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Aralin 1- Ang Pinagmulan ng Daigdig
Galaxy- A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. The name is from the ancient Greek word galaxias [γαλαξίας], literally meaning "milky", a reference to the Milky Way galaxy. Typical galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million (107) stars, up to giants with a hundred trillion (1014) stars, all orbiting the galaxy's center of mass. Galaxies may contain many star systems, star clusters, and various interstellar clouds. The Sun is one of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy; the Solar System includes the Earth and all the other objects that orbit the Sun. Historically, galaxies have been categorized according to their apparent shape (usually referred to as their visual morphology). A common form is the elliptical galaxy, which has an ellipse-shaped light profile. Spiral galaxies are diskshaped assemblages with dusty, curving arms. Galaxies with irregular or unusual shapes are known as irregular galaxies, and typically result from disruption by the gravitational pull of neighboring galaxies. Such interactions between nearby galaxies, which may ultimately result in galaxies merging, may induce episodes of significantly increased star formation, producing what is called a starburst galaxy. Small galaxies that lack a coherent structure could also be referred to as irregular galaxies.
Milky Way - The Milky Way galaxy, commonly referred to as just the
Milky Way, or sometimes simply as the Galaxy, is the home galaxy of the Solar System, and of Earth. It is a barred spiral galaxy that contains 100-400 billion stars and an estimated 50 billion planets, 500 million of which could be located in the habitable zone of their parent star. The Milky Way is part of the Local Group of galaxies and is one of 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe. The Solar System is located in the Milky Way galaxy halfway out from the center, on the inner edge of the Orion–Cygnus Arm. The Sun orbits around the center of the galaxy in a galactic year—once every 225-250 million Earth years. The "Milky Way" is a translation of the Latin Via Lactea, in turn translated from the Greek Γαλαξίας (Galaxias), referring to the pale band of light formed by stars in the galactic plane as seen from Earth. All the stars that the eye can distinguish in the night sky are part of the Milky Way galaxy, but aside from these relatively nearby stars, the galaxy appears as a hazy band of white light arching around the entire celestial sphere. The light originates from stars and other material that lie within the galactic plane. Dark regions within the band, such as the Great Rift and the Coalsack, correspond to areas where light from distant stars is blocked by dark nebulae. The Milky Way has a relatively low surface brightness due to the interstellar medium that fills the galactic disk, which prevents us from seeing the bright galactic center. It is thus difficult to see from any urban or suburban location suffering from light pollution. A total integrated magnitude of the whole Milky Way stretching across the night sky has been estimated at −5.0.
Aralin 2 – Ang pisikal na anyo ng daigdig
Alfred Wegener - Alfred Lothar Wegener (November 1, 1880 –
November 1930) was a German scientist, geophysicist, and meteorologist. He is most notable for his theory of continental drift (Kontinentalverschiebung), proposed in 1912, which hypothesized that the continents were slowly drifting around the Earth. However, Wegener was unable to demonstrate a mechanism for continental drift, which, combined with his mostly circumstantial evidence, meant that his hypothesis was not accepted until the 1950s, when numerous discoveries provided evidence of continental drift. Alfred Wegener first thought of this idea by noticing that the different large landmasses of the Earth almost fit together like a jigsaw. The Continental shelf of the Americas fit closely to Africa and Europe, and Antarctica, Australia, India and Madagascar fit next to the tip of Southern Africa. But Wegener only took action after reading a paper in Autumn 1911 and seeing that a flooded land-bridge contradicts isostasy. Wegener's main interest was meteorology, and he wanted to join the Denmark-Greenland expedition scheduled for mid 1912. So he hurried up to present his Continental Drift hypothesis on 6 January 1912. But it wasn't considered to be sufficient evidence in itself. He analyzed either side of the Atlantic Ocean for rock type, geological structures and fossils. He noticed that there was a significant similarity.
6 billion year history.1 billion years ago (Ga) until about 750 million years ago. Siberia and Baltica. The exact configuration and geodynamic history of Rodinia are not nearly as well understood as Pannotia and Pangaea. Proto-Laurasia and ProtoGondwanaland were separated by the Proto-Tethys Ocean. Rodinia formed by the accretion and assembly of fragments produced by breakup of an older supercontinent. The breaking up and formation of supercontinents appear to be cyclical through Earth's 4.Pangaea. there was Rodinia. Before Pannotia. the Iapetus Ocean and Paleoasian Ocean. it split into three pieces: the supercontinent of Proto-Laurasia and the supercontinent of Proto-Gondwana.0-1. . Soon thereafter Proto-Laurasia itself split apart to form the continents of Laurentia. When Rodinia broke up.8 Ga. There may have been several others before Pangaea.The name was coined during a 1926 symposium discussing Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift. The nextto-last one. Baltica was situated east of Laurentia. In his book The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane) first published in 1915. The rifting also spawned two new oceans. Pannotia. he postulated that all the continents had at one time formed a single supercontinent which he called the "Urkontinent". before later breaking up and drifting to their present locations. formed about 600 million years ago (Ma) during the Proterozoic eon. and the smaller Congo craton. which lasted from about 1. and Siberia northeast of Laurentia. called Columbia or Nuna that was assembled in the period 2. and lasted until 540 Ma.
Uganda and southern Sudan.iar-o "the. the southern part of the Great Rift Valley. the Nile is called Ḥ'pī or iteru. meaning "great river". Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. The two great tributaries join at Khartoum.03583°N 37. and 'waters' determinative) In Coptic. it typically dries up. which originates in Ethiopia north of Lake Tana. The former is the longer. Tanzania. Below this confluence the only major tributary is the Atbara River.256.555 square kilometres (1. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan. The two rivers meet near the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert. from Sudan into Egypt. The White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa. and is around 800 kilometres (500 mi) long. The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea. represented by the hieroglyphs shown on the left (literally itrw. During the dry period of January to June. . The Atbara flows only while there is rain in Ethiopia and dries very rapidly. It flows north through Rwanda. and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along riverbanks. the White Nile and Blue Nile. The latter is the source of most of the water and fertile soil. Lake Victoria.The Nile has two major tributaries.591 sq mi). The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa. with the most distant source in central Burundi. roughly halfway to the sea. and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia. about 10% of the area of Africa.Aralin 3 – Ang heograpiya at kasaysayan Nile.canal-great") come from the same ancient name. In the ancient Egyptian language. p(h).254. The Blue Nile starts at Lake Tana in Ethiopia at 12°02′09″N 037°15′53″E / 12.26472°E and flows into Sudan from the southeast. a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. It joins the Nile approximately 300 kilometres (200 mi) north of Khartoum. the words piaro (Sahidic) or phiaro (Bohairic) meaning "the river" (lit. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3.
.In the 1980s. particularly during drought. Historically. The Tigris-Euphrates Basin is primarily shared by Turkey. it saw the earliest emergence of literate urban civilization in the Uruk period. for which reason it is often dubbed the "Cradle of Civilization". Syrian and Iranian dam construction has also contributed to political tension within the basin. this ecoregion was put in grave danger as the Iran–Iraq War raged within its boundaries. Syria and Iraq. Since the 1960s and in 1970s. were completely dried out. the area is known as Mesopotamia. In addition. and marshes. which were inhabited by the Marsh Arabs. the Tigris and Euphrates. Tigris Euphrates .. As part of the larger Fertile Crescent. swamps. with many Tigris tributaries originating in Iran. The hydrology of these vast marshes is extremely important to the ecology of the entire upper Persian Gulf. water disputes have regularly occurred in addition to the associated dam's effects on the environment. when Turkey began the GAP project in earnest.The Tigris–Euphrates river system is part of the TigrisEuphrates alluvial salt marsh ecoregion of West Asia. all surrounded by desert. and is characterized by two large rivers. and only recently have shown signs of recovery. The rivers have several small tributaries which feed into the system from shallow freshwater lakes. The wetlands of Iraq.
which may reach 6 m in length and weigh over 1. where the common adder and grass snake are often found hunting in water. Unlike amphibians. Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti was the first to formally use the term "Reptilia" for an expanded selection of reptiles and amphibians basically similar to that of Linnaeus. and four living orders are currently recognized.000 kg. This is achieved by either ovoviviparity (egg retention) or viviparity (birth of offspring without the development of calcified eggs). The terms "reptile" and "amphibian" were largely interchangeable. "to creep") being preferred by the French. with some providing initial care for their hatchlings. Linnaeus. and having skin covered in scales and/or scutes.Aralin 4 – Ebolusyon ng tao Reptile . They are tetrapods (either having four limbs or being descended from four-limbed ancestors). . it is still common to treat the two groups under the same heading as herptiles. They are characterized by breathing air.Reptiles are animals in the (Linnaean) class Reptilia. Reptiles are classically viewed as having a "coldblooded" metabolism. The reptiles were from the outset of classification grouped with the amphibians. Modern reptiles inhabit every continent with the exception of Antarctica. "reptile" (from Latin repere. As a rule.[ Today. Crocodylus porosus.6 cm (0.6 in) to the saltwater crocodile. reptiles are oviparous (egg-laying). Sphaerodactylus ariase. reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage. that grows to only 1. included all reptiles and amphibians in class "III – Amphibia" in his Systema Naturæ. working from species-poor Sweden. Extant reptiles range in size from a tiny gecko. although certain species of squamates are capable of giving live birth. laying shelled eggs. Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals.
he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas. He published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species. it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed that natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. In modified form. . Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science. and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection. explaining the diversity of life. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry.Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist. and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.Charles Darwin . Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences. instead. Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh. The scientific community and much of the general public came to accept evolution as a fact in his lifetime. However.
Dr. Central Java. more complete specimen was later discovered in the village of Sangiran. The oldest African Homo erectus fossils. Many more finds have subsequently been made at the Sangiran site. The new date of the Mojokerto child. Eugène Dubois. although official reports remain critical of the site's "poor" presentation and interpretation. one of the first known specimens of Homo erectus. and the Sangiran fossils are about 1. a femur. a name derived from Greek and Latin roots meaning upright apeman. and a few teeth. gave it the scientific name Pithecanthropus erectus. Dubois' find was a very incomplete specimen. was discovered by Berlin-born paleontologist GHR von Koenigswald in 1936. Its discoverer. . There is some dissent as to whether all these bones represent the same species A second. This find. Indonesia. a skullcap of similar size to that found by Dubois.81 million years. is about 1. 18 km to the north of Solo.66 million years old. Swisher's group [of the Institute of Human Origins in Berkeley] has determined.Pag unlad ng kultura ng mga tao Java Man-(Homo erectus erectus) is the name given to fossils discovered in 1891 at Trinil .Aralin 5. found at Koobi Fora in Kenya.Ngawi Regency on the banks of the Solo River in East Java. has been dated at about the same age as the Mojokerto child. consisting of a skullcap.
As additional remains of early modern humans were discovered in archaeological sites from Western Europe and elsewhere. Current scientific literature prefers the term "European Early Modern Humans" Aralin 6 – Ang kabihasnan sa Mesopotamia . French [kʁomaɲɔ̃]) were the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) of the European Upper Paleolithic. though it remains an important term within the archaeological community as an identifier for the commensurate fossil remains in Europe and adjacent areas. and dating techniques improved in the early 20th century. the term "Cro-Magnon" falls outside the usual naming conventions for early humans. By the 1970s the term was used for any early modern human wherever found.The Cro-Magnon (pronounced /kroʊˈmæɡnən/. The name derives from the Abri de Cro-Magnon (French: rock shelter of Cro-Magnon. the big cave in the local dialect) near the commune of Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil in southwest France. The term "Cro-Magnon" soon came to be used in a general sense to describe the oldest modern people in Europe. analyses based on more current dataconcerning the migrations of early humans have contributed to a refined definition of this expression. However. as was the case with the far-flung Jebel Qafzeh remains in Israel and various PaleoIndian in the Americas. the Cro-Magnon were from the outset linked to the well-known Lascaux cave paintings and the Aurignacian culture that flourished in southern France and Germany . Today. new finds were added to the taxonomic classification. where the first specimen was found Being the oldest known modern humans (Homo sapiens) in Europe.000 years before present. The earliest known remains of Cro-Magnon-like humans are radiometrically dated to 35.
by the time of his reign. 1792 BC. of the First Babylonian Dynasty) from 1792 BC to 1750 BC middle chronology (1728 BC – 1686 BC short chronology) He became the first king of the Babylonian Empire following the abdication of his father. Hammurabi's portrait is in many government buildings throughout the world. Hammurabi was a First Dynasty king of the city-state of Babylon. one of the first written codes of law in recorded history." from ʻAmmu. The kings who came before Hammurabi had begun to consolidate rule of central Mesopotamia under Babylonian hegemony and. Although his empire controlled all of Mesopotamia at the time of his death. and inherited the power from his father. The powerful kingdom of Eshnunna controlled the upper Tigris River while Larsa controlled the river delta. To the east lay the kingdom of Elam. "the kinsman is a healer. . although his untimely death would fragment his newly conquered Semitic empire. Kish. extending Babylon's control over Mesopotamia by winning a series of wars against neighboring kingdoms. To the north." and Rāpi.4 meters) that was found in 1901. These laws were written on a stone tablet standing over eight feet tall (2.Hammurabi . Sin-Muballit. Babylonian culture gained a degree of prominence among the literate classes throughout the Middle East. and Sippar. Sin-Muballit. Owing to his reputation in modern times as an ancient law-giver. Babylon was one of the many ancient citystates that dotted the Mesopotamian plain and waged war on each other for control of fertile agricultural land. had conquered the city-states of Borsippa. (died c. Thus Hammurabi ascended to the throne as the king of a minor kingdom in the midst of a complex geopolitical situation. "paternal kinsman. 1750 BC)) was the sixth king of Babylon (that is. his successors were unable to maintain his empire. in c.Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ʻAmmurāpi. Hammurabi is known for the set of laws called Hammurabi's Code. Shamshi-Adad I was undertaking expansionistic wars. "healer". Though many cultures co-existed in Mesopotamia.
this Middle Eastern land-bridge is of extreme importance to the modern distribution of Old World flora and fauna. The area is important as the "bridge" between Africa and Eurasia. published in 1906. The term "Fertile Crescent" was first used by University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted in his Ancient Records of Egypt. and is the birthplace of writing and the wheel. besides the southeastern fringe of Turkey and the western fringe of Iran. Aralin 7 – Iba pang Sibilisasyon sa Asya . saw the development of many of the earliest human civilizations. The region was so named due to its rich soil and crescent shape. they were not the only factor in the area's precocity. Jordan. This "bridging role" has allowed the Fertile Crescent to retain a greater amount of biodiversity than either Europe or North Africa. Coupled with the Saharan pump theory. Lebanon and Syria. delimited by the dry climate of the Syrian Desert to the south and the Anatolian highlands to the north. It includes the comparatively fertile regions of Mesopotamia and the Levant.The Fertile Crescent is a region in Western Asia. including the spread of humanity. Modern-day countries with significant territory within the Fertile Crescent are Iraq. Israel.Fertile Crescent . As crucial as rivers and marshlands were to the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent. The region is often considered the cradle of civilization. where climate changes during the Ice Age led to repeated extinction events due to ecosystems becoming squeezed against the waters of the Mediterranean Sea.
Shiraz. The Encyclopedia Britannica excludes "lowland Khuzestan" explicitly and characterizes Elam as spanning "the region from the Mesopotamian plain to the Iranian Plateau". the highest peak being Damavand in the Alborz at 5610 m. Peshawar and Quetta containing some 3. on an area roughly outlined by the quadrangle formed by the cities of Tabriz. and its eastern slopes may be included in the term. The Zagros mountains form the plateau's western boundary. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates. it is far from flat but contains several mountain ranges. the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north. In spite of being called a "plateau". the heartlands of Greater Iran (mainly Iran.000 sq mi).700. As a historical region.430.The Iranian plateau (or in much less common use: the Persian plateau. the Hormuz Strait and Persian gulf to the south and the Indus River to the east in Pakistan. Afghanistan and Pakistan. the Iranian Plateau extends for close to 2. It encompasses the greater part of Iran. it includes Parthia. situated between the Zagros mountains to the west.Iranian Plateau .000 km. Media and eastern Persia. is a geological formation in Southwest Asia.000 square kilometres (1. and the Lut basin ast of Kerman in Central Iran falling below 300 m.From the Caspian in the northwest to Baluchistan in the south-east. . Afghanistan and Pakistan).
Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: IPA: [kʰuːruʃ].Cyrus the Great ." Aralin 8 – Ang Sinaunang China . Persian: . were the works of Cyrus. Cyrus the Great respected the customs and religions of the lands he conquered. as "the anointed of the Lord" or a "Messiah. Cambyses II. the role of the Achaemenid empire founded by Cyrus lies in its very successful model for centralized administration and establishing a government working to the advantage and profit of its subjects. the administration of the empire through satraps and the vital principle of forming a government at Pasargadae. Nubia. Either before or after Babylon. Cyrus built his empire by conquering first the Median Empire. the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East. Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Kūruš. which resulted in major campaigns that brought "into subjection every nation without exception. expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia. The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted between 29 and 31 years. In fact. and Cyrenaica during his short rule. fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC. where because of his policies in Babylonia. was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. Cyrus the Great also left a lasting legacy on the Jewish religion through his Edict of Restoration. he is referred to by the people of the Jewish faith. who managed to add to the empire by conquering Egypt. He was succeeded by his son. parts of Europe and Caucasus. Persia (modern Iran). Aside from his own nation. It is said that in universal history. then the Lydian Empire and eventually the Neo-Babylonian Empire. he led an expedition into central Asia. 600 BC or 576 BC – December 530 BC). as he himself died in battle. Under his rule. also known as Cyrus II or Cyrus of Persia.کوروش بزرگKūrosh-e-Bozorg) (c. From the Mediterranean sea and the Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east." Cyrus did not venture into Egypt.
The Yellow River is called "the cradle of Chinese civilization".180 mi) and a north-south extent of 1100 km (684 mi). pinyin: Huáng Hé. The Chinese idiom "when the Yellow River flows clear" is used to refer to an event that will never happen and is similar to the English expression "when pigs fly". the word that has come to mean simply "river" in modern language (in ancient times. Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China. The yellow color comes from loess suspended in the water.464 kilometers (3. Sometimes the Yellow River is poetically called the "Muddy Flow" (simplified Chinese:. The first appearance of the name "Yellow River" (黃河) is in the Book of Han (simplified Chinese: 汉 书. The Yellow River basin has an east-west extent of 1900 km (1. Mongolian: Hatan Gol.395 mi). however. has also earned it the unenviable names "China's Sorrow" and "Scourge of the Sons of Han. . pinyin: Zhuó Liú). The name "Yellow River" describes the perennial ochre-yellow colour of the muddy water in the lower course of the river.520 mi²).443 km² (290.The Yellow River or Huang He / Hwang Ho (simplified Chinese: 黄河. pinyin: Hàn Shū) written in the Western Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 9). traditional Chinese:. it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into the Bohai Sea. traditional Chinese: 漢書. Queen river) is the second-longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of 5. traditional Chinese: 黃河. But frequent devastating flooding largely due to the elevated river bed in its lower course. as its basin is the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilizations and was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history." Early Chinese literature refers to the Yellow River simply as He . Total basin area is 742. and were used in the meaning "river").
In the first. Laozi was said to be a contemporary of Confucius (551–479 BC). The earliest reliable reference (circa 100 BC) to Laozi is found in the Records of the Grand Historian (Shini) by Chinese historian Sima Qian (ca. Lao-Tsu. and his personal name was Er (耳 "ear") or Dan (聃 "long ear"). A central figure in Chinese culture. both nobility and common people claim Laozi in their lineage. Laozi was Lao Laizi (老來子 "Old Master"). His surname was Li (李 "plum"). and other variations) was a mystic philosopher of ancient China. who wrote a book in 15 parts. Wade–Giles: Lao Tzu. His association with the Tao Te Ching has led him to be traditionally considered the founder of Taoism (also spelled "Daoism"). Laozi's work has been embraced by various anti-authoritarian Laozi is traditionally regarded as the author of the Daodejing (Tao Te Ching).Laozi Chinese: pinyin: Lǎozǐ. Historians variously contend that Laozi is a synthesis of multiple historical figures. which often refers to Laozi as Taishang Laojun. or that he actually lived in the 4th century BC. . LaoTzu. Laozi translated literally from Chinese means "old master" or "old one". and best known as the author of the Tao Te Ching. Laozi lived in the 6th century BC. which combines a number of stories. Laosi. In the second. who lived during the reign (384–362 BC) of Duke Xian (獻公) of Qin). He is also revered as a deity in most religious forms of the Taoist religion. also a contemporary of Confucius. He was an official in the imperial archives. concurrent with the Hundred Schools of Thought and Warring States Period. that he is a mythical figure. Laocius. Lao Zi. and is generally considered honorific According to Chinese tradition. Laozi was the Grand Historian and astrologer Lao Dan (老聃 "Old Long-ears"). In the third. Laotze. and wrote a book in two parts before departing to the West. though the identity of its author(s) and/or compiler(s) has been debated throughout history. or "One of the Three Pure Ones". 145–86 BC). also Lao Tse. Throughout history. Lao Tu.
000 square kilometers (450. Beas and two tributaries from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Afghanistan.976 miles) and it is Pakistan's longest river. plains and arid countryside. flowing through the North in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan. Tibetan: སེང་གེ།་གཙང་པོ. Sutlej. Sindhu. Chinese: 森格藏布/狮泉河/印度河. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers. pinyin: Sēngé Zàngbù/Shīquán Hé/Yìndù Hé. Urdu: .000 square miles). the Indus forms the Sapta Sindhu (Seven Rivers) delta of Pakistan. The river's estimated annual flow stands at around 207 cubic kilometers. Pashto: اباسينAbāsin "Water of Sindh". Greek: Ινδός Indós. Avestan: Hapta Hindu. Pashto: السندAl-Sind.180 kilometers (1. . Wylie: Sênggê Zangbo "Lion River". Turki: Nilab) is a major river which flows through Pakistan. the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests.165. to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and then enters Pakistan via the Northern Areas (Gilgit-Baltistan). Sindhi: سنڌوSindhu. Avestan: Harauhuti.Aralin 9 – Ang sinaunang India The Indus River (Sanskrit: Sarasvati. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1. Hindko: سندھSindh. Punjabi: سندھSindh. The total length of the river is 3. Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region. Together with the rivers Jhelum. Chenab.دریائے سندھdaryā-e sindh. Ravi. making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow.
have explored the issue of reincarnation and published reports of children's memories of earlier lives in peer-reviewed journals and in books such as Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation and Life Before Life.Reincarnation . comes back to life in a newborn body. Tucker. such as Kundun. and later on. North America. such as Hinduism. as well as the Indian religions. particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation. the Druze and the Rosicrucians. is unclear. and Sikhism. the Buddhist concept of rebirth is also often referred to as reincarnation. contemporary books by authors such as Carol Bowman and Vicki Mackenzie. as well as popular songs. and Eckankar. It is also found in many small-scale societies around the world. In recent decades. in places such as Siberia. Some university researchers. after the death of the body. Although the majority of sects within Judaism. West Africa. The idea was also fundamental to some Greek philosophers and religions as well as other religions. Manicheanism and Gnosticism of the Roman era. This doctrine is a central tenet within the majority of Indian religious traditions. such as Ian Stevenson and Jim B. What Dreams May Come and Birth. . such as Druidism. Hermeticism. regularly mention reincarnation. and Australia. Spiritism. Jainism. Skeptics are critical of this work and Carl Sagan said that more reincarnation research is needed. Feature films. these groups include the mainstream historical and contemporary followers of Kabbalah. The historical relations between these sects and the beliefs about reincarnation that were characteristic of the Neoplatonism. many people in the West have developed an interest in reincarnation. the Cathars.Reincarnation is believed to occur when the soul or spirit. Christianity and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate. the Alawi.
. The original height of the Pyramid was 146.000 blocks ranging in weight from 2. the latter the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still remaining. both of Egypt. It is still the tallest pyramid. with the majority of the weight closer to the ground. but today it is only 137 m (455 ft) high. Its four sides face the four cardinal points precisely and it has an angle of 52 degrees. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral. or any polygon shape. in the Mexican state of Puebla. The largest pyramid in the world ever built. It contains around 1.5 tons to 15 tons and is built on a square base with sides measuring about 230 m (755 ft).Aralin 10. A pyramid's design.300.ang sinaunang Egypt Pyramid . with square base and four triangular outer surfaces. is a common version. the largest structures on earth were pyramids: first the Red Pyramid in the Dashur Necropolis and then the Great Pyramid of Khufu. meaning that a pyramid has at least three triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). For thousands of years.A pyramid (from Greek "πυραμίς" – pyramis) is a structure where the outer surfaces are triangular and converge at a point. the 9 m (33 ft) that is missing is due to the theft of the fine quality limestone covering. or casing stones to build houses and Mosques in Cairo. and is considered an architectural masterpiece.5 m (488 ft). This pyramid is still being excavated. Khufu’s Pyramid is built entirely of limestone. and with the pyramidion on top means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above: this distribution of weight allowed early civilizations to create stable monumental structures. by volume. quadrilateral. covering 13 acres. is the Great Pyramid of Cholula. The square pyramid.
was his immediate successor. Based on inscriptional evidence. Nubia and Libya. Khufu is remembered as a cruel and ruthless pharaoh in later folklore. and Herodotus states that he reigned for 50 years.Khufu (pronounced /ˈkuːfuː/. and reigned for about 23 years. in 2003. also known as Cheops (pronounced /ˈkiːɒps/ KEE-ops. the "Year after the 13th cattle count" of Khufu was found on a rock inscription at the Dakhia Oasis in the Sahara. two dates have been discovered from his reign. Souphis). Khufu's full name was "KhnumKhufu" which means "the god Khnum protects me. in Manetho. Other sources from much later periods suggest a significantly longer reign: Manetho gives him a reign of 63 years. Djedefra. while other children are merely known from their tombs in Giza. one of whom. Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. Khufu was the son of King Sneferu and Queen Hetepheres I and brother of Princess Hetepheres. one of whom would later become Queen Hetepheres II. one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. An inscription containing his highest regnal year. was rediscovered by Zahi Hawass in 2001 in one of the relieving chambers within Khufu's pyramid. Kheops) or. Khufu came to the Egyptian throne in his twenties. Aralin 11 – ang sinaunang Greece . the first to be built there. Khufu had nine sons. He started building his pyramid at Giza. Secondly. it is also likely that he led military expeditions into the Sinai. Greek: Σοῦφις. He is generally accepted as being the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza. was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom. the "Year of the 17th Count of Khufu". Cemetery G 7000 contains several of the mastabas of these royal children. Since 2000. Greek: Χέοψ. Suphis (pronounced /ˈsuːfɨs/ SOO-fis. Unlike his father. which is the number ascribed to him by the Turin King List. first mentioned by Flinders Petrie in an 1883 book and then lost to historians. Several of Khufu's sons are known from the papyrus Westcar. KOO-foo in English). He also had fifteen daughters. He reigned from around 2589 to 2566 BC.
to the north. it was called Girit. in Turkish. the first civilization in Europe and the first European country with a palace (at Knossos).Crete (Greek: Κρήτη) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located in the south of the Aegean Sea separating the Aegean from the Libyan Sea. Crete is the largest island in Greece and the second largest in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (after Cyprus). Crete covers an area of 8. The island has an elongated shape: it spans 260 km (160 mi) from east to west.219 sq mi). with a coastline of 1.5 mi) (close to Ierapetra). a Venetian adaptation of the earlier Greek name Chandax (Greek: Χάνδαξ. which in turn came from the Arabic rabḍ al-ḫandaq 'castle of the moat'. It lies approximately 160 km (99 mi) south of the Greek mainland. "moat") or Chandakas (Greek: Χάνδακας). is 60 km (37 mi) at its widest point. the Myrtoan Sea. and toward the east the Karpathion Sea. in Classical Latin. poetry. Crete was the center of the Minoan civilization (circa 2700–1420 BC). Under Ottoman rule. it broaches the Sea of Crete (Greek: Κρητικό Πέλαγος). in the west. while it retains its own local cultural traits (such as its own dialect. to the south. the Libyan Sea (Greek: Λιβυκό Πέλαγος).046 km (650 mi). . and music). It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece. it was known as Candia (sometimes anglicized as 'Candy'). Under Roman rule. the island was called Creta. Under Venetian rule. and narrows to as little as 12 km (7.336 km2 (3.
"That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men". As Pausanias observed. Minos. and the Muses (by Mnemosyne). Ancient Greek: Ζεύς. Persephone (by Demeter). Hermes. His symbols are the thunderbolt. he was the King of the Gods. by Hera. and the youngest of his siblings. Dionysus. Heracles. Modern Greek: Δίας. Hebe and Hephaestus As Walter Burkert points out in his book. His Roman counterpart was Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart was Tinia. Helen.In Greek mythology Zeus /ˈzuːs/ or /ˈzjuːs/. the classical "cloud-gatherer" also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near East. and oak. although. he is the father of Aphrodite by Dione. such as the scepter. Zeus was the child of Cronus and Rhea. Greek Religion. In the Homeric Hymns he is referred to as the chieftain of the gods. In most traditions he was married to Hera.Zeus . He is known for his erotic escapades. "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father. including Athena. at the oracle of Dodona. with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand. In addition to his IndoEuropean inheritance. bull. his consort was Dione: according to the Iliad. striding forward. He was the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. eagle. In Hesiod's Theogony Zeus assigns the various gods their roles. Dias) is the "Father of Gods and men" who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father ruled the family. he is usually said to have fathered Ares. or seated in majesty. Apollo and Artemis. Perseus. and all the gods rise in his presence. who oversaw the universe. . These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing." For the Greeks.
modern Athens is central to economic.514 (in 2001) within its administrative limitsand a land area of 39 km2 (15 sq mi).130. Athína.013.400 years. The Greek capital has a population of 745. industrial. financial. A cosmopolitan metropolis. According to Eurostat. the Athens Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) is the 7th most populous LUZ in the European Union (the 4th most populous capital city of the EU) with a population of 4. Athēnai ).841 (in 2001) and a land area of 412 km2 (159 sq mi). The urban area of Athens extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3. IPA: [aˈθina]. learning and philosophy. Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι. Katharevousa: Ἀθῆναι. it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy. . Athens dominates the Attica periphery and it is one of the world's oldest cities. is the capital and largest city of Greece.368 (in 2004). A centre for the arts. In 2008. home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum. Modern Greek: Αθήνα. as its recorded history spans around 3.Aralin 12 – Ang Athens at Spartans Athens . political and cultural life in Greece and it is rated as an alphaworld city. Athens was ranked the world's 32nd richest city by purchasing power and the 25th most expensive in a UBS study. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state.Athens ( /ˈæθɪnz/. largely due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then known European continent. Athine.
Between 431 and 404 BC. Mothakes (non-Spartan free men raised as Spartans). From c. Sparta's defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended Sparta's prominent role in Greece. Attic Σπάρτη Spartē) or Lacedaemon. Sparta was recognized as the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-Persian Wars. . situated on the banks of the River Eurotas in Laconia. Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution. Spartan women enjoyed considerably more rights and equality to men than elsewhere in the classical world.Sparta (Doric Σπάρτα. an admiration of Sparta is called laconophilia. It emerged as a political entity around the 10th century BC. in south-eastern Peloponnese. non-Dorian population. from which it emerged victorious. which completely focused on military training and excellence. who enjoyed full rights). as well as in the West following the revival of classical learning. was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. Sparta was the subject of fascination in its own day. Given its military pre-eminence. Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War. and Spartan phalanxes were widely considered to be among the best in battle. Sparta continues to fascinate Western Culture. it maintained its political independence until 146 BC. and Helots (state-owned serfs. when the Romans conquered Greece. However. Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen. 650 BC it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece. though at great cost. Perioikoi (freedmen). enslaved non-Spartan local population). when the invading Dorians subjugated the local. Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates (Spartan citizens.
following a victorious uprising against Ottoman rule. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of mainland Greece. Greece has the tenth longest coastline in the world at 14. of which 227 are inhabited). the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north. . and the Ionian Islands among others.Aralin 13 – Mga digmaan sa Greece Greece also known as Hellas and officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία. Eighty percent of Greece consists of mountains. the Olympic Games. and Western drama. and Turkey to the east. is a country in southeastern Europe. the Cyclades. major scientific and mathematical principles. As such. of which Mount Olympus is the highest at 2. political science. This legacy is partly reflected in the 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in Greece. the Dodecanese. including both tragedy and comedy. generally considered the cradle of Western civilization. Greece has land borders with Albania. Situated on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula.917 m (9. and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. featuring a vast number of islands (approximately 1400. Western philosophy. Western literature and historiography. Modern Greece traces its roots to the civilisation of ancient Greece.570 ft). including Crete. it is the birthplace of democracy. the Ionian Sea to the west.880 km (9.246 mi) in length. IPA: [eliniˈki ðimokraˈtia]). Ellīnikī́ Dīmokratía. The modern Greek state was established in 1830.
In the north. The sea was traditionally known as Archipelago (in Greek. One chain extends across the sea to Chios. The sea's maximum depth is 3. Egeo Pelagos [eˈʝeo ˈpelaɣos] . Antikythera. Αρχιπέλαγος). east of Crete. The Aegean Islands are found within its waters. including Crete and Rhodes..e. are actually extensions of the mountains on the mainland.543 metres (11. and a third extends across the Peloponnese and Crete to Rhodes. The Aegean Islands are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery.000 square kilometres (83. . to any island group because the Aegean Sea is remarkable for its large number of islands. Crete. it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus.000 sq mi) in area. another extends across Euboea to Samos. Karpathos and Rhodes. Kasos. Turkish: Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas. The Aegean Sea covers about 214. The word archipelago was originally applied specifically to the Aegean Sea and its islands. i. the general sense of which has since changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and. or chains of islands. dividing the Aegean from the Mediterranean.The Aegean Sea (Greek: Αιγαίο Πέλαγος. Many of the Aegean Islands. in part bordering on the Aegean Sea. and measures about 610 kilometres (380 mi) longitudinally and 300 kilometres (190 mi) latitudinally. between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. generally. with the following islands delimiting the sea on the south (generally from west to east): Kythera. The Aegean Region consists of nine provinces in southwestern Turkey.624 ft).
a literary amalgam of Ionic Greek with other dialects. Zeus agrees. and sends a dream to Agamemnon. Agamemnon heeds the dream but decides to first test the morale of the Greek army by telling them to go home. a Trojan priest of Apollo. In the meantime.000 lines. but will go home. Although the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war. a captive of Agamemnon. offers the Greeks wealth for the return of his daughter Chryseis. Although most of the Greek army is in favor of the offer. Thetis does so. to ask Zeus that the Greeks be brought to the breaking point by the Trojans. Odysseus takes a ship and brings Chryseis to her father. as compensation. Chryses. Agamemnon agrees to return Chryseis to her father. Angered. and its written version is usually dated to around the eighth century BC. it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. calls an assembly to solve the plague problem. also attributed to Homer. the Greek leader. Thetis. the Iliad mentions or alludes to many of the Greek legends about the siege. and Achilles asks his mother. whereupon Apollo ends the plague. Along with the Odyssey. The Iliad contains over 15. Under pressure. Achilles declares that he and his men will no longer fight for Agamemnon. Agamemnon's messengers take Briseis away. Agamemnon refuses. Briseis. and is written in Homeric Greek. the tenyear siege of Ilium by a coalition of Greek states. . After nine days of plague. so Agamemnon will realize how much the Greeks need Achilles. urging him to attack the city. and Apollo causes a plague throughout the Greek army. the Iliad is among the oldest extant works of Western literature. the story launches in medias res towards the end of the Trojan War between the Trojans and the besieging Greeks. Achilles. Chryses prays for Apollo's help. Set in the Trojan War. the leader of the Myrmidon contingent. but also decides to take Achilles's captive. After an invocation to the Muses.Aralin 14 – Ang Kulturang Hellenitik The Iliad (sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters. traditionally attributed to Homer.
Sophocles. Oedipus the King. For almost 50 years. a 10th century encyclopedia. and was never judged lower than second place. while Euripides won only 4 competitions. Antigone. He was born a few years before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC: the exact year is unclear. He also developed his characters to a greater extent than earlier playwrights such as Aeschylus. when he took first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the reigning master of Athenian drama. Sophocles was the most-fêted playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens that took place during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia. . Sophocles wrote 123 plays during the course of his life. 497/6 BC – winter 406/5 BC) is one of three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays have survived. the son of Sophilus. won perhaps 24. Triptolemus was probably one of the plays that Sophocles presented at this festival. and was sometimes defeated by Sophocles. Electra. although each play was actually a part of a different tetralogy. Plutarch further contends that following this loss Aeschylus soon left for Sicily. thereby reducing the importance of the chorus in the presentation of the plot.[ Although Plutarch says that this was Sophocles' first production. which was to become a setting for one of his plays. and he was probably born there. Sophocles has a crater on the surface of Mercury named after him. the archon asked Cimon and the other strategi present to decide the victor of the contest.Sophocles c. Instead of following the usual custom of choosing judges by lot. but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax. Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus. the other members of which are now lost. His first plays were written later than those of Aeschylus. Aeschylus won 14 competitions. most importantly by adding a third actor. although 497/6 is the most likely. According to Plutarch the victory came under unusual circumstances. and earlier than those of Euripides. was a wealthy member of the rural deme (small community) of Colonus Hippius in Attica. Trachinian Women. He competed in around 30 competitions. According to the Suda. Sophocles' first artistic triumph was in 468 BC. it is now thought that his first production was probably in 470 BC. Sophocles influenced the development of the drama. The most famous tragedies of Sophocles feature Oedipus and Antigone: they are generally known as the Theban plays. Aeschylus.
migrated to the region from the Greek city of Argos in Peloponnesus (thus the name Argead). was itself called Argead (which translates as "descended from Argos"). watered by the rivers Haliacmon and Axius. to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world. among others. The rise of Macedon. Macedonia was called Emathia (from king Emathion) and the city of Aiges was called Edessa. were home to various peoples. and the Illyrians. after the conquests of Alexander the Great. to the northwest. Mygdonia. Paeonia to the north. at that time it inaugurated the Hellenistic period of Ancient Greek civilization. where they settled as Macedonians. To the north of Macedonia lay various non-Greek peoples such as the Paeonians due north. Subsequently. Later. The Macedonian tribe ruled by the Argeads. controlling a territory that included the former Persian empire. Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom. To the south lay Thessaly. called Lower Macedonia. For a brief period. the first Macedonian capital. north of the mountain Olympus. many Thracian tribes. The lands around Aegae. the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south. it became the most powerful state in the world. with whose inhabitants. who.Ang Pananalakay sa Greece at ang Kulturang Hellenistik Macedonia or Macedon (from Greek: Μακεδονία. a branch would migrate further south to be called Dorians. into Eordaia. . the Argead Macedonians started to expand into Upper Macedonia. accompanied by a multitude of Greeks came to the area in search for a new homeland took Edessa and renamed it to Aegae. According to Herodot. Caranus. lands inhabited by independent Macedonian tribes like the Lyncestae and the Elmiotae and to the West. according to legend. occurred under the reign of Philip II. Around the time of Alexander I of Macedon. beyond Axius river. with whom the Macedonians were frequently in conflict. According to legend. and Almopia. it was Dorus. bordered by Epirus to the west. the capital of fabled king Midas. It seems that the first Macedonian state emerged in the 8th or early 7th century BC under the Argead Dynasty. Bottiaea. stretching as far as the Indus River. he expelled Midas and other kings off the lands and he formed his new kingdom. from a small kingdom at the periphery of Classical Greek affairs. The kingdom was situated in the fertile alluvial plain. regions settled by. the son of Hellen who led his people to Histaeotis. whence they were driven off by the Cadmeians into Pindus. centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula.Aralin 15 . the Thracians to the northeast.
Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. but the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered. Subsequently he overthrew the Persian king Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire. launched the military plans for expansion left by his father.Alexander's surviving generals. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of the most successful commanders of all time. Alexander's lasting legacy was not his reign. a state in the north eastern region of Greece. with his authority firmly established. he invaded India in 326 BC. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC. stretching from the Ionian sea to the Himalaya. commonly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος. and by the age of thirty was the creator of one of the largest empires in ancient history. Upon Philip's death. In 336 BC he succeeded his father Philip II of Macedon to the throne after he was assassinated. The Macedonian Empire now stretched from the Adriatic sea to the Indus River. Philip had brought most of the city-states of mainland Greece under Macedonian hegemony. In the years following Alexander's death a series of civil wars tore his empire apart which resulted in the formation of a number of states ruled by the Diadochi .Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 – 10/11 June 323 BC). but was eventually forced to turn back by the near-mutiny of his troops. was a king of Macedon or Macedonia (Greek: Βασιλεύς Μακεδόνων). Born in Pella in 356 BC. most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. using both military and diplomatic means. Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles. He succeeded in being awarded the generalship of Greece and. Aralin 16 – Ang Sinaunang Rome . Although he is mostly remembered for his vast conquests. In 334 BC he invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor and began a series of campaigns lasting ten years. Mégas Aléxandros). Alexander was tutored by the famed philosopher Aristotle. Following his desire to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea". without realizing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia.
810.782 ft).810. but the central chain is shorter and curved. at 4. French: Alpes.45 metres (15. on the Italian–French border. All the main peaks of the Alps can be found in the list of mountains of the Alps and list of Alpine peaks by prominence. plural alpûn). It is located in Italy. The Eastern Alps (main ridge system elongated and broad) belongs to Italy. Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west. The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc. stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy. The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc. Romansh: Alps. Slovene: Alpe) is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe. Germany. and only in the plural may also refer to the mountain range as a whole. on the Italian–French border. Liechtenstein and Slovenia. France and Switzerland. The division is along the line between Lake Constance and Lake Como. The Western Alps is higher. the Occitan Alp/Aupand the French Alpage or Alpe in the singular mean "alpine pasture".The Alps (German: Alpen. The English name Alps was taken via French from Latin Alpes. Switzerland. All the main peaks of the Alps can be found in the list of mountains of the Alps and list of Alpine peaks by prominence.782 ft). which may be ultimately cognate with Latin albus ("white"). following the rivers Rhine. at 4. Liro and Mera. Switzerland. Occitan: Aups/Alps.45 metres (15. Austria. Italian: Alpi.. The German Albe. Old High German alpâ. The Alps is generally divided into the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps. . Lombard: Alp. Alpe or Alp (f.
Roman. Egyptian. In oceanography. Slavic and Turkish cultures. and on the east by the Levant. Jewish. Iberian.The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe.5 million km² (965. Carthaginian. it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.000 sq mi). Gallic. although it is usually identified as a completely separate body of water. Thracian. the Mediterranean Sea is similarly the uniting element and the centre of World History Aralin 17 – Ang Pagwawakas ng Republikang Romano . Greek.900 ft) and the deepest recorded point is 5. Macedonian. The sea is technically a part of the Atlantic Ocean. Arabic. on the south by North Africa.7 mi) wide.280 ft) in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. Phoenician. meaning "inland" or "in the middle of the earth" (from medius. Levantine. It was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region — the Mesopotamian. "earth"). "For the three quarters of the globe. "middle" and terra. Berber. Illyrian. but its connection to the Atlantic (the Strait of Gibraltar) is only 14 km (8. The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1. Armenian. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. It covers an approximate area of 2.500 m (4. Albanian. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus.267 m (17.
Ordered by the senate to stand trial in Rome for various charges. which ultimately led to the establishment of the permanent Roman Empire by Caesar's adopted heir Octavius (later known as Augustus). In 60 BC. the result was a series of civil wars. led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A group of senators. and other contemporary sources. Their attempts to amass power for themselves through populist tactics were opposed within the Roman Senate by the conservative elite. hoping to restore the constitutional government of the Republic. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate. . and in 55 BC he conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. Caesar entered into a political alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. and in 55 BC he conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended Rome's territory to the North Sea.Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC– 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman. assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC. he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. After assuming control of government. Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended Rome's territory to the North Sea. Political realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and Pompey. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". Caesar marched from Gaul to Italy with his legions. mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. However. The balance of power was further upset by the death of Crassus in 53 BC. Caesar entered into a political alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. This sparked a civil war from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. In 60 BC. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns. Their attempts to amass power for themselves through populist tactics were opposed within the Roman Senate by the conservative elite. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey's standing. crossing the Rubicon in 49 BC.
so that plebeians could not be surprised and would know the law. They allegedly sent an embassy to Greece to study the legislative system of Athens. Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. According to traditional. or. Aralin 18 – Ang Imperyong Romano . but around 451 BC. and did not travel all the way to Greece.C. Patricians long opposed this request. In 450 B. and were enforced with untoward severity.The Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum. The Twelve Tables must be distinguished from the unrelated — and much older — "twelve shields" of King Numa Pompilius. informally. especially against the plebeian class. but also to find out about the legislation of other Greek cities. semi-legendary historical accounts preserved in Livy. the second decemviri started work on the last 2 tables. A plebeian named Terentilius proposed in 462 BC that an official legal code should be published. Modern scholars believe that a Roman assembly most likely visited the Greek cities of Southern Italy. known as the Solonian Constitution. during the earliest period of the Republic the laws were kept secret by the pontifices and other representatives of the patrician class. the first Decemvirate (board of "Ten Men") was appointed to draw up the first ten tables. The Law of the Twelve Tables formed the centerpiece of the constitution of the Roman Republic and the core of the mos maiorum (custom of the ancestors).
Octavian joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in a military dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate.Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire. indeed. Octavian (or Octavianus) when referring to events between 44 and 27 BC. and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by the fleet of Octavian commanded by Agrippa in 31 BC. the result became known as the Roman Empire. As a triumvir. Augustus is known as Ὀκτάβιος. Octavian ruled Rome and many of its provinces.[note 3] The triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its rulers: Lepidus was driven into exile. Because of the various names he bore. and between then and 27 BC was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar. and thus consequently he was Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus. In 43 BC. . After the demise of the Second Triumvirate. which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. he was adopted posthumously by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC via his last will and testament. Octavian restored the outward facade of the Roman Republic. In Greek sources. but in practice retained his autocratic power. he declined it when the Roman populace "entreated him to take on the dictatorship". Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus. It took several years to determine the exact framework by which a formally republican state could be led by a sole ruler. and Augustus when referring to events after 27 BC. In 27 BC the Senate awarded him the honorific Augustus ("the revered one"). The emperorship was never an office like the Roman dictatorship which Caesar and Sulla had held before him. it is common to call him Octavius when referring to events between 63 and 44 BC. with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate. The young Octavius came into his inheritance after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC.
Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum. In 26. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian. conquering Pannonia. succeeded the emperor upon his death. "the gloomiest of men." Tiberius is considered to have lacked the political ability of his predecessor Augustus and was a jealous emperor. 42 BC – March 16. But he came to be remembered as a dark. His mother divorced his father and was remarried to Augustus in 39 BC. Raetia. paternal uncle of Claudius. Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals. Tiberius' grand-nephew and adopted grandson. and temporarily Germania. In relations to the other emperors of this dynasty. AD 37). conquering Pannonia.Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (November 16. the quality of his rule declined and ended in a terror. making him a step-son of Octavian Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals. great-uncle of Caligula. Raetia. son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. particularly distrustful of his popular general Germanicus. against better judgement. Dalmatia. Caligula. After the death of Tiberius’ son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23. historians have named it the JulioClaudian dynasty. and temporarily Germania. Dalmatia. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the next forty years. Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus. laying the foundations for the northern frontier. and great-great uncle of Nero Aralin 19 – Ang Kulturang Romano . Tiberius exiled himself from Rome and left administration largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian Prefects Sejanus and Macro. reclusive. was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. born Tiberius Claudius Nero. and somber ruler who never really desired to be emperor.
000 spectators. re-enactments of famous battles. Italy. a fortress. . the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium. and dramas based on Classical mythology. Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. animal hunts.The Colosseum. quarters for a religious order. Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo). its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus. with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96). Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. Capable of seating 50. The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius. or the Coliseum. is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church. executions. as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum. It was later reused for such purposes as housing. the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles. and a Christian shrine. workshops. from the gens Flavia). the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. a quarry.
attacking him in a series of speeches. Cicero thought that his political career was his most important achievement. 43 BC. His indecision may be attributed to his sensitive and impressionable personality. the 1st century BC biographer of Atticus. 106 BC – December 7. he was prone to overreaction in the face of political and private change. political theorist. Asinius Pollio. January 3. introducing the art of refined letter writing to European culture. However. statesman. He was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and subsequently murdered in 43 BC. His voluminous correspondence. and Roman constitutionalist. and essentia) distinguishing himself as a linguist. much of it addressed to his friend Atticus. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the equestrian order. Today. he is appreciated primarily for his humanism and philosophical and political writings. During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar. and philosopher. Classical Latin: [ˈkikeroː]. remarked that Cicero's letters contained such a wealth of detail "concerning the inclinations of leading men. and the revolutions in the government" that their reader had little need for a history of the period. sometimes anglicized as "Tully"). Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. his career as a statesman was marked by inconsistencies and a tendency to shift his position in response to changes in the political climate. has been especially influential. quantitas.Marcus Tullius Cicero (pronounced /ˈsɪsɨroʊ/. Aralin 20 – Ang Imperyong Byzantine . Cornelius Nepos. and is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists He introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary (with neologisms such as humanitas. lawyer. Cicero's speeches and letters remain some of the most important primary sources that survive on the last days of the Roman Republic. An impressive orator and successful lawyer. "Would that he had been able to endure prosperity with greater self control. and adversity with more fortitude!" wrote C. translator. a contemporary Roman statesman and historian. the faults of the generals. Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony. was a Roman philosopher. qualitas.
Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganised the empire's provincial divisions. was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305. Carinus. constant campaigning. Mediolanum. and Trier. made more equitable. Building on third-century trends towards absolutism. Diocletian was proclaimed emperor.Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. imperial taxation was standardized. closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome had been. but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. he styled himself an autocrat. elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonial and architecture. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia. He established new administrative centers in Nicomedia. From at least 297 on. Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become cavalry commander to the emperor Carus. 22 December 244 – 3 December 311). With his accession to power. Diocletian ended the Crisis of the Third Century. . commonly known as Diocletian. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son. and construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform. Antioch. Born to an Illyrian family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia. Bureaucratic and military growth. and levied at generally higher rates. establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire.
Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις. Yet it had been the capital of the state for over a thousand years. with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers. his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the Empire. he identified the site of Byzantium as the right place: a place where an emperor could sit. However. see Names of Istanbul for fuller discussion. being in course of major governmental reforms as well as of sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church. Latin: Constantinopolis. his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia. and hence from the armies and the Imperial courts. This name in turn derives from the Greek and Slavic colloquial name Stambol. Byzantium. and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest that the capital be moved to a different location. Throughout most of the Middle Ages. The site lay astride the land route from Europe to Asia and the seaway from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. and ask that others use the same name they did. Constantine had altogether more colorful plans. Turkish: Kostantiniyye or İstanbul) was the imperial capital of the Roman Empire. Nevertheless. probably around 671-662 BC. Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city. he was well aware that Rome was an unsatisfactory capital. Constantinople was founded by the Roman emperor Constantine I on the site of an already-existing city. the Byzantine/Eastern Roman Empire. and. All Resource are from Wikipedia :) . Not until the 20th century did the Turks formally object. the Latin Empire and the Ottoman Empire. many Westerners continued to call it Constantinople. This took place through the Turkish Postal Service Law. The Turks have called the city Istanbul since they conquered it in 1453. Having restored the unity of the Empire. settled in the early days of Greek colonial expansion. as part of Atatürk's national reforms. and had in the Golden Horn an excellent and spacious harbour. readily defended. Rome was too far from the frontiers. and it offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians.
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