GagandeepKaur,a bonafide student of N.C. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ISRANA,PANIPAT.Roll No 08/37(4th Semester)here by declare that the Final project entitled”QUALITY OF WORK LIFE AT N.F.L.’is an original work and The same has not been submitted to any other institute for the award of Any other degree.





Though words are often inadequate to express the feelings of heart, one must acknowledge the genuine help & support received from others during the fulfillment of particular task. I would therefore like to convey my thanks to all those people who contribute directly or indirectly in the completion of my research project. First of all I would like to extend my thanks to Ms. Renu Siwatch, who helped, cooperated and guided me & with whose sincere advice, I completed my study successfully. So, I am very thankful to him. I also acknowledge my sincere thanks to all my respondents.

(Gagandeep kaur)


Signature of the Guide Signature of the Head of Department 4 . MBA/08/37 (HR) has completed the project titled “Quality Of Work Life at N. The work is original and has not been submitted anywhere else for any other degree or diploma to the best of my knowledge and can be considered for evaluation.L” under my supervision and guidance.F.QWL Certificate This is to certify that Gagandeep Kaur Roll No.

2 Recommendations BIBLIOGRAPHY Questionnaire 53-62 63-65 66 5 .4 Data Collection Methods 3.1 Objectives of the study 3.3 Sampling Plan 3.5 Limitations CHAPTER – 4 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONs CHAPTER – 5 FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 What is Quality of Work Life? 1. TOPICS PAGE NO.QWL INDEX S.2 Research design 3.2 Overview of industry CHAPTER – 2 LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER – 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1-16 16-49 14-21 50-52 CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION 1. NO.1 Findings 5.


a concern for employee job security and satisfying careers and participation in decision making. Proactive managers and human resource departments respond to this challenge by finding new ways to improve productivity. good working conditions. QWL means having good supervision. That is. Vigorous Domestic and International competition drive organisations to be more productive. a proactive human resource department finds ways to empower employees so that they draw on their “brains and wits.QWL WHAT IS QWL? The term refers to the favorableness or unfavorableness of a total job environment for people. High QWL is sought through an employee relations philosophy that encourages the use of QWL efforts. QWL programs are another way in which organisations recognize their responsibility to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for people as well as for economic health of the organisation. which are systematic attempts by an organisation to give workers greater opportunities to affect their jobs and their contributions to the organisation’s overall effectiveness. good pay and benefits and an interesting. challenging and rewarding job. In addition to improving the work system. the reduction of occupational stress and the development of more co-operative labour-management relations. equitable reward systems.” usually by getting the employees more involved in the decision-making process. The elements in a typical QWL program include – open communications. Human resource departments are involved with efforts to improve productivity through changes in employee relations. QWL programs usually emphasize development of employee skills. 7 . Many early QWL efforts focus on job enrichment. Others seek changes in employee relations practices. Some strategies rely heavily upon new capital investment and technology.

The idea was to lower cost by using unskilled workers who could be easily trained to do a small. Forces For Change A factor contributing to the problem was that the workers themselves were changing. and more independent. This approach seeks to improve QWL. The real cause was that in many instances the job itself simply was not satisfying. more of a whole 8 . more affluent (partly because of the effectiveness of classical job design). something more than merely earning their bread. declines in quality and alienated workers. The needs and aspirations of workers themselves were changing. Employees were assigned narrow jobs and supported by a rigid hierarchy in the expectation that efficiency would improve. however. Humanised Work through QWL One option was to re-design jobs to have the attributes desired by people. They began reaching for higher-order needs. Many difficulties developed from that classical job design. 2. Higher-order (social and growth) needs were left unsatisfied. De-skilled workers lost pride in their work and became bored with their jobs. and redesign organisations to have the environment desired by the people. The result was higher turnover and absenteeism. Conflict often arose as workers sought to improve their conditions and organisations failed to respond appropriately. They became educated. Employers now had two reasons for redesigning jobs and organisations for a better QWL: 1.QWL A Rationale Job specialisation and simplification were popular in the early part of this century. There was excessive division of labour. Classical design originally gave inadequate attention to human needs. There is a need to give workers more of a challenge. repetitive part of each job. Workers became socially isolated from their co-workers because their highly specialized jobs weakened their community of interest in the whole product.

QWL task. such as citizen. Human adaptation is such that life expectations are usually adjusted so as to lie within the realm of what the individual perceives to be possible. Recognising the subjectivity of QOL is a key to understanding this construct. QOL reflects the difference. It attempts to serve the higher-order needs of workers as well as their more basic needs. This enables people who have difficult life circumstances to maintain a reasonable QOL. work should contribute to general social advancement. the work should not have excessively negative conditions. Close attention to QWL provides a more humanized work environment. the gap. Further. That is. It should not put workers under undue stress. It seeks to employ the higher skills of workers and to provide an environment that encourages them to improve their skills.those 'without which no member of the human race can be happy. It should not be threatening or unduly dangerous. DEFINING QUALITY OF WORK LIFE The best way of approaching quality of life measurement is to measure the extent to which people's 'happiness requirements' are met . spouse and parent.ie those requirements which are a necessary (although not sufficient) condition of anyone's happiness . more opportunity to use their ideas. It should not damage or degrade their humanness. The idea is that human resources should be developed and not simply used.' WHAT IS QOL? QOL may be defined as subjective well-being. Finally. or at least leave unimpaired. 9 . it should contribute to. workers’ abilities to perform in other life roles. between the hopes and expectations of a person and their present experience.

. Possibilities result from the opportunities and limitations each person has in his/her life and reflect the interaction of personal and environmental factors. and we are brought in touch with a sense of meaning when we reflect on that which we have created. as illustrated by the expression: "She enjoys good health. loved. The quest for meaning is central to the human condition. Our definition of quality of life is: The degree to which a person enjoys the important possibilities of his/her life. and Becoming. 10 . believed in or left as a legacy. Enjoyment has two components: the experience of satisfaction and the possession or achievement of some characteristic. Belonging.QWL Quality of Life is tied to perception of 'meaning'." Three major life domains are identified: Being.

6. c) Increase yield by 10-35% d) Maintains soil fertility.2 Overview of Industry NFL manufactures and markets three types of Bio-Fertilizers. Fix Biological Nitrogen in the soil. Rhizobium(Symbiotic) a) Fixes 50-300 Kg. Jammu & Kashmir.2.QWL 1. The Company presently markets its bio-fertilizers in Madhya Pradesh. Provides plant nutrient at low cost and useful for the consecutive crops. besides the following:1. NitrogenBio-Fertilizer 1. Cowpea. Starting with a mere 23 MT production in 1995-96. Punjab. Bio-Fertilizers are cheap and can reduce the cost of cultivation. Shisam. Chattisgarh. N/hactre b) Leaves residual nitrogen for succeeding crop. Himachal Pradesh. Phosphate Solubilishing Bacteria (PSB) and Azetobactor. Haryana & Rajasthan. which is readily available 4. Increase Improve crop soil to yield properties by and the 4-5% on sustain an soil plant. Forest Legumes : Sababul. Peas. the production has risen to 204 MT (Approx) in 2007-08. Pulse Legumes : Gram. average. Lucorn. Jharkhand. Urd. Oil Legumes : Groundnut and Soyabeans. Fodder Legumes : Barseem. Uttrakhand. Uttar Pradesh. The applicability of Bio-Fertilizers marketed by NFL of different crops is as under: Name of Bio-Fertilizers Contribution Most Beneficiary Crop A. Rhizobium. Arhar. Moong. 11 . Lentil. Bio-Fertilizers are Supplement to Chemical Fertilizers. 3. Bihar. Shinsh. fertility. Bio-fertilizers are used to supplement chemical fertilizers as also to maintain soil fertility. Maharashtra. 5.

Non-specific : All Plants. tobacco. chilly. Barley. e) Biological control of plant diseases by suppressing some plant pathogens. Maize.QWL 2. 1 and Delhi-Amritsar railway trunk route. Sesamum.S. c) Produce enzymes which mineralise organic phosphorous to a soluble form. b) Increases yield by 10-30%. Wheat. cauliflower. tomato. sugarcane. rapseed. papaya. Plantation crops. PANIPAT UNIT The Panipat Unit of NFL. c) 0-15% increase in yield. onion. Paddy. lady finger. Azetobactor (Non-Symbiotic) a) Fixes 20-40 mgN/g of C-Source b) Produces growth promoting substances like vitamin B groups. Phosphate solubilising Bacteria a) Solublizes insoluble phosphate. P. forest plants B) Phosphorous Bio-fertilizer 1. Jowar. fruits. spices. Linseed. Coconut. Mulberry. Panipat city is about 90 km from Delhi and is covered in National 12 . potato. Cotton. d) Maintains soil fertility. Indole acetic acid and Giberellic acid. banana. Mustard.watermelon.is situated on National Highway No.B. flowers. Sunflower. grapes.

innovation. environment protection.00. Panipat is a historical city.290 MT in terms of Nit.000 M. safety.H 5.75. Prime consultants for design. The Unit is well known for its commitment towards environment protection and social welfare in the region.9. The total cost of the project was rs. 5.221. skills etc.T.35.79.000 M. It has won number of awards and recognitions in the field of production. The visitors show keen interest in the functioning of the plant and appreciate the progress made by the fertilizers industry in the country. welfare. Annual Capacity In terms of Urea : 5. within 40 months of the zero –date.QWL Capital Region. productivity.11. Panipat is also famous for its handloom industry. 2. The Govt.9.000 M. Annual Requirement of Raw Materials: • Fuel-oil/LSHS • Coal • Power • Water : : : : 3. it hosts a number of distinguished guests and visitors from with and outside the country. which was the scene of three historical battles. The Unit went in commercial production from 1. the feed in was achieved on 1.500 MT 2. SALIENT FEATURES OF THE PLANT 1.33 crores.18. Performance of the Unit in all areas of its performance has also been acknowledged.45.W. engineering.4. The Unit being near to national capital. 2.630 Million Gallon 13 . Starting from the zero-date 30. of India approved the Panipat project on 10th February 1975 for implementation.78 ie. erection and commissioning of the plant were M/s Toyo engineering corporation of Japan and M/s engineers India Ltd.T. Panipat Unit is considered the show window of the company.

after signing the MOU. ie Kisan Urea. Govt.88 crores Rs.Plant Ammonia Urea Steam Generation Captive Power Plant : : : : 900 M.45 crores 2 Turbo generation of 15 *2 =30 131 acres.550 M. Land : 442Acres.NFL has signed a memorandum of understanding with the govt.QWL 3. Foreign Exchange 5. per day 1. PLANTS UNDER PANIPAT UNIT AMMONIA UREA PLANT SMC OFFSITES 14 .per day 3 boilers each of 150 MT/hr. has rated the performance of the company as ‘excellent’. 1 boiler of 210 MT/hr : : Rs. Company has been performing at high level of capacity utilization. Capacities of the Plant : • • • • MWH 6. Estimated Cost 4. 182. of India in 1991-92.T. 56. All the years. &Kisan Khad.Township NFL produces two popular brands of chemical Fertilizers.T.

The fuel is partially oxidized in the gasification reactor at 1. later. H2S and CO2 from the Raw Gas/ process gas are removed by low temperature Methanol in the Rectisol Section and both the gases are recovered by regeneration of Methanol at low pressure.QWL AMMONIA PLANT The ammonia plant is based on fuel oil as feedstock and is designed to produce 900 MT/Day of Ammonia. The raw gas produced in the reactors mainly consists of H2. An Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) provides refrigeration in Rectisol Section. Shift Convension. The CO2 is. 15 . The CO2 gas is sent to Urea Plant for synthesizing with Ammonia to manufacture Urea. The Carbon monoxide (Co) in the desulphurised gas is converted to Carbon Di Oxide (CO2) by double stage H.T. removed from the process gas in Decarbonation Section of Rectisol. is recycled along with the feedstock. Hydrogen Sulphide (H2s) in the raw gas is removed by absorption in cold methanol in desulphurisation Section of Rectisol. The heat generated in the process is recovered in the waste heat boilers to produce High-pressure steam at 100 Kg/Cm2. CO2 and H2S.about 80% of the carbon produced in the Gasification Reactors.350 degree C by shell gasification process. H2S in the form of clause gas is sent to Sulhur Recovery Plant for recovery of Sulphur. CO.

Hydrogen) to obtain a ratio of 3 : 1 of N2 & H2. This synthesis gas mixture is compressed to 230 Kg/Cm2 pressure and synthesis of N2 and H2 is carried out in the Haldor Topsoe loop in a radial flow Ammonia Convertor and Ammonia is produced. Nitrogen is further added to the process gas (i. The Ammonia and Carbon Di-oxide. Oxygen and Nitrogen are separated in HP and LP Distillation columns at cryogenic temperatures. where Ammonia and CO2 react at 250 Kg/cm2 pressure and 200 degree C temperature to 16 .QWL AMMONIA PLANT The process gas from Rectisol Section is sent to the Nitrogen Wash Unit (NWU) to remove the traces of impurities (CO. Synthesis takes place in Urea Reactor. In ASU. are pressurized to about 250 Kg/cm2 pressure. the atmospheric Air is compressed to 7 Kg/Cm2 and liquefied. UREA PLANT Urea Plant is designed to produce 1.550 TPD based on Mitsui Toatsu Total Recycle ‘C’ improved process.e. Methanol. and Methane) by liquid Nitrogen wash. Oxygen requirement (for partial oxidation of fuel oil) and Nitrogen requirement (for synthesis gas) is met by an Air Separation Unit of 900 MT/ Day capacity. produced in Ammonia plant.

Crystal slurry is centrifuged to separate crystals. Carbon monoxide is converted into Carbon dioxide.QWL produce Urea. where it is cooled by air. Then Nitrogen & Hydrogen is combined to get Ammonia & then by the reaction of Ammonia & Carbon dioxide we get Urea. is crystallized in the Vacuum Crystallizer. Urea in the form of prills is collected at the bottom of the prilling tower on CFD bed. sent to Bagging Plant and bagged in 50 kg bags. then. Products Urea is. which are then dried in the dryer and pneumatically conveyed to the top of prilling tower. UREA PLANT PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING UREA For manufacturing urea. This is the whole process of manufacturing Urea:Burning at 1350oC 17 . first of all fuel oil is burnt at 1350 oC & we get Carbon monoxide (CO) & Hydrogen (H2). With the help of air separation unit Nitrogen gas is separated from air. produced in this process. The Reactor outlet products are then decomposed. The Urea solution. Urea crystals are melted in the melter and the molten Urea is sprayed through Acoustic Granulators from 68-meter high prilling tower.

PRODUCTION PERFORMANCEPeaks in production scale are as follows:18 . PANIPAT MAIN PRODUCT –UREA Kisan urea is highly concentrated. solid. Kisan Urea also has a strong and long lasting effect on crop resulting in quality crops. containing 46. which instantly removes nitrogen deficiency.QWL Fuel Oil CO + H2 Extracting ASU (Air separation unit) N2 (Nitrogen) + O2 (oxygen) N2 + 3H2 2NH3 CO NH3 + CO2 CO2 UREA PRODUCT MANUFACTURED AT NFL. Carbonic acid present in Kisan Urea helps in absorption of nutrients like phosphate and potash by roots of crop. Kisan Urea is ideally suitable for all type of crops and for foliar spray. It is completely soluble in water hence nitrogen is easily available to crops. nitrogenous fertilizer.0% nitrogen.

00% 12.00% 14.1998 1918MT (against 1550MT/Day rated capacity) on 17.00% 16.00% 8.00% 6.00% 0.00% 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr GNFC KRIBHCO SHYAM TCL INDO GULF NFCL KRIBCHO RCF CHAMBAL OTHERS NFL IFFCO OFF SITES & UTILITIES The Off Sites and Utilities consist of following facilities: Raw Water Reservoirs &Filtration Plant: To store 85 million gallon of water to meet 7 days requirement.1.00% 4.00% 2.QWL RECORDS: Highest production of ammonia on single 1041MT day Highest production of urea on single day Highest annual production of ammonia (97-98) Highest annual production of (97-98) (against 900MT/Day rated capacity) on 02.12.400 M3/hr. The filtration plant is of 2.2000 316619MT (against 297000MT rated capacity) urea 562250MT (against 511500MT rated capacity) PERCENTAGE SHARE OF NFL IN COUNTRY’S UREA PRODUCTION 20.00% 18.00% 10. 19 .

/hr. to Captive Power Plant Boiler.STEAM GENERATION PLANT M: . Steam Generation Plant: Three pulverized coal fired boiler of 150 T. LDO and Caustic Handling: Facility for unloading and storage. of condensate.000 KL capacity.420 NM3/hr.500 KW capacities. each of 1. Fuel Oil Handling and Storage: Three tanks for storage of fuel oil. Captive Power and Urea Plants. Methanol.capacity. Coal Handling: To supply 150 MT/hr. each of 10. To load bagged urea. set of 1. Instrument and Plant Air: Four Instrument Air Compressors and one Service Air Compressor.MATERIAL HANDLING C: .QWL Demineralized Water: To supply 400 M3/hr.CAPTIVE POWER PLANT 20 . Emergency Power: D. of crushed coal to three Steam Generation Plant Boilers and 200MT/hr. Caustic and Methanol. Railway Siding: To unload Coal. Cooling Tower: Four cooling towers for Ammonia.G.of demineralized water and to polish 100 M3/hr. To load unload liquid Ammonia. Facility for unloading a rake of railway tank wagons of fuel oil/LSHS. Fuel Oil. each at 105 kg/cm2 pressure and 495 degree C temperature. LPG. SMC S: .

Two Turbo Generation of 15 MW each. A Boiler of 210 t/hr. generate power at 11 KV. 21 .QWL CAPTIVE POWER PLANT The Captive Power Plant has been installed to meet the total power requirement of the plants. has been provided to supply steam to the Turbo Generators and meet part of the steam requirement of the process plants. The Boiler is designed to operate on coal with support oil or fully on fuel oil. The Power Plant can be run in parallel with the northern grid or in isolation.

the wage which is above the minimum wage but below the living age. .QWL CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW CRITERIA OF MEASURING QWL (i) Adequate and Fair Compensation There are different opinions about the adequate compensation.” 22 . The committee on Fair Wages defined fair wage as “.

and the degree to which the job embraces an entire meaningful task” but not a part of it. (vi) Constitutionalism In the Work Organisation 23 . (v) Social Integration in the Work Force Social integration in the work force can be established by creating freedom from prejudice. supporting primary work gars a sense of community and inter-personnel openness. Further. legalitariani and upward mobility. these conditions are a matter of enlightened self-interest. QWL provides future opportunity for continued growth and security by expanding one’s capabilities. In fact. QWL is improved the extent that the worker can exercise more control over his or her work. knowledge and qualifications. (iv) Opportunity for Career Growth Opportunities for promotions are limited in case of all categories of employees either due to educational barriers or due to limited openings at the higher level. QWL provides for opportunities like autonomy in work and participation in planning in order to use human capabilities. (iii) Opportunity to Use and Develop Human Capabilities Contrary to the traditional assumptions.QWL (ii) Safe and Healthy Working Conditions Most of the organisations provide safe and healthy working conditions due to humanitarian requirements and/or legal requirements.

The workers’ self-esteem would be high if his work is useful to the society and the vice versa is also true.work and family aspects of life. equity and due process. family life and social life should not be strained by working hours including overtime work. (viii) Social Relevance of Work QWL is concerned about the establishment of social relevance to work in a socially beneficial manner. free speech. (vii) Work and Quality of Life QWL provides for the balanced relationship among work. transfers. non. etc. work during inconvenient hours. SPECIFIC ISSUES IN QWL 24 . It happens because the management’s action is challenged in every action and bureaucratic procedures need to be followed at that level.QWL QWL provides constitutional protection to the employees only to the level of desirability as it hampers workers. business travel. In other words. Constitutional protection is provided to employees on such matters as privacy. vacations.

25 . However. P/HR manager has (identified) specific issues in QWL besides normal wages. benefits and facilities.QWL Trade unions claim that they are responsible for the improvement in various facilities to workers whereas management takes credit for improved salaries.

The P/HR manager. Mundick and Schuster suggested 11 major QWL issues. These programmes cover drinking and smoking cessation. Stability to a greater extent can be provided by enhancing the facilities for human resource development. thought process and physical condition? Stress is determined by the nature of work. other forms of cardiovascular risk reduction. etc. Stress adversely affects employ productivity. hypertension control. worker’s abilities and nature and match with the job requirements. increase in levels and rates of income tax and profession tax. h smoking and drug abuse. (iii) Organisational Health Programmes Organisational health programmes aim at educating employees about health problems. Effective implementation of these programmes result in 26 . trembling psychometric pains. has identify.QWL salaries. fatigue. means of maintaining and improving of health. working hours. stuttering. working conditions. fringe benefits. prevent and tackle the problem. etc. unstable behaviour. He may arrange the treatment of the problem with the health unit of the company. They are: (I) Pay and Stability of Employment Good pay still dominates most of the other factors in employee satisfaction. (ii) Occupational Stress Is a condition of strain on one’s emotions. and takes lead in providing them so as to maintain higher order QWL. Stress is caused due to irritability. in order to minimize the stress. Various alternative means for providing wages should be developed in view of increase in cost of living index. IKlott. pause in the work schedule. hyper—excitation or depression. family planning. etc.

diet control. disability. (iv) Alternative Work Schedules Alternative work schedules including work at home. part-time employment which may be introduced for the convenience and comfort of the workers as the work sch which offers the individual the leisure time. physical exercise. etc. awarding the rewarding systems. providing vehicles. (vii) Congenial Worker-Supervisor Relations 27 . (vi) Recognition Recognizing the employee as a hum being rather than as a labourer increases the QWL Participative management. staggered hours. (v) Participative Management and Control of Work Trade unions and workers believe that workers’ participation in management and 1e improves WL. reduced work week. congratulating the employees for their achievement.QWL reduction in absenteeism. offering vacation trips are some means to recognize the employees. This programme should also cover relaxation. job enrichment. offering prestigious designations to the jobs. providing well furnished and decent work places. hospitalisation. use their skills and make a real contribution to the job if they are allowed participate in creative and decision-making process. offering membership in clubs or association. excessive job turnover and premature death. Workers also feel that they have control êr their work. flexible hours of work is preferred. flexible working hours.

etc. The promotional policies and activities should be fair and just in order to ensure higher QWL. employees will not be able to attain the Objectives. (xi) Employment on Permanent Basis 28 . belongingness. (ix) Adequacy of Resources Resources should match with st4ted objectives. Merit is considered as the basis for advancement for managerial people whereas seniority-c is preferred for promotion of ministerial employees. achieve of work results. This in turn leads to better QWL.QWL Harmonious supervisor-worker relations gives the worker a sense of social association. This results in employee dissatisfaction and lower QWL (x) Seniority and Merit in Promotions Seniority is generally taken as for promotion in case of operating employees. otherwise. (viii) Grievance Procedure Workers have a sense of fair treatment’ when the company gives them the opportunity to ventilate their grievances and represent their case succinctly rather than settling the problems arbitrarily.

alternative work schedules. career development. The group as a whole is accountable for the success or failure.QWL Employment of workers on casual. probationary basis gives them a sense of insecurity. employment on permanent basis gives them security and leads to higher order QWL STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF QWL The strategies for improvement in quality of worklife include self-managed work teams. co-ordinate and control the activities of the team with the help of a team leader who is one among them. administrative orgastisational and participating management. Each team performs all activities including selecting their people. redesign and enrichment. effective leadership and supervisory behaviour. On the other hand. Salaries are fixed both on the basis of individual and group achievement. (i) Self-managed Work Teams These are also called autonomous work groups or integrated work teams. These work teams are formed with 10 to 20 employees who plan. (iii) Effective Leadership and Su isory Behaviour For effective leadership and supervisory behaviour ‘9-9’ style of managerial grid is suitable. job security. (iv) Career Development 29 . Each team has authority to make decisions and regulate the activities. Jobs are redesigned with a view to enriching them to satisfy higher order human needs. (ii) Job Redesign and Enrichment Narrow jobs can be combined into larger units of accomplishment.

The most sophisticated among them is quality circle. (viii) Participative Management Employees should be allowed to participate in management participative schemes which may be of several types. etc. communicating and counselling $he employees about the career opportunities. 30 .QWL Provision for career planning. demotion. career path. job. (vi) Job Security This tops the employees’ list of priorities. part-time employments. leave. It should be adequately taken care of. (vii) Administrative or Organisational Justice The principles of justice. fair and equity should be taken care of in disciplinary procedure. (v) Alternative Work Schedules Provision for flexible working hours. transfers. promotions. work assignment. Implementation of these strategies ensures higher level of quality of worklife. grievance procedures. education and development and for second careers should be made.sharing and reduced work week should be made.

The needs are greater in the new systems. QWL as a strategy of Human Resource Management is being recognised as the ultimate key for development among all the work systems. In the modern scenario. since industrial revolution. all the above requirements can be easily achieved by providing improved quality of work life to the workers available on rolls. and are highly connected at present moment. the imperative need to look into QWL in a new perspective is felt and deliberated upon. Strategy and Tactics Over the years. 31 . This is attempted on par with strategies of Customer Relation Management.QWL QUALITY OF WORK LIFE AS HR STARTEGY – AN ANALYSIS Today’s workforce consists of literate workers who expect more than just money from their work. problem-solving and team work. creating a knowledge-based economy that spins and spans the world. which are participative ventures involving workers managed by so-called fictional proprietors. Globalisation has lowered national boundaries. This is integral to any organisation towards its wholesome growth. Men Counted In simple terms. The new global workplace demands certain prerequisites such as higher order of thinking skills like abstraction system thinking and experimental inquiry. not merely as a concession. much experimentation has gone into exploiting potential of human capital in work areas either explicitly or implicitly. Workers are often referred to as teams or groups in general parlance and whatever the do go to the credit of the teamwork. Major economies are converging technologically and economically. Major companies are tirelessly implementing this paradigm in Human Resources Development (some call it People’s Excellence). Thanks to the revolution in advanced technology.

QWL The concept of teamwork has evolved from the organised toil that has its own social dimensions. Some of them are intended potentials for product innovations and cost cuttings. This may be owing to many reasons besides the concern for the human angle of workers. it may also be discerned that the composition of available workers in no more a local phenomenon as in the past. the employers are increasingly vying with their rivals in providing better working conditions and emoluments. unwittingly though. like ambience in 32 . Here. it may appear far-fetched to some that product is being assessed in the market for its quality and price by the environment created in the areas where workers and customers are dealt and transact. The new influx of skilled workers seeking greener pastures is even questioning the skills of new employers and thereby restructuring the new environs on par with those of best in the world. wages are paid according to the larger picture specific to the industry and the employer’s place in the same. The increased share of workers in wages and benefits through legislation as well as competitive interplay of superior managements in various fields of industry and business on extensive levels has reshaped the worker’s idea of quality of work life. to reap to the desired dividends or to woo better talent into their fold as skill base addition and other non-economic inputs like knowledge bases. Good teams can hardly be imported from outside. Talking of product. the increased tendency of recruiting knowledge bases is giving the modern managements payoffs in myriad ways. relocation and globalized deployment. They usually occur as an indigenous incidence at the workplace and nurturing the same over time is the responsibility of management. cash is not the only answer. other things being equal. like the employer’s tendency to climb on the bandwagon. Today. Moreover. Doubtlessly. the workers are aware of the job requirements of job as also the fact that the performance of the same is measured against the basic goals and objectives of the organisation and more importantly. Mobility is caused by migration beyond culture barriers and isolation. Money Matters For good QWL. This phenomenon has become universal and is causing great changes in the work environment at factories as well as offices.

satisfaction. invasion of privacy in case of certain cultural groups and gender discrimination and drug addiction. incompatibility of work conditions affecting health. the employer has to identify the source of workers problems and try to mitigate the conditions and take supportive steps in the organisation so that the workers will be easily retained and motivated and earn ROI. The loss of man-hours to the national income due to the above factors is simply overwhelming. employers in certain software companies have provided infrastructure to train the children of workers in vocational activities including computer education. This goes to prove that QWL of manufacturer / service provider is synonymous with the quality of product.QWL facilities / amenities as also the company’s pay scales. After all. 33 . Non economic – ‘Job Security’ The changing workforce consists of literate workers who expect more than just money from their work life. merit compensation in job allocation. physical constraints like distance to work. like how they are individually dealt and communicated with by other members in the team as well as the employer. as it is their primary concern. Employee care initiatives taken by certain companies include creation of Hobby clubs. One or more of the problems like above can cast a ‘job-insecurity’ question. lack of flexible working hours. Yet. Some of these non-economic aspect are: Self respect. for no direct and visible fault of the employer. Employer should instil in the worker the feeling of trust and confidence by creating appropriate channels and systems to alleviate the above shortcomings so that the workers use their best mental faculties on the achievement of goals and objectives of the employer. Fun and Leisure Clubs for the physical and psychological well-being ness of workers and their families. so that the workers need not engage their attention on this aspect. what kind of work he is entrusted with. etc. recognition. Their idea of salvation lies in the respect they obtain in the work environment. bullying by older peers and boss. work-life imbalances. To cite some examples. the workers are inexorably linked to the welfare of their families.


Dual income workers, meaning both spouses working are the order of the day. The work life balance differs in this category and greater understanding and flexibility are required with respect to leave, compensation and working hours in the larger framework.

Teamwork Teamwork is the new mantra of modern day people’s excellence strategy. Today’s teams are self-propelled ones. The modern manager has to strive at the group coherence for common cause of the project. The ideal team has wider discretion and sense of responsibility than before as how best to go about with its business. Here, each member can find a new sense of belonging to each other in the unit and concentrate on the group’s new responsibility towards employer’s goals. This will boost the cosiness and morale of members in the positive environment created by each other’s trust. Positive energies, free of workplace anxiety, will garner better working results. Involvement in teamwork deters deserters and employer need not bother himself over the detention exercises and save money on motivation and campaigns. Boss Factor Gone are the days when employers controlled workers by suppressing the initiative and independence by berating their brilliance and skills, by designing and entrusting arduous and monotonous jobs and offer mere sops in terms of wages and weekly off. Trust develops when managers pay some attention to the welfare of the workers and treat them well by being honest in their relations. The employer should keep in mind that every unpaid hour of overtime the worker spends on work is an hour less spent with the family. New performance appraisals are put into vogue to assess a worker’s contribution vis-à-vis on employer’s objectives and to find out the training and updating needs and 34

QWL levels of motivation and commitment. As observed in some advanced companies, the workers themselves are drawing their benefits by filing appraisal forms and drawing simultaneously the appropriate benefits by the click of the mouse directly from their drawing rooms, courtesy e-HR systems. In addition, there are quite a number of channels for informal reviews. Feedback on worker’s performance, if well interpreted and analysed, could go a long way in improving ethics at workplace. Involvement and Communication Multi-skilling and exposing workers to different lines of activity in the unit indirectly leads to the greater involvement and better job security of worker in the organisation. The employer too, can make use of the varied skills to any altered situations of restructuring and other market adaptations. Thus, the monotony of work life can be alleviated. The employer, armed with the depth of cross-trained human resources, need not go hunting for new talent and thus save on the unspent pay packets, which can be spent usefully on the amenities for workers. No doubt, rivals should be envying him for this edge. The change should be apparent in mutual trust and confidence towards effective understanding of the needs of worker and employer. The new knowledge-based workers are mostly young in the fields of technology and management. They are more forthcoming in trusting the boss and older peers. Now, all modern managements are cognisant of the innate desire of workers to be accepted as part of the organisation for identity and other social reasons. Effective dialogue is put into play between management and those who execute through well-organised communication channels paving the way for improved cooperation and participation on emotional level. The decision making level is nose diving to the floor level manager, where the poor guy has to think of n number of quick decisions on behalf of the organisation. Unless the team is behind and involved with commitment, the manager cannot implement the new tasks in production, distribution, peoples excellence, customer relations, etc., thanks to the ‘e’ factor prefixed to the names 35

QWL of majority of departments. Logically, harmony plays its part in cost efficiency.

Successful managers are those who listen to their workers. Influences Overwork is tolerated in emerging industries unlike government departments as part of the game and work culture. This is so, what with the soaring competition among the tightly contested players. The point is empowerment of workforce in the area of involvement. All said and one, the workers are considered as the invisible branch ambassadors and internal customers in certain industries. It is evident that most of the managements are increasingly realising that quality alone stands to gain in the ultimate analysis. Restructuring the industrial relations in work area is the key for improving the quality of product and the price of the stock. Without creating supportive environment in restructured environment, higher quality of work cannot be extracted. It is already high time the older theories of industrial relations should be unlearnt. QUALITY OF WORK LIFE – THE HUMAN IMPLICATIONS “One cannot do right in one area of life whilst he is occupied in doing wrong in another. Life is one invisible whole” – Mahatma Gandhi How true and difficult is to paraphrase the profound truth contained in the words of one of the greatest human beings of the modern world. The harsh reality of modern life is that Quality of Work Life (QWL) has taken a beating because most of us are working harder than ever. On average people in the developed countries spend an astonishing 14 to 15 hours a day against the accepted 8 to 9 hours. What is very disturbing is that the trend is on the rise. Burn out; stress leading to health hazards is the natural offshoot. The concept of lifetime employment or job security through hard work has been on a decline since more and more people are on short-term contracts and lack security of long-term employment. 36

It is not uncommon to see people who aspire to have work and personal life in synchronisation. They argue out a case for alternative work models. The implication of all this is that it leaves the worker with less and less time for interests.QWL Although traditional work structures seem to be dissolving. Occupational Psychology assumes a key role as it contributes to work models but also with the thorough study of factors underlying the work/life balance. Thus in an ideal world. by and large. in turn. Thus. would leave them free to pursue their personal interests outside work. family and leisure time in general. are still reluctant to absorb employees on a permanent basis before they have ‘proved their worth’. Employers. most people would like their output assessed by the results they achieve at work and not by the hours they spend slaying away at their desk. The psychological pressure on the employee is tremendous and their lives are characterised by a pronounced conflict between professional and private lives. Very importantly it helps them to project an improved corporate image. decrease in staff turnover and absenteeism. Workplace flexibility is increasingly becoming important both for the employers as well as the employees. Only a handful of employees have understood this intrinsic desire of employees and have turned it into a competitive advantage. They look at flexible work arrangements as an opportunity for more efficient recruitment. 37 . In fact researcher’s claim that by helping to manage employee’s work/life conflicts the company actually increases “psychological availability for work” of an employee. A good fit between people’s personal and work roles can go a long way in resolving conflicts. The study of work and family life is a relatively recent field. This is at least true of some learning organisations that are open to such novel HR practices. this hasn’t necessarily resulted in more flexibility for the workers. Lesser employees doing greater work make the work monotonous and gruelling for the employee. The work life balance has become the buzzword for the present generation.

There is nothing wrong in having career ambitions. It is said laughter is the shortest distance between two people. The “Relationship Balance” creates a sense of fulfilment and the synergy spill over positively in all of the other areas of your life. such as commitment. They are: 1. We all have a deep human hunger to create something great through the work we do and shine in our chosen profession. in particular. Fact of the matter is that we tend to perceive that the time spent with family should be qualitatively superior and quantity doesn’t matter. Life is a bundle that contains all the strands together and hence the need to balance work life and other related issues. The point that many do not realise is that life is not so compartmentalised that one can do the activities in a sequential order – one after the other.QWL Occupational psychology conducted in UK points out that manager’s feel to be working unjustifiably long hours and to be pushing their staff too hard. It is instinctive human desire to secure oneself in material comforts in the early phase of life to enjoy good quality of life at a later point in the life span. The warmth and love on the home front enables a person to focus intensively and concentrate fully on the 38 . 2. gender or age. believe that the more time you spend with them reflects how much you love them. Children. One must go the extra mile and ensure that the right quantity of time is provided for the bonds of trust and love to grow. The analysis of this research data was descriptive and no attempts were made to analyse any traits underlying the work/life balance. Many of us rationalise by rationing “quality time” for the family. One important dimension is the relationship balance. Nearly half perceived increased difficulties in balancing their work and personal life and well over half said pressure to perform at work left them less and less time for their personal life. Two distinct factors underlying the work/life balance. Only a relatively small percentage felt reasonably sure that they have indicated their preference for more flexible working hours. That these factors would correlate with other variables. One is related to the general status quo of the workplace and the other one to attitudes held by the individual. making them feel that they are missing out. There are two important issues to be looked at.

Einstein once said that one should be a person of value rather than a person of success. The business environment today is characterised by speed and technology. The other important dimension is career balance. Balance your commitment to being the best you can be at work with a deep commitment to being a great family person and loving friend. This implies that an employee has to look within. we consider such people as aberrations. budgets tight and in this training is the first casualty.QWL professional work and achieve high degree of success. The urge to do some commercial activity by creative methods to succeed in the market place and obtain monetary as well social rewards is inherent in all human beings. Resources are thin. The work schedules have become stiff with the increasing demands on productivity and employees are expected to act in a manner that benefits the company. Understand that without balance in every core area of your life. and there is hardly any room left for the manager to find out 39 . Personal interface by the managers has been replaced by computer interface. The minimum personal interaction that a manager has with an employee is devoted to finding out the business details. you’ll never find lasting happiness and a sense that you have lived well. In fact. Instead. rather than look up to the organisation to enhance his/her skills. Most of them do not consider it to be a major part of their job today. There is a natural human urge in most of us to have deep sense of fulfilment through our work lie. joyfully achieve. Our personal life will be very dull and boring if work life isn’t exciting and doesn’t offer scope to bring out the dormant talent in us. how many of the managers are sensitive to this issue? Their number is hardly encouraging. THE HUMAN FACTOR IN REWARDING EMPLOYEES Seldom have we come across individual who does not respond to appreciation. Yet. The point of wisdom is simply this: Do not trade-ff the pleasure of living for the sake of achievement.

More often than not. the question that arises is whether is it really that difficult to tell people that? When it comes to rewards. performance reviews and corresponding salary increases occur only once 40 . it may not always be the sole sustaining motivational factor to most individuals. While money can be a significant way of letting employees know their worth to the organisation. Everyone wants to know “what’s going on?”. In his book. The paradox of the situation is that what motivates people most takes so relatively little to do-just a little time and thoughtfulness for fresher. particularly in the context of their job. Numerous studies indicate that open communication was ranked as the most important reason that the employees reported for staying with their present jobs. When we ponder over this aspect. Second on the list was a personal note for good performance written by the manager. Gerald Graham. Mega Trends. The blessings of technology are a mixed bag. and yet. and merely telling them is motivating. He says that our work environments become more and more technical. The most limiting reason for money to be a motivator is that in most organisations. In other words. non-pecuniary factors may equally motivate employees to do their best on the job. He calls this phenomenon high-tech/high-touch. Eve information can be rewarding. may not be the be all or end all of employee motivation. John Naisbett gives an excellent account of the changing work environment.QWL whether an employee has done an exceptionally good job while carrying out his “task”.Especially. as it affects them. most managers perceive that the only thing that motivates their employees is money and more money. In a recent research study of 1500 employees conducted by Dr. money is important enough. The irony is that all this is happening at a time when the aspiration of the employees is to have a greater meaning in their lives. personal congratulations by managers of employees who do a good job were ranked first among 67 potential incentives evaluated. there will be a greater employee need to become more personal and humane.

When one of the employees has put in extra effort on a key project or achieved a goal that has been mutually set. It is quite intriguing to realise that a simple and sincere recognition with minimum cost. It may be small yet significant for the workers that they are being appreciated for the work they’ve done. To motivate employees. None of these intangibles are very costly. but they all do take the time and thoughtfulness of a manger who tends to be caring. Regular reward-not necessarily monetary-needs to take place on almost daily basis. the award has come to be highly coveted in the organisation. When Fred first went from an hourly to a salaried position. It could be sending a birthday gift to the employee’s beloved daughter to footing the bill of the family dinner. the more fun it will be for both of them. enthusiastic and dependable. The intangibles matter a great deal to an employee.QWL in a year. First given as a lark. a manager can find out what specifically motivates his/her employees and ignites the spark in them. paperwork and administration can impact employees in a profound way. This help inspired the award. Managers will find that the more creative and unique they are with the reward. a pass for three-day weekend. By being a little creative. named after an employee named Fred. At Walt Disney. The examples can be only limited by the manager’s imagination. five people taught him the values necessary for success at Disney. Rewarding employees for exceptional work they’ve done is critical to keep them motivated enough to continue their best. The manager can grant employees. resourceful. one of the company’s 180 recognition programs is called The Spirit of Fred Award. he/she should recognise the achievement fittingly in a unique and memorable way. Although money is important. who have performed exceptionally well. His/her job is to make those things happen. performance need to reward the achievements and progress made towards the goals by employees more frequently. in which the name “Fred” became an acronym for friendly. a manager can 41 . Recognition and rewards can be very powerful motivational tools. being kept informed about things that affect them and have a sympathetic manger who takes time to listen.

After all. Employees started looking for higher and meaningful quality of life as a result of the outcomes of their work. But are the corporates structuring the work patterns so as to ensure the necessary balances? Are the corporates providing opportunities to their employees to spend quality time in their personal lives? Many researchers indicate that maintaining a good balance in work and life has become a priority for the corporates in the developed nations. Don't you agree? Well. the priorities outside job became very different. this is what Sigmund Freud had said decades ago for healthy workers. As a result. The priority was given more to physical and material security.QWL obtain better employee performance by using personal. At the dawn of industrialization. the connotation of the term 'work' has also become different. Family is an essential ingredient for the love that exists in the life of the employees. With the progressive shift of the economy towards a knowledge economy. BALANCING THE WORK AND LIFE OF EMPLOYEES Researches indicate that balanced work-life can lead to greater employee productivity. Today. the needs and priorities of employees were at the lower end of Maslow’s need hierarchy pyramid. the corporates need to streamline and restructure their work schedules in order to bring about a balance in work life of their 42 . It has more to do with the intellectual exercise than physical labour. The article details the factor$ that should be tuned to attain balance between work and life of an employee. the meaning and importance of the quality of work life is also assuming a new significance. the meaning and Importance of tile quality of work life is also assuming a new significance. with rapid cultural and economic developments. However. With the increasing shift of the economy towards knowledge economy. what are they working for? A good happy and a decent life. You must have both love and work in your life to make you healthy. creative and amusing forms of recognition.

Understanding and managing the levels and complexities of diverse motivational needs is another area.QWL employees. Financial and social obligations have assumed a different level of significance today. At the same time. Strict deadlines. Let us now look at the factors that have created the need for maintaining work life balance. it demands more from today’s employees. Not only this. And these so-called ‘knowledge workers’ are the ones who are in acute need to balancing their work and life. 43 . In fact. in the book Geeks and Geezers. have created new dynamics that has become emotionally demanding to the employees. the needs of organisations today have also changed. Thomas and Bennis explain how attitudes towards work and life balance varies from generation to generation. Money is getting accumulated in tiny pockets. Baby boomers are no longer ready to give their lives to the company they work for. among those sections of people who possess the ‘most wanted’ knowledge. which requires careful attention from the corporates to bring about work-life balance. Various researchers have pointed out the following. had to nurture your emotions. Technological Breakthroughs Tremendous progress in the fields of information technology and communication system has changed our worldview. Today's nuclear families with both the partners working. New Horizon of Expectations Due to the above reasons there has been a total shift in the level of expectations for today’s employees. in turn. tighter schedules and ever-escalating corporate targets are the natural outcome of it. Shifts in Societal Patterns Gone are the days of joint families where you had to care for elders and they.

The HR managers. the world of individuals primarily centres on their place of work. Though this is in no way an exhaustive list. what the corporates need to remember is that the conflicts should not reach unacceptable levels where it would tend to affect the productivity of the employee. as pointed out by the famous Hawthorne Experiment. Creating Institutional Support Mechanisms The first and the foremost requirement is to create conditions that will provide organisational support towards maintaining the flexibility of work and life of the employees. According to 1998 America @ Work (SM) study conducted by Aon Consulting Worldwide Inc. HR policies and other organisational regulations that allow the employees to maintain a good mix of personal lives with their career. 44 .. Striking a balance between work and life is as difficult for the corporates as it is for the employees. Following are some of the ways in which it cane be done. they seek a newly defined and restructured way of getting jobs assigned to them. These entail the propagation of the culture of work flexibility. Researchers have pointed out that a balance between work and life is maintained when there is no conflict between work and family demands. So a careful perusal of the working patterns and scheduling of jobs will be one of the first steps in designing work schedule that can balance life and work. Though this seems to be idealistic situation. an HR consulting firm based in Chicago. However. yet it does provide a starting point for corporates to develop flexible work schedules that can balance work and life. the employees of today put their commitment to organisations they work for only if the management recognises the importance of their personal and family life. should try to bring in flexibility to the working patterns within the organisations. In turn. along with the functional heads and line mangers. the onus of maintaining this is more on the corporates because.QWL Whereas the Generation X’s and Y’s are more committed to meet the demands of both work and family life. A trade off between organisational needs and personal needs of the employees has to be worked out.

They undergo a weeklong program. called Supervisor School that blends the business case for work life initiatives. Practising What You Preach Above all. To keep pace with the changing patterns of work and life of employees. Organisations must make sure that there are proper organisational systems of work design that allows employees to have flexible time. What is needed is to ensure and communicate the support of the senior management. The top management of the company must clearly communicate its eagerness and willingness to restructure the work schedules in such a manner that it can balance the work and life of the employees. the organisations need to execute their flexible work schedules. For instance. stagnancy will creep into the work schedules. Providing Managerial Support Only lip service towards work life balance will not suffice. Otherwise. But this is not enough. the management ensures that the flexibility in work is linked with the objectives of the organisation. Flexible work patterns must become a part of organisational initiatives. the organisations can arrange special training programs that will inform the employees about the new working trends. Thus. This can be done through sharing successful models of work schedules and real life case studies. It is also necessary to evaluate such systems of flexibility from time to time. This will require 45 . which might create new dimensions of the problem in the work life patterns. This will require clear articulation from the company that it values the personal lives of its employees. This may even require a new look towards HR manual. managers at Eli Lilly begin their job in the company with a clear understanding of what the company expects. The employees must understand that their organisation also keeps in mind the value of their life and personal relationship.QWL There is a need to clearly chalk out the connection between maintaining this flexibility and the corporate objectives. Such articulation can be done through the company’s vision and mission statements. which the organisation may have.

Such sustainability can e brought about by clear demarcations of accountability and means to measure it. the role of HR department needs to be revisited and made more expansive and supportive towards organisational and individual needs. so that a temporary emergency or a shortfall in one department can be met by other departments. In other words. return after a break or take a job with one company over another if they can match their other needs better with those of their paid work. More employees may stay on in a job. the effect of a balanced work-life will show up positively in the bottom line of the company. This will also call for review and evaluation of the current work environment and make modifications in the schedules accordingly. 46 . Thus.QWL the creation of a networked environment that can provide a ‘back up’ system to support work relationship. the focus and purpose of creating balanced work life should be maintained at any cost. Several researchers have shown that a balanced work-life creates greater employee productivity. Essentially this will require employees to become cross functional. What important is the long-term and not the short-term. which seems to become the focus of many organisations. Sustain It Once the organisation follows and internalises the practice of flexible work schedules for its employees. Benefits of improving work-life balance Aiding employee recruitment and retention 1. it is very necessary that it sustains it over a long period of time. though it may apparently seem that employees are having more leisure. So.

while employees may have better methods of dealing with work-life conflicts than taking unplanned leave. 2. Improving the quality of people's working lives 1.QWL 2. 4. 2. The Australian 2002 Benchmarking Study found that organisations implementing work-life strategies and evaluating them observed reduced turnover. 3. including a representative survey of 2500 workplaces. Workplace stress and fatigue can contribute to injuries at work and at home. fulfilling their potential both in paid work and outside it. Minimizing work-life role conflict can help prevent role overload and help people have a more satisfying working life. and that they helped retain female employees. Reducing absenteeism 1. The British Work-Life Balance Study 2000. This results in savings for the employer – avoiding the cost of losing an experienced worker and recruiting someone new. enabling people to have safer and healthier working lives. absenteeism. 47 . found that 58 per cent of employers thought that work-life balance practices had improved staff motivation and commitment. Work life balance can minimize stress and fatigue at work. Sickness rates may fall as pressures are managed better. and 52 per cent thought labour turnover and absenteeism were lower. Many companies that have introduced family-friendly or flexible working practices have seen benefits through reductions in absenteeism. and increased return from parental leave. Workers (including their managers) who are healthy and not over-stressed may be more efficient. Employers who support their staff in this way often gain the bonus of loyalty from those staff.

since community activities can demonstrate good corporate citizenship. While such activities are not the responsibility of individual employers.QWL 3. Most existing information on work-life balance is targeted at those in employment relationships. people with disabilities and those nearing retirement are among those who may increase their workforce participation if more flexible work arrangements are possible. At the extreme. if family life suffers this may have wider social costs. the self-employed too may benefit from maintaining healthy work habits and developing strategies to manage work-flows which enable them to balance work with other roles in their lives. Employers may also benefit from a wider pool of talent to draw from – this is particularly to their benefit when skill shortages exist. and the reverse. Overseas studies have found that family life can interfere with paid work. In a situation of conflict between work and family. Self-employed people control their own work time to some extent. 48 . sporting or other activities can be a benefit to community and civil society at large. voluntary participation in school boards of trustees can contribute to the quality of our children's education. 3. one or other suffers. Benefiting families and communities 1. as well as helping develop workers' skills which can be applied to the workplace. 2. The Baseline Study of Work-Life Balance Practices in Great Britain found that there was strong demand amongst lone parents. careers and disabled people for flexible working time arrangements. 2. Matching people who wouldn’t otherwise work with jobs 1. Involvement in community. they may choose to support them actively. However. For instance. Employment has positive individual and social benefits beyond the financial rewards. Parents and careers. cultural.

. .QWL The benefits gained by organisations who have introduced flexible employment practices include: .A wider pool of talent from which to promote. . . . .Lower staff turnover. happier team.Strengthened loyalty.Reduced stress levels.Less sickness and unscheduled absence.Improved reputation and corporate image.Tasks organised around work rather than work around rigid job definitions and processes. .Improved time keeping. .Flexibility to meet emergencies.An edge over rivals in recruiting the best people. . . . Benefits allows cover for busy periods popular option for women Points to consider part-time working regulations extend the rights of part-time workers more in line with those of full time staff can increase overall staff numbers 49 . Universally adopted policies and practices of work life balance 1.Better return on investment in training.Increased numbers returning to work after maternity leave.A more satisfied. crises or unpredictable demand. . Part Time Working Usually defined as less than 30 hours per week. Hours may be worked over any number of days.

Pay is usually set at a regular. Benefits can help with travel difficulties can help reduce absence enables company to extend the hours when a service can be provided working times can be adjusted to meet peaks/troughs improved time keeping 3. Annualised Hours Agreed weekly hours are replaced by an annual hours arrangement and a forward working pattern of rostered and reserve hours. guaranteed monthly sum’s Benefits increases flexibility to handle seasonal fluctuations in demand allows parents and carers to arrange their working hours around term time/school holidays allows parents and carers to take advantage of off peak holidays Points to consider administratively complex to design and operate implications of national minimum wage legislation Points to consider needs to be well organized/managed requires a degree of self management 1 2 3 4. Term Time Working An arrangement in which reduced hours or time off is agreed for school holidays. reserve hours may be triggered at short notice. 50 . Flexi-time Workers choose the hours they work within defined limits. Usually there are set 'core' times for attendance and controls over the maximum credit or debit hours which can be built up and carried over a period of time.QWL and therefore training costs and fixed overheads negative associations with low pay/low status returning from maternity leave 2. By agreement.

Benefits reduces absenteeism reduces time taken off for sickness Points to consider requires central administration 1 2 7. Benefits reduces absenteeism reduces time taken off for sickness increases flexibility to meet workload peaks and troughs individual choice increases motivation Points to consider requires central administration voluntary co-operation essential implications of national minimum wage legislation.QWL Benefits helps recruit and retain employees with school age children Points to consider absence during prime holiday time may make it difficult to arrange cover 1 5. implications of working time regulations 1 2 3 4 6. Benefits can help retain staff faced with a difficult personal situation or 1 medium term domestic emergency 51 .Shift Swap Simple working arrangements which allow employees to cover for colleagues and to take time off without using up holiday allowance. Hours earned or owed may be stored in a 'time bank'. Employees trade pay for time over an agreed period with an option to return to full time afterwards. Voluntarily Reduced Work Time Often referred to as 'V-Time'.Flexible Rostered Arrangements which allow employees to schedule their working times and patterns to match predicted staffing level needs over a set period.

Job Share Two. Tele-working or Flexi place An arrangement in which employees work from home or an external location and may communicate via a computer link. Benefits 1 2 3 helps retain staff who are carers increases return to work after maternity leave experience may be enhanced during the break Points to consider job cover may need to be planned skills may decline during absence extra effort needed to keep in touch and up to date 52 adds to the expertise available improves information sharing and joint working can sustain higher productivity over a shorter working week Points to consider may add to management responsibilities increases training/fixed costs requires good communication between sharers and their managers continuity management is important (for example in customer relationships) . people divide responsibility for one full time job.QWL 8. unpaid time off with an agreement of a job on return. Career Break An extended period of paid. or more commonly. Return to work may be phased. Benefits 1` 2 3 4 10. Benefits reduces overheads better retention of staff with caring responsibilities higher productivity increases pool of potential recruits Points to consider issues of supervision issues of communication requires self management implications of national minimum wage legislation 1 2 3 4 9. or more.

family emergency. Workplace Childcare Facilities Arrangements which may include on site nursery.QWL 11. Baby feeding/changing stations may be provided. or holiday play scheme offering places to employees. Benefits helps recruitment and retention of key employees increases loyalty Points to consider arrangements must take account of rights to parental leave 1 2 12. out of school 'club'. family marriage. paternity leave. adoption leave. and bereavement. Benefits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 can utilize redundant premises can simplify the journey to childcare/work can enable breast feeding to continue after a mother has returned to work highly visible symbol of employer commitment improved recruitment and retention can increase a father's commitment in childcare responsibilities capital costs may qualify for tax relief Points to consider a viable option only for large organizations or as part of a partnership many employees prefer childcare near to home if work is at a distance schemes must be registered with local authorities and meet statutory requirements childcare providers are exempt from VAT and cannot reclaim VAT paid to their suppliers 53 . May include time off for moving home. Family Leave Arrangements which support new parents through enhanced maternity leave allowance.


QWL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. To gain an insight into current working life policies and practices. as well as worklife balance issues 3.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 55 .1 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY  • • To find out effects of quality of work life initiatives on employees To find out way to improve quality of work life.

3.3Sample Size: I have covered 100 workers. There is no measure to check out whether the information provided by the Workers are correct or not. facilities provided to the employees. survey was conducted. 2. more personal with close ended questions. given to the employees. bonus schemes incentive sector etc. and some is gathering through questionnaire. personal interviews of various managerial level employees were undertaken.QWL For achieving the objectives of study.4Types of Data:I have used primary as well as secondary data. The workers hesitate disclosing the true facts in order to secure their job. procedure for the promotions. The samples of workers are not representative of the total workforce. 3. 3. no. For survey. 3.5LIMITATIONS 1. increments in pay. 56 . The Management was interviewed on various aspects likely to have impact on the quality of work life & on the turn over of the employees viz. Some data is been taken from internet.


QWL 1.Are you satisfied with your work environment? 58 . 10% are from back operations. 2. 19% are from finance. . Which of the following best describe your working area? WORK PROFILE Marketing Finance / Accounting MIS Back Operation Human Resources 32% of the respondents are from marketing field. And 24% are from human resource. 15% are from MIS.

It shows that more than 50% of the respondents are satisfied with their working environment. 59 . Satisfaction with working condition or facilities provided? QWL Sanitation 12% Transport 46% Safety 38% Sanitation Safety Drinking Water Transport Drinking Water 4% Majority of respondents were mainly satisfied with the transport facility i. 38% were satisfied with safety at workplace arrangements.QWL QWL No Response 18% Unsatisfied 30% Satisfied 52% Satisfied Unsatisfied No Response Out of 100 respondents. 3. 52% said that they are satisfied with their work place environment. 46%.e. 18% were unsatisfied. and rest did not respond.

Any extra facilities like health camps or yoga camps being held for health benefits? 60 .QWL 4. Is job rotation facility provided? QWL No 22% Yes No Yes 78% In the survey 78% responded that their job rotation facility is provided to them by their organizations. 6. Is there any extra facilities like food or Transportation being provided? QWL Concession 28% Free 72% Free Concession Majority i. Rest of 28% were getting these at concession rates 5. 72% respondents were availing free transportation or food facilities.e. While 22% said no such facility is provided at their respective work place.

QWL QWL No 42% Yes 58% Yes No 58% of the respondents said their organization do hold such camps for them. allows employees to take time off to care for and support a sick family or household member) .g.g. carer's leave very un important unimportant don’t know important very important Overall 90% of the total respondents felt that carer’s leaves that are being provided by their organizations are important to them. Opportunity for leave if care arrangements for children or other dependants break down (e. Carer’s leave (e. while 42% said no such facility is provided to them by their organizations. 8% said they are not aware of such facilities and 2% felt that such facilities are not of much importance to them 8. if day-care mother gets sick the employee is 61 . 6.

ability to pool all leave entitlements (i. Study/training leave (allows employees to take time off for study or training) study/training leave very un important unimportant don’t know important very important 45% of respondents don’t feel that such facility is of any use to them.QWL allowed to take leave to care for his/her child) emergency leave very un important unimportant don’t know important very important 59% said that emergency leaves are very important to them. rest 15% are not aware of such facilities at their work place. 5% said that such leaves are not of much importance to them.g. carer's leave etc. 9. 40% feel that such facilities are of great help for enhancing the quality of their work life. and rest 8% are not aware of such leaves in their organizations. sick leave.) giving employees a larger number of days if they need it for family reasons) 62 .e. Pooling of leave entitlements (e. 28% said that its important for them. 10.

Unpaid maternity/paternity and adoption leave maternity/ adoption leave very un important unimportant don’t know important very important This is one question on which all the respondents agree that this policy is very important for them.e. 11% are not aware of such policy. 11. provision of a safe location where staff can carry out their regular work duties while caring for dependents until other arrangements can be made) 63 . Rest of the respondents i. 12.g.QWL pooling of leave entitlements very un important unimportant don’t know important very important Total 85% respondents feel that this policy helps them balance their work and life. A carers room or flexibility of bringing children to work in emergencies (e. Only 4% of the total respondents feel otherwise.

12% feel that such policy is not at all important for them. This policy ensures that employees do not neglect their health. 13. rostered days off (allows employees to take time off for 64 . Time off in lieu.QWL flexibility of bringing children at work in case of emergency very un important unimportant don’t know important very important Only 5% of the total respondents don’t feel that flexibility of bringing children to work in emergencies is not that much important issue. Cap on overtime (a limit on the number of hours overtime that can be worked) cap on overtime very un important unimportant don’t know important very important 51% feel that this policy is very important. Rest 95% feels that it is very important for them. 14. 37% feel this policy is important.

16. work/family 65 . Self-rostering and/or staggered start and finish times (picking your own start and finish times and/or days as long as you work an agreed number of hours) self-rostering very un important unimportant don’t know important very important Majority i. instead of payment) time off in leiu of money for overtime very un important unimportant don’t know important very important 34% respondents feel that this is not a good work life balance policy because the very reason for which they do over time i. money if not given to them then they don’t feel like working for over time. Rest of 66% feels that it is very important. among other things. As they will get to spend quality time with their family which is more important then monetary benefits 15.e. Rest 10% has no idea about such policy.QWL overtime they worked. 85% feels that this is one of the best policies and is of great importance. Only 5% respondents feel that it is not of much importance to them.e. As this policy helps workers to work according to their comfort level. Counseling services for employees (the organization pays for counseling services for employees experiencing.

Relocation or placement assistance (where an employee has to move for 66 . 33% said that such facilities don’t affect their personal lives and are not important to them. 18. Exercise facilities (the organization provides on site or subsidizes exercise facilities/gym membership) membership facilities in clubs very un important unimportant don’t know important very important 62% respondents say that membership facilities are very important and have a positive impact on their personal lives. 17. and rest 2% are not aware of such practices.QWL stress) counseling services for employees very un important unimportant don’t know important very important 92% respondents say that for them counseling services are very important where as 6% feel that such practices are of not much significance to them.

the organization helps the whole family adapt to the new environment) relocation assistance very un important unimportant don’t know important very important Here all the employees agreed that relocation assistance is very important for them.QWL work purposes. CHAPTER-5 67 .

15% are from MIS. but in return they charge the perks but in addition those perks are not so high as compared to the well high class facilities. Extra facilities like food or transportation being provided. And 24% are from human resource. 19% are from finance. Workers are well satisfied with the working conditions and the facilities provided. 10% are from back operations.1FINDINGS Of the total number of respondents. 32% are from marketing field. Meanwhile the job rotation is provided 78 % 68 .QWL FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.

Time to time job rotations and job incentives has to be provided. Some other popular work life balance policies with employees are: maternity/ adoption leave and relocation assistance policy. 5.2SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS After analyzing the data we have come to the conclusion that employers need to handle employees in such a manner that employees don’t get frustrated with the stress and over burdened of the work. company has to provide more growth opportunities to the workers. Management flexibility with respect to the social responsibility to the workers is not up to the mark. and carer’s leave a lot Pooling of leave so that employees can use them when need arises is very popular policy with employees. It is found that employees value emergency leaves. study leave. Time off in lieu of money and self roistering are two very innovative policies. We found that organizations are concerned for the health of their employees that’s why they have introduced the policy of cap on time where a limit is put on the number of hour’s overtime that can be worked by the employees. Facilities like food and transportation to be provided free.QWL Health and yoga camps are to be provided for meditation and relaxing after a hectic work but not as compared to the burden of the work as only 58 % are provided such facilities and they consider it important also. 69 .

Social responsibility should have to increase at professional level.google.wikepidea.QWL Health and yoga camps to provide on regular basis to make their workers get rid of stress of work load. Carer’s Leave and Time off for Dependants h) Paternity Leave i) Childcare Facilities Should be used as per the customized needs of the employees. self roistering and flexi time should be used more prominently in the organizations. Policies like time off in lieu of money.com 70 .ask.com www. Policies like: a) Adoption Leave b) Career Break c) Right to Request Flexible Working d) Flexi-time e) Job Share f) Maternity Leave g) Parental Leave. Employees should be given free memberships in the clubs so that they can refresh themselves.com www. BIBILOGRAPHY  INTERNET • • • www.

. 1990 Research Methodology. I am supposed to undertake a survey on “Quality of Work Life”.QWL  BOOKS • • • Human Resource and Personnel Management – William Wrether ICFAI University Press – HRM Review Kothari. Methods and Techniques (2nd edition).As a part of our curriculum.C. Name of the Organization: _______________________________________ Name of the Employee: _______________________________________ 71 . I am a student of MBA (Final Year) at N. India. Vishwa QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Respondent.College of engineering Israna.R. C. I will be obliged if you provide full and correct information up to your knowledge.

-----.-----2.-----.-----1 2 3 4 5 -----. Is there any extra facilities like food or Transportation being provided? Yes If Yes.----.-----.----. Satisfaction with working condition or facilities provided? Yes Safety Drinking Water Transport 7.QWL How important is this policy to you personally? (1 2 3 4 5) (Very Unimportant Unimportant Don't know Important Very Important) 1. Is job rotation facility provided? Yes No 5. if day-care mother gets sick the employee is allowed to take leave to care for his/her child) 3.-----. Opportunity for leave if care arrangements for children or other dependants break down (e.-----. Study/training leave (allows employees to take time off for study or training) 1 2 3 4 5 -----.----.------ 4. then Free No Concession 72 No Sanitation . allows employees to take time off to care for and support a sick family or household member) 1 2 3 4 5 -----.-----. Are you satisfied with your work environment? Satisfied Unsatisfied No Response 6.g.Carers leave (e.g.

----.-----.----.-----73 .g.------ 1 2 3 4 5 -----. rostered days off (allows employees to take time off for overtime they worked.-----. Unpaid maternity/paternity and adoption leave 10. Which of the following best describe your working area? Marketing Back Operation Finance / Accounting Human Resources MIS 12.----. instead of payment) 1 2 3 4 5 -----.-----. provision of a safe location where staff can carry out their regular work duties while caring for dependents until other arrangements can be made) 11.------ 1 2 3 4 5 -----.QWL 8.e.g.) giving employees a larger number of days if they need it for family reasons) Parenting and Pregnancy Policies 9. ability to pool all leave entitlements (i.----.-----.-----. sick leave. carer's leave etc.-----. Pooling of leave entitlements (e. Are you satisfied with your work environment? Satisfied Unsatisfied No Response Flexible Work Arrangements 13. A carers room or bringing children to work in emergencies (e.------ 1 2 3 4 5 -----. Time off in lieu.-----.----.-----.-----. Cap on overtime (a limit on the number of hours overtime that can be worked) 14.------ 1 2 3 4 5 -----.-----.

-----. the organisation helps the whole family adapt to the new environment) 1 2 3 4 5 -----. Counselling services for employees (the organisation pays for counselling services for employees experiencing.------ 1 2 3 4 5 -----.-----.----.-----. among other things. work/family stress) 17. Relocation or placement assistance (where an employee has to move for work purposes.----.----.-----.-----.-----.----.------ 1 2 3 4 5 -----.-----.QWL 15.------ Thank you for your participation 74 .-----. Self-rostering and/or staggered start and finish times (picking your own start and finish times and/or days as long as you work an agreed number of hours) 16. Exercise facilities (the organisation provides on site or subsidises exercise facilities/gym membership) 18.-----1 2 3 4 5 -----.

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