J. of Thermal Science, Vol.9, No.


Influence of Coal Nature and Structure on Ash Size Formation Characteristic and Related Pollutant Emissions During CFB Combustion



Philippe JAUD

Electricit6 de France Division R & D , 6 quai Wafter B.P.49 78401 Chatou, France

Yongjie NA

Qinggang LU

Shaolin BAO

Ping CUI

Weihong JIAO

Huanming ZHAO

Institute o f Engineering T h e r m o p h y s i c s , Chinese A c a d e m y o f Sciences 100080 Beijing, China The size distribution of coal particles in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler plays a crucial role in the complicated combustion, heat exchange and pollutant emissions in such a plant. Therefore, it is fundamental to study the different factors having influence on the size distribution of coal particles. Above all, the coal itself and in particular, the coal comminution phenomenon is a very influent factor. In the frame of this work, the coal nature (elementary composition) and coal internal structure (mineral components) are studied in detail. At this intermediary stage, experiments on three typical Chinese coals on a 1.5 MWt CFBC pilot plant have been made. Some primary fragmentation tests have also been made in a small lab scale fluidized bed reactor. The results from the hot pilot test show i) the variation of coal ash distributions and other CFB performance data due to the cyclone and the coal characteristics and ii) the variation of desulfurization efficiency with limestone. Whereas the bench scale primary fragmentation test, likely linked to the caking propriety of a coal, does not seem to change considerably the char size distribution.

Keywords : circulatingfluidized bed, coal characterization,ash formation,size distribution,pollutantemissions. Introduction
One of the advantages of CFB boiler is its ability to use different kinds of fuels. Theoretically, all types of coals may be used in a CFB boiler. Nevertheless, all coals do not have the same behavior in a CFB boiler. Furthermore, we know now that the size distribution of coal particles circulating in a CFB boiler plays a crucial role in the complicated combustion, heat exchange and pollutant formation mechanisms. Therefore, it is of prime interest to know better the link between the nature of the coal and the resulting particle size distribution inside a CFB furnace which influences the global behavior of the boiler. This experimental program, launched by Electricit6 de France/Division R&D in collaboration with Institute of Engineering Thermophysics (IET), has been designed to study the influence of the coal nature (elementary c o m p o s i t i o n ) and coal i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e ( m i n e r a l components) on the ash formation and related pollutant emissions. In practice, the first aspect of the work consists in testing 6 Chinese coals of which the Received 2000 immediate and ultimate analyses results are different for the 6 coals one from the other. During the tests for the first two coals, the role of the cyclone and the influence of limestone type on the SO2 emission have also been studied. If the first aspect is well known in the field of coal characterization for CFB use, the second aspect is rather a new experience based on the hypothesis that the final ash size distribution is somehow a reflection of the coal mineral inclusions size distribution. Since the primary fragmentation could cause some violent internal chock, in early times we think it is preferable to compare the mineral inclusions in the char particles after primary fragmentation with that after CFB combustion.

Experimental Facilities
Two experimental facilities are used to characterize a coal in this program. One is a 1.5 MWt CFBC pilot plant, of which the main part is shown in Figure1. Solid particle samplings are carried out at five different locations among which

28 7.70 8. Ca/S = 1.31 1.86 3.ar (MJ/kg) 26. with the tips downward.2 28. The fluidized bed is made of stainless steel with 122mm in diameter and 300 mm in height. Fig.44 71.15 and 0.850 degrees C (+10 degrees C).5 MWt CFBC pilot Concerning the second aspect. B. On the other hand. White A1203 sand with diameter between 0. have been tested in the CFBC pilot of 1. A gas sampling probe is installed in the gas duct.19 4.072m 2 in order to increase the gas velocity at the entrance of the cyclone from about 15 m/s to 24 ntis.14 0.Min Qian et al. D and a French coal: E have been tested in the lab scale fluidized bed under following operating conditions: Results and Discussion Influence of Cyclone Effidency After having modified the cyclone efficiency between the pilot tests of coal A and coal B.57 17.90 44. 1 Main part of the 1. Mat.74 0. 02. NOx. excess air: 20%. the desulfurization efficiency and the unburned carbon content in the fly ash. bed temperature: .95 C 15.66 29. primary air/secondary air = 55/45.62 0.50 4.5 MWt with the standard operating conditions: coal feed rate =200 kg/h.2 shows that the furnace temperature profile of the same coal tested after the modification of the cyclone is more even than that before the modification.48 4.72 27. The tips of the two vacuum ash probes in the furnace are all located at the center of the horizontal cross section of the furnace. CO and CO2 in gas are analyzed on line and recorded in a computer. Experiments Three typical Chinese coals: A. not shown on the diagram. Bed material is about 1300g in weight and about 80mm in height.06 0. the comparison of different parameters shows the influence of the cyclone efficiency improvement on the operation of the CFBC pilot.35 mm and 0.34 Cyclone Modifications It is worth noting that some modifications on the refractory-lined cyclone separator have been made during the program to evaluate the influence of its efficiency on the ash size distribution. Whereas coal B has been tested twice before and after the modifications.58 Qnet. B and C.39 1.28 2.35 52.ad N ad e4 12. one in the freeboard zone. The fifth one. This lab scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor is inserted into an electric oven from the bottom to be heated during experiment.58 21. Influence of Coal Nature on Ash Size Formation and Pollutant Emissions During CFB Combustion the first four holes are shown on the diagram below: one in the bottom bed. In fact.73 49.08 7.15 52. and coal C has been tested with the improved cyclone.2 and 3 successively.50 3.115 m 2 to 0. a lab scale fluidized bed is used to make experiments on primary fragmentation of coals.35 12.26 61.5mm is used as bed material.55 28. 277 bed temperature : = 850 degrees C fluidization velocity : between 0. SO2.5 rn/s heating time : between 3 and 10 minutes The characteristics of the different tested coals are shown in the table here after: Table 1 Immediate and Ultimate analyses of the tested coals A Moisture ar 7. one just before the cyclone and one in the return leg. is located in the baghouse to get fly ash samples.60 Ashad Vol. Fluidizing medium is high pure Nitrogen. Several Chinese coals: A.77 B 4.45 6.22 22. On the one hand.63 0.38 1.62 30.96 2. . only coal A has been tested before the cyclone modifications. ad Cad H ad O ad S total. Fig. the section of the pipe connecting the exit of the furnace and the entrance of the cyclone has been narrowed from 0. the vortex tube diameter has been reduced considerably (from 400ram to 265mm).72 1.32 D E 8.10 15.

! .. for coals A and B.J~ r ]0 IIIIII = ... However.-. the ash size distributions do not vary a lot from one to the other except that the bottom ash of coal B is much coarser than that of the coal A.~J "~1/ i I] = co ... therefore useful for the heat transfer after the cyclone modifications...~1"1 I[11 II 100 . 4 Influence of cyclone efficiency on the size distribution of bottom ash 800 850 900 T (Degree C e l s i u s ) 950 100 90 80 Fig.. . this ratio is increased from 23% to 42%. after the cyclone modifications.. Besides. Figure 4 and Figure 5 confirm that both bottom ash and circulating ash are finer owing to the improvement of cyclone efficiency..... In our case.. It means that there are more solids in the diluted part.3o 2000 1oo 90 . According to the experimental observation..Co~ B aft~ mo 1000 D (micron) Fig...A- co~uo~ mo B --. The performance of a CFB unit depends more or less on the ratio of ash weight above the dense bed (940-7730 mm) to total (120-7730 mm) ash weight present in the furnace. According to the measurement of gas pressure drop at different levels....~ IIIlll /1[]1111 . the gas pressure drop reflects the mean solids concentration above the dense bed in the furnace.. .. in particular the total drop between the heights of 120 mm and 7730 mm and the partial drop between the heights of 940-7730mm.01 0. the solids circulation characteristic is different for the two coals.. The more there are solids along the furnace..~"°~""i'~'''~... the three tested coals A.6... Before all... This variation can probably be explained by the important increase (1. both tested before the cyclone modifications.... B and C are different from each other by their volatile matter. 9....~r I II[IIL~ I I.....B before after |~I : 3000 2000 1000 0 750 o O. i / • i " i.'. [i. 3 Influence of cyclone efficiency on the size distribution of fly ash .278 9000 8000 7000 6000 ~E 5000 4000 Journal of Thermal Science.5 Influence of cyclone efficiency on the size distribution of circulating ash Influence of Coal Nature As shown in Table 1... : . Nevertheless...... the more homogenous the temperatures are 50 40 3O 20 10 0 II IIIIII II 111111 I II IIIII II IIIIII II IIIIII ~llll IIIIIII] . these differences should lead to some variations of the ash size distributions... carbon and ash contents etc.i' I ..lcl i .5 times) of the gas pressure drop (940-7730mm) obtained with coal C compared~to the one got from coal B. Vol.2 Influence of cyclone efficiency on the fumace temperature profile Fig...1 D (mm) 10 100 Fig.~'~'7i~ 80 70 60 .... it turns out that the furnace temperature profile is more even for coal C than for coal B as shown in Fig.i:i . the ash weight in the 2 different part can be roughly estimated..3 shows that for the same coal the fly ash after cyclone modifications is finer than before.... ~ 50 40 30 20 ' : ~1 i' I = . some differences for coals B and C are noted through several parameters which are worth thinking about... the last point arises probably from the coarse gangue particles included in the raw coal B. . Logically.....F-7 "i r'z~ll'T . Moreover.. ]i~i i..Ol 0.S . No.1 D (ram) 1 10 Fig. . with the improved cyclone. 100 90 80 70 60 70 6O ~5o "~40 30 20 10 0 0. Actually.

a . Influence of Limestone on the Desulfurization Efficiency During the program. .1 D (ram) 1 10 IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII . the size distribution of bottom ash resulting from coal C is finer than that from coal B.. . . .-Coal B alter modif..Min Qian et al. . several different types of limestone have been used for different tests. 8. This difference of 5 microns is likely not enough to explain the difference of 20% in terms of unburned carbon in fly ash.. 100 90 80 70 60 Fig. . .. modif. 100 . . It is about the unburned carbon content in this part of ash. 9 of the fly ash size distribution gives the opposite tendency for the coals B and C. 10 ~+i . . 8 Influence of coal nature on the size distribution of circulating ash 1000 100 0 750 8OO 85O 900 950 90 80 70 T ( D e g r e e Celsius) . .01 0.Coal C ~ 40 30 20 10 0 0.01 100 Fig.. . ~ .g : i C°atBI Mter i j . "rIIIIII 0.Coal B after modi£ --..7. Whereas the comparison made by Fig.Coal C ~5ooo g E 10 0 0.e - 200O ... 800O 80 70 r ! • ÷~r i ~ i 7OOO 1 600O 60 r r /13 I [ [ / I i " ' ~' ]I d5%=224microns II ' i " iI : ~ i¢S-d50c-r-271microns-~-~l 11. . As finer ash particles (circulating ash and fly ash particles) come from the inert part. ~-~ ..= Fig..... It seems more to be a question of combustion reactivity. 9 Influence of coal nature on the size distribution of fly ash Therefore. 6 Influence of coal nature on the furnace temperature profile ~40 30 20 10 0 1 li . which is about 1% for the coal C and >20% for the coal B even after the cyclone modifications.. Influence of Coal Nature on Ash Size Formation and Pollutant Emissions During CFB Combustion 279 J0OO 100 90 " 1 : ' I : : 4 ~ : ~ : ] ] lii .0 .I~ i I i t . c o c c i i D (microns) i i{ 1000 at different heights..'e40 30 20 . more precisely the mineral part in coal. IIIIIILk:T IIIIIII . . It is suggested that this difference arises probably from the different size of gangue particles contained in the two different kinds of raw coals.. litiid .... . we can note the coal C gives an ash size distribution more dispersed than that of coal B.. .~60 d50c=25microns )~ ~t"zd5%=30microns i i i I " _ ~5o Fig. As shown by Fig. it turns out to be interesting to use in the same test several of these types of limestone of which the main characteristics are indicated in Table 2 : .1 D (ram) 1 10 3OO0 - - . ~@ L:. .. it is supposed that this dispersion of final ash size distribution could be a consequence of the coal's mineral inclusions size distribution without gangue.. the circulating ash obtained with coal C is coarser than the one resulting from coal B as indicated by Fig.A--.7 Influence of coal nature on the size distribution of bottom ash On the contrary....7 . . . Another important result linked to the fly ash is worth underlining. .

.. According to the Chinese standard analyses..280 Journai of Thermal Science.. Nevertheless. Limestone I CalS . . ¢ q .10 Size distribution of limestones According to the analysis.92 ~ - |l Stopofl~estone-~. . Only the size distribution changes as shown in Fig.. limestone 11I contains more CaCO3 than the other two. . o .m.~.7 .o. gives more information about 10 100 D (micron) Fig.. m . . . the detailed study on the limestone comminution does not form part of the present work.10. from Figure 11. . . in progress at present time..2 1 | . Consequently.~. 4000 3500 3000 2500 E ~ L i m e s to ne I I ~ Ca/S =0.~. Apparently. The main results concerning this phenomenon are shown in Table 3. Vol. some coals' fragments can form agglomerates among themselves or with the sand particles under the test conditions.m.70 1.-. It seems limestone II has a better performance than limestone I as shown on Fig. o . we can establish a link between this index with the <<caking>> propriety of a coal under the primary fragmentation test conditions as described before. ~ 1 ~ ~ .. the limestone I and limestone II come from the same origin.Limestone 11I 5o 40 30 20 10 0 1 !c IIlgl -I IIllll I)11111 lIJrIII ~ ~ IIIIII IIIIII IIIIII IIIIII I Primary Fragmentation Test Results In this test.50 80.08 1. o iii121 -.53 1. 9. .. characteristic of char residue (CRC) .. we can observe with the same ratio Ca/S the limestone HI catches less SO2 than the other two. .62 92.. it's worth thinking about the necessity of carrying out this test for the coal mineral inclusions study..3 4. Nevertheless. No.7 --- \ ~ \ . the size distribution in mass of the fragments seems close to that of the corresponding raw coal.' [ 3 4 / " T ~ ~ t. Fig. ~ .o . IIIII_ 2 ) IIIIII] I[tllll 1000 10000 Conclusion The crucial role of the cyclone separator efficiency in a CFB unit is once more confirmed in our experience. Concerning the proper results of the primary fragmentation test. The second aspect of this program: study of internal smacture of coal mineral inclusion. 2000 Table 2 main characteristics of the limestones Limestone I CaC03 M8CO3 CaO SiOz A1203 91.20 LimestonelI Limestone l]I 96. However.. ..8 Actually. . Limestone III ]~-CatS~1. this propriety does not seem to be linked with operation conditions (Table 3). .. it tunas out that only the experiment on a hot CFB pilot is not enough for us to find some clear link between the coal nature and the formation of its ash even if this test can give some qualitative ideas.o.. Whereas the limestones I and II are different from each other by the dispersion of their size distribution with the same mean diameter (d50). . [ -- ~r - ~2000 1500 1000 500 0 ~t ~t '~ "~ .58 2. . . . a common experimental procedure is used. ~eSt6hell Ca/S =1. 11 Influence of limestone type on SO2 emissions . The final ash size distribution depends on the coal nature.. . Furthermore. ..---X--. 11.¢q.¢q o . . The limestone nature and its size distribution have a great influence on the desulfurization efficiency.3. 100 900 Limestone I 80_Limestone II 7060. However we meet the <<caking>> phenomenon which has not been mentioned by the other scientists having performed the same type of test.42 0.

may explain the different size distributions of the finer ash particles (circulating ash and fly ash).Min Qian et al.355-0.5 0. Whereas the coarse ash particles (bottom 281 ash) result likely from the coal gangue.9 3 30 Somefi'aglrmts a~c. The uselessness of the primary fragmentation test remains to be proved.3 3 / No agglam~on 1 0 0 .26 0.28 850 49.25 0.Tmd was 4 / 0 d~b~ A AI203 sand 1000 0.17 0.18-0.26 850 63 3 30-40 aggl~a-lt'ale& mosl szmdwas 6 5 79 d~db~ D A E A siliconsand silicon sand A!203 sand A1203 sand 2000 2000 1269 1682 0-2 0-2 J. Table 3 Comparison of main results conceming the <<caking>> phenomenon Coal mine Bed~al Bedtroterial ~ght(g) Bedrtnerial lquidinaion B e d ~ s~s(nm v~ocity(ras) (Q qhel~gest (bals~r~le ~ cakesize ~ga(g) fine(ran) (ram) ~ reset ~ ehar~ (o~ Ou:il~a.3554).5 0.5 10 3 3 3 40 30 I / Fragn-erls No No 6 / / 4 5 / / / 79 / / 0 a~iamaion Somefra~tta~ ~glorra~ A AI203 sand 1228 0355-0.rer~ 4 / 0 A Siliconsard 1100 0-2 0.44 850 43. Influence of C~al Nature on Ash Size Formation and Pollutant Emissions During CFB Combustion this possible link.355-0.3 52.20 850 850 850 850 74 1G0 45.0 5 / Sate smJ adhetedto fiagn'mts& some s.eain~ ~(c~ Cal~gin~x (c~0 Fl~tlaJlS D A1203 sand 1300 0.5-0.18 850 56.18 850 172 3 / San'e sand a d h a ~ to ~ & some sard w~ 4 / 0 d~dUac~ B AI203 sand 1175 0.5 0.71 0.26 0.5 0.