p
link Using
Su
p
erim
p
osed Trainings
HunZhunµ
Dept. of Physics & Telecommunication Engineering
South China Normal University
Guangzhou, P. R. China
zhanghan@scnu. edu.cn
AbstractWe address the problem of superimposed training
(ST)based maximumlikelihood (ML) carrier frequency offset
(CFO) estimation for multipleinput multipleoutput/
orthogonal frequencydivision multiplexing (MIMO/OFDM)
systems. With the specifcally designed training signals, the
efect due to the unknown information sequence is fully
cancelled in timedomain and, the CFO estimation is
performed by using one pilot sample of each distinct user. We
also present a performance analysis of the CFOs estimation
and derive an approximated closedform CFO estimation
variance. It is shown that with the judiciously designed
training sequences, the performance of the proposed ST based
ML CFO estimator approaches the CramerRao bound for
high signaltonoise ratio (SNR) scenario. Simulation results
illustrate the merits of the proposed approach.
Keywords Orthogonal frequencydivision multipleing
(OFDM); Carrier frequency ofet (CFO); Superimposed
training; Maimumlkelhood (ML) estimation.
I. INTRODUCTION
The combination of MultipleInput MultipleOutput
(MIMO) antennas and Orthogonal FrequencyDivision
Multiplexing (OFDM) can achieve a lower error rate and/or
enable highcapacity wireless communication systems by
fexibly exploiting diversity gain and/or the spatial
multiplexing gains. Such a system, however, exhibits
sensitive to carrier frequency offsets (CFOs) between the
transmitters and the receivers due to oscillator instabilities
and/or Doppler shifs. The deviation in the carrier frequency
will damage the orthogonality among sub carriers and hence
give rise to intercarrier interference which degrades the
system performance severely [1].
Frequency synchronization in MIMO/OFDM systems,
compared with that of singleinput singleoutput (SISO)
systems, is more crucial and challenging since different
CFOs of individual user needs to be tracked simultaneously
at the base station (BS). Although there have been quite a
few CFO estimation methods for OFDM systems [1][6],
most of them are only applicable to SISO scenario [2][4].
Most of the researches of CFO estimation for the MIMO
OFDM assume that only singlefrequency offset exists
between the transmitter and the receiver [5][6], which is
unrealistic in most cases for the uplink transmission.
A number of approaches have dealt with CFO estimation
V7b14Z44Ôb4VJ/1Ü/5Zô.ÜÜ!ZÜ 1Ü1111
217
XiunhuuOui
Dept. oflnformation Science & Technology
SUN Vatsen University
Guangzhou, P. R. China
issdxh@zsu. edu.cn
in a MIMOOFDM setup [7][12]. According to whether the
CFO estimators is based on the training sequences or not,
they can be clarifed as blind ones [7][9] and trainingbased
ones [10][12]. The maximum likelihood (ML) estimators
are proposed in [7] and [8] for the channels and CFOs of the
MIMO uplink, but fatfading channel models are assumed.
In [9], a blind kurtosisbased CFO estimator for MIMO
OFDM was developed. For trainingbased CFO estimators,
the overviews concering the problem of training design for
joint CFOs and channel estimation in single carrier SISO
and MIMO systems have been addressed in [10][11] by
minimizing the worst case as CramerRao bounds (CRBs).
In [12], a twostep CFO estimator with the optimal training
sequence design was proposed for MIMOOFDM systems.
Although the above trainingbased CFOs estimates [10][12]
are generally reliable, extra bandwidth or time slot is
required for transmitting known pilots.
In recent years, an alterative approach, referred to as
superimposed training (ST), has been widely studied in
[13][17]. In the idea of ST, additional periodic training
sequences are arithmetically added to information sequence
in time or fequencydomain prior to transmission, and thus
enable higher transmission efciency. In this scheme,
however, the information sequences are viewed as additive
interference to CFO and channel estimation. In the latest
contributions, data dependent ST (DDST) [15J represents a
major improvement on the concept of ST ([13] [14]) for
channel estimation, where the information interference to
channel estimation can be effectively removed by adding a
special datadependent sequence. Later on, DDST based
CFO and channel estimation for SISO block transmission, is
presented by [17].
Rather than that of the DDST based approach [17],
where multiple pilot samples are exploited for frequency
tracking, in this paper, we propose a novel ST based CFOs
estimator for MIMO/OFDM systems, where only a single
pilot sample of each distinct user is used for ML fne
fequency tracking. Meanwhile, the information interference
to CFOs estimation is flly cancelled in timedomain by
distorting certain data slots associate with the pilot samples.
With the specifcally designed ST, the ML estimation
process is greatly simplifed since no approximation on the
loglikelihood fnction needs to be made and, a simple
expression for the estimator solution can be obtained
directly. Furthermore, a closedfrom expression of CFOs
estimation variance is derived. It is demonstrated by
theoretical analysis and simulations that the estimation
variance approaches CRB for high signaltonoise ratio
(SNR) scenario, and can be further improved by increasing
the training power allocation.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section II
presents the system models. A ML estimation based on
specifcally designed ST sequences is derived in Section III,
and the corresponding mean square error (MSE) with
theoretical analysis is derived accordingly. Section IV
reports on some simulation experiments caried out in order
to test the validity of theoretic results, and we conclude the
paper with Section V.
1·:a:i·»:: The letter : represents the timedomain
variable, and I is the frequencydomain variable. Bold
letters denote the matrices and columnvectors, and the
superscripts [of and [ 0 t represent the transpose and
conjugate transpose operations, respectively.
II. MIMOIOFDM UPLK MODEL
Consider a multiuser MIMO�OFDM uplink system with
1 transmitters (or mobile users) that share the same time
and fequency band, and a receive array of M receive
antennas at the base station. At transmit terminals, an
inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) is used as a modulator.
The modulated outputs are given by
¸ x¸ 9).···x¸ :),··x¸(B� l)r I
¸
»l,1 (1)
where B is OFDM symbolsize, ¸ x¸ 9),x¸I)
x 1� l) is the transmitted data symbol of the nth transmit ¸
h I FT . . h I

·

`
·
·
antenna, I
IS t e F matnx WIt
·
·
.
and l 1. Then, ¸ is concatenated by a cyclicprefx
(CP) of length L` L`is larger than or at least equal to the
maximum channel delay 1 to cancel the intersymbol
interference), propagated through the respective channels.
With a carrier frequency mismatch between the user nand
receiver, the corresponding normalized fequency offset to
subcarrier spacing is denoted as
I
, » 1,'" 1
·
At receiver,
the received signals of m th receive antenna, discarding CP
and stacking the received signals y
º
:), can be written in a
vectorform as
y
'º
[y'º
(0)"" y'º
:).y'º
(B � 1) r
N
"
E Nº
vº
m1
. M (2)
¸¸ ¸
¸
and the received signal y'" :)in (2) is given by
N

y
º:)
^.

`

¹
· ·
^
h�´ :)x¸ :�l).º
:) (3)
¸
�
·� ·
where E is the B x B diagonal matrix that composed of CFO
1 t
¸
'
th ·
¡~·
[
.
`
·· ·
.
.
`
.
·
··
·
e emen s, WI ·a«¸
.
.. ,
Nº
is the BxB matrix with the frst column given
by"¸h��) :).·h�¨
:).ä
¸
·
f with h�´ :)/0,'" L � 1 be�ng
timedomain impulse response vector of the propagatmg
channel from the » th transmit to the m th receive antenna.
.º
:) is the additive white Gaussian noise (A WGN) with
variance 0;. Similar to [2J [I2J [17], we assume that the
218
channel taps h�´ :)remain constant in each block and thus
neglect the variable :for simplicity.
III. PROPOSED ML FREQUENCY OFFSET ESTIMATION
USING SUPERIMPOSED TRAINING
Unlike the existing ML estimators [7] [8J , where certain
approximations are needed for the problem of local extrema,
we propose a new STbased ML approach in this section.
With the specifcally designed training signals, the ML
estimation process can be greatly simplifed, while
preserving identical performance to the CRB for high SNR
scenario.
A. Svp
.
·imp·:
.
·¡·ai»i»«D
.
:i«»
In ST based approaches [13][I7J , the pilot symbols are
superimposed to the information sequences as
¸ 8¸ P¸.»l,1 (4)
whereS
n
:¸ 9),·· :¸ 1�l) a+¤P¸ [¡¸(9)
" ¡¸(B
l)f
are the B x 1 information and pilot vectors, respectIvely.
Compared with the FDM/TDM schemes [1OJ [I2J , ST
requires no additional timeslot (or bandwidth) for transmit
ting the known pilots, and thus offers a higher data rate.
Substituting (4) into (3), we have
y
º
N
"
E Nº
¸¸¸
�
¸
.
v
desired signal for CFO(s) estimation interference to CFO(s) estimation
:)
From :).we clearly see that the information sequences,
in addition to A WGN, exhibit as additive interference to
CFO(s) estimation. This is a common problem for the
existing STbased approaches [13][14]. On the other hand,
in MIMOI OFDM system where the received signals in :)
are overlapped across different users, the training signals of
the desired user can not be distinguished from others' for
estimating the CFO(s).
In this paper, we adopt the following training scheme to
circumvent the abovementioned problems, i. e.
¡¸ :) .J(: �:¸),» ¡.1 (6)
where E is the power of the pilots, :¸ B � 1� »l)L � 1
is referd to as the pilot sample. Explicitly, the training
signals of various users are in fact a J sequence at the time
sample : : »1
. . .
1 that follows a disjoint set with an
interval L
·
n
'
Therefore, using the specifcally designed
training sequence (6), the training signals of various users
are decoupled. Compared to A WGN, however, the
information interference to CFO(s) and (or) channel
estimation could be more severely, especially for high SNR
scenario. Accordingly, the objective of this subsection is to
mitigate the interference due to the information
clusters :¸ :¸ �Ll),:¸:¸ L�l).»l,1 prior to
transmission.
Motivated by  l:] and [17J , we propose to distort the
information clusters being viewed as interference with the
distortion component given by
(7)
where < is a 1x 1 matrix with diagonal elements
1:¸±/) /= 0.L
¡. »= ¡.1 are ones and the remaining
entries are zeros. In this case, the introduced distortion in (7)
corresponds to simply remove the information clusters
:¸:¸ L !).· :¸:¸ L!). » !.· 1 . The transmitted
signals 4).prior to transmission, can be thus rewritten by
where I
·
denotes the identity matrix of size 1 . As will be
shown in Section IIIB, using the distorted signals (8), CFO
estimation on the pilot sample ¡¸:¸) could be performed
without any information interference, which is similar to
that of the FDM/TDM trainingbased schemes !0]!2]
·
Differently, the proposed STbased approach requires no
additional timeslots (or bandwidth) for transmitting the
known pilots, and thus offers a higher data rate. On the other
hand, the introduced distortion, however, may give rise to
an error foor on symbol detection at receiver. One of the
simple ways to circumvent the distortion to symbol recovery
may refer to the decisiondirected iterative symbol detector
!:] (details will not be addressed here since it is beyond the
scope of this paper).
1. 'aximvmLiI
.
' ih···CFO £::ima:··
With the specifcally designed training signals (6)(8),
the carrier fequency offsets of MIMO/OFDM system are in
fact incorporated into a single vector, which allows us to use
the single user ST based approach in estimating the CFO(s)
of distinguished users. Accordingly, we have the log
likelihood fnction corresponding to the pilot sample
where vº
¸:¸j= j"L�:� /��
:¸ól)is a noisefree vector.
To fnd the ML estimation of b , we differentiate 9) with
respect to b by setting the second term o
.
f 9) to zero i
:
e.
.

`·
·
y'
·
:¸) v
·
·
:¸) Correspondmgly, we readIly
obtain the CFO of the nth user
where Re {} and
1
m {} denote the real and imaginary part.
Using the specifcally designed ST, the channel impulse
response (CIR) h��./ 0.L!could be jointly estimated,
without suffering additional interference due to the
information sequence. With the estimated CIR, v'
·
:¸) can
be obtained and, the CFO(s) estimation can be thus obtained
by 9) !0)in one OFDM symbol interval.
C. CFO £::ima:i·»a»a 'y:i:
Note that
.
·
·
·
·
,
·
º
¸:¸j.
· ··
}
,·
º
¸:¸j.

 ··
and we thus have
219
However, it is diffcult to derive the closedform expression
of the mean square error (MSE) by !!) directly.
Considering the approximation of arcta
1
x
º
xwhen x is
small, however, !!)can be rewritten by
A
1
1
m

.

`
·
·
v
·
:¸)
¡,'·
:¸)
¹
¸
¹
¸
º
2
,
¸ve

.

`
· ·
v'·
:¸)
¡,'·
:¸)
1
1
m '
.

·· ·,··
:¸ )
,·
·
:¸
¡¡H }
=
2a:¸
ve'
,·
º
:¸) +
 ..
`
· ·,·
·
:¸ )
,··
:¸
¡¡H }
1
.
·· ·,·
º
:¸)
,·
º
:¸
¡¡
H
.
· ·
,
'
º
:¸
¡¡
H
,·
º
:¸)
4
)
a:¸ ve'+
,·
º
:¸j +`
.


·
·,·
º
:¸j
,·
º
:¸))
ª
}
!2)
For high SNR environment, !2)can be approximated as
I
¹
¸
º
1
.

`·
·
v'
·
:¸.º
:¸)
v

.
`· ·
v
·
:¸)
·
.·
:¸
ª
)
a:¸ v'
º
:¸ `
!3)
Following by !3). the MSE of the CFO estimator is given
by
'S£]!
¸
!
++`
¡º
1`
]
.
`
· ·
v
·
º
:
j .
·º
:
¡¡
H

¡6a`:;v
·º
:¸j +
'
¸ ¸
.
`

·
,
'º
:¸ jjª,·
º
:¸ j
' '
`
}
= "

¦
.
·
º
¸:
·'¦

j,
ve
[
.
'
·/ ·
1
v
·
º
: j

1
.º·: j
)

Jj
s÷:`
,·
º
¸:¸j 
.
¸
�
1`
� sa`:¸l1k :¸
»l.·1 !4)
where we have used the approximation ¡r
º
¡ for high
SNR scenario, l1k :¸) v'
·
:¸) `!
,
'
º
:¸) ` is the pilot
tonoise ratio PN) at the pilot sample
:¸
. In the light of
the expression !4). we see that the CFO estimation
var i ance is di r ect l y pr opor t i onal to t he r at i o of
1` ! :¸ l1k:¸). For a given system of fxed subcarrier B,
the MSE of CFO estimation can be improved by increasing
either the training power £¸(which is equivalent to increase
the l1k :¸) ) or the parameter :¸ On the other hand, the
estimation range of the proposed CFO(s) estimator, as
shown in !0). is ±1]2:¸
which indicates that :¸is
inversely proportional to the frequency tracking range. That
is, a tradeoff is offered between the estimation range and
the MSE of the CFO estimator. Therefore, the pilot
sample:¸.»!.·1 is set as 1 1»!)L!!·· the
fairess of estimation. Accordingly, the range of estimation
ie
..
�
..
�
___
__
__
 rOOsed Übased eslnaOr
Craner¬aO bOund
ie
.. .. .. ..
..
.
o ie is ze zs e
ÜlgnaONOlse ¬alO ÜN¬)
Fig. I CFO estimation performance against SNR with the normalized
Doppler fequency !=O.OS and ; =O.IS.
yields ±B/2(BLl) � ± 0.5, which is generally large
enough for CFO tracking.
Commonly, the CramerRao bound (CRB) places a
bound on the variance of each element to be estimated, and
it can be used as a benchmark in related works [8][ll].
Herein, we derive CRB to evaluate the performance of our
estimator. Firstly, we compute the Fisher information matrix
by
2
¬'· :¸)
.

·/· ·
`
y'·:¸))
·.··.· ·
¹
¸
0; `'
¸
`'
4a

:²
lv'·:¸)1

B
2
0;
n 1,
,,·
1 .
The CRB can be readily derived as
15)
16)
It is seen that when the training power E at pilot sample :¸
is equal to that of the average po�er of information
sequence, i. e. Ep = Es' the CRB is exactly identical t
�
14),
which means that the performance of the proposed estlmator
approaches to the CRB for high SNR scenario.
Unlike the existing piloted aided schemes [10][12] [17]
where multiple pilots are utilized for frequency tracking, we
exploit a ST based estimator where only one pilot sample is
exploited at each transmitter for ML CFOs estimation of
distinct users. By using the specifcally designed training
signals (6)(8), no approximation on the loglikelihood
function needs to be made, and thus, the ML estimation
process can be simplifed and, resulting in a simple
expression for the estimator solution. Therefore, for the case
of high SNR scenario, the proposed approach can be
considered as a promising alterative instead of multiple
pilot based estimators, while preserving good estimation
accuracy.
250
'
:
·
==

=
'
:
==
'
,
==
·
�
·
==
· �,
=
ÜlgnaO·NOlse ¬alO (ÜN¬)
Fig. 2 CFO estimation performance against SNR with the normalized
Doppler fequency ! = 0.2 and ; = O.4S.
IV. SIMULATION RSULTS
We assume the MIMO/OFDM system with 1= 2 and M
= 4
·
The symbolsize is B = 512 and the transmitted
datas
n
(k) is 8PSK signals with symbol rate! 10
7
/ se
�
ond.
The channel is assumed to be L 8 and, the coefCIents
h" :)are generated as lowpass, Gaussian and zero mean
r;�dom processes and correlated in time with the correlation
functions according to Jakes' model [18]. The training
power is set as E = E,. CP length is chosen to be 16 to
avoid intersymb�l interferences. The additive noise is a
Gaussian and white random process with a zero mean. In
our simulation, perfect channel state information is assumed
to be known at the receiver.
To evaluate the proposed STbased ML estimator, we
resort to the MSE of CFO estimation to measure the
estimation performance, which is defned as
Fig. 1 shows the performance of the proposed ST based
ML estimator with different values of carrier frequency
offset, i.e. J = 0.05 andJ = 0. 15. It is observed from Fig. 1
that the MSE of the proposed estimator is unbiased as the
SNR increases, and approaches CRB for high SNR scenario
(when SNR : I5dB). According to the selection of the pilot
sample :¸
n = 1,'" N in Section III, the CFO tracking range
is up to ± 0.5. Therefore, we present the performance of our
estimator for large CFOs, i.e. J = 0.2 and J = 0. 45 in Fig. 2.
From Fig. 2, we observe that the estimation performance of
our estimation approach, similar to that of Fig. 1, becomes
unbiased and approaches to CRB. However, it requires a
higher SNR, i. e. SNR � 20d.
Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 are consistent with the estimation
analysis in section IIIC. That is, the proposed CFO
estimation approach is unbiased and, approaches CRB as the
increment of SNR. On the other hand, we notice that the
proposed estimator, however, requires a higher SNR to a
larger CFO tracking. To gain an insight into the proposed
estimator, in Fig. 3, we further provide the required SNR for
achieving certain MSE under different CFOs. As shown in
Fig. 3, the performance of the proposed estimator is
approximately directly proportional to the SNR. Meanwhile,
to achieve the estimation performance of MSE = 10
2
and
10
3
under a large CFO, i.e. 45% subcarrier spacing, only
17d and 19dB are required by our estimation approach,
respectively, which can be satisfed for most practical
systems.
20 ,
18
16
� 14
z
�
� 12
0:
� 10
'5
z
' 8
�
. Q 6
(
¬ MÜE = 0.001
¬ MÜE = 0.01
O L_ __L_ __L_ __L_ _ �
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
Normalized Doppler Frequency
Fig. 3 Required SNR for achieving certain MSE under different normalized
carier fequency offsets.
V. CONCLUSION
A efcient STbased ML method has been proposed
for estimating the CFOs of an uplink multiuser
MIMO/OFDM system. With the specifcally designed
training signals, the ML estimation process can be greatly
simplifed since no approximation on the loglikelihood
function needs to be made, and the CFOs estimation can be
performed by using only a single pilot sample of each user.
We also present a performance analysis of the frequency
tracking approach and derive a closedform expression for
the CFO estimation variance with reasonable approximation.
It is shown that the estimation variance approaches CRB for
high SNR scenario.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This work is supported by national Natural Science
Foundation (NSF) of China, Grant 60772132 and key project
of NSF of Guangdong province, Grant 825102750100001l.
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1974
using the specifically designed training sequence (6). we have maximum channel delay L to cancel the intersymbol interference). the received signals of m th receive antenna. and can be further improved by increasing the training power allocation. Pn(t )= . respectively.. III..··xn )··· ( (k O xn (B�I)t is the transmitted data symbol of the nth transmit antenna. the training signals of various users are in fact a J sequence at the time sample t=t n' n=1 . It is demonstrated by theoretical analysis and simulations that the estimation variance approaches CRB for high signaltonoise ratio (SNR) scenario."'. . and a receive array of M receive antennas at the base station. Motivated by [ I5J and [17J. 0 ( channel taps h�])t ) remain constant in each block and thus neglect the variable t for simplicity. At transmit terminals. and we conclude the paper with Section V.xn(B � I )r =F 1 n X ( X n = I. an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) is used as a modulator. . = j Jrkt and l = 1.J � "" E n (m) n Hn p N interference to CFO(s) estimation .. and the corresponding mean square error (MSE) with theoretical analysis is derived accordingly. Then. especially for high SNR scenario. MIMOIOFDM UPLINK MODEL and frequency band. however. This is a common problem for the existing STbased approaches [13][14]. while preserving identical performance to the CRB for high SNR scenario. we propose a new STbased ML approach in this section.L. Explicitly. Sup erimpos ed Training Design In STbased approaches [13][I7J. discarding CP and stacking the received signals ylm)t ) . and thus offers a higher data rate. N that follows a disjoint set with an interval L.···N (6) y(m) [ y(m) (0)"" y(m)(t).xn (t). 0lx BL f with h�])(t ) 1= 0. we clearly see that the information sequences. An ML estimation based on specifically designed ST sequences is derived in Section III." .n ! = (5) v From (5). and the superscripts [of and [ t represent the transpose and conjugate transpose operations.I' the IFFT matnx WIth [F 1]k. Xn =[xn ). Section IV reports on some simulation experiments carried out in order to test the validity of theoretic results. tn B� (N �n + I)L�1 = is referie d to as the pilot sample.··N prior to clusters snn (t �L+I). 2 /B IS .... Compared to AWGN. WIth dlag::'n [e )2"/"xO.estimation variance is derived. in MIMOI OFDM system where the received signals in (5) are overlapped across different users. Similar to [2J [I2J [17].n =1. With a carrier frequency mismatch between the user n and receiver. At receiver.J H m) X + n l =: and the received signal y(m)(t) in (2) is given by L I N /BL (3) (t ylm)(t )=Lej2"f.J (t � tn). we assume that the where E is the power of the pilots. ST requires no additional timeslot (or bandwidth) for transmit ting the known pilots. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. the information interference to CFO(s) and (or) channel estimation could be more severely. e.JE.( BI)/B] .n = I. . where certain approximations are needed for the problem of local extrema. Compared with the FDM/TDM schemes [1OJ [I2J .. e)2"/. i. exhibit as additive interference to CFO(s) estimation.n=1. Therefore. the training signals of the desired user can not be distinguished from others' for estimating the CFO(s).··N = + .h�1_ (t). . A.I )f O are the B x 1 information and pilot vectors. Xnis concatenated by a cyclicprefix (CP) of length L' ( L' is larger than or at least equal to the y(m) = desired signal for CFO(s) estimation . we adopt the following training scheme to circumvent the abovementioned problems. On the other hand.··snn transmission...'" N . respectIvely. Section II presents the system models. H(m) is the BxB matrix with the first column given by"[h��) (t). can be written in a ( vectorform as n=[xn O ). ..··N (1) where B is OFDM symbolsize.'" L�1 be� ng 1 timedomain impulse response vector of the propagatmg channel from the n th transmit to the m th receive antenna. we propose to distort the information clusters being viewed as interference with the distortion component given by 218 . in addition to AWGN. . PROPOSED ML FREQUENCY OFFSET ESTIMATION USING SUPERIMPOSED TRAINING Unlike the existing ML estimators [7] [8J. the corresponding normalized frequency offset to subcarrier spacing is denoted as In. .t e. In this paper. Bold letters denote the matrices and columnvectors. propagated through the respective channels. M L. With the specifically designed training signals.t h�])(t )xn�I)+v(m)(t ) n 1 � 0 1� where E n the B x B diagonal matrix that composed of CFO is T /B ' ' {}= e1 ements. The modulated outputs are given by N transmitters (or mobile users) that share the same time Consider a multiuser MIMO�OFDM uplink system with (B = (O (B ( whereSn=[sn ).'" y(m) �1)r = (B N (2) = "" E n(n n V(m)m=1' . the objective of this subsection is to mitigate the interference due to the information (t +L�I). the training signals of various users are decoupled. v(m)(t) is the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) with variance 0". Notations: The letter t represents the timedomain variable.n (4) II. and k is the frequencydomain variable. the ML estimation process can be greatly simplified.sn �IW andPn [Pn )" ' Pn :. Substituting (4) into (3). the pilot symbols are superimposed to the information sequences as Xn Sn Pn = I. F . Accordingly.
" . With the estimated CIR.In'" m I .)§e I) is a noisefree vector.. . " J.. t ( B eJ21Cf". and thus offers a higher data rate. Accordingly. C. : j } J [ � where Re {} and 1m {} denote the real and imaginary part.in'" . the pilot sampletn.UCm) (tn)Vcm) (tn)) H } B .··N (14) 219 . For a given system of fixed subcarrier B. we differentiate (9) with respect to b by setting the second term of (9) to zero i:e. a tradeoff is offered between the estimation range and the MSE of the CFO estimator...(10) in one OFDM symbol interval.. /B r B 1m {e J2ll"J.. . /B B eJ27rf"tuCm)(tJ (vcm)(tn)t _e J2ll"f"t (ucm)(tJ)H v(m)(tJ (t 1 I uCm) J 2 4 j7rtn (13) Following by (13). the CFO(s) estimation can be thus obtained by (9)./B e J27rf"t (U(m) (tn))ff VCm) tn)1 12 ( = MSE{llln !n112} '" where ul m)(t. (11) can be rewritten by B. may give rise to an error floor on symbol detection at receiver. . and we thus have Ana lysis J. Using the specifically designed ST. . One of the simple ways to circumvent the distortion to symbol recovery may refer to the decisiondirected iterative symbol detector [15] (details will not be addressed here since it is beyond the scope of this paper).n=1. Differently. the proposed STbased approach requires no additional timeslots (or bandwidth) for transmitting the known pilots. can be thus rewritten by However. however. we readIly r obtain the CFO of the nth user = 2 B2! vcm)(t. Accordingly. uCm)(t.uc m) (tn) (vCm) (tn)) H _ 167(2t. as shown in ( 1 0).n=l.UCm) (tn) ( Vc m) tn))ff } ( 4j7(tnRe{1 ( .. Maximum Like lihood CFO Estimator where I B denotes the identity matrix of size B .··N . the MSE of the CFO estimator is given by B2 . 27(tn Re{I UCm)(tn)12 +e J21Cf"t m) (tn)VCm) (tn)) H } .··· L 1 could be jointly estimated. t.·· sn (tn+ L 1)../B =yCm)(tn) /ucm)(tn) ' Correspondmgly. (12) In ." ./BUcm) tn) ( VCm) tn)) H . In this case. prior to transmission.. the MSE of CFO estimation can be improved by increasing either the training power Ep (which is equivalent to increase the PNR (tn) ) or the parameter tn' On the other hand. As will be shown in Section IIIB. CJ. the estimation range of the proposed CFO(s) estimator. To find the ML estimation of b . . however. eJ21Ct i. the introduced distortion. /B 2 n Re{eJ21Cf"tuCm)(tn)/yCm)(tn)} A = t ..) ji"". In the light of the expression ( 1 4).n 1.(7) where <I> is a B xB matrix with diagonal elements rJ> (tn ± 1) 1 0. Considering the approximation of arctan1 x '" x when x is small. without suffering additional interference due to the information sequence. it is difficult to derive the closedform expression of the mean square error (MSE) by (11) directly.L+1). I UCm)(tn) 12 .)/B=ycm)(tn)eJ21Ct/B /Ucm)(tn)eJ27rt/B Note that CFO Estimation where we have used the approximation 1. .J! l_Re eJ4ff/. CFO estimation on the pilot sample Pn (tn) could be performed without any information interference. (12) can be approximated as For high SNR environment.L�:� h��)et. .ucm)(tn)/yCm)(tn)} n./B 1m { e J2 ll"f". eJ27rJ. /B . the channel impulse response (CIR) h��)1=0. With the specifically designed training signals (6)(8). . which is similar to that of the FDM/TDM trainingbased schemes [10][12]. On the other hand.t(ucm)et ))2( evlm\tn)t)2 . using the distorted signals (8)./B 87(2t. The transmitted signals (4).···N are ones and the remaining = = entries are zeros. .. . we see that the CFO estimation v a r i a n c e is d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e r a t i o of N 2/ PNR (tn) .··· L 1.e J21Cr"t (UCm) tn))H VCm) (tn) ( ( /B t Ucm) tn)12 +eJ27rf". I uCm)(tn)14 ./B . PNR tn)= I uCm)(tn) 12/1 VCm)(tn) 2 is the pilot ( tn tonoise ratio (PNR) at the pilot sample . the carrier frequency offsets of MIMO/OFDM system are in fact incorporated into a single vector. is ±B/2tn ' which indicates that tn is inversely proportional to the frequency tracking range. which allows us to use the single user STbased approach in estimating the CFO(s) of distinguished users.. the range of estimation B2 2t. the introduced distortion in (7) corresponds to simply remove the information clusters sn (tn. That is.rp '" 1 for high 1 SNR scenario. we have the log likelihood function corresponding to the pilot sample .) can be obtained and./BUc .(N n+1)Llfor the fairness of estimation./B t {lle J2ll"f".PNR (tJ ' 87( � j n = I. Therefore.··N is set as B .
the CFO tracking range is up to ± 0. Unlike the existing piloted aided schemes [10][12] [17] where multiple pilots are utilized for frequency tracking.CramerRao bound :10. which means that the performance of the proposed estlmator approaches to the CRB for high SNR scenario. J. no approximation on the loglikelihood function needs to be made. we observe that the estimation performance of our estimation approach. 2 25 30 O 1 15 SignallaNoise Ratio (SNR) Fig. the ML estimation process can be simplified and. i. According to the selection of the pilot sample tn' n 1. however. 2 CFO estimation performance against SNR with the normalized Doppler frequency J.!. it requires a higher SNR. SIMULATION RESULTS ( 16) It is seen that when the training power E at pilot sample tn is equal to that of the average po�er of information sequence. e. i. It is observed from Fig. "B / "B / ay(m) (t n J2ff/"t a ( y(m) (t nH e J2ffj. requires a higher SNR to a = = = = = 250 . =O. Firstly. CP length is chosen to be 16 to avoid intersymb�l interferences. The channel is assumed to be L= 8 and. ( 15) The CRB can be readily derived as We assume the MIMO/OFDM system with N 2 and M 4. From Fig.:. resulting in a simple expression for the estimator solution. approaches CRB as the increment of SNR. SNR � 20dB.IS.t )e )) aIn aln ) 12 47r2t : lu(m) (t n n=1.2 and J. J. The training power is set as E E.05 andJ. 0. i. The symbolsize is B 512 and the transmitted datasn(k) is 8PSK signals with symbol rate!. we derive CRB to evaluate the performance of our estimator. which is defined as = = = IV. Ep Es' the CRB is exactly identical t� ( 14) .· N .'" N in Section III. we present the performance of our estimator for large CFOs. we compute the Fisher information matrix by = = In 2 0' . for the case of high SNR scenario. 1 and Fig. and thus. Therefore. =0..e. 0. which is generally large enough for CFO tracking. I CFO estimation performance against SNR with the normalized Doppler frequency Fig. similar to that of Fig. However. and approaches CRB for high SNR scenario (when SNR :e: I5dB). Commonly. In our simulation. and it can be used as a benchmark in related works [8][ll]. Therefore. =O. becomes unbiased and approaches to CRB. :: o 10 15 20 25. Herein. 0. B2 0'. yields ±B/2(BLl) � ± 0. 1 shows the performance of the proposed STbased ML estimator with different values of carrier frequency offset. we notice that the proposed estimator. J. That is.5..45 in Fig.5. 2.4S. 30 SignattoNoise Ratio (SNR) L :10" O :::: 0:!. the CramerRao bound (CRB) places a bound on the variance of each element to be estimated. the proposed approach can be considered as a promising alternative instead of multiple pilot based estimators.e.OS and J.:====::::==::::===Jl : :!:: :::!: B Proposed Slbased ML estimator *. 0. = Fig. perfect channel state information is assumed to be known at the receiver.::�:�. while preserving good estimation accuracy. The additive noise is a Gaussian and white random process with a zero mean. 2 are consistent with the estimation analysis in section IIIC.�dom processes and correlated in time with the correlation functions according to Jakes' model [18].e.15.10" t��. 1 that the MSE of the proposed estimator is unbiased as the SNR increases. Gaussian and zero mean r. =107 / se�ond. On the other hand.' L':':::':::!::. By using the specifically designed training signals (6)(8). 1.2 andJ. 2. the proposed CFO estimation approach is unbiased and. we resort to the MSE of CFO estimation to measure the estimation performance. the coeffiCIents h(m) (t) are generated as lowpass. i. . we exploit a STbased estimator where only one pilot sample is exploited at each transmitter for ML CFOs estimation of distinct users. Fig. =O. To evaluate the proposed STbased ML estimator.
the ML estimation process can be greatly simplified since no approximation on the loglikelihood function needs to be made. 2006. 10. 49. 54. MIMO and multiuser OFDM systems. Swami. 3. Schenk.45 [13] Fig. V. 2.4 0. pp. Li. Signal Process. no. Feb. to achieve the estimation performance of MSE 102 and 103 under a large CFO. 12. Mar. vol. Feb. Li. Commun. respectively." IEEE Trans. 3. Commun. "Linearly timevarying channel estimation for MIMO/OFDM systems using superimposed Training. 2005. pp. pp. "Channel estimation using implicit training. 179181. Merli and G. Zhang. 200I. vol. pp. 51. M. C. S. 48.. Tureli.35 0." IEEE Trans. = [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] 20 . channel impulse response and data in OFDM transmissions. Ql (j) � [II] 0.�. no. A. vol. 483494. pp.I. L. no. N. Zhang and D. Yao and G.2003 D. X." IEEE Trans. 12.. C. 53. no. As shown in Fig. C. 7. we further provide the required SNR for achieving certain MSE under different CFOs. With the specifically designed training signals. "On channel estimation using super imposed training and firstorder statistics. pp. 19101917. Swami. 2010. P.. Zoltowski. pp. vol. i. pp.1 0. vol. Jakes. Moosvi. no.25 0." New York: Wiley. A. Meanwhile. Mody and G. Grant 60772132 and key project of NSF of Guangdong province.001 = 0. Signal Process. Lett. REFERENCES [I] M. 3. 45% subcarrier spacing. pp. Ghogho.01 = [12] 0. "Synchronization for MIMOOFDM systems.�. O. 39573965. Nov. A. Broadcasting. 113. 3. We also present a performance analysis of the frequency tracking approach and derive a closedform expression for the CFO estimation variance with reasonable approximation. 4.J. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT [16] [17] [18] Q. 509513. K. Tugnait and W. 813823.. M. Commun. II. D. Dai. pp. et aI." IEEE Trans. "Carrier frequency offset estimation using datadependent superimposed training. 3 Required SNR for achieving certain MSE under different normalized carrier frequency offsets. no. 56. Hao. Jiang. Mar. 1974 This work is supported by national Natural Science Foundation (NSF) of China. no. 2000. Zelst and T. vol. McLernon. April 2008. 52.MSE +. 2003. 5. 624627. 52. Besson. Stoica. 602{.. McLernon." IEEE Trans. pp. no. "Carrier frequency offset estimation for OFDM systems using null subcarriers. Letaief. F. no..3 0. D. Stuber. Consumer Electron. June. 2008." IEEE Trans. B. and D. Signal Process.e. pp. no. Luo. which can be satisfied for most practical systems. "Decision feedback frequency offset estimation and tracking for general ICI selfcancellation based OFDM systems. "Iterative MLbased estimation of carrier frequency offset.. "Blind carrier frequency offset estimation in SISO. CONCLUSION [15] An efficient STbased ML method has been proposed for estimating the CFOs of an uplink multiuser MIMO/OFDM system. 2003. "Implementation of a MIMOOFDM based wireless LAN system. To gain an insight into the proposed estimator. IEEE ICASSP. W. 54. 58. C.15 Normalized Doppler Frequency 0. 2004. Y. the performance of the proposed estimator is approximately directly proportional to the SNR. " IEEE Trans." IEEE Trans.MSE [10] . "Microwave mobile communications. I. and the CFOs estimation can be performed by using only a single pilot sample of each user. 3." IEEE Trans. 2. pp." IEEE Trans." in Proc. A. Commun. "On parameter estimation of MIMO flat fading channels with frequency offsets. pp. J." IEEE Sign al Processing Lett.larger CFO tracking. no." in Proc. vol. Huang and K. M. J. vol.13.• vol. 'Training sequence design for frequency offset and frequencyselective channel estimation. "Frequency offset estimation and training sequence design for MIMO OFDM. 2004. and M.• vol. 51. vol.. vol. pp. U. in Fig. Mar.. 2004. 2005. G. Oct. 53. 560566. 18 16 � 14 z � [8] � '" 12 [9] 0:: '5 z � 10 8 6 B. 3. 14591461. IEEE GlobeCom.. Y. "Channel estimation and symbol detection for block transmission using datadependent superimposed training. H. Signal Process. Jan. Commun." IEEE Commun.05 O L__L____ L__ L ____ L__ L ____ L__ L __ � 0. Ghogho and A. Vitetta. It is shown that the estimation variance approaches CRB for high SNR scenario. et aI. Liu. no." IEEE Trans.2 0. 965971. pp. only 17dB and 19dB are required by our estimation approach. "A novel method of carrier frequency offset estimation of OFDM system. "Training design for multipath channel and frequencyoffset estimation in MIMO systems. vol. 2008. no. E. M. W. 226229. no. Grant 825102750100001l. 12441254. Besson and P. 2. May 2006. vol. Lara. Nov..Sept. [2] 251 ." IEEE Trans. vol. 173183. Commun. Giannakis. OrozcoLugo. "OFDM blind carrier offset estimation: ESPRIT. Stoica and O. 2007. 240254. vol.. H. 497506.. 4. and A. 4. AlamedaHernandez." IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. Jan. M.. [14] V. pp.