# GENERAL PROPERTIES OF WAVES

GCE ‘O’ LEVEL PHYSICS 5052

LESSON PLAN A: INTRODUCTION TO WAVES

Done by: Chew Yiming Clement (LG02) Supervisor: Mr Charles Chew Module Code: QCP521

INTRODUCTION
The topic on General Wave Properties for 5052 Physics O Level is an important topic that sets the foundation for further study in topics on EM waves, Light and Sound. The topic will be taught in two lessons. Lesson A: Introduction to Waves Lesson B: The Wave Equation and its Applications The lesson plan that follows is for Lesson A.

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Lesson objectives: At the end of the lesson. wavelength. springs and by waves in a ripple tank. students should be able to: (a) Describe and explain what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibrations in ropes. (c) Students should have experience with water waves and have witnessed ocean waves. frequency. period and amplitude (d) Compare transverse and longitudinal waves. and give suitable examples of each (In lesson B) (e) State what is meant by the term wavefront (f) Recall the relationship velocity = frequency × wavelength (g) Apply the relationship between velocity.LESSON PLANNING (LESSON A) Topic: General Wave properties Class: Secondary 3 Express (Average ability) Content: (a) Describing wave motion (b) Wave terms (c) Longitudinal and transverse waves Time: 2 periods (70 min) Prerequisites and Prior Knowledge: (a) Students should have learnt light and sound in Lower Secondary Science (b) Students should have learnt the concept of speed and its definition. frequency and wavelength to new situations or to solve related problems. (Waves in a ripple tank to be dealt in next lesson) (b) Show understanding that waves transfer energy without transferring matter (c) Define speed. 3 .

OHT. 1 yellow) for the wave game (i) 1 × music clip (j) PowerPoint Slides (k) 1 × worksheets (l) 1 × notes (m)1 × dipper Lesson Presentation: Trigger Activity: (1) Take the clear basin and fill it with water. Emphasise to the students that we encounter waves daily in our lives. Now drop a coin gently into the basin and observe how the circular ripples move outwards to the surface of the water. This is similar to the effect caused by casting a pebble into a pond. Place the basin onto the OHT. This is to illustrate the destructive power of waves. satellite 4 . This is to simulate a pond or a puddle of water. There are also many application for waves in communications and medical science (radio sets.Learning Environment: Classroom with whiteboard. (f) 1 × newspaper article from Straits Times 15 Oct 2005 – ‘S’pore not safe from tsunami’ (g) 2 × movie clips • 1 × movie clip showing 26 Dec 2004 tsunami • 1 × movie clip showing Tacoma Bridge collapse (h) 11 × construction sheets (10 red. a computer and a projector Learning Aids & Resources: (a) 1 × clear plastic basin (with wide base) (b) 1 × rope (c) 5 × slinky coil (d) 1 × skipping rope (e) Flash animations. Follow-up with newspaper cutting from the Straits Times 15 Oct 2005 – “‘S’pore not safe from tsunami’”. (2) Show applet of 26 Dec 2004 tsunami.

They contain the important definitions and concepts a student has to master from the lesson. Example: we begin by talking about waves in daily life before proceeding to classifying the waves into two different categories. The students will be confused. The lesson plan takes an inductive approach leading from specific to general examples. For more details. One should not start off by introducing complex concepts before simpler concepts. they must pay attention to the lesson. it is important for the teacher to communicate what is most essential to the students. Physics is useful and not just some theoretical exercise! (c) Perceptual Learning Styles According to Dunn & Dunn (1978). Make them stand in a straight line facing the class. Students will also get to play with the slinky coils. (e) Collaborative Learning To integrate collaborative learning. visual or tactual/kinesthetic. Those who learn better by writing down what they see and think have notes with blanks provided for them. Tell them to do a continuous human wave. Lesson Closure: The teacher will recap what the students have learnt using a concept map. Tell the students that if they want to pursue these interests later in life. Learners may be auditory. The teacher will proceed to ask them some thinking questions that will prepare them for Lesson B on The 5 . Notes with blanks are given out to fulfil the purposes. Synchronise the wave with some music. Give them each a red construction paper. students may have different perceptual learning styles. students will be asked to take part in a ThinkShare-Pair activity where they are required to brainstorm and list the application of waves in daily life. handphones.technology. The lesson closure also offers a recap using a concept map. photography). They can fill in the blanks during the course of the lesson. (b) Everyday Applications The continuous emphasis of the use of waves in everyday applications will make students more interested as they can relate them to their lives. Concrete to abstract. Activities such as the wave game appeals to both kinesthetic and visual learners. refer to Procedure for Lesson Plan Strategies for Lesson Development: (a) Simple to complex. X-ray. GPS. concrete to abstract concepts. Using this activity. provide sufficient scaffolding to induce them to the properties of a transverse wave. Hence. (d) Focusing on the Essentials No one can learn everything that is present in any textbook or lesson. and learn more about waves!  Set Induction: The Wave Game Ask ten students to come to the front of the class.

there is a need for demonstrations so that students can visualise the concepts involved. Big waves travel faster than small waves in the same medium. All waves travel the same way. Hence. Concept Map: 6 .Wave Equation and its Applications. Waves do not have energy. Some misconceptions of waves include: • • • • • Waves transport matter. There must be a medium for a wave to travel through. Worksheets will also be given for students to do at home to facilitate their consolidation of concepts. as well as serve as student assessment. Possible Learning Difficulties and Misconceptions: Most students find the topic of waves very abstract.

Reflection of lesson: • The pace of the lesson was good. I can improve in the management of my time during activities • The music clip hanged during the wave game. There is a need to prepare a contingency plan for teaching if technology fails. 7 . However.

Dipper To show that waves occur in everyday life. They can be very Article destructive. . If they want to pursue their interests in these areas. Rationale To provoke students and prepare their mindset to explore more into the topic of waves. What happens when the stone hits the water? • Take a clear basin and fill it with water. • Place the basin onto the OHT. “This is what will happen when I throw a pebble into a pond. they must know more about waves. Hence. Tell the students that waves occur in everyday life. 7 min Think-Pair-Share Handout A To get students to think critically and 8 Resources Clear basin filled with water. create some circular ripples in the basin of water. • Show students movie clip of 26 Dec 2004 tsunami. This is to simulate a pond • Using a dipper.Procedure of Lesson Plan Time Frame 7 min Activities Trigger Activities Activity 1: Throwing a pebble into a pond (5min) • Ask students if they had ever throne a stone into a pond or a puddle of water. There are also many applications for waves in the fields of medical science and communications. Do you see those circular ripples? Those are waves” Remark: Distribute the notes before the trigger activity Activity 2: Movie Clips Movie Clips (5min) • Tell students that waves are not Newspaper always so harmless. it is important for us to study waves. • The teacher says. • Follow this up by showing newspaper clip from Straits Times 15 Oct 2005 – ‘S’pore not safe from tsunami’ • Show movie clip of Tacoma Bridge collapse. Hence. they must pay attention in class.

Which are waves and which are not? • Emphasise that not all waves need a medium to propagate. If resources are sufficient. It is fine at this time because the motive is to get them to think critically about what is a wave. Ask them to work in pairs to fill in the slides 1st column the applications of waves in everyday life. • Show PowerPoint Slide explaining definition of waves. Clear basin filled with water Dipper PowerPoint Slides Introduce definition of wave using previous demonstrations and activities as scaffolding 8 min 10 red construction paper 2 cardboard arrows Optional: Music clip The intention of the wave game is to help students visualise the mechanics involved in a transverse wave. Create some ripples using the dipper again. • Bring to students’ attention the disturbance resulting from the vibrations caused by the ball falling into the water. Ask them the reason for choosing some of the answers Note: Some of the students’ answers might be wrong. Example: EM waves The Wave Game • Ask ten students to come to the front of the class and make them stand in a straight line facing the class. write some of the students’ answers on the whiteboard. • Give each student a red construction paper • Ask the students to do a continuous human wave. prompt the students to indicate the direction of propagation of the wave. ask the students to evaluate their previous answers. • Using a cardboard arrow. the human wave can be synchronised by a music clip. Student-centered learning 9 .Time Frame • • • • Activities Resources Rationale construct their own understanding regarding the definition of a wave. PowerPoint Distribute handout A. • Now that the students know the definition of waves. They can learn from their mistakes 5 min Definition of a wave • Take the clear basin of water and placed it over the OHP. After they have finished.

The flash animation shows an electronic representation of the rope wave. • Teacher to ask student what they observe about the direction of the two arrows.swf • Again using the two cardboard arrows.co.bbc. Slinky Coil Flash animation 2 Cardboard arrows PowerPoint Slides Optional Movie Clip Using activities to help student construct their understanding of what is a longitudinal wave. ask students to show the direction of propagation of the waves. 8 min 10 . Ask them how this is different from a transverse Resources Rationale 5 min Skipping Rope Flash Animation PowerPoint Slides Using activities to help student construct their understanding of what is a transverse wave. http://www.bbc. • The teacher moves his hand up and down to generate transverse waves. • Show PowerPoint slide explaining what a transverse wave is. • Ask the students what are the similarities between the rope wave and the human wave in the wave game. • Show the flash animation from http://www. • Pass the slinky coils for the student to play along • Show flash animation on longitudinal waves. • Help students to remember for transverse waves. (They are perpendicular to each other) Defining Transverse Waves • Ask a student to hold one end of the skipping rope while the teacher holds the other end. • Give some examples of transverse waves.uk/schools/gcsebite size/flash/ph06009.swf.uk/schools/gcsebite size/flash/ph06008. Help students consolidate their understanding of transverse waves. prompt the students to indicate the direction each student is moving. and the direction of the vibration. Example: EM waves • Ask review question to test understanding of waves. Slinky Coil Demonstration • Take a slinky coil and create longitudinal waves.co.Time Frame • Activities Using the other cardboard arrow. waves travel in a direction perpendicular to the direction of vibration using the symbol of a cross for the letter “t”.

Give examples of longitudinal waves in everyday life. Visual representation allows students to understand abstract concepts better. 15 min 11 . Introducing wave terms to the students. • Stop the music when the student with the yellow construction paper is at his highest point. Introduce the idea of crests to the students. period • Get another 10 students to play the wave game. trough. For longitudinal waves. Synchronise the wave using some music. frequency and period to the students. the direction of vibration is along the direction of the propagation of the waves. This time give one of the students a yellow construction paper instead of a red construction paper. Introduce the idea of troughs to the students. wavelength. frequency. Ask the students to observe that there are areas where the spring appears more compressed than other areas. Show PowerPoint slides explaining the definition of a longitudinal wave. Introducing crest. trough.Time Frame • • • Activities wave. amplitude and wavelength. show video clip of candle flame flickering vigorously due to sound blasting from a loud speaker) Resources Rationale • 5 min Review Questions PowerPoint • Ask students some simple question to Slides test whether they can compare and distinguish transverse and longitudinal waves. Introduce concept of compressions and rarefactions. • For relationship between frequency Construction Paper Music Clip PowerPoint Slides Handout B Optional: Flash Animation Reinforce and assess students’ understanding of the concepts involved. • Using PowerPoint slides to introduce definitions of crest. • Ask the students to freeze in their positions when you stop playing the music. • Stop the music when the student with the yellow construction paper is at his lowest point. amplitude. Example: sound (if there is time.

Ask why this occurs. We even hear the spaceship firing lasers at one another. (If there is time. Thinking questions to set the students to inquire more into the subject 12 . But it is not critical as it will be covered in the next lesson) Reinforce students’ understanding of wave terms 5 min Lesson Closure Notes • Summarise the concepts taught using the concept map. and see the effect on the wave) Resources Rationale Get students discover implications of T=1/f via induction. amplitude and frequency. 5 min Review Questions on wave terms PowerPoint • Using PowerPoint. Help the students focus on the essentials. ask the students to do handout 2 and observe the trend that frequency increases as period decrease. show flash animation on wave terms. • Pose the following questions to the students to think through before the next lesson  Why don't incoming ocean waves bring more water on to the shore until the beach is completely submerged?  In space films. we often hear the sound of the engine of the spaceship as the zoom past each other in outer space. ask questions Slides regarding the wave terms to reinforce the students’ understanding of the wave terms. (If there is time. They are to fill up the blank spaces in their notes. What are your thoughts concerning this?  How will the motion of water waves change as they move from deep to shallow water? How about from shallow to deep water? Refresh the students’ memory concerning the concepts taught in the lesson. Students can vary wave length. introduce the concept of wave speed and a derivation of the wave equation.Time Frame Activities and period.

kettering.html 8) http://www. Kenneth Dunn (1978). Physics A Course for ‘O’ Levels (2nd Edition).wfu. Federal. See Toh Weng Fong (2000). Loo Kwok Wai.edu/~drussell/demos.com/Class/waves/wavestoc.com/Class/waves/U10L1c. 2) Rita Dunn.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/physics/waves/an_introduction_to_wavesr ev1. The Physics Teacher.shtml 7) http://www.physicsclassroom. USA. Teaching Students Through Their Learning Styles – a practical approach.bbc. Physics Insights. Prentice-Hall. 43.344-345 5) http://www.edu/physics/demolabs/demos/index. Singapore. Singapore. Vol. Pearson Education. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demostration. 4) Panagiotis Pantidos.physicsclassroom. Virginia.html 13 . Chow Siew Foong (2000).co. 3) Loo Wan Yong. Leong See Cheng. Stamatis Patapis (2005).html 6) http://www.References 1) Charles Chew.html 9) http://www. p.

APPENDIX A HANDOUT 1 FOR INTRODUCTION TO WAVES Name: Class: Examples and Applications of Waves in Everyday Life Type of Waves Any medium involved? (Transverse/Longitudinal) 14 .

Frequency. T = f . T and frequency.APPENDIX C HANDOUT B FOR INTRODUCTION TO WAVES Name: Class: Exploring the relationship between period. f/Hz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 What do you observe? Period. f We have just learnt that period. T/s 1 15 . Let’s explore the implications of this relationship.

111 0. f/Hz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 What do you observe? Period.25 0.5 0.APPENDIX C HANDOUT B FOR INTRODUCTION TO WAVES (ANSWERS) Name: Class: Exploring the relationship between period. Let’s explore the implications of this relationship.333 0.167 0.2 0.125 0.T = 1 f .1 16 . f We have just learnt that period . T and frequency. T/s 1 0. Frequency.143 0.

EM waves 4. Longitudinal waves travel in a direction parallel to the direction of the vibrations. 5.GENERAL PROPERTIES OF WAVES 1. Do waves need a medium to propagate? No 3.  Energy is transferred from one point to another without physical transfer of any material between two points.APPENDIX E – NOTES WITH ANSWERS UNIT 13 . rope waves. What is a wave?  It is a spreading of disturbance from one place to another. Crests: Points of maximum displacement on a wave. 2. Some examples of transverse waves: water waves.  The source of the wave is a vibration or an oscillation. Troughs: Points of minimum displacement on a wave. displacement CREST CREST distance along rope TROUGH 17 . Transverse waves travel in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the vibrations.

6. Example: distance between two crests. Amplitude (A): Maximum displacement from the rest or central position. SI unit: metre (m) displacement crest amplitude distance amplitude trough λ crest 18 . Wavelength (λ ): Distance between two successive points of the same phase. SI unit: metre (m) displacement crest amplitude distance along rope amplitude crest trough 7.

Period (T): Time taken to generate one complete wave (or to complete one cycle). f: T = 1 f As f increases. Relationship between period. Frequency (f): Number of waves generated per second. SI unit: seconds (s) 10. CONCEPT MAP: 19 . SI unit: hertz (Hz) 9. T and frequency. T decreases.8.

APPENDIX F – NEWSPAPER CLIP AND POWERPOINT SLIDES 20 .