Business Requirements Gathering Techniques for Data Warehouse & Business Intelligence

Portland DAMA Presentation July 22, 2005

Michael J. Lampa mlampa@coreintegration.com

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Course Outline

Introduction Business Requirements Defined Scoping the Data Warehouse Program Initiative Planning & Coordinating Resources “Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools Designing & Executing Requirements Gathering Workshops Open Discussion

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Session Objectives

How to scope data warehouse program initiatives using Layof-the-Land interviewing techniques How to plan and coordinate involvement of representatives from your DW team and business communities. How to use group facilitation techniques, process modeling disciplines and data modeling disciplines to get the right information as input to your data warehouse project deliverables. How to build and execute requirements gathering workshops How to know when you have enough input to move on.

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What do we mean by Business Requirements? 4 .

forms. Summarized Data Multi-Dimensional Aggregates Relational Database Current Details 5 . Translation. Data Mining & Drilling Rule Correction End-User Client Access Audit Exception Raw Source System Data Meta Data Management Data Structures Load Statistics Statistics Definitions & Views Transformation & Subscription Rules Business Intelligence Software Executive Dashboards Business Intelligence Data Delivery Aggregated Multi-Dimensional Rules Time Series Analytics Cleansing & Audit Source System Data ETL Routines that cleanse Staging Data Extraction.Business Requirements Defined Each Data Warehouse Process has Requirements… Source Databases Data Delivery Method Data Correction Source System Data Extraction Data Structures & Cleansing Edits Source System Data Structures Day-to-Day Business Operations Screens. MDA. Or a Target System Data Analysis. BI Binaries Data Transport Services Relational Database Erwin Repository Data Stewardship Load Exceptions Extraction of Staging Data To the PSA. & Loading Aggregation & Summarization Relational Rules Database. ETL Software Integrated Current Operational Data Operational Reporting Staging Database Insertion of Source System Data into Staging Database Relational Database OS Scripted Routines Published Integrated Data Data Marts Relational Database Drill-Down Data Aggregated Multi-dimensional data Historical Details Operational Report Services Target System Target Databases Subscribed Integrated Data Reporting Tool Persistent Storage Area Atomic History Relational Database Aggregated.

Business Requirements Defined …and Each Requirement has 6 Architectural Contexts Each Architecture has requirements Data Warehouse projects touch ALL architectures Data Warehouse programs define what requirements are needed Data Warehouse increments capture the requirement details 6 .

Business Requirements Defined Each Architectural Context has Engineering Blueprints or Specifications Business Architecture Goals & Objectives Decomposition Business Process Model Enterprise Data Model Application Architecture Application Interface Diagram Application Deployment Diagram Technology Architecture Server Topology Diagram Network Topology Diagram End User Device Inventory Facilities Architecture Facilities Blueprints Air Handling Power Specifications Practice Architecture Guides & Procedures Intuitive Helps & Hints People Architecture Organization Charts Skills Inventory Training Programs 7 .

Scoping the Data Warehouse Initiative 8 .

Scoping the Data Warehouse Initiative Focus is on Business Architecture What is the Business Opportunity you are trying to achieve? What is the Business Pain you are trying to eliminate? What Business Functional Areas are involved? Which Organizational Units are affected? What Applications are implicated? 9 .

Scoping the Data Warehouse Initiative The Lay of the Land: Technique 1-on-1 Interviews with Key Business Sponsors 1-on-1 Interviews with KEY IT Sponsors Prepare a detailed Interview Script Take Copious Interview Notes Request review of Interview Notes for accuracy Compile Notes and form a Recommendation 10 .

Scoping the Data Warehouse Initiative The Lay of the Land: Interview Questions What is the mission of your team/group/division/department? What is the most significant shift in the way you are doing business? What are your competitors doing that you don’t? How do you measure success in your department? How does your boss measure your success? What are your Functional Goals? How do your Functional Goals relate to the Corporate Goals? What MUST go right for you to be successful? How much of the Business Process Value Chain is your concern? What questions do you answer/need to answer? Who do you rely upon to get the right answers? From where does the information come? What are the critical “systems” used by your department? 11 .

Scoping the Data Warehouse Initiative The Lay of the Land: Scope Recommendation DOCUMENT THE BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY/PROBLEM TO ADDRESS Identify & Recommend scope based on Business Priority. Define the Organizations that should sponsor the initial efforts Define the functional scope of the initial efforts Name the key people from appropriate Business Operations Units Define the Operational Systems that will be involved Name the key people from the appropriate IT Units 12 .

“Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools 13 .

we must know WHAT the business does! We need to: Document the Business Process Model Document the Enterprise Data Model Document the Corporate & Functional Goals Document Key Performance Metrics Document Key Business Information Needs 14 .“Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools Premise: To deliver a useful Data Warehouse.

“Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools Business Context Diagram USED AT: Class Location PROJECT: Process Modeling Practical Approach Facilitators: Business Architecture Group.8 4 NODE: Banks/Credit Info Provider 5 Outputs -----------------------------------Provision Notice . 12. 7. 3. 15. 14. 15. 14 Service Readiness Confirmation . 3. 8. 13. 12. 6. Inc. 2 Service Providers 6 Inputs -----------------------------------Request for Service . 2.0 Legal and Regulatory Jurisdiction 8 Techniques: Group Facilitation Scripted Interviews Documentation Dissection Customers 2 LEC Telecom Administration A0 7 3 Sales Force Tools: Process Modeling Tool Database or Spreadsheet Publishing Tool Word Processor P. 8 Customer Correspondence . 7. 4. 7.13.1.2.1. 2. 4.2. File Name: Process Modeling Example Created: Rev Date: 12/11/1998 3/23/1999 x WORKING DRAFT RECOMMENDED PUBLICATION READER DATE CONTEXT: Top Captures: Explicit Functional Scope Data Subjects Corporate Goals & Metrics 1 Bellcore Rev Version: Version 1.5 Marketing Campaign .7 Equipment Customer Response .2. 5. 3.7 Provider Jurisdiction Data . 2.ALL NUMBER: A-0 TITLE: Process Modeling Example P. 15 Bill . 15 Disbursements . 13. 8 Financial Reports . 7. 1 15 . 1 Usage .7 Network Remittance .

5 SOR transaction SOR customer data Collect Customer Experience Feedback 2.6 customer feedback O M t rder gm S ystem CRM System 16 .3 "what if" data customer profile updates Tools: Process Modeling Tool Database or Spreadsheet Publishing Tool Word Processor customer product data Maintain Customer Portfolio 2.2 advice data proposition acceptance activity request Provide Fulfillment 2.1 customer discovery data SOR customer transactions Techniques: Group Facilitation Scripted Interviews Documentation Dissection CRUD Analysis follow up activity Provide Customer Advocacy 2.“Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools Business Process Model Captures: Process Definitions Information Flow Process Controls Process Mechanisms Functional Goals & Metrics product fit industry SOR characteristics data customer data customer profile Develop Customer Profile 2.4 customer transaction request Generate Intelligent Triggers 2.

“Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools Enterprise Data Model Captures: Entity Definitions Entity Relationships Functional Subject Areas Data Quality Rules Techniques: Group Facilitation Scripted Interviews Documentation Dissection CRUD Analysis Tools: Data Modeling Tool Database or Spreadsheet Publishing Tool Word Processor 17 .

“Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools Business Model Relationship to Data Warehouse Design Enterprise Enterprise Business Process Model Business Process Model Decomposition Decomposition Process Process Specification Specification S/T MAPS SOURCE MODELS CONFORMITY CONFORMITY Business Business CR CR UD UD Input/Output Input/Output “HUB” ENTITY VIEW FUNCTIONAL VIEW “HUB” ENTITY VIEW FUNCTIONAL VIEW SUBJECT AREA STATE STATE TRANSITIONS TRANSITIONS TRAGET TRAGET MODEL MODEL CONTENT CONTENT Mechanism Mechanism BA BA LA LA NC NC E E DATA WAREHOUSE DATA ARCHITECTURE ACCESS MODELS ACCESS MODELS Context Context Diagram Diagram ANALYSIS ANALYSIS DIMENSIONS DIMENSIONS Controls Controls Business Business Data Data Model Model Architecture Architecture 18 Business Business Strategy Strategy Plan Plan .

“Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools Business Information Needs Captures: The information needs of the target users How the users want to use the information Insight for building business intelligence solutions Techniques: Group Facilitation Cross Reference to the Process model Functions Cross Reference to the Corporate and Functional Goals Ask for Information Needs Ask for Supporting Questions to the Information Need Make sure the Questions include/reference Analysis dimensions Time Periods Refresh Frequency & Latency Considerations Tools: Publishing Tool Word Processor 19 .

2. and month? Which products do we produce without buyer demand? Show this by product. by product. product group. 4. Business Questions: 1. The sales price of the item is not important in this need. What is the average number of days products sit in the warehouse by location.“Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools Business Information Needs (an Example) Karolyn’s Kritters™ Cost of Inventory This need describes understanding the cost associated with holding items in our warehouse inventory for any length of time. by location? What has been the average inventory at the end of each month. and time of year. 3. product. at the start of each month. What has been the average inventory. by product. by location? Adapted from Information Strategies. We need to know the rate of inventory turnover by location. Inc 20 .

Business Questions: 1. 3. return of products. The overall value of the owner is not a factor in understanding owner satisfaction at large. 2. month.“Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools Business Information Needs (another Example) Karolyn’s Kritters™ Owner Satisfaction This need is designed to help us better understand owner satisfaction through orders filled. and product. What is the number of calls. by reason code. and owner complaints. Inc 21 . received by our 800 service lodging a complaint? Show by complaint code. by product. Adapted from Information Strategies. What is the number of owner complaints due to late or inaccurate credits? Show the percent of returns by owner. What percentage of orders are completely fillable at the time they are placed? Show this by location. per month. 4.

Product. Product Cat Which Products have low demand? Inventory turn ? ? Product Owner Satisfaction Owner compliants due to billing errors Cust Sat Index ? ? Owner What is the % Returns? Product Returns ? ? Owner.Return Reason Code 22 .“Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools Business Information Needs & KPI’s Business Info Need Analysis Period Refresh Frequency Analysis Dimension Business Question KPI Cost of Inventory How long does product sit in the warehouse locations? Inventory Days Month daily Location.

“Facili-Modeling” Techniques & Tools Business Activity Model & KPI Defs Data Warehouse Catalog DW Catalog ID DW Catalog Name DW Schema Name Metric Dimension Metric Dimension ID Metric Dimension Name Public Ind Metric_Class metric_class_id metric_class_name metric_gl_class_code Business_Unit bus_unit_id bus_unit_name parent_bus_unit_id (FK) Data Warehouse Table DW Table ID DW Table Name DW Catalog ID (FK) Performance_Metric performance_metric_id performance_metric_name performance_metric_measure_type parent_performance_metric_id (FK) metric_class_id (FK) Performance Metric Period Grain Metric Dimension Hierarchy Metric Dimension Hierarchy ID hierarchy sequence performance_metric_id (FK) Metric Dimension ID (FK) DW Column ID (FK) Business_Process bus_process_id bus_unit_id (FK) bus_process_name parent_process_id (FK) Data Warehouse Column DW Column ID DW Column Name DW Table ID (FK) Process_Performance_Target Performance Metric Component Perf metric Component ID function_name concatenation sequence performance_metric_id (FK) concat target column (FK) concat source column (FK) process_performance_target_id performance_metric_id (FK) bus_process_id (FK) Performance_target_goal performance_target_ceiling_threshold performance_target_floor_threshold ceiling_escalation_rule floor_escalation_rule trending_rule trending_series_type series_duration series_function_rule Process Performance Trigger process_performance_target_id (FK) bus activity ID (FK) Trigger Reason Business Activity bus activity ID bus activity name bus activity enabling module bus_process_id (FK) bus activity protocol 23 .

Designing & Executing Requirements Gathering Workshops 24 .

Designing & Executing Requirements Gathering Workshops The Iterative Nature of Facili-Modeling Workshops EXTENDED SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS INTERVIEW MINUTES BE ISS NE UE FIT S S/ & PA IN S M SE OD SS EL IO IN G N S IN I RV TE EW S CORE TEAM STRAWMAN MODELS ISSUES & DEFINITIONS WORK IN PROCESS DATABASE & S ES ION SU IT IS IN F DE CORE SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS MODEL REPOSITORY 25 .

Designing & Executing Requirements Gathering Workshops The Three Phases of Facilitated Workshops Workshop Agenda Template C1 Project Charter I1 Prepare for Workshop A41 Annotated Agenda O2 Agenda Completion Status Conduct Workshop Sessions A42 Workshop Session Notes Deliverable Completion Status Review & Distribute Workshop Results A43 Workshop Deliverables O1 26 .

Designing & Executing Requirements Gathering Workshops The Key to Success – Preparing Annotated Agendas Workshop Agenda Template C1 Purpose. Objectives & Deliverables Project Charter I1 Identify Where Project Needs to go A411 Identify Where Project Came From A412 Agenda Completion Status Known Information Identify How to Get There Draft Steps A413 I2 Filter Approach to be UserFreindly A414 Revised Steps Annotated Agenda Walkthru Approach Changesto Steps A415 O1 27 .

Designing & Executing Requirements Gathering Workshops A Business Modeling Facilitated Workshop Flow Context Diagram Documentation Annotated Agenda I1 A421 Workshop Session Notes O1 Conduct Context Diagram Agenda Process Flow Diagram Documentation Conduct Process Flow Diagram Agenda A422 Agenda Completion Status O2 Entity Relationship Diagram Documentation Conduct Entity Relationship Diagram Agenda A423 28 .

Designing & Executing Requirements Gathering Workshops Business Modeling Facilitated Workshop Agendas The CONTEXT DIAGRAM Agenda INTRODUCTION DEFINE PURPOSE OF BUSINESS IDENTIFY WHO INTERACTS WITH THE BUSINESS IDENTIFY WHAT COMES INTO THE BUSINESS IDENTIFY WHAT GOES OUT OF THE BUSINESS MODEL AND VALIDATE DESCRIBE SCOPE OF THE BUSINESS WRAP-UP ASSIGN OPEN ITEMS ASSIGN HOMEWORK REVIEW/FEEDBACK 29 .

MECHANISMS WRAP-UP ASSIGN OPEN ITEMS ASSIGN HOMEWORK REVIEW/FEEDBACK 30 . CONTROLS. OUTPUTS.Designing & Executing Requirements Gathering Workshops Business Modeling Facilitated Workshop Agendas The PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM Agenda INTRODUCTION DEFINE BUSINESS FUNCTION DEFINE PROCESS ACTIVITIES ORDER PROCESS ACTIVITIES IDENTIFY INPUTS.

Designing & Executing Requirements Gathering Workshops Business Modeling Facilitated Workshop Agendas The ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM Agenda INTRODUCTION DEFINE BUSINESS FUNCTION DEFINE CANDIDATE BUSINESS INFORMATION ENTITIES DESCRIBE ENTITIES DEFINE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ENTITIES DEFINE RELATIONSHIP RULES WRAP-UP ASSIGN OPEN ITEMS ASSIGN HOMEWORK REVIEW/FEEDBACK 31 .

EVER leave your Agenda! Generous use of Brainstorming Technique You own the process. Use attributes to reinforce concepts 32 . the group owns the content Build models in the workshop early to set stage Build majority of models off-line as “strawman” Review Strawman models with group Strive for 1-workshop per Functional Area Don’t model Process lower than 3-4 levels Focus on Subject Areas and Entities.Designing & Executing Requirements Gathering Workshops Facili-Modeling Tips for Success Defined Roles & Adherence to Ground Rules Don’t EVER.

Open Discussion Group Discussion 33 .