Presented By

Amit Phadikar


Technologies for Security of Multimedia Data Fingerprinting Cryptography Stegnography Watermarking


Difference among Fingerprinting, Cryptography, Steganography and Watermarking
Fingerprinting uses some kind of hash functions to create fingerprint, original file remain intact. Cryptography is about protecting the meaning of the document. Steganography is about concealing their very existence. Watermarking is about robustness against possible attacks, Watermark need not be hidden.

Watermarking can be applied to
Images Text Audio S/W

Digital Image watermarking
A Digital Signal or pattern inserted into a digital image.

General Framework for Watermarking
Encoding Process

E(I,S)= Î


I)= SI 6 .Decoding Process D(J.

Comparator 7 .

Applications of image watermarking IPR Protection Demonstration of rightful ownership Authentication Labeling for data retrieval Covert communication 8 .

Properties of Digital Watermark Perceptually invisible Robustness Cost Capacity Recoverable Reversible Undetectable Able to determine the true owner High bit rate 9 .

Attacks on Digital Watermarking Lossy Compression Geometric Distortions Common Signal Processing Operations – Linear filtering such as high pass and low pass filtering – Non-linear filtering such as median filtering – Addition of a constant offset to the pixel values – Addition of Gaussian noise Jitter Attack 10 Gaussian and Non – Local exchange of pixels .

Work Already Done On This Field Watermarking domain Frequency domain Spatial domain Frequency domain Watermark is embedded in DFT. DCT and DWT domain coefficients 11 .

DCT Watermark was a sequence of 1000 random numbers.DWT Proposed to add Gaussian noise as watermark in the middle and high frequency coefficient of DWT. FM Boland:-DFT Embedded the watermark in the phase information in the discrete Fourier transform domain since the phase distortion is more sensitive to HVS than magnitude distortion . 12 . Detection was correlation based.Representative work Cox:. There fore it is more robust to tampering when compared to magnitude distortion. Watermark was embedded in the 1000 largest DCT coefficients. Correlation based non-blind detection were performed Xia Boncelet:.

Tirkel. and increased the ai by one. certain statistical propriety like image intensity are uniformly distributed. The watermark.Spatial Domain Schyndel. The watermark was embedded to the LSB of the original image. The scheme is extremely sensitive to geometric transformation. Bender :. The watermark was detected by comparing the sum of the difference of ai and bi of the n pairs of the points with 2n provided. and Osborne :. Cross-correlation based detection was proposed.LSB Generated a watermark using an m-sequence generator. 13 . while decreased the bi by one. was not robust to additive noise.Statistical Described the patch work algorithm. it chooses randomly n pair of image point (ai.

The watermark is right-angled isosceles triangular sequence generated from a random sequence depending on a secret key.Block based Proposed partitioning both host and binary watermark Image into blocks.Feature based Proposed to find feature points and apply Delaunay tessellation to obtain the triangular sequence. setting LSB’s of each image block to zero. 14 .Spatial Domain P.Macq :. M. Detection is performed by finding Delaunay tessellation of the test image and wiener filtering to obtain watermark and then performing correlation. The watermark image block is ex-ored with the output of the hash function and output is inserted into the LSB of the image block to form watermarked image block. After applying affined transform and visual mask watermark sequence is added to the image. For extraction reverse steps are followed. J. Ping Wah Wong and Nasir Memon :.Bas. Chassery and B. Scheme is reported to detect and report any changes to the image. applying hash function (MD5) to image block.

+ ut. Furthermore.. Where vt = f(ut. u0(b) u1(0) u1(1)……….ut . the parameter B is called the encoder memory. b<= c binary convolution encoder (time-invariant and without feedback) the causal information sequence u = u0u1 ………………= u0(0) u0(1) …….B): The function f must be a linear function.. is encoded as the causal code sequence v= v0 v1 ………………= v0(0) v0(1) ……. ut – 1………….Convolution Encoding and Decoding In a general rate R = b/c. v t = ut G + ut.BG B.1G +…….. u = u0u1 ……. v1(c)………. v0(c) v1(0) v1(1)………. 0 1 15 . u1(b)…….

Probability p and the starting and ending state is predetermined to be the zero-state Why Viterbi Decoding •A highly satisfactory bit error performance. 16 .Viterbi Decoding it estimateS v1 a sequence v that maximizes P(r/ v). Where r is sequence . •Fixed decoding time. •Low cost. •Ease of implementation. •High speed of operation.

i=1.R2…….Rn. (d) P (Ri)=TRUE for i=1.2…. R1.2………n. such that n (a) U Ri=R. i=1 (c) Ri ∩Rj=Φ for all i and j.. 17 .n.Quad Tree Region Splitting Image Segmentation Method Region Based Image Segmentation Let R represent the entire image region. i≠j. then we may view region based segmentation as a process that partitions R into n sub regions. (b) Ri is a connected region.

Quad Tree Approach Quad trees Advantage of Quad Tree Decomposition Small regions represent the presence of critical information of the image and hence are the good place for the watermark insertion 18 .

Spatial Domain Watermarking watermark insertion 19 .

watermark detection 20 .

as bitij ∈ YH if I >Imean bitij ∈ YL if I ≤ Imea whereYH and YL are the high and low intensity classes. Step 2: Classify each pixel into one of two categories.Watermark Insertion Algorithm Apply QUAD TREE decomposition on color image I (x. I. bitij is classified depending on its intensity. the ijth pixel. based on whether its intensity value is above or below the mean intensity of the block. Imean. Imin. of the the pixels in H.e. minimum. i. Imax. respectively. and maximum. 21 . Watermark embedding region Repeat (for each selected 4x4 block (H) of blue channel) { Step 1: Compute the average. y) and select all 4x4 blocks in blue channels..

λ if I < meanL I new = Imean . Step 7: The modified block of pixels. YL and YH. of pixels from the original host image. is then positioned the watermark image in the same location as the block.λ if Imean ≤I < meanH I new = I .Step3: Compute the means. if I > meanH I new = Imax + λ I new =Imean + λ if meanL ≤ I < Imean I new =I + δ otherwise if bitw = 0. Step 6: Given the value of bitw is 0 or 1. modify the pixels in H according to: if bitw = 1. meanL and meanH. Hnew. 22 Step 8: Marge red. Step 4: Define the contrast value of block H as CB = max(Cmin. β(Imax-Imin)) where β is a constant and Cmin is a constant which defines the minimal value a pixel's Intensity can be modified. for the two classes. green and blue channel.δ otherwise Where I new is the new intensity value for the pixel which had original intensity value I and δ is a random value between 0 and CB and λ is the watermark strength. } Until all watermark bits are inserted. Step5: Select a watermark bit (bitw ) randomly depending on the key value. H. I new = Imin . .

Y) values lies in the range Xmin +(Xmax. maximum coordinate value in X and Yaxis of that image. Step2: a watermark bit is decoded by making the comparison of the two resultant values: If Average w > Averageo. Ymax are the minimum . The decoded bits are then arranged in order using same key. Repeat{ Step 1: take one 4x4 blocks of the host image and Corresponding 4x4 block of watermarked Image using the same coordinate value as of 4x4 block of host image . Xmax.(Ymax. Ymin. and whose all pixel coordinate (X. then bit w = 0 Where Average o and Average w are the averages for the 4x4 blocks of the host and Corresponding 4x4 block of watermarked Images. which was used during embedding. } Until all watermark bit are extracted.Ymin )/4 <=Y<=Ymax .Ymin )/4 where Xmin. respectively. y) and select all 4x4 blocks in blue channels that passes the homogeneity test.Xmin )/4 and Ymin +(Ymax.Xmin )/4 <=X<=Xmax (Xmax. then bit w = 1 If Average w ≤ Average o. Then. 23 .Watermark Extraction Algorithm Apply QUAD TREE decomposition on original image I (x. the encoded watermark is exclusive ored by 128 bit key and then decoded by viterbi decoding.

β=1 and λ=15 and convolution encoding rate R=1/2. Test Image LENA.BMP (512X512) .Watermark is a 50x50 binary bitmap NCC =∑∑ W ij ij W' ij / ∑∑Wij ] ij 2 (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig (a) original or host image (b) watermark image (c) watermarked images (d) Extracted watermark 24 .Results: Cmin =15.

mask(3x3) Median filtered watermarked image and extracted watermark.PSNR VS λ 45 44 43 42 41 40 0 5 10 λ 15 20 (e) PSNR (f) Fig (e) watermark embedded region. Wiener filtered watermarked image and extracted watermark .t.mask(3x3) 25 . Various values of λ. (f) the variation of PSNR w.r.

75 Cropped watermarked image and extracted watermark .Scaled down watermarked image. mask(444x444) Jpeg compressed watermarked image and extracted watermark 26 . scale down factor=. rescaled image and extracted watermark.

angle=-17 degree Table Showing the Normalized Cross correlation values for different operations Table lists the PSNR between original host image and watermarked image for various value of λ 27 . rotation corrected image and extracted watermark.Rotated watermarked image.

Graphs for different operations showing variation of NCC value against various factors 28 .

the following orthogonality condition on the filters and 29 .Wavelet Domain Watermarking Discrete wavelet Transform (DWT) The DWT and IDWT can be mathematically stated as follows A signal. x [n] can be decomposed recursively as and the signal x [n] can be reconstructed from its DWT coefficients recursively To ensure the IDWT and DWT relationship.

DWT pyramid decomposition of an image. 30 .Figure.

Figure. Examples of a DWT pyramid decomposition 31 .

watermark insertion 32 .

watermark detection 33 .

T) T=20 is the threshold value used by Quadtree and bi denote ith block such that 1=<i<=M and function Quadtree is used for quad tree decomposition of image in spatial domain. 34 . y). b2…. which is used to embed a watermark is segmented by quad tree decomposition to select all 4x4 blocks Watermark embedding region B'= [b1..Watermark Insertion Algorithm The host image B (x.bM ] = Quadtree (B.

green and blue channel to get the watermarked image 35 . c'h = ch . 2: compute average(C avg ) of all coefficient Ci found in step 1. 5: Given the value of bitw is 0 or 1. C avg = 1/16 Σ Ci 3: for all coefficients CH Є Ci such that CH > C avg 4: Select a watermark bit (bitw ) randomly depending on the key (k2) value from watermark bit sequence (W''' 2N ). 7: The original block of pixels bi is then replaced by b'i } Until all watermark bits are inserted. c'h = ch + λ* ch if bitw = 0. Repeat (for blue component of each selected 4x4 block bi Є B') {1: perform single scale wavelet transform of block bi .The bit embedding strategy is as follows. modify all the coefficients ch Є CH according to: if bitw = 1.λ* ch Where c'h is the new value of coefficient in CH which had original Coefficient value of ch and λ is the watermark strength 6: perform inverse single scale wavelet transform after modification of Coefficient to get modified block b'i. 8: Marge red.

4: initialize variable sum_w=0 and sum_o =0. Xmax. where WT denotes single level wavelet transform. Y) lies in the range Xmin +(Xmax.Xmin )/4 and Ymin +(Ymax. 5: for j=1:16 if Ci (j) > C avg sum_w = sum_w + C'i (j).(Xmax. 2: perform single level wavelet transform of block bi and b'i to get the Coefficient in wavelet domain which is defined as Ci = WT(bi) C'i = WT(b'i). Ymax are the minimum . end end 36 . and whose all pixels (X. y) and select all 4x4 blocks that passes the homogeneity test. sum_o = sum_o + Ci (j).Ymin )/4 where Xmin.Ymin )/4 <= Y <=Ymax .Watermark Extraction Algorithm Apply quad tree decomposition on original image B (x.(Ymax. Ymin. Ci and C'i are the vectors of the same length representing wavelet coefficient 3: compute average of all coefficient C avg of Ci .Xmin )/4 <= X <= Xmax . maximum coordinate value in X and Y axis of the image Repeat { 1: Take one 4x4 blocks (bi) of the host image and Corresponding 4x4 block (b'i) of watermarked Image using the same coordinate value as of 4x4 block of host image .

Then. } Until all watermark bit are extracted. 8: W2 [pos]= bit w .6: a watermark bit ( bit w) is decoded by making the comparison if sum_w < sum_o. bit w = 1 7: find original position (pos) of extracted watermark bit ( bitw ) using Key (k2) as seed. Where W2 is an array for storing extracted Watermark bits. the encoded watermark is exclusive ored by 128 bit key and then decoded by viterbi decoding. then bit w = 0 if sum_w >= sum_o. 37 .

2 λ 0.Results: λ=.tif (512X512) . Test Image kids.4 (d) 0. (f) the variation of PSNR w. various values of λ.t.Watermark is a 50x50 binary bitmap (a) (b) (c) PSNR VS λ 60 PSNR 40 20 0 0 0.6 (e) (f) Fig (a) original or host image (b) watermark image (c) watermarked images (d) Extracted watermark (e) watermark embedded region.3 and convolution encoding rate R=1/2. 38 .r.

rescaled image and extracted watermark.75 39 .scale down factor=.Wiener filtered watermarked image and extracted watermark.mask(3x3) Scaled down watermarked image.mask(3x3) Median filtered watermarked image and extracted watermark.

mask(444x444) Jpeg compressed watermarked image and extracted watermark 40 .Cropped watermarked image and extracted watermark .

Rotated watermarked image. watermark.angle=-10 degree rotation corrected image and extracted Table Showing the Normalized Cross correlation values for different operations Table lists the PSNR between original host image and watermarked image for various value of λ 41 .

5 0 0 50 100 Angle in Degree Lossy JPEG Com pression 1.5 0 0 5 Mask Size(N XN) 10 0.95 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 Scale Up Factor Rotation in Positive Direction 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 50 100 Angle in Degree NCC NCC Fig Graphs for different operations showing variation of NCC value against various factors 42 NCC NCC .Wiener Filter 1.5 Scale Dow n Factor 1 Scale Up 1.5 NCC NCC 1.9 0.9 0 Scale Dow n NCC 1 0.5 0 0 5 Mask Size(N X N) 10 Median Filter 1.5 1 0.7 0.05 1 0.5 0 50 JPEG 100 150 Rotation in Negative Direction 1.5 1 0.1 0.5 1 0.

few algorithms resist the watermark copy attack and ambiguity attack. Bulk of the literature contains linear additive watermarks. 43 . image But none of the techniques proposed so far seems to be robust to all possible attacks Most of the current methods require the original image at watermark recovery this may prove as serious limitation at certain moments. as shown by the results. as the image may not be accessible Very few algorithms deal with the problems associated with geometric changes. Consequently further work needs to be done to improve the robustness of algorithms. Very few algorithms proposed in the literature consistently survive the random bending attacks.Conclusion and Research Directions Both the algorithms are robust to common processing operations.

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2. 1. Co-author(s): Bhupendra Verma. Sanjeev Jain 52 . accepted for publication. ISSN 0973-3663. accepted in International Conference on Information Security (ICIS). st is tanbul. Sanjeev Jain 2) A New Color Image Watermarking Scheme. 2006. an International Journal). pp 45-50.Publication Paper accepted 1) Spatial Domain Robust Image Watermarking Scheme. Co-author(s): Bhupendra Verma. ADIT Journal of Engineering. Dec 2005. 24-26 June Co-author(s): Bhupendra Verma. Sanjeev Jain 3) A spatial domain non-oblivious robust image-watermarking vol. Turkey. INFOCOMP Journal of Computer Science (INFOCOMP.

Sanjeev Jain 3) Region Splitting Approach to Robust Color Image Watermarking In Wavelet Domain. Co-author(s): Bhupendra Verma. Sanjeev Jain 2) Quad Tree Region Splitting Approach to Spatial Domain Robust Color Image Watermarking. International Journal of Information Technology. International Journal of Image and Graphics (IJIG). Publisher Elsevier) Co-author(s): Bhupendra Verma. (Publisher Computer Society of Singapore). Sanjeev Jain 53 . Co-author(s): Bhupendra Verma. (Publisher World Scientific).Papers Communicated 1) Spatial domain robust blind Watermarking scheme for color image. Image and Vision Computing (International Journal.