S3 SPST switch wire. Test effect of bass & treble controls. {he bass sneltcuis in below 220 Hz. The control applies roughly 12 dB of boost when fully Cw. knobs.01pF C150.18. 15. at the cost of noticeable signa! loss. The "ultra-low" seuing engages a 20-dB notch centered near 600 Hz. Take A20 through Its full range. es tabl ish desired volume.20. To compensate for this loss.7K (see text) A3. biased by R16. C17-18. that mimics the function of the original SVT 'midrange' control. 19. etc. quencies are centered near 800 and 3000 Hz.9 0. IC1-c output couples directly to a network made up of IC1-d. battery connectors.001J. C7-9. IC1-a output couples through R4-C6 10 a switched passive tone-shepinq network made up of AG-9. 12 dB of cut when fully CCw. S2 centered. 151M audio-taper pot R1l 220K R1322K R14 120K Rl61M A17. 12. R17. 800 Hz. Signal couples through C14 10 buffer IC1-c. nominally. 12. S3 and C10 form the ultra-high boost circuit.Project No.7150K R447K R5 lOOK R882QK R968K A10.002pF C10S00pF C12470pF C13 0. If possible. selder.

apropos or its bass amp oriqins. 3·220 H. R2 was increased to 22K. The 2. 2. making ±15V or even ±18V an a ttractive option. 47 . The 'Jdershouldfeel tree to change it to suit the output agivenaxe.I R~ 47K v- V+ Fig. Tone-O-Matic schematic. Tone-O-Matic prototype board.000 H.i s nom ina I. C~ . When the prototype was tested with a Iow-output axe. This box likes more headroom than a couple of 9V batteries can supply.aseR2 to raise preamp gain. boost & cut are no! subtle. The treble control and the bri gh t sw itch are qu i te aggressive. he bass control has little effect on the T sound of guitar. or change R4. 13-1.7K va Iue of R2 .or do both. kicking in mainlv below 60Hz. The box needs extra preamp gain if' you like the ultra-low sound. boosting gain1023. The three midrange setnnqs sound distinctive. 13-2. ~ I '3e~0 fI. The "ultra-low" setting of 52 sucks out a lot of signal. to 100 Ohms. iHELr 3 Ag.

sa-a Tone-O-Matic circuit board.25" x 2.3. Fig.75" reference box Fig. Tone-O-Malic layout. OUTPUT 48 . 13-4. & wiring diagram.

At 20 Hz. making a ferrous enclosure helpful. Be aware that the box may be sensitive to placement and orientation. Instrument feed couples through C1 to input of IC1-a. The circuit board provides pads for each transformer's tootprint: drill only the pads that fit the transformers you select. None 01 the three transformers exhibited obvious distortion at 25Vp-p.SVp-p. 14-1.taper pot R3 10 150K R4. These transformers lack shielding.l1 lOpF C4. circuit board. 7 22JJFelectrolytic Semiconductors 01. they saturate at significantly higher voltage than do members of the 0l6-series. 2 transformer (see text) W' shorting jacks. 52 provides forground lift. only channel 1 is described. the 42TU016 just below 4.7100 R5.10 lDpF nonpolar electrolytic C2. IC1-a output couples through R4-C5 to primary winding of Tl.lso-Matic circuit board. only a transforme r provides fu II isolation that breaks otherwise intractable ground loops.2 lOpF electrolytic C3.4 SPST switch Tl.3 OPDT switch 82.Project No. $2-$3 a pop. in every sense. wire. easily recovered elsewhere in the gain chain. solder. 20K auole. Circuit Function The circuit consists of two identical segments. 9. 14-2). they weigh in quite a bit lighter. 49 . 1.64. loaded by R5. Transformer Selection [so-Matic uses the small audio transformers sold by Mouser Electronics (Fig. Choice depends on anticipated operating level and frequency range. XLR jacks.2 1N4001 IC1 NE5532 dual op amp Miscellaneous 81. Iso-Matic oHers two channels with gain enough for a sixties' Gretsch. over the range 1 KHz .20 KHz.8 lOOpF C5. Mouser 019-series transformers match 10K to 600 ohms. the 42TM016 at around 2Vp-p. 14 Iso-Matic 01 all direct boxes. but incur -12 dB of voltage loss. 6. 3" x 3" reference box a j Fig.7K Capacitors C1. Choice of -016 or -019 series is a matter of personal preference. T1 secondary couples to an XLR output through polarity-reversal switch 51. While these pieces ISO-MAT Ie PARTS LIST Resistors Rl. etc. lack the specs of studio standards.91K R2. At 20 Hz. a preamp whose gain varies from 1-21 depending on the sattinq of R2. the 42TL016 begins to saturate at about 800 mvp-p.

While both transformer windings offer nominally identical impedance, grecterconsislency results from using the higher·resistance winding lor the primary_ This is marked 'P' on the body otrhe transformer. The prototvpe board used a 42TU016 for channel 1, a 42T M0l6 for cha n nel 2. To retain ground-lift capability, use plastic XlR jacks with a metal case, or a plastic case/mounting panelwith metal XLRjacks

Use
Switches & pots have these functions: R2 RS 81 82 83 84 channal l gain channel 2 gain channell polarity cnannal l ground Hit cll an nel Z pol arity channell ground lift

Operation is straightforward and self-evident. The output need not use XLR jacks; %" TSiR jacks work fine. You can also wire an unbalanced outpu [ in parallel with the balanced outpu t.
Fig. 14-2. Top photo-Diagonally L-R, 42TL016, 42TM016, and 42TU016,.The -019 series is outwardly similar. Bottom photo-Iso-Matic proto type board.

Fig ..14-3. 110 photos of 42T LOIS transtormer. Scale A. &. B: mv/div. A-20-Hz sinewave input (top tracejshows dlstortlon (bouom Ira ce output). B-50-Hzsinewa,ve. level shows much less dlstortlon. Slight amplitude I.OS5 mainly toloadlnq effect with lOO-ohm serles resistor, easily made up by ga in of op amp. C-Scale changed to 1 div.; transformer passes 27Vr>---P '-KHz sinewave undlsrortsd. The 42TM016 and 42TU016 tolerate. tudes allow frequencies due to the higher saturation of their larger cores.

50

,.-----1

C.

109p

y-

IN4601

Fig. 14-4. Iso-Matie schematic.

Fig. 14-5. 150Matic layout & wiring diagram.

~l L __!!__ l
600

)

51

Project No. 15 Split-O-Matic
Parallel processing demands parallel feeds, Split-OMalic generates four identical teeds off a variablegain preamp. rent drain and higher minimum supply voltage. SPllT-0-MA<TIC PARTS LIST Resisto,rs

Circuit Description
Instrument feed couples through C2 to preamp ICl-a, whose gain varies 1-11by pot R2. IC1-aoutput couples to R4-C6 to one output. IC1-a output also couples directly to three DC voltage followers, IC1-b/-c/-d. The nature of the op-amp non inverting input stage means virtUally no loading on the output of IC1-a.The outputs of the remaining buffers couple through RC networks to their respective output ports. RS/7/9/11 act as bleeder resistors.

R1 lK
R2 10K audio-taper pot R3150K R4, 6, 8, 10 100

R5$ '49, 11 lOOK
Capacitots C1,S,6, 7, 8i 9!lO lO,uFalumim.Jm.electFQly~ic C2 lOpF nonpolsreteettslvtle

C310pF
C4 ~OapF Semiconduotors [)1,2 1N4001 101 MC3B174 ~uaa ofll'amp(s~,e~eXit) MiscellaneoUS W' jacks, wire, ~nob,cirt~uit board, ehctoSbJre, et .

Use
The only control is R2, the preamp gain control. Function of the box is self-evident. The quad op amp specified draws <2 rna, and will run off±l.S to ±22Y, but suffers relatively high input noise. Get quieter results with a TL074 or an LM837, at the cost of greater cur-

Fig. 15-1. Split-O-Matic schematic.

~

~J-C_1__ 10_0~~~

~.~s

r-l

OJ

IN4001

h+---'~KJ--

v+

(6

1_0_v_F-+

JV'vv__ -4r __ ~_'

18yF

OUTPUT

1

rr:;
INPUT

OUTPUT

Z

',~

52

OUTPUT 4 OUTPUT 3 OUTPUT 2 OUTPUT 1

2" x 2.25" referenoe box

Fig. 15-2. Split-O-Matic circuit board.

33174 Fig. 15-3. Split-O-Matic layout & wiring diagram.

<,
GND INPUT

Fig. 15-4. Split-O-Matic prototype board.

53

Project No. 16
Mix-O-Matic
Mix-O-Malic is a tour-chanoel, general-purpose, lineleve! mixer, perfect tor recombining parallel-processed I eeds. The uni t provides a ninverting option for each channel, and a master I.evelcontrol. Rl2 R15 R22 channel21evel channel 3 level channeia level Use is seH-evident. MIX-O·MATIC PARTS LIST R.esistors Rl, 13, 14,23 150KI Rl, 12, 15,22 lOK ~udio-taper pot

Circuit Description
The lour buffer channels are identical; onlv channell is described. Instrument feed couples through Cl to unity-gain AC voltage follower .ICl-a, whose output couples to level-con trol pot R2, whose wi per lies to a pol aritv-i nversion block consisting of 51, ICl-c, and associated componenls.IC1-c output couples through RS to summing amp IC3, whose gain varies from 0-2 by act ion of R6. Audio coupl es throughR7 -C 11 to the 0 u tpu t path.

R3,4,. 5, 9 10, l1,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 22K H6 lOOK audio- taper pot
1

R7100

R8 lOOK
Capacitors C 1, 7, 8, 13 10IJF nonpola r electrolytic Cl,3,4, 5, 6,9, 10,1.2,14 lOpF ell, 15.,16 10pF aluminum electrolytic Samlconductors rnz IN4001 lel, 2 TL074 quad op amp IC3 TL07l op amp Miscellaneous S1'-4 SPDT switch lj,{ short ing jacks, 114" non-shortt ng jack wire, pots, knobs, circuit board, enclosure, etc.

Use
Switches & pots have these functions: Sl S2 S3 S4 A2 R6 channell polarity invert channel2 polarity inver I channel3 polarity invert channel4 polari tv invert channell level master output level
circuit board.

Fig. 16-1. MikO-Malic

3.5" x 3" reference box

Fig. 16-2. Mix-O-Mati.c prototvpe

board.

54

" I ·~I' I~'" +/ Ic .. 16-4.Jt " ~ q:"~T~I~ ~....r ur " Ii:] OJ lu~-~ > -n 1·1l. Mix-O- Matic schematic._-.... 0.Jv"V"o.. ?I f e s-c .. ---~ cc c I~ I Lt .6':1[1 -:!'j.. '" I . 55 .rUI I la._-""N i:!':.q.. '(II 10.. .... Mix-O-Matic layout & wiring diagram.. I 7 I-~ • -l I fl.'...~~_ I.-"~"' I . " . lot..J "'. -""".!_ ~ INPUT 1 INPUT 2 INPUT 3 INPUT 4 Fig._.'" n.'tHJ ... 16-3. --' "H :. oJ?.. -------IJ' Fig.~ .

' The box is a distortion device that harnesses the power of a fourquadrant multiplier (40M) 10 create harmonic and intermodulation distortion. trim R3 for minimum volume. Trim R3 to give a clean.7K R6 10K R76. R15 straight up. Connect output to oscilloscope. In this condition the box acts as a preamp with gain near unity. it contains very high levels of distor ion products. ba la nee the multiplier. DISTORT-O-MATIC V PARTS LIST Circuit Description Instrument feed couples through Cl ro preamp IC1-a.aK R9 15K R10.0011lF C5 2. R12 fully CCw. ua d op amp q Ie. 10. which sometimes happens wah cleanly picked notes above the 7th fret. circuit board. IC2 LM 13600 dual transconductance amp Miscellaneous DPDTswttch wire. R3 centered. Initial settings: S1 effect in. output level straight up. 14 22K R12 10K pot R15 250K audio-taper R16100 Rl7 15QK First. Set preamp gain at minimum.lC1-c output couples to one side of a panning network made up of R 10-14. Center R3.84. IC1-a output couples to the other side of this network. R3 trims multiplier balance. Signal couples through R16-C7 to the output path. IC l-a au tput cou pies through C1 0 to IC2-a. knobs. Set preamp gain at maximum. balance the multiplier by ear.2JlF aluminum C8. 12 10J. 56 . R12 fully CW to give a 100%-distorted output. Now rotate R12 fully Cw. R12 fully CCw. an inverting amp that controls the output level by R15. Ou tpu t of the pa n n ing network couples to IC1-d. enclosure. pot Capacitors C1. connect unit to axe and amp. The tone at that point might sound an octave above its expected pitch.610QpF C40. The outpu I is doubled in frequency when the input is a pure sinewave. If no Signal generator and oscilloscope are availFig. R12 varies the signal from clean (fully CCW) to di stoned (fu Ily C W). rather. whose gai n va ri es 1-11 by pot R2. able.11. 17-5D). R3 in center position. Because the axe output is usually not a pure sinewave. 1-11 multiplier balance trim clean/d is I or ted co n 1 inuous pa n output tevel R3 ZOO-ohm trimpot R4. pots. While a helper dea nly picks the lowE-string at the 15th fret.21N4001 MC33171:J. etc. Feed the Input a l-KHz sinewave @ 3Vp-p. 1OJlF nonpolar electrolytic C2. 11.5. Distort-O-Matic V prototype board. Use Pots & switches Resistors Al have these functions: R2 1K 10K audio-taper pot S1 R2 R3 R 12 R15 effect/bypass preamp gain. electrolytic Semiconductors 01.13. the 40M output is not frequency-doubled.7. This procedure takes two people. R2 'fully CCW. even sinewave at twice the input frequency (see Fig.Project No. 17 Distort O-Matic V OMS almost got billed 'Swirl-O-Matic. Hinq-moduieror-Iike sounds occur when the player picks two notes together. which brings level up to match that of the clean feed and blocks a large DC offsel. half an LM 13600 configured as a 40M that multiplies the input signal against itself.lFaluminum C3.910pF electrolytic . 17-1. IC2-a output couples to a gain-restoration block made up of IC1-bJ-c & associated components. Set the output level at desired volume. R2 varies distortion trorn none to complete. First.

57 . past lhe multiplier's balance pain I. If R3 is taken the other way.DI I~Wlel . Distort-O-Matic V layout & wiring diagram. but distorts at a lower threshold. This gives a different range of sounds compared 10 mixing wet with dry. 17-2. With R3 at one exme the si nal coming off the 4QM is almost clean.-. 17-3. the signa Iretains a high distortion quotient. taking on a bit of lube-like distortion as R3 is rotated away from the limit. Notes MakingR3 a lKpanel pot lets the player vary multiplier balance.1(5 J Bl'lp Fig.__ -. 13600 Fig. Distort-O-Matic V schematic.

O-Panning control fully CW. DM51/0. B & C-level of second harmonic rises as distortion control is advanced clockwise. distortion control fully CCw. 1 KHzslnewave input (top trace). 17-4. 100% dlstortlon. Complex sinewave sums do not emerge frequency-doubled. 3. preamp gain @ minimum. Distort-O-Matic V circuit board.5" x 2. but extremely rich in distortion products. giving purely clean leed. Scale1V1div.. OM5 output (bottom trace). 58 . A-Output level trimmed 10 match input.25" reference box Fig. Scope display should look this way when R3 is properly trimmed. 17-5.Fig.

thence to variable attack network 04-R9-C4. IC2.2K A5. [hence to variable inverting gain block IC1-d. 14 O. solder. 27).34 100 R1836K R2022K R21 6SK R24 10K pot R2S 10K audio-taper R26. 12. 2 watt. 11.31. 2. Power Supply: EM incorporates the Append-ABoard Power Supply (Project No. applies it to inverting buffer IC4-d. If this is not possible.30. wire.ljiF C9 10JlF nonpolarelectrolylic C13. and their associated components. knobs. 11. 12. 5 TL074 quad op amp IC3 LM13600 dual transconductance amp IC6 LM7805 5V positive regulator (TO-220) Q1 2N3904 NPN transistor Miscellaneous 5VOC to ±15VOC converter. buffered by IC4-b.Project No. 19. 10. IC1-a output couples directly to a voltage-controlled parametric equalizer comprised of IC5-a. A me ta I ca se wi II req u ire ani n 5 U Ia ted power jack. 17 1OJlF aluminum electrolytic C7.2.33. 5 lN914 041N34A D61N4004 IC1. Construction Notes ENVELO-MATIC PARTS LIST Resistors Al.28 1K A27 150K R36.29 15K R15 20K pot Rl7.3 sec) anack«5ms>500ms) static center trequencv 59 . IC5'8 output couples to highpass filter ICS-c.23. 3. 4. Circuit Function Signal Path: Instrument feed couples through C9 to non inverting preamp IC1-a. thence through 01 to variable decay network 01-C3. Control Path: IC I-a outpu 1cou pie 5 to n ega tive fu II· wave rectifier IC1-b & -c. insulate the heats ink lrorn the tab using a mica washer and silicone heatsink compound. Mouser pin 580-NMH05155 or equivalent 51 DPOT switch 52 SPOT switch heatsink for IC6 circuit board. S2 selects straight or inverted voltage feed from this network. etc.0033JlF. 10 lOOpF C3 O.22.0022JlF C4 2. Envelo-Mauc (EM) fleshes out the concept in a unique and versatile way. Use Switches Sl S2 RS RB R9 R15 & pots have these functions: etfectibypass frequency direction up/down sensitiVIty decay (20 rns . 2. so isolate the heatsink from the metal case.3. 38. buffered by IC4-a. thence through 05 to inverting buffer IC4-c. The wall wart must supply no less than 8 volts nor more than 12 volts. wall wart step-down transformer (see text). 18 Envelo-Matic Envelope followers use instrument dynamics to tune a voltage controlled filter. 39 4. pot pOI 10K az Keep the 5VDC ground separate from circuit ground.7K R40 SOK dual pot Capacitors C1.32. 1/4' jacks. 2. DC or AC.16 lOOK audio-taper pot A610M R8250Kpot R9 250K audio-taper R1320K R14.2JlF aluminum electrolytic C5. which attenuates subsonic control feedthrough artifacts. B O. whose DC offset IS variable by pOI R1S. thence to ICS-b and the output path R17-C6. 5% Mylar® or similar C18 330jiF 25V aluminum electrolytic C19 470JlF 10V aluminum electrolytic Semiconductors 01.16. at a current capacity of at least 500 mao Observe proper polarity when wiring a DC wart. R16 controls output level. 7.IC4-d output couples through R29 to the control parr of the voltaqe-conrrolled filter. The metal tab of the"TO-220 regulator case ties to the 5VOC ground. 15 10pF C6.35 A42. whose details are discussed under that project's heading. IC3.

First.5" reference box Fig. to reduce the gain of IC1-d. ease RS open while plucking a string. will clip the cevice. harnessing its potential calls for an understandinq of the controls. lake attack and decay through their ranges and note the effects of delaying each. II you find EM 100 responsive. RS. take R15 Ihrough its range to vary frequency. RS.and post-distortion. change R4 to 10K or 22K. You shoufd note strong cut that shifts over the approximate range 100 Hz 10 6 KHz. <Y4 octave to> 1octave EM is a level-driven parametric equalizer covering -100-6000 Hz. 5. At this point you may nora distortion. Envelo-Matic Circuit Board. R16. explore the range of the parametric EO working under manual control.R15. OC--Offsets in the filter limit internal headroom to about 22Vp-p. Once you have a handle on how the box works.>(3) boost/cut (± 15-20 dB. 'Wah'-type frequency emphasis occupies a small part of EM's range.25" x 3. take R24 into boost territory. Labeling the controls is a good idea. due to very Iast attack and decay. Exercise care. All eight pots are so responsive thaI it's possible to build a functional box that seems nonfunctional due to improper control settings Give yourself the bener part of a weekend to learn this box. The user will find it rewarding to explore EM's effects pre. Vary bandwidth to see how this affects adjacent frequencies Next. which way it moves depends on the position of S2. Turn boost fully CCw. to accentuate or mute distortion products under dynamic control. Connect unit to axe and amp. R40 centered. and this distortion should subside. 60 . Advance decay to abOUI 9 o'clock. ba rely open the a ttack can trol. With R24 applying full boost in a conspicuous way. establish desired volume. Inirial settings: S1 effect in. R25. Overload is possible: 3Vp-p au! of the preamp. R24. As a tool of subtlety and extremes. amount depends on bandwidth setting. which lowers the sensitiv ity of lhe level detector. The filter's center frequency will move in response to the input signaL How far it moves depends on preamp gain and setting of R5. boosted by 20 dB in the filter. because EM can boost up to 20 dB. R9 fully CCW. 18-1. greater boost/cut is available at wider bandwidth) preamp gain. 1-11 bandwidth.R16 R24 R25 R40 (100 Hz-6000 Hz) output level (0 . S2 either position.

::l~.~ z _z << "... " z+ ..... '" " ...~ _.... .... ~ :A "-0... .. \1 .> " '" . "' . u I 18-2.. .. " ".. .. ~'" uu » "'" t Fig. . "' . '" '" ~ ..: ->< Z'" "' . u _... . ~ . . Envelo-Matic schematic. "'" .. . 61 .. " .

18-4. Envelo-Matic prototype board. 18-3. 62 . Fig.Fig. Envelo-Matic layout & wiring diagram.

The device exhibits a fairly wide sweet spot. CCW Connect unit at minimum. wire. Encoding. IC3 output drives an ultrasonic transducer.l1 lDOpF e1210pF C13. Pots have these functions: A2 A6 A16 A23 A25 modulatordrive level carrier trim ultrasonic receiver gain highpass cornerfrequency outputlevel R6. etc.24 10K R210oKpot R3.20 22K RlD. Initial settings: A2. Test the sound of altering ultrasonic receiver gain DISTORT-O-MATIC VI PARTS LIST Resistors R1. 13 lJlF aluminum electrolytic electrolytic [C2-b. 8. 18. 9.7. 15 470pF C3 220/-IF aluminum C4. Power up OMS. 19 Distort-O-Matic Besides l5l-proofdislortion. overdriving the frequency modulator yields rich distortion whose personality varies with carrier frequency and drive level.0015JlF. 14 0. sending. VI new Circuit Function Transmitter: Audio feed couples through C1 to inverting buffer IC1-b. IC1-b to the modulation port (pin 5) 01lC3. Secure them with C5o. IC2-a output couples directly toa precision fullwave rectifier made up 01-IC1-a.taper pot R17. 19 39K R16 10K audio. slowly turn up the amp's volume.001 JlF. R231ully to axe and amp. bu I too cool to omit.and their associated components. the ultrasonic signal picks up spuriae in transit that decode in ways rangingfmm mildly interesting to practically cool. This filler lets the player attenuate low-frequency ani-facts as described below. W' jacks. The audio signal couples through R26-C16 to the output path. phono jacks. a non inverting preamp whose gain va ries Under control of pot R16. 27 100 R23 100Kdual pot R25 50K audio-taper pot Capacitors C1.lF. giving a punchthrough effect. 5% or better C8. knobs. R25 straight up. Place tures facing. whose gain varies 0-10 by R2.011lF C6 0. 9V battery. Next.1 J. aperinches apart. the less distortion and sustain. and which can be trimmed by RS. 26. 21.5. R25 varies the output level.2 MC33174 quad low-voltage op amp IC3 CMOS 555 timer Miscellaneous ultrasonic transducers {see text} shielded cable enclosure. 20% or better ClO. 12.14. the higher the drive level. OM6 introduces sounds [0 the peda I scene _Not exac t Iy a s to mp box. IC2-c OUTput~the recovered audio-couples directly to a variable highpass filter made up of IC2-d and associated components. dual pot R23 varies low frequency cutoff over the range -15-330 Hz.7K R42. Use OM6 is an ultrasonic FM Ira nsceiver. a CMOS 555 timer configured as a frequency modulator whose carrier approximates 40 KHz. Rrst. outputcouples through R3-C4 tape if necassarv. set amp volume the transducers on a table. trim R6 until audio is heard At this point the audio should sound distorted. 22 4.Project No. 11.2 1N914 03 lN400l IC1. the greater the distortion and sustain. a few 63 . mounting hardware. explore the effect of altering carrier frequency (R6). In addition. IC2-b output couples dlrectlv to a lowpass filter made up 01 IC2-c and associated components. as well as marginal areas at the extremes of pot rotation where the distortion threshold rises. C5 helps keep the carrier from feeding back through the FM port. Receiver: The ul trasonic sensor couples directly to input of IC1-d.2K R610KpOl R7. IC2doutput couples directly to inverting amp IC2-a. R1S. 16 lo/-lF aluminum electrolytic C2.9 0. The lower the drive level. and decoding an axe feed creates two effects. 15. 13. 20% or better Semicond uctors 01. Take modulation drive control R21hrough its range.

..1'6 1G . 03 IN... 19-1. Fig.A~ I[l-b: :3-3l74 RJ . 19-2. DistortO~Matic VI layout & wiring diagram.001 1:" ~I ~.~ 70 ~~~ F \ _-f-I-"12.Fig.F AuCIO !lui 'II~ 64 . Distort-O-Matic VI schematic.

Non-resonant transducers. Now move the transducers about a toot epart. Bottom: Distort-O-Malic VI prolotype board. Fig.or Jameco pin 136653 or pIn 139491 (each Jameco pin designates a transminer/receiver pair). The transducers may register other sources of u I trasonicenergy. This system works wi Ih 40. such as Mouser pin 255-400SR 16 (receiver) and p/n255-400ST16 (transmitter). Movement of the cone registers in the ultrasonic mix. will not work. Turn R23 tufly CWand note the change in tone. Distort-O-Malic 3. Transducers' leads can solder directly 10 the board if desired. Take R16 through its range and note the effect ofputling distance between the transducers. such e. Move the transducers to the point they're atmost touchlnq. Place Ihe pair 3-12" from. Nowyou have a tiny sonar system capable of detecting movement of objects in the bea m. Ihelimitfora CMOS 555. Fig. the receiver lead can measure up to 3'. this gives minimum receivergaln. or those that resonate at a frequency other than 40 KHz. With transducers aboutB" apart and a strong signa I established.25" x 2.g video sea n oscilla to rs. Fig. Notes The circuit runs otf as little as 5V or as much as 15V. a speaker cone. 19-4. It may be necessary 10 turn up the amp's bass control to perceive the subsonicelement of this signal.K Hz reso na n t tr ansducers. Similar transducers sometimes surface in surplus channels. 19-3.by lurning R16 ~ully CCW. Top: Typical40-KHz ultrasonic transducers. move your hand over the pair about 2" above them: note the whoosh due to spuriae from ultrasonic echoes off the moving hand. vary receiver gain and note the effect on sound.75" reference box VI circuit board. and should consist of shielded microphonecable or RG 174/U coaxial cable. 19-5_ Wiring ultrasonic transducer (transmitter ceiver)to coaxial cable & plug. The transducers don't have to face each other. Put them about 3" apart but facing the same direction. ------- or re- 65 . Lead soldered to case should tie to circuit ground. say. The transmitter leed should measure 6" or less. most transducers described as "40-KHz resonant" should work in OM6.

The negative output of IC2-b couples through R4 to inverting amp IC2-c.29 100 R27470 R2B 150K Capacltors 13 10QpF C3220pF C40. Control Path: lel output couples directly to a precision fullwave rectifier made up of IC2-a. 24 10K R44. mounting hardware. 20' Modu-Matic Modu-Matic places the dynamics of one audio feed under control of a second audio feed. Modu-Malic prototype board. 12. so any signal present in the secondary audio path does not reach the output. whose output couples through R24-25 to mixer ICB-a.The positive output of IC2-cfeeds a variable-decay network made up of 01.12. ci z. C4. and associated components.Project No.22. 7.9K(±500 ohms) R14 lOOKmulti turn trtrnpot R15220K R16 20K single Turn trimpot Rl7. 25. l. By this means thedynamicsofthe primary I MODU-MATIC PARTS LIST Resistors R1.31N9l4 041N34A D5 lN4001 IC1 OP-27 op amp IC2 TL064quadlow-poweropamp ( IC3 MC33171 low-power op amp IC4 NE570 or NE571 dual compande r IC5 78105 positive 5V regula tor ICG Tl072 dual op amp 01 2N3904 NPN transistor Miscellaneous 51 SPOT switCh enclosure. and also \0 one throw of S1. The net signal path is noninverting.2.a 66 . whose gain varies by RS. 16 10pF aluminum electrolytic ce. 26 10K audio-taper pot R1a 3GK R19. buffered by IC2-d. The setting of RS controls Fig. • Circuit Description Signal Path: Primary instrument feed couples through C14 to preamp IC1. in turn feeding IC3.9. 3. wire. gain applied to the control voltage and thus varlet sensitivity.23 39K R1349'. A primary input signal generates a positive voltage conducted through IC3 to IC4. 15 1DpF C7 1pF nonpolar electrolytic C1010pF nonpolar electrolvric C170. -b. 51's pole teeds the signal through el0-R18 to the input of IC4. 20-1. In this state the gain of IC4 is essentially 0.tape r pot R810M R8250Kpot R9 50aK audio-taper pot R10 lOOK Rll. The resvlt of the control path is for the output of IC3 to approach ground in the absence of a primary input signal. or lets an instrument 'modulate' itself.0033pF C5.03. causing gain to rise to a maximum ot 1 when IC3's output swings to lIS positive limit. half an NE570 configured as a voltage controlled amplifier whose output is taken off pin 10 and couples through R17-C7-R19 to IC6-a.IC2-d output feeds a variable-attack network made up of D4-R9-R29-C5.2.7K RS 1ODK audio. 14.20 22K R21.1pF Semiconductors Dl. 11.The external input couples to S1's other throw. and R6-8. IC3 output-the VCA control voltage-couples through R13 to IC4's control port.4" jacks. whose output is held at the negative limit by bias network RlO-11. etc. knobs. Signal couples through R21-C9 to the output path.

Sl either position. measure voltage at IC4 pin 13.4 sec. trim R16 to give Y2V+ at IC4 pin 67 . inpUt modulate those of the secondary input.) attack (1 ms .4 sec. First. 20-3. Apply power. 20-2. 1- ocr sut ~ Fig.. Modu-Matic schematic. L I . PH lMAR'I IHPUI . R17 R25 R26 secondarv output level primary ou tput level primary input gain secondary input select witches& pots have these functions: AS AS sensitivity decay (50 ms .r aee (ne R" . o 'e' iHHiO" YJEIoi J I C9 10. Fig. .) Sl A9 Initial settings: all pots fully CCw..1''9'':: RI2 :191( . Modu-Matic layout & wiring diagram. trim the DC offset of IC4.

In this stale. the secondary feed continues to be heard tor -4 seconds after cessation of the primary signal. Advancing attack creates a delay between picking the string and the emergence of sou nd from the amp-an automatic guitar swell. ~ Treatthe main instrument as the secondary instrument. Apply a 20-Hz sinewave to the primary input.20-4. Modu-Matic circuit board. etc. because the unit usually operates with attack or decay past minimum. R15. Users wishing to trim feedthrough can follow this procedure: Set attack and decay at minimum. Take R9 through its range and note the effect of delayed attack. such that the drum kit modulates [he guitar. Use of a regulated 15V supply allows omission of 05. adjust R5togive maximum amplitude short of clipping.~By switChing Sl to 'internal. the prototype used both options. attack and decay operate on the primary input. Turn amp volume down.75" reference box Fig.. Here's a partial list of what Modu-Matic can do: ~ Restore dynamic range to fuzz etfects. Move scope probe to pin 10 of IC4.25" x 2. as well as a 10K fixed resistor in place of R26. A significant change in supply voltage will require retrimming R16. The secondary effect takes up to several seconds to emerge atter playing commences. adjust preamp gain to give 5Vp-p at ICl output. etc. Take RS through its range to hear the effect 01 delayed decay. the secondary input is designed only for line-level feeds. . preferably averaging at least 2Vp-p. which stops abruptly when the player mutes the strings. ~ Create special effects. The higher the level of the raw secondary feed. [rim R14 for minimum leedthrough. FM intersiauon hiss. Maximum delay is -4 seconds. such as a signal generator. Significant departure form this voltage is not recommended. switch Sl to 'internal' (a pop accompanies switching). the better ModuMatic's SIN ratio. Untrimmed feedthrough (i. & IC5 not installed) measured -30mvp-p in the prototype. a delay precedes commencement of playing and the onset of reverb.e. or as long to decay once playing ceases. Fast decay heightens the effect. By feeding the line-level output of the luzz box into Modu-Matic's secondary input. or an FM tuner or CD player.] Connect unit to axe and amp. Notes Modu-Matic is optimized for a 15V supply. or use the vocal to modulate the horn feed. R14. 4. This gives about 3Vp-p of ripple in the control voltage.5K fixed resistor. slowly open RSwhile plucking a string and note that the secondary feed is heard only while a primary input exists. Connect the secondary feed to some odd sound source: a digital sample. 68 . [Feedlhrough trim is optional. and high ones at that. fuzz can be made to track instrument dynamics as tightly or as loosely as desired. turn R17 fully CW to open the secondary audio path. The nature of clipping strips the signal 01 dynamic range. the instrument modulates itself. to the secondary input. Turn R2S fully CCW to kill the primary feed. and replacement of Rl 6 wi lh a 7. Place scope probe on output of IC2-c. connect a line-level feed. Performance was notattected. At maximum decay. Cl7.10. ~ By using a digital delay or spring reverb as the external input. and with Modu-Matic set for long attack with fastdecay. primary and secondary output levels at zero.' and with the primary feed at zero. Return attack to minimum. While the primary input accommodates instrument-level to line-level feeds. return amp volume to desired level. Trrm R26 to give desired preamp gain. which puts teedthrough well into the Infrasonic.

lCl-b output couples through R26 to inverting amp iCl·c. setformaximumoutput.. IC1-c output also couples through R29 to unity-gain inverting bulfer IC1-d. 24. C2 5% or better (><4.21N4001 IC1. verify function of each. 21 Quad Parametro-Matic QPM is a four-band parametric equa lizer. IC1-a output couples to IC1-b. 2 TL074 quad ap amp [semiconductors not individually schematic: 3><TL074) Identified on Initial settings: R27 a nd a II boos tic u t po ts cen ts red. In this Miscellaneous pots. All four filters possess independently variable center frequency I state the box acts as a preamp whose gain depends on setting of A1S. 12 4.30 10K A22. If RZ2-25 are changed such that the SVFsexists predominantly in the leedback loop. whose gain varies 0-5 under control of A 27. return each band's boost! cut contralto center before testing the next band. a unity-gain invening amp. Cl.8. 9. 12 10J. 18. of boost depends on the ratio of R20 to the input impedance. ICl-c output couples through AZ8-C8 to the unbalanced output.7K (><4) A3.8K A20. 2 = O.4 == 6. The prototype used these component values in each band's stale variable Band-a Band-b Band-c tilter: R3.lF R3.5 (><4.710pF C5.OOlJ. 69 .11 10K (><4) A13 l50K A141K R15 10K trimpot R16. circuit board. Using suitable program ma enal.OO2ZJ. If the SVF exists predominantly in the input path. 10 10~/F nonpolar electrolytic C4.24 R5·c R7·c R25 R5·d R7-d R27 equalize/bypass preampgain band-a boost/cut band-a frequency band-a bandwidth band-b boost/cui band-b frequency band-b bandwidth band-c boost/cut band-c frequency band-c ba ndwid th band-d boost/cut band-d frequency banc-o bandwidth output level Semiconductors 01.31 100 Capacitors Cl. wire. 21. 4 == 20K. 11.4.lFaluminum C6. all frequency pots fully CCW (lowest frequency). 4 == 20K. Cl. R5 == lOOK.see text for values) R6 470 (><4) A7 lOOK eudio-taper pot (x4) A10. whose gain varies 1-11 by pot R15. Cl. at leas! at this stage. jacks.lF PARTS LIST (R5) and bandwidth (R7). a II bandwidth pots tully CCW (minimum bandwidth). 26. R5 = WOK. battery snaps. 19 1. 17. Boost/cuI is enabled by placing a state-variable filter In the input path or feedback loop of IC1-b. R5 = lOOK.29. 2 = O. To avoid interaction. Circuit Function Signal feed couples through C3 to noninverting preamp lei-a. The settings of R2Z-25 determine whether each SVF acts in the Input path or the feedback loop. 2 = O.lpF R3. 25 10K pot R27 501<audio-taper pot R28. tri m A 15to des Ired Ieve I.Ol. 23.9100pF electrolytic Use POLS & switches have these functions: 51 R15 R22 R5·a R7·a R23 R5·b R7·b R.4 = 15K.see text tor values) C3. Band-d QUAD PARAMETRO-MATIC Resistors Rt 2. etc. The prototype ran @ ±15V. the signal path at that point is noninveninq.8K. frequency. knobs. lCl-b sees a reduced Input impedance for frequencies passed by the SVF. the amount. creating an inverted output that couples through R31-ClO to an optional XLR connector.uF R3.Project No. Boost/cut was ascertained with a constant 1Vp-p measured at the preamp output. and with R27 temporarily replaced with a 10K pot. 2 = O. and bandwidth. gain reducrlon results from reduced feedback Impedance lor frequencies passed by the SVFs. R5 == 50K. take each band Ihrough The full range of boost/cut. Cl. Connect unit 10 signal source and ta rget ou tpu \ devi ce.

LL... a third for frequency pots. The maximum boost/cut increased slightly as bandwidth was widened. 191). Make the pot leads short.. 21-1. or panel pot. The SVFs used in PM2 differ from the one used in Pararnetro-Maric by sneaking the signal in through the path normally used to control bandwidth. fixed resistor. Quad Parametro-Matic schematic. p. maximum preamp gain coupled with maximum gain of overlapping bands placed on the same frequency.L Ie. Color-coded wire eases the process: one color for all the bandwidth POlS. This totals more than 60 dB.. allowing bandwidth control bv a single rather than a dual pot (see Ref. Ie. Preampgain resistor R15can be a trlrnpot. separate the input and 6lnput leads. wiring PM2 presents no particular problem if you rake your time. for example. o r <991 h TO o\i. 13. Twisting wire pairs helps. Notes Despite 13 pots. Instability will result under certain conditions. plus maximum output gain.000 Hz passing from pads to POI terminals. wiring can be greatly simplified by chaining the ground connection on bandwidth pots R7a/b/c/d. All lour bands measured close to ±14 dB of gain with bandwidth at minimum. as does labeling each lead with a small piece of masking tape. The prototype's frequency ranges measured as follows: Band-a Band-b Band-c Band-d 30-240 Hz 160-700 Hz 600-3000 Hz 1500-12. one for all the gain pots. PIN' <{II Ii! leur 19011' v02 H~·81 a PfN r o .v. II Fig. and the connections to IC1-a output and IC1-b output on the end-terminals of boost/cut pots A22-R25. Aside from avoiding sug:t an unmusical setting. While the wiring diagram shows individual leads 70 .

21-2. Quad Parametro-Matic layout & wiring diagram. 71 .> I _z c Cl o > r~lI-I .'1 I ~ U Fig.

Quad Parametro-Matic 72 . 21-3..J 21-4.5" x 3.. Quad Parametro-Matic prototype board. 5. IU8~]~~~ circuit board...Fig.75" reference box 'r~~~(J\~~(J\~ j ~~ f\(~\\U:-~J\t !_ ~ ~~~ • r~ tL {j\-' '} 1 ~1 Fig. . o111~l.

The signal path is noninvening. IC6 output couples throughfl21-CBIOinver Iing amp IC4-b. 33 2.14. 15 100pF C4. Use Pots& switch have these functions: R1 R7 R9 R12 R15 primary rate primary sine trim primary depth secondary depth static VCA gain Ag. etc.2718K R7. 16 10pF C61. 5inewaves impressed on the DC offset vary this gain. VCA feedthrough trim VCA DC offset trim output level secondary sine trim secondary rate effect/bypass First. 22 10 K audio-tape r po I RlO. 17 lOjJF aluminum electrolytic C5.2. and whose output couples through R9-R10 to Inverting summer IC4-a. IC3-R17-R18 form a feedthroug~ trim network. 73 . a noninveningpreamp with nominal gain of 22. IC l-c/-d form an iden tica Ioscilialorwhose output couples 101C4-a through R12All. half an NE570configured as a VCA.7. MeaTREMOLO-MATIC II PARTS LIST Resistors Rl.Project No.01jJF Semiconductors 01.2647K RS. giving quasisquarewave control pulses. l2. solder. 11 33K R13. which couples through R1Bto the control port of IC6. 4. The resuit 01 thiscontrolpath is for the static DC offset 811C4e's output to set the resting gain of IC6 at a point betweenOandI. ControlPath: IC1-a/-band associated components forma slnewave asci lla tor wh ose rate va ries -1-10 Hz bV Rl. 13 1jJF 10%tantalum C3. Aud io couples throughC8-R23 to the output path.28 1K multitum trirnpot R9. R22 varies {he OUtput level. 24. 4 lN914 OS lN4001 IC1 MC33174 or TL064 quad low-power opamp IC2 OP-27Iow"noise op amp IC3 LM78LOS 5V positive regulator (TO-92) IC4 M C33172 dua I low-power op amp res TL071 op amp IC6 NE570 or NE571 dynamic controller Miscellaneous 51 DPDTswitch wire. 3.TM2 contains twin sine generators that producethesound of "duel ing Ire moles.2 2 Tremolo-Matic II Besideslow feedthrough and tremendous control range. 17 220K A14. circuit board. Tremolo-Matic II prototype board. IC2 ou tpu I couplesthrough R19-C4 to signal input of IC6.36 150K R1520Kpot RlG 49.9K R18 lOOK multiturn trirnpot Al9. enclosure.31 lOOK R 3.uFnonpol:arelecvo1ytic C90. 9V battery snaps. Bothsinewavepaths possess enough gain to clip if theirlevelsare advanced to maximum. 29.2.' R1B R20 R2l R2B R32 51 Circuit Description SignalPath:Audio couples through C 17 to IC2. 22-1. modulating the instrument volume.35 10K.2K RS. 12. R23 100 R34470 Capacitors e1. 10. 3D. A15 varies the DC offset at IC4-a's output. 8.8. trim the DC offset at the VCA output. 25 36K R20 20K multiturn trimpot R2l.32 2M reverse-audio pot R2. knobs. 11.

rEQ ns r r r VE SlJPPL't 010. 22-3...01. 1R J HPO r '7 outrul Fig. Tremolo-Matic II layout & wiring diagram. ~----~. 22-2.. Fig..Ar. 74 .~ ~~ [NPUl ~l D'----------------------------~ o: H1 p '. ~ lN9J4 . Tremolo-Matic II schematic.0£ OROP) r I MU L T [ ru RN.

advance R12 CW and repeat the : ~kout sequence for the seconda ry sine generator.~V+at IC6pin 7. When mixing rates. Average preamp output of 3Vp-p leaves adequate headroom. and note the settings. Trim R20 10 give . note effect on types of tremolo. The preamp is configured for R7. The prototype photo shows a single-turn trimpot is recommended. TM2 should run at a high internal level for best SIN ratio.re supply voltage at IC6 pin 13. because clipping of control feeds tends to mask their interaction.lrnR9fullyCCW. Next. take R1 . pin 8.. but a multiturn POI Of -4Vp-p• While scope is still connected. va ry static ~qA gain by R14. Patient. Dnce each sine gener alar checks au t indepe nde n t. The most practical way to recall desirable control settings is to provide nurnbered scales for the controls. Initially. Replace R35 with a 20K audio-taper pot to accommodate inputs ranging from instrument-Ievelto line-level. and static 9a in settinqs. tor fixed gain SUitable for fOr the secondary instrument-level feeds. Tl. Adding a second oscillator to a basic tremolo resui ts in more sonic variety than one might expect from the nature of the change. move static gain -15% and + 15% off center.lnJmumfeed th rough. adjust R15 to give 1/2V+. Trim R1B for m. 75 . If you elect to run TM2 off batteries. trim R28 as above sine generator. trim the primary sine generator. initially center the static gain control. Take R9 and R 1 through their ranges.Jest the effect of summing simultaneous control < . FiQ_22-4. Once you find an interesting combination. 5 atvarious ra te. In many cases this changes the sound Significantly. methodical experimentation rewards the player with sounds not heard on existing recordings. Move scope probe to IC1 pin 7. Tremolo-Matic 4. Adjust R7 to give a sinewave prototype ran off a regulated 15V supply and for that reason omits the polarity protection diode. pin 7.25" reference box II circuit board. depth.5" x 3. Move scope probe to IC6. Connect unit to axe and amp. Connect Qpeprobe to IC1. rough its range and confirm that rate varies over the approximate range 1-10 Hz. turn R9 fully CW ~is gives a control voltage that clips al both ex~mes. it's wise not to exceed 50"/0 of either depth setting. include the rectifier diode shown on the wiring diagram. 'Turn R9& R12 fuJlyCCW. move scope probe to pm 1 !!IC4-a. establtsh desired volume.

Project No.5. 22 150K R9. 29 62K R30.uF C16. 13. 17. 17 10K audio-taper pot R3. each simulated resistor combines with an op amp to give a variable phase-shift network.) Use Switches & pots have these functions: R1 A2 rate depth static point sine trim R6 RlO PHASE-O-MATIC PARTS LIST Resistors Al 5M reverse-audio POI R2.4. 22 lOpF aluminum electrotvtic C6 4. or outpu L of IC8c. solder.1pF [caps not individually identified on schematic: 6xO. 30 O. which varies level.5 lOOK R73.6. and kills the added noise and feedthrough of the approach through internal companding. 1 xTL072] Miscellaneous 51 OPOTswitch 52.3 SPOT switch circuit board.3K R8.52 selects expander output.Q047jJF C25. 12.0022pF.31 36K R3339K R3433K R35.7K R19 20K pot R21 470 R23.which ties through R7 to the ganged control inputs of six 13600-lype OTAs. wire. giving the addition/subtraction characteristic of phase effects. Their need will be determined later. 6x36K] 1 Capacitors ci 2 1pF 10% tantalum C3.2830K R25. (Note: Do not install R23 & R38. giving vibrato. 36 330K R3747K R38 50K trimpot R39 100 [resistors not individually identified on schernatic::. which adds or subtracts clean and phase-shifted versions of the signal. 21. A17 R19 R3S Sl S2 output level notch trim mistracking (optional) effect/bypass vibrato/phase Circuit Function Signal Path: Instrument feed couples through C9 to noninvening preamp IC7-a.5-10 Hz by Rl. etc. 14.32470K R24. Expander output couples through C3-R1S LO IC8-c.uF aluminum electrolytic C280. see text] Semiconductors 01. 1 76 .27 220. 16 10K R184.5K R14.21N9.Ol. each configured as a single-ended vcltaqe controlled resistor. 15. Sinewave output couples to R2.20 2. 12.2 3 Phase-O-Matic This six-stager's phase-shift method frees depth from dependence on rate. 20 29. thence through C18 10 a six-stage phase-shift network whose output feeds a highpass filter before being expanded by IC2-b. 13. 19 1pF aluminum electrolytic ell. Signal couples through A39-C4 to the output pa tho Control Path: IC6 and associated components form a sinewave oscillatorwhose rate varies -0. 18 1pF nonpolar electrolvtlc C4. 1xTL074. jacks.24:0<0K.')F C8470pF Cl0.26.2K RlO 1K rnuititurn trirnpot Rll l. S2's pole feeds output pot R1l.7pF aluminum electrolytic cz 15123 10[.12x1K. depending on setting of 53. 24 Q. whose wiper ties to voltage follower IC7·b.14 02. IC7-a output couples through C17 to compressor IC2-a. 26 47K R2l.3 3Vzener 051N4001 lel TL0710pamp le2 NE570/571 dual-channel compander [semiconductors not individually identified on schematic: 3xLM13600. 9. R6 varies DC offset at output ot IC1.

23-1. IIyCCW. mftialsettings: R1 fully CW. R6. Trim R10 for sine amplitude '~. & R6 through their ranges and note the variety of sounds obtainable by changing the static point and the control voltage amplitude. In this state the box acts as a preamp. R 17. S2 vibrato. Set Rl lully CW. R2. Connect unit to axe and amp.Fig.51 effect in. connect probe to IC6 pin 7. Take Al. S3 either. 77 . adjust R17 to obtain desired volume. R 19 cen tered. add/subtract ~lrim the sine oscillator. Phase-O-Matic schematic. Slowly rotate depth control R2 CW and note the sound of vibrato.

Phase-O-Matic layout & wiring diagram.5" reference box Fig. Fig. 23-3. 78 .75" x 3. Phase-O-Matic circuit board.6. 23-2.

The preamp's nominal gain of 5. distinguished from vibra to addi. tune R6 until a null is hea rd. is optimized for a lSV supply.Fig. switch S2 to 'phase: to 'add. at the COSt of significant feedthrough. R23 & R38 are not installed. 79 . To further reduce noise at rest. The conpath makes use of the limited negative output ·ngofthe TL071.tion subtraction of wet and dry signals. Now turn R2 CW and exe the sound of phase. neR19 for maximum null. Companding makes this irnpractical lor POM. The caps are easily changed 10 suit dilferent tastes (compare cap values used in Vi· breto-Matic) . POM attains deep modulation at any speed. see Hel. keeping in mind that the addisubtractionstage adds up to 6 dB of gain for some The O. Phase-O-Matic prototype board.Use of an op amp having a greater alive output swing than the TL071's results in throughtoo severe far t he com ps nde r to hand Ie. Significant depare fromthis voltage is not recommended. internal companding in this case.0022tJF caps used in each phase-shift network emphasize a higher band of frequencies than is usual in phase boxes. Most phase boxes feature variable feedback in the phase-shift chain. but quieting the box at rest requires added measures. 45). so R23 and R38 were not insta lled. or frequencies. Highpass filtering attenuates much of the feed through. POM includes an option to introduce mistracking between compressor and expander (patented technique. Turn depth all the way down. The prototype was quiet enough at rest that this feature was not needed. 23-4. While lightly iog the open D·string.'set R19at about 11o'clock.tter pickups may require reduction in the value of 20 to avoid ciipping. .7 suits pickups hoseaverage output does not exceed -400mvp-p.

and the expander's rectifier input is open.8. 24 Compond-O-Motic Lite Lite is an external device that allows internal companding of ma ny effects. Compressor output feeds a ~econd treble emphasis network.Project No. solder. enclosure.3V zener ICl MC33171 op amp IC2 LM358 dual op amp IC3 MC33172 dual op amp IC4 NE57Q/57l dual-channel compander Miscellaneous 51. feeding buffer IC3-b. 12 62K RS.2 OPOT switch ci rcu it boa rd. Feed the input a 1-KHz sinewave @ lVp-p. Rll R14 Sl 52 expander output level expander input level compand/bypass expander drive internal/external Initial settings: 51 compand.0047J1F C9 220pF alUminum electrolytic C12. Connect ICl output and expander output to oscilloscope.24220pF C6. 16 4. Compressor output also ties through RlO-C13 to the output path. whose output ties to One throw of S2-b. ICl output couples through C5 and treble emphasis network R4-C6 to compressor IC4-a's input. When 52 selects 'internal.21 0. etc. knobs. Circuit Function Compressor: Audio feed couples through C2 to IC1. The compression control voltage present at pin 1 lies 10 voltage follower IC2-a. R14 centered.' the expander's control voltage is a buffered version 01 the compression control Voltage. compressing treble more than bass.01 pF C14. Use Switches & pots have these functions: R2 preamp gain 1-11(trirnpot) Lite prototype board. jacks. 11.feeding the Internal level detector. If no scope is available.636K RZ 8 47K R9.7.dependIng on setting at trirnpot R2.a ~oninverting preamp whose gain varies 1-11.26 10pF C4. wi re. 13 30K R10 100 Rl1 10K audio-taper pot A14 lOOK pot A15. connect unit 10 signal COMPAND-O-MATle LITE PARTS LIST Resistors Rl lK R2 10K trim pot R3. to one throw of 52-a. 17.7K Capacitors ell 5. R9-C 12. xpander E audio output couples through C17-R11 to the output path. IC3-a output lies to pot R14. Adjust R14 so that compressor input and expander output levels match.25 10pF aluminum electrolytic C2 10l1F nonpolar electrolytic C3. whose output couples through C20 to expander signal input pin 14. 18 lOpF C16. 10. When 52 selects 'external. and rectifier input pin 15 gets the output of treble emphasis network R13~C21.' the rectifier output pin 16 ties to integrator cap C23. as well as through C22 to treble emphasis network R13-C21. a noninvening amp configured for gain of 2. 52 internal.22. Zener diodes 02-3 limit maximum compressor output. 15. 24-1. Fig.23 lpF Semiconductors 01 lN4001 D2. Expander: Signal input couples through C25 to IC3-8. Compand-O-Malic / 80 . Rl1 fully CW R2 fully CCW Feed the compressor output to the expander input.20. 19 O.3 3. 17 lS0K R4.13.

Compand-O-Matic Lite layout & wiring diagram. 24-2. 81 .00-41 '(. 24-3.1. P]N4'CFmUNO [C:Z'd PIN TO 0 PIN'7: fl: 11:" PIN LJ C 13 ®" 0 /2 (OU1Put Dr 1[l-b ~ Fig. ZCII re. Fig. Compand-O-Matic EXTERNAL Lite schematic.LI9.

82 . C-Scale to 100 mv/div. No clipping. but for action otzener diodes. expander output closely resembles compressor input. Compressor output would clip at headroom limit. Expander output shows minimal deformation. Envelope bounce is more noticeable at low levels.Fig. short duration 01 clipping makes it Inaudible. D-Compressor input superimposed on expander output at 20 Hz constant tone. but still not enough to require trimming (which uses the same method as the 570-VCA feedthrough trim). This represents the most extreme pure-tone test of system. A-Composite of response to tone burst. Compand-O-Matic Lite 110. distortion is very low. E-Raw compressor output reveals di stort ion neutra lized by expansion. B-Composite 01 a tone burst more typical of music. 24-4.

sourceand line-level amp, such as a home stereo unit. Power up; 1he n, whil e switch ing 51 be twe en bypa ss and compand, trim R14 until no di rference in level is heardbetween bypass and compand. Turn off amp and Lite. Connect compressor output to input of a noi sy s tamp box, su ch a s a vi n ta g e ph ase shifter. chorus, or other effect whose gain approximates one. Feed effect output to expander input. Power up amp and outboard gear. Repeat the levelmatching sequence, note the reduction in noise at

2.5" x 3.75" reference box

rest.
Notes Ute is optimized lor a 15V supply, but works satistactorilyoverthe range 12-18V Lite's companding system is a chopped version of Signetics' Databook circuit. Noise reduction paresto that su pp Iied by dbx Type II. com-

Companding works best wi th unity-gain effects. Etfecrswith gain other than one fare best with 52 in 'external' position, the expander running off its own level detector. Match levels either by measurement, or by trimming R14 while switching between compand & bYPass. lite can effect record/playback companding with the expander in 'external' mode. A l.OVp-p 1 KHz test toneat the outset 01 the recording facilitates later level match.

Fig. 24-5. Compand-O-Matic

lite circuit board.

83

Project No. 25
Tone-O-Matic II
Five-band graphic EO realized through simulated inductance. Circuit FUnction Signal input couples through C8 to noninverting preamp IC1-a, whose gain varies 1-22 depending on setting of R2. Preamp output couples [0 IC1-b, a noninverting amp whose gain depends on settings 01 gain control pots R7-Rl1. When pots are fully Cw, a series resonant network with one end tied to ground appears predominantly at lel-b's inverting input, raisinq gain for resonant frequencies. When POlS are fully CCw, series resonance forms a divider with R4, reducing gain for the resonant frequencies. The signal output at the end ot R4 is buffered by IC2-a; signal couples through C5-RS-R6 LO the output path. The signal path is noninverting.
TONE-O-MATIC II PARTS LIST

Resistors R1470 R2 10K trimpot R3,422K RS 10K audio-taper pOI R6100 R7,8J~' 10, 11 100Kpot Ra, b (xS see schematic for values) Capacitors ci lQpF C2 lOpF aluminum electrolytic

C3,4100pF
CS,8 lOJ.lFnonpolar electrolytic C6,7 220J.lFaluminum electrolytic Ca, b (IC 5; see schematic for va lues) Semiconductors D1,21N4001 ICl TL072 dual op amp le2, 3, 4 LM823 dual low-noise op amp MisceUaneous circuit board, wire, solder, 9V battery snaps, Jacks, pots, etc.

Use
Switches & pots have these functions: R2 RS R7 RS preamp gain trim output level 64 Hz boost/cut 250 Hz boost/en t

3.2S" x 3.5" reference box
Fig. 25-2. Tone-O-Matic II prototype board.

Fig. 25-1. Tone-O-Ma!ic

II circuit board.

84

It~ 12K-A,

~±---I'-'-I---='i,=-"""",I\A---1
"II

R7-R

1I

I

I Blel(

I
~

t00

.G

e",NClI

1)"'102
IHH03

'0' .22

~.

Co .1 .033 .01 . 00~' . ~02e

R.

, a .. 7
.020

sse see
GBO

lOOK 92
"2K

."
a~

FR~Il' HI') 5'

ase
I"

v-

C"l'

~20..,~

O~ .e01

®:~.p:~: .

l~~lNUl

.... EO T

8,"0,
II'!PE:OAN'CE

I3Mm~

.~,

"Be
sea

SIK
tl

2K <K

Fig. 25-3. Tone-Q-Malic II schematic.

Fig. 25-4. Tone-O-Matic II layout & wiring diagram.

R9

an
51

Rl0

1 KHz boost/cut 2 KHz boost/cut 4 KHz boost/cut equalize/bypass

Initial sellings: A7-11 centered; R2, RSfully CCw. Connect uni t to audio source and target device, such as amp or recorder. Adjust R2 & R5 to give desired monitoring level. Take each boost pot through range and noteeffect on tone.

Notes
Preamp output should not exceed 1Vp-rl avoid overloading the simuto lated inductors. Boost/cut in the prototype measured -±8 (::!:18dB) one band at a time; a few dB more when adjacentbands are engaged. The ideal caps for Ca and Cb are polyestertypes rated lQOV and with 5%or better tolerance. Pads on the circuit board accommodate two cap widths. R2 can be a trimpot, a fixed resistor, or an externally mounted pot;the protorvpe used a fixed resis-

tor.

85

Project No. 26
Tremolo-Matic III
TM3 gives the player control of waveform symmetry and du ty cycle. The resul r, in a sense, spans the gap between tremolo and analog synth. Circuit Description Signal Path: Instrument feed couples through C19 to input of IC1, a noninverting preamp whose gain is fixed at -48, nearly 34 dB. Preamp output couples through C20-R3B to signal input of IC3, half an NE570 configured as a VCAwhose gain varies 0-1, depending on the control voltage applied through R46. IC3 output couples through R43-C23 to inverting butfer ICB-a, thence through R4S-C25 to the output path. R44 varies the output level. The signal path Is noninverting. Tremolo Control Path: IC2 is an XR2206 function generator configured 10 generate squarewaves and triangle waves. 52 selects waveform shape; R28 varies the squarewave duty cycle over the range -10-90%, or varies the triangle function smoothly from ramp to triangle to negative ramp. Oscillation rate is controlled by the capacitor selected by l2-posilion rotary switch 53. Function output couples to amplitude control pot R3l, thence through R30 to inverting buffer IC9. R32 varies the DC offset at IC9's output, which varies the VCA's resting gain. Control vel tage couples through R46 to the control port (pin 1) of IC3. Noise Gate Control Path: IC1 output couples through Rl-C1 to modified AC log amp IC5-a, whose output is rectified in rC5-b/-c; boosted in IC5-d, where a variable DC offset is applied by RS to vary the gating threshold. IC5-d output feeds a positive peak detector made up of D5-Ql-C6, which gives a linear decay of about 2 seconds when R49 sees V2V+; decay accelerates it voltage applied through R49drops below V2V+. IC6-a output feeds an auto-variable attack network made up of R13-D6-R14-C7. Output of the attack network is buflered by IC6-b, whose output is held at the negative limit by the positive potential applied through R10. IC6-b output couples through R12 to the ba se of 02. In the a bse nce of a pos i tive vol tage !lowing through A12, 02 is held ON by R39, shunting IC3 pin 1 to ground, muting the VCA. When the preamp TREMOLO-MATIC III PARTS LIST "",---Resistors Rl, 3,4,5, 12,24,25,43 10K R2, 13,18,33,34 lOOK R61K A~ 22, 23, 29, SO, 37 22K R8,44 10K audio-taper pot RS, 10, 11,15,20 39K R14, 16,26,27, 39 4.7K Rl~ 191M R212.2K A28 lOOKpot R31, 32 10K pot R35470 R36 '150K R3833K R3S 220K R40 100Kmultiturn trirnpot R41 2ZQK R427.SK R45100 R4647K R4~48 36K R4910M Capacitors ct 5, 7, 8, 9, T1,14 O.l,uF C222.0pF C3,4, 10, 17. 24 100pF C6, 21 O.OOl,uF C12, 16,19,25,27 10,uFaluminum electrolytic C13, 15 O.Ol,uF C18 10pF C20, 23 l,uF nonpolar electrolytic C2222pF C26 220,uF aluminum electrolytic Ca--CI see text Semiconductors 01, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9 1N914 06,7 red LED 010 lN4QOl ICl OP-27 low-noise op amp IC2 XR2206 function generator IC3 NE570 compander IC4 LM78LOS SV positive regulator rCS,7 Tl064 quad low-power op amp IC6 TL062 dualtow-power op amp IC8 TL072 dual op amp ICg MC33171 op amp 01 2N3904 NPN transistor 02 2N3906 PNP transistor Miscellaneous wire, solder, circuit boardjacks, knobs, etc.

\

86

~'" "''''

·

., .,
co '" ('l'" '-"" 0- '" z
_w

on

.,

'"

u _Cz
0.

.. ::>

-

>-8"
..., 0

,_ >0 III

0

Fig. 26-1. Tremolo -Matic III sch e matico

87

This detector generates a voltage below V2V+ only when the program decays rapidly. 26-2. 5. causing 01 to source a negative current that neutralizes the positive cha rge in C6 in less than 40 ms. Tremolo-Matic III circuit board. 26-3.15.75" reference box Fig. With gate threshold properly set. This makes it desirable that the gate close swiftly when the player mutes the strings. Slow decay of the primary level detector gives low distortion as notes (especially bass) decay. whose output feeds a failing-edge detector made up of IC7-c/-d and the associated components. and VeA gain become a function of the static/dynamic vol tages conveyed through R46. When preamp output drops below -200 mvp-p. output reaches -200 mvp-p. the output of IC6-b swings positive enough to turn 02 OFF.butfered by IC7·b. the output of IC6-b swings negative enough to turn 02 ON.6V S3 SINCLE-POL£ 12-PUSITIO~ ROTARY Co-I FREDUENCV Ch~S SEE TEXT ~------~ ICZ "IN G 5 11:2 PIN Fig. Use Switches & potb have these functions: \ 88 .5" x 3. The voltage flows through R49. but beating may be heard for several seconds before 02 turns ON. Tremolo-Malic III supplemental schematic. with no audible lag. feeding an integrator made up of D9-C 10. yet a1I0wsuninterrupted decay of held notes and chords. TM3 includes a second level detector to this end: IC5-c output feeds scaling amp IC7-a. TM3 mutes when the player mutes the strings. muting the VCA.

Tremolo-Matic III layout & wiring diagram./ Fig. 89 . 26-4.

Fig. 26-5 (this and Iacing page). TM3 control voltage top trace, music envelope bottom tra ceoA-Ramp, B-triangle, Cnegative ramp. Ramp and negative ramp sound significantly different, especially at slow rates. D/EIF-Control voltage switched to quasi-squarewave, duty cycle varies 10%/50%/90%. These, too, change the sound distinctively. Duty cycles in the 30-70% range sound musical; those outside that range better suit special effects. GIHII (lacing page)-Additional waveforms generated by TM3.

90

Aa
Ala R31 R32 R40 R44 51 52 53

noise gale threshold triangle svrnrnetrv/squa cycle tremolo depth VCAstaricgaln, 0-1 VCA feed through trim OUtput level rewave duty

effecUbypass waveform shape (square/triangle) tremolo rate

trim feedthrough. Short the input. Toggle S2 to triangle, turn RS fully CW to deactivate the noise gate; centerR28 and R32, turn R31 fullyCW. Set S3 tor maximum tremolo rate. In this state the control voltage clips at both extremes. Attach scope probe to IC3 pin 7. Trim R40 for minimum feedthrough. If no scope is available, trim feedthrough by ear. Configure settings as above, connect unii 10 amp whose volume is turned all (he way down. Slowlv' advance the volume untilleedthrough erutacts are heard, Depending on the initial setting of R40, these could measure up to several voltsp-p. Trim R40 for minimum feedthrough. the settings, connect axe to uni t. In til is stale deep trern010 should be noted. Take rate control S3 through its range. With a slow rate selected (e.g., rate cap lOpF), explore the sounds of ramp to triangle 10 negative Without changing

First,

chords hang as long as the player likes, yet mutes stantly when the player mutes the strinqs.

in-

Notes
TM3 IS optimized tor

a

15V supply. The nature of the cir-

establish desired amp volume.

ramp. Toggle 52 to squarewave (actually, a quasi-square 'Wave;rising and fa IIing edg e s are slowed by C 13/ 14/15). Maximum depth occurs with R32 fully CCW, R31 fully CW.ln this state gain varies 0-1 with each pulse. Vary the duty cycle and note Ihe different types of sounds produced. Minimum duty cycle gives a percussive sound; rna xi mu m dutv eye leg ives the e fl eci or dou b Iepicking. Next, adjustlhe noise gale threshold. Turn R8 CCW until galing occurs. Properly set. the gate lets notes or

cuit makes depanure from this voltage imprudent. The prototype was tested with 15.0V on the positive supply bus (1S.6V Into 010). The 2206 configuration allowing vanation of squarewave duty cycle and ramp slope happens to make continuously variable rate di fl icul t to achieve. so changing speed requires a bank of switched capacitors. Half the pads on the c ircu it boa rd a ceo rrtrn ocate two ca PS, to Ie I the builder realize margina I va lues. The prototype contains only two caps, 2.2t/F to lOpF, for the approximate rates 4.5 Hz & I Hz. The boa ro holds space for caps giving up to 12 speeds. Feedthrough trim of the 570 VCA is so good that gating is not needed when using the triangle waveforms, including (hose thai clip. Squarewave control results In audible a nil acts. Ga ling proved the most pracucat means to quiet the effect at rest while retaining squarewave-like modulation capability. The unit gives best SiN ratio when the level coming

91

Fig. 26-6. Tremolo-Matic III prototype board.
at! the preamp averages at least 3Vp-p. The inputs of most amps will require a good bit of gain reduction by R44 1'0 avoid overload, adding a quasi-companding aspect to the system. The prototype's preamp gain was fixed at a very high level to sou a specific guitar. Lower the value of R37 to sui t other insrrurnen IS. Net gain of cascaded signal and control stages exceeds 60 dB, so keep wiring short and neat. The prototype did nor require shielded input or output leads, but this could change depending on the bui Ider's mounting arrangement. Input and output signals are in phase, with enough gain to cause oscillation if their leads are juxtaposed.

92

Appendices
Stomp Box Ingredients
Builders cooking up their own effects need the raw fixin's for tone shaping, compression, distortion, and a lot more. While nothing special surrounds these ingredients, they seldom surlace in a heap, cut and sorted for the stomp-box scene. Libraries bulge with circuit compendia, but few circuits advertise their stomp-box attributes. Only a seasoned builder sees that a frequency-doubling ramp generator belongs in a thrashmetal pedal. To help adventurous builders advance their craft, the text has gathered a nucleus of stomp-box building blocks and related lore, The presentation assumes the reader to have reached the stage of breadboard debugging and fine tuning. Good luck-and great stomping!

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Anatomy of a Stomp Box
Stomp box del ines a discre Ie" floor-dwell in 9 e ltecttor etectuc guitar or bass, typically housed in a wedgeshaped case and powered by ba t te ries, No 0 ne seems to know when the term took hold, bur it had to have tra iled 1he dawn 01 tuzz in the f ilti es, and prela ced I he proliteration of effects in the seventies. By 1980 the flying door-stop had given way to signature pedals whose as pee I declared thei r pedig ree. Evol u 1 ion co n· ti nu es. Sam e of the cu rrent crop ca n'T seem to decide whether they belong on staqe or in the Museum of Modern An. In Ihe early days a singl.e box fit between axe and amp. As new effects appeared, players tested the sound of fuzzed wah and wahed fuzz. So began the practice 01 chaining. Manufacturers encouraged this market by adapting their pedals to series wiring. Modern gu ita r setu ps routi nely ch ain effects, Though born of distortion, stomp box grew to ernbrace any ettect, preamp, or switchioq function. Evo· union has come lull circlein a reissue craze fueled by the quai nt view th a t at leas t sam e of the old boxes had itriqht: Analog functions now available include: ~ compression/sustain .~direct/isolarion box ...distortion ~ envelope follower/auto-we h ~EO ~ II a nge/choru s/phase r ~ frequency dividerlmultiplier ~ mixer ~ noise gale ~ pedal volume ~ pedal wah ~ preamp ~ reverb ...splitter ~.tremolo/vibrato ...tube, sound emulator ...boxes combining effects Culling a recent issue of a guitar buyer's guide, the author counted 111 boxes by 10 manufacturers. The profile comprised 30% distortion, 22% flangeJphasel chorus,13% wah-type effects, 9% compression/sustain, 5% EO, 21% 'other', including preamps, switches, and miscellaneous effects. Most run on 9V batteries; power from a wall-wan is a common option. The outward hallmarks of a Stomp box [low from convenience in use and ccnfcrrnttv with ritual. Inler·nally, pedals differ little from any small electronic device, enabling use 01 standard construction techniques, with the general rule to keep wiring as short and direct as possible. Low gain, short signal paths, and shi eld i.ngoffered bv a metal box obv iat e shielded cablefor most internal connections. The nature of the stomp-box Signal pa th inlliCls the issue of clickless switching. Clicks that haunt CMOS and JFET switches stern partly from leakage of the control voltage into the signal path. 'Clickless' stsctronic switches, like the SSM240212412, combine low charge injection with networks that slow the edges of the squarewave control pulse, generating much less audible en ergv Iha n typica I el ect ronic sw itch es. B leede r rests tors prevent a ell arg e Irom a ccumu la t· ing in coupli n9 cspaci tors, avo idi n9 a plug-in pop .. Most bu ilders will Iind it prudent to hardwl re the bypass uSing a DPDT rather than a SPOT switch. The DPDT switch takes the effect complerelv out of the

U.Output

Tone

Effect

...
.5

::J C.

[5t~<b$:
Effect/Bypass Swi.tch

.... Signal /

..

9V

EffecV8ypass

o

Fig. At Diagrammatic re ndering of ex terlor and interior a! a typica I. stomp box. 5.ign al enters Ihrough input jack, which usually contains the power SWitch. The stompswitch selects the OUtput of the circuit board, or bypasses theinput tothe output.

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A & B-Blue-toned aluminum pre-punched with six holes big enough for fuJI-size pots. 95 . Indthestomp switch are mounted.A Fig AI. Jacks are not supplied with the enclosure. -plus one over-size hole for a large stomp switch. a power switch. and maybe a pair 019Vbatteries. See Parts Sou rces for availeblli ty. 13full-size pots. Genericstomp-box enclosure. with room left for the Quad Parametro-Matic circuit board. in this case. two jacks.E & F-Drilling the top of the enclosure allows more efficient use of space. C & D-Pots & stomp switch mounted.

jacks. see Parts Sources for availability. compared to standard-size pushbutton switch. Heavy-duty DPOT switch (left) ideal for stomp boxes. A4. A4 illustrates one suitable example. them iffy for sessions and gigs. A gig box needs to be a 101 sturdier than a box that lives in a project studio. aluminum boxes tend to crumple. 96 . A singl e-battery version is ava ilable. Conventional push-on/push-off switches suffice in light duty. an exce IIen I choice for hom ebrew boxes (Fig. Enclosure Options Raw pedal-style cases do not abound. The stomp-switch should be placed for easy_ stomping. A3).. As for internal mounting. and should be heavy enough to hold up under the stress. Wilh the caveat 10 match the mounts to the selting. Generic project boxes will never be mistaken for retro classics. circuits powered off this holder should incorporate polarity-protection diodes. Fig. A3. Thick rubber feel keep the box from slipping when stomped. Locations 01 pots. and from scratching wooden floors. but readily adaptable to stomp boxes. This lets the player bypass the box even if the batteries fail. but make cheap. A2. Spring-loaded O-cell holders do a better job of holding 9V batteries than do the metal clamps sold as 9V battery holders. The enclosure options mentioned so far require opening the box for battery replacement. but steel usually costs more than aluminum. plus a larger hole for the stomp switch. anything goes. Fig. and eliminates loading from the effect's input circuit. Adept artificers might explore the option of nondestructivelv gutting a stock pedal and replacing the innards with custom electronics. While plastic boxes make convenient testing platforms. Steel boxes stand up under stomping. lack of shielding leaves . see Parts Sources for availability). and is difficult for 'those with no metalworking experience to work. and switches are matters ol taste. Swing-out dual-9V battery holder sold for use in guitars. The only example the text has located is an angled aluminum box pre-punched with six holes big enough for tutl-size pots and jacks. replacing it with straight wire. Single and dual 9V battery holders equipped with swing-out access make ha ndy opt ions (Fig.signal path. Most efficient use of space in the box requires drilling tne top . serviceable options. Fig. Because nothing but the user's diligence guards against insertion of the battery with incorrect polarity.

The prospective user should read these chips' data sheets carefully. which loses another 2V of headroom because common op amps do not swing rail to rail.5V under load. Reversed polarity can desrrov some semiconductors. Second. And a box built for a dual supply can later step up to the chips' limits (usually ±18-22V) with no circuit mods. nicadrechargeables make the sensible option for longterm portable power.6V after paSSing through a polarity- kalIne. and thereby project likely working lite with a given battery type. Nicads have a self-discharge rate 01 1-2% per day.5-8. Common examples include the 555 timer. A fresh alkaline 9V measures about 8. some of them pulse on and off in bursts that generate large a-udio-band a rtif acts. Single Supply vs. o 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 Constant 20-ma. Carbon-zinc tvpes offer such low power density as to constitute a wasteof materials. something of a misnomer. but the text finds nine volts wanting.Power Supply Options Batteries Tradifionaistomp boxes run on one or two '9V' batteries. for no 9V battery sustains a 9V output over its working life. Late-model nicads no longer suffer the memory etfeci. Drain Time (Hours) 97 . Typical battery discharge curves illustrate this trait (Fig. Nine-volt batteries come in four key categories.4V under load. This approach yields limited current capacity. AS).as could occur wh j I e ch a ng in g ba t ten es in the middle of a gig. like the 7662. Common nicads read 8. Low voltage limits the designer severely enough to make the second bauerv worth its while. and chips built for the purpose.and third-generation switching converter chips run more efficientlv.8V by the lime the electrons hit the Circuit.) With alkaline batteries hovering nea r $3 apiece. making the approach practical only in selected circuits.2-7.leaving ~6. Careful design makes this enough. aI9V baneries.~7. high-gain Circuits.4V hot from the charger. Nine-vail boxes run out of gas JUSt as things get interesting. AS. 7.8V after the drop across a polarity-protection diode. because it both sources and sinks current. While a stomp box must be built supply voltage in mind.Generic discharge curves typical of carbon-zi nc. Dual Supply Traditional stomp boxes run on a single 9V bat tery. just about any ultrasonic oscillator juices rhe pump (Fig. um batteries' great energy dens itv. shonening its life. Voltage falls with use. practical designsincorporate tolerance 10 voltage changes. and don't truly have room to do their thing at that level. and cause tantalum bypass capacitorstoshort. A voltage mirror creates a negative image of the positive supply using a charge pump. or those having many active components. high COSl offsets lithi- with a nominal prorecuon diode. The output is unregulated. leaving headroom of -6Vp-p. usually use the output of an op amp as the artificial ground. While the chips indeed switch in the ultrasonic range. Deriving a Dual Supply from a Single Supply The simplest way to get a dual supply from one batterv is known as rail-splirtmq Many circuits get by with a simple resistive divider. and lithium FIg. An alkaline Duracell® measures close (0 7. Wha1ever the battery choice. but ploys should not be necessary in homebrew boxes.(That diode preven ts reve rsed vo It a ge should the batterv "terminals briefly touch the bauerv snap wrong-way. Several high-end chips won't run on less than 10 volts. 7. in which failure to drain the bauerv fully preventedil from delivering a whole charge In later cycles. saving resources in the process. Ie avi ng a I ka lin e andnickel-cadmium as the viable options. voltage falls with load. tops.1V atter idling for a few days. A6-1). and their energy density IS substantially less than alkaline ba neries'. the builder will find it instructive to measure the average current drain of the box. providing a symmetrical dual au rpu t from a single supply. One recha rgeable replaces hundreds otdollars worth of alkaline. and a negative potential that may not match the positive Whatever current flows through the negative output must come from the battery.

Typical AC wall-wart-derived dua I supply. The builder choosing this approach should avoid daisy-chaining boxes on the power bus. 27). sometimes a regulator. specifically. a 1 W ±17V type only 30 mao The converters are smaller than the end of your little finger. Converters demand care in the breadboard stage. highly load-sensitive. Best of all.'. Fig. converter-powered boxes can be daisy-chained withou t fear of ground loops. Small DC-DC converters make attractive options for wart-powered boxes. 1. 10ma makes a practical limit.AC~Derived Supplies Wall warts are encapsulated transformers that plug into the AC wall socket and furnish low-voltage AC or DC. for accidentally shorting an output can destroy them. 15. and distance a strong hum-source from the signal path. they occupy no more space than a conventional AC- to-DC supply. and since one wart can power many boxes. beca use the 5V power bus is isolated from each converter's output ground. alkaline batteries.1 98 . 3). leaving them prey to hum from electromagnetic fields. First. AS. usually not noticed in the audio band. or rail-split to give an artificial dual supply. Circuits #2 & #3 assume the supply to be hardwired to effect.Typical ultra sonic charge-pump voltage inverter. and come in lW and 2W versions. A6-2. incorporating a converter module does not demand redesigning the board. The output contains ripple at several hundred kilohertz. $14 for 2W Gray Areas Followers of the axe/tone scene may have read anecdotes claiming a backdoor link between battery type and stomp-box tone. Even with bypass caps. These claims suggest several possibilities. The SV supply needs to be robust: 1 W converters take up to 250 ma. These modules step 5VDC up to ±5. 3-Another AC wall wart-derived supply using a bridge rectifier. or 17\1. Power leads from each box (ground especially) should return to a single point. Because one wart per box is cumbersome.I I I I I ~]"LL fi~llT ~~ __ --+-~~T I - I 1<>. converters contain inductors. Recent prices: $9 for 1W modules. and should use single-point grounding. DC models supply anything from a raw rectifier output to filtered and regulated voltage. raw single supply output. 2W models may need up to 500 ma apiece.11 ~a\jf S UPP L r I I---~----~-------. 12. 7. On the downside. and offer 100% isolation from their 5VDC source.21< 10 v· G S I 555 YI-J~-_: ? 5 ~ NCL ~ A[. [1U' 0 0-1- 01. and fresh vs. Output magnitude is > lV less than input. carbon-zinc vs. a common tactic groups all the pedals on a board and runs them off a common supply. A 1W ±5V module supplies 100 rna. Efficiency falls in the 70-85% range. When used in a rack powered by a single wall wart. accounts citing better-Dr at least altered-sound when using rechargeable vs. Simply append a converter supply to the main board (See Project No. ]i3dF :'3'. They eliminate the risk of dealing with the full AC line voltage (though no voltage should be handled carelessly). 2. 2. This tends not to be a problem so long as they don't sit within a foot of a power transformer. AC-powered boxes suffer greater risk for hum than battery-powered boxes. but a potential source of aliasing in diqital gear. Output current is inversely proportional to voltage. 10. aging samples. A box running off an AC wart must include an on· board rectifier and filter (Fig.

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