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Aralin 1- Ang Pinagmulan ng Daigdig
Galaxy- A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. The name is from the ancient Greek word galaxias [γαλαξίας], literally meaning "milky", a reference to the Milky Way galaxy. Typical galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million (107) stars, up to giants with a hundred trillion (1014) stars, all orbiting the galaxy's center of mass. Galaxies may contain many star systems, star clusters, and various interstellar clouds. The Sun is one of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy; the Solar System includes the Earth and all the other objects that orbit the Sun. Historically, galaxies have been categorized according to their apparent shape (usually referred to as their visual morphology). A common form is the elliptical galaxy, which has an ellipse-shaped light profile. Spiral galaxies are diskshaped assemblages with dusty, curving arms. Galaxies with irregular or unusual shapes are known as irregular galaxies, and typically result from disruption by the gravitational pull of neighboring galaxies. Such interactions between nearby galaxies, which may ultimately result in galaxies merging, may induce episodes of significantly increased star formation, producing what is called a starburst galaxy. Small galaxies that lack a coherent structure could also be referred to as irregular galaxies.
Milky Way - The Milky Way galaxy, commonly referred to as just the
Milky Way, or sometimes simply as the Galaxy, is the home galaxy of the Solar System, and of Earth. It is a barred spiral galaxy that contains 100-400 billion stars and an estimated 50 billion planets, 500 million of which could be located in the habitable zone of their parent star. The Milky Way is part of the Local Group of galaxies and is one of 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe. The Solar System is located in the Milky Way galaxy halfway out from the center, on the inner edge of the Orion–Cygnus Arm. The Sun orbits around the center of the galaxy in a galactic year—once every 225-250 million Earth years. The "Milky Way" is a translation of the Latin Via Lactea, in turn translated from the Greek Γαλαξίας (Galaxias), referring to the pale band of light formed by stars in the galactic plane as seen from Earth. All the stars that the eye can distinguish in the night sky are part of the Milky Way galaxy, but aside from these relatively nearby stars, the galaxy appears as a hazy band of white light arching around the entire celestial sphere. The light originates from stars and other material that lie within the galactic plane. Dark regions within the band, such as the Great Rift and the Coalsack, correspond to areas where light from distant stars is blocked by dark nebulae. The Milky Way has a relatively low surface brightness due to the interstellar medium that fills the galactic disk, which prevents us from seeing the bright galactic center. It is thus difficult to see from any urban or suburban location suffering from light pollution. A total integrated magnitude of the whole Milky Way stretching across the night sky has been estimated at −5.0.
Aralin 2 – Ang pisikal na anyo ng daigdig
Alfred Wegener - Alfred Lothar Wegener (November 1, 1880 –
November 1930) was a German scientist, geophysicist, and meteorologist. He is most notable for his theory of continental drift (Kontinentalverschiebung), proposed in 1912, which hypothesized that the continents were slowly drifting around the Earth. However, Wegener was unable to demonstrate a mechanism for continental drift, which, combined with his mostly circumstantial evidence, meant that his hypothesis was not accepted until the 1950s, when numerous discoveries provided evidence of continental drift. Alfred Wegener first thought of this idea by noticing that the different large landmasses of the Earth almost fit together like a jigsaw. The Continental shelf of the Americas fit closely to Africa and Europe, and Antarctica, Australia, India and Madagascar fit next to the tip of Southern Africa. But Wegener only took action after reading a paper in Autumn 1911 and seeing that a flooded land-bridge contradicts isostasy. Wegener's main interest was meteorology, and he wanted to join the Denmark-Greenland expedition scheduled for mid 1912. So he hurried up to present his Continental Drift hypothesis on 6 January 1912. But it wasn't considered to be sufficient evidence in itself. He analyzed either side of the Atlantic Ocean for rock type, geological structures and fossils. He noticed that there was a significant similarity.
and lasted until 540 Ma. Baltica was situated east of Laurentia. The rifting also spawned two new oceans.8 Ga.0-1. called Columbia or Nuna that was assembled in the period 2. There may have been several others before Pangaea.6 billion year history. he postulated that all the continents had at one time formed a single supercontinent which he called the "Urkontinent". Before Pannotia.Pangaea. Siberia and Baltica. When Rodinia broke up. Pannotia. and Siberia northeast of Laurentia. The breaking up and formation of supercontinents appear to be cyclical through Earth's 4.1 billion years ago (Ga) until about 750 million years ago. the Iapetus Ocean and Paleoasian Ocean. there was Rodinia. Proto-Laurasia and ProtoGondwanaland were separated by the Proto-Tethys Ocean. . The exact configuration and geodynamic history of Rodinia are not nearly as well understood as Pannotia and Pangaea. which lasted from about 1. formed about 600 million years ago (Ma) during the Proterozoic eon.The name was coined during a 1926 symposium discussing Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift. Soon thereafter Proto-Laurasia itself split apart to form the continents of Laurentia. before later breaking up and drifting to their present locations. it split into three pieces: the supercontinent of Proto-Laurasia and the supercontinent of Proto-Gondwana. and the smaller Congo craton. Rodinia formed by the accretion and assembly of fragments produced by breakup of an older supercontinent. In his book The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane) first published in 1915. The nextto-last one.
the southern part of the Great Rift Valley. roughly halfway to the sea. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3. The former is the longer. the Nile is called Ḥ'pī or iteru. The two rivers meet near the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.canal-great") come from the same ancient name.The Nile has two major tributaries. The Blue Nile starts at Lake Tana in Ethiopia at 12°02′09″N 037°15′53″E / 12. the White Nile and Blue Nile. It joins the Nile approximately 300 kilometres (200 mi) north of Khartoum. about 10% of the area of Africa. Tanzania. In the ancient Egyptian language. During the dry period of January to June. and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia. The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The Atbara flows only while there is rain in Ethiopia and dries very rapidly.256.03583°N 37.591 sq mi).26472°E and flows into Sudan from the southeast. p(h). from Sudan into Egypt. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa. Below this confluence the only major tributary is the Atbara River. and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along riverbanks. and is around 800 kilometres (500 mi) long. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan. a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. It flows north through Rwanda. The White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. Uganda and southern Sudan. The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert. represented by the hieroglyphs shown on the left (literally itrw. and 'waters' determinative) In Coptic. it typically dries up. meaning "great river". which originates in Ethiopia north of Lake Tana. The two great tributaries join at Khartoum. with the most distant source in central Burundi.iar-o "the. Lake Victoria. .555 square kilometres (1. the words piaro (Sahidic) or phiaro (Bohairic) meaning "the river" (lit.254. The latter is the source of most of the water and fertile soil.Aralin 3 – Ang heograpiya at kasaysayan Nile.
and is characterized by two large rivers. particularly during drought. when Turkey began the GAP project in earnest. Tigris Euphrates . and only recently have shown signs of recovery. and marshes. all surrounded by desert. Historically. it saw the earliest emergence of literate urban civilization in the Uruk period. the area is known as Mesopotamia. In addition. The wetlands of Iraq. The rivers have several small tributaries which feed into the system from shallow freshwater lakes. .In the 1980s. Syria and Iraq. Syrian and Iranian dam construction has also contributed to political tension within the basin. which were inhabited by the Marsh Arabs. this ecoregion was put in grave danger as the Iran–Iraq War raged within its boundaries. The hydrology of these vast marshes is extremely important to the ecology of the entire upper Persian Gulf. Since the 1960s and in 1970s.. were completely dried out. water disputes have regularly occurred in addition to the associated dam's effects on the environment. The Tigris-Euphrates Basin is primarily shared by Turkey. As part of the larger Fertile Crescent. for which reason it is often dubbed the "Cradle of Civilization". with many Tigris tributaries originating in Iran.The Tigris–Euphrates river system is part of the TigrisEuphrates alluvial salt marsh ecoregion of West Asia. the Tigris and Euphrates. swamps.
Unlike amphibians. They are characterized by breathing air. where the common adder and grass snake are often found hunting in water. Extant reptiles range in size from a tiny gecko. reptiles are oviparous (egg-laying). . The reptiles were from the outset of classification grouped with the amphibians. Reptiles are classically viewed as having a "coldblooded" metabolism.[ Today.6 cm (0. Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals. The terms "reptile" and "amphibian" were largely interchangeable. that grows to only 1. and four living orders are currently recognized. As a rule.Aralin 4 – Ebolusyon ng tao Reptile . included all reptiles and amphibians in class "III – Amphibia" in his Systema Naturæ. with some providing initial care for their hatchlings.000 kg. and having skin covered in scales and/or scutes. although certain species of squamates are capable of giving live birth. "reptile" (from Latin repere. Linnaeus. which may reach 6 m in length and weigh over 1. laying shelled eggs. "to creep") being preferred by the French. This is achieved by either ovoviviparity (egg retention) or viviparity (birth of offspring without the development of calcified eggs). Modern reptiles inhabit every continent with the exception of Antarctica. Crocodylus porosus. working from species-poor Sweden. Sphaerodactylus ariase. reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage. Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti was the first to formally use the term "Reptilia" for an expanded selection of reptiles and amphibians basically similar to that of Linnaeus.Reptiles are animals in the (Linnaean) class Reptilia.6 in) to the saltwater crocodile. They are tetrapods (either having four limbs or being descended from four-limbed ancestors). it is still common to treat the two groups under the same heading as herptiles.
Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences. . He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science. explaining the diversity of life. and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection. it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed that natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. In modified form. instead. and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist. He published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species. he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh. His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas. However.Charles Darwin . The scientific community and much of the general public came to accept evolution as a fact in his lifetime.
Central Java.Aralin 5. consisting of a skullcap.Ngawi Regency on the banks of the Solo River in East Java. Its discoverer. Swisher's group [of the Institute of Human Origins in Berkeley] has determined. found at Koobi Fora in Kenya. a name derived from Greek and Latin roots meaning upright apeman. Dr. a skullcap of similar size to that found by Dubois.Pag unlad ng kultura ng mga tao Java Man-(Homo erectus erectus) is the name given to fossils discovered in 1891 at Trinil . Eugène Dubois. has been dated at about the same age as the Mojokerto child. The new date of the Mojokerto child. The oldest African Homo erectus fossils. a femur. gave it the scientific name Pithecanthropus erectus. This find. although official reports remain critical of the site's "poor" presentation and interpretation. Indonesia. and a few teeth. is about 1. . more complete specimen was later discovered in the village of Sangiran.66 million years old. There is some dissent as to whether all these bones represent the same species A second. Many more finds have subsequently been made at the Sangiran site. 18 km to the north of Solo. and the Sangiran fossils are about 1. Dubois' find was a very incomplete specimen. was discovered by Berlin-born paleontologist GHR von Koenigswald in 1936.81 million years. one of the first known specimens of Homo erectus.
By the 1970s the term was used for any early modern human wherever found. French [kʁomaɲɔ̃]) were the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) of the European Upper Paleolithic. where the first specimen was found Being the oldest known modern humans (Homo sapiens) in Europe.000 years before present. and dating techniques improved in the early 20th century. the big cave in the local dialect) near the commune of Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil in southwest France. Current scientific literature prefers the term "European Early Modern Humans" Aralin 6 – Ang kabihasnan sa Mesopotamia . However. analyses based on more current dataconcerning the migrations of early humans have contributed to a refined definition of this expression. Today.The Cro-Magnon (pronounced /kroʊˈmæɡnən/. As additional remains of early modern humans were discovered in archaeological sites from Western Europe and elsewhere. the Cro-Magnon were from the outset linked to the well-known Lascaux cave paintings and the Aurignacian culture that flourished in southern France and Germany . The name derives from the Abri de Cro-Magnon (French: rock shelter of Cro-Magnon. as was the case with the far-flung Jebel Qafzeh remains in Israel and various PaleoIndian in the Americas. The earliest known remains of Cro-Magnon-like humans are radiometrically dated to 35. new finds were added to the taxonomic classification. though it remains an important term within the archaeological community as an identifier for the commensurate fossil remains in Europe and adjacent areas. The term "Cro-Magnon" soon came to be used in a general sense to describe the oldest modern people in Europe. the term "Cro-Magnon" falls outside the usual naming conventions for early humans.
Shamshi-Adad I was undertaking expansionistic wars. Sin-Muballit. To the east lay the kingdom of Elam. one of the first written codes of law in recorded history. although his untimely death would fragment his newly conquered Semitic empire. Babylon was one of the many ancient citystates that dotted the Mesopotamian plain and waged war on each other for control of fertile agricultural land. 1750 BC)) was the sixth king of Babylon (that is. Kish. in c." and Rāpi.4 meters) that was found in 1901. (died c. "the kinsman is a healer. 1792 BC. .Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ʻAmmurāpi. The powerful kingdom of Eshnunna controlled the upper Tigris River while Larsa controlled the river delta.Hammurabi . by the time of his reign. Hammurabi was a First Dynasty king of the city-state of Babylon. "healer". The kings who came before Hammurabi had begun to consolidate rule of central Mesopotamia under Babylonian hegemony and. Babylonian culture gained a degree of prominence among the literate classes throughout the Middle East. of the First Babylonian Dynasty) from 1792 BC to 1750 BC middle chronology (1728 BC – 1686 BC short chronology) He became the first king of the Babylonian Empire following the abdication of his father. Owing to his reputation in modern times as an ancient law-giver. and Sippar. had conquered the city-states of Borsippa. and inherited the power from his father. Sin-Muballit. Although his empire controlled all of Mesopotamia at the time of his death. "paternal kinsman. Though many cultures co-existed in Mesopotamia. Hammurabi's portrait is in many government buildings throughout the world. his successors were unable to maintain his empire. To the north. Thus Hammurabi ascended to the throne as the king of a minor kingdom in the midst of a complex geopolitical situation. Hammurabi is known for the set of laws called Hammurabi's Code. These laws were written on a stone tablet standing over eight feet tall (2." from ʻAmmu. extending Babylon's control over Mesopotamia by winning a series of wars against neighboring kingdoms.
Lebanon and Syria. As crucial as rivers and marshlands were to the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent. The region was so named due to its rich soil and crescent shape. It includes the comparatively fertile regions of Mesopotamia and the Levant. Aralin 7 – Iba pang Sibilisasyon sa Asya . delimited by the dry climate of the Syrian Desert to the south and the Anatolian highlands to the north. saw the development of many of the earliest human civilizations. where climate changes during the Ice Age led to repeated extinction events due to ecosystems becoming squeezed against the waters of the Mediterranean Sea. besides the southeastern fringe of Turkey and the western fringe of Iran. The term "Fertile Crescent" was first used by University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted in his Ancient Records of Egypt. published in 1906. including the spread of humanity. The region is often considered the cradle of civilization. Israel. Modern-day countries with significant territory within the Fertile Crescent are Iraq. This "bridging role" has allowed the Fertile Crescent to retain a greater amount of biodiversity than either Europe or North Africa. Coupled with the Saharan pump theory. this Middle Eastern land-bridge is of extreme importance to the modern distribution of Old World flora and fauna. Jordan. and is the birthplace of writing and the wheel.The Fertile Crescent is a region in Western Asia.Fertile Crescent . The area is important as the "bridge" between Africa and Eurasia. they were not the only factor in the area's precocity.
In spite of being called a "plateau". The Encyclopedia Britannica excludes "lowland Khuzestan" explicitly and characterizes Elam as spanning "the region from the Mesopotamian plain to the Iranian Plateau". the Iranian Plateau extends for close to 2. the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north. is a geological formation in Southwest Asia.000 km.The Iranian plateau (or in much less common use: the Persian plateau. and the Lut basin ast of Kerman in Central Iran falling below 300 m. the highest peak being Damavand in the Alborz at 5610 m. it is far from flat but contains several mountain ranges. the Hormuz Strait and Persian gulf to the south and the Indus River to the east in Pakistan. the heartlands of Greater Iran (mainly Iran. Afghanistan and Pakistan). The Zagros mountains form the plateau's western boundary. It encompasses the greater part of Iran. on an area roughly outlined by the quadrangle formed by the cities of Tabriz.From the Caspian in the northwest to Baluchistan in the south-east.430. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates. Afghanistan and Pakistan. Peshawar and Quetta containing some 3. Media and eastern Persia.000 square kilometres (1. As a historical region. it includes Parthia. situated between the Zagros mountains to the west. Shiraz.000 sq mi).Iranian Plateau . . and its eastern slopes may be included in the term.700.
also known as Cyrus II or Cyrus of Persia. where because of his policies in Babylonia. as he himself died in battle. Aside from his own nation. who managed to add to the empire by conquering Egypt. were the works of Cyrus. 600 BC or 576 BC – December 530 BC). he led an expedition into central Asia. and Cyrenaica during his short rule. which resulted in major campaigns that brought "into subjection every nation without exception. Persia (modern Iran). Cyrus the Great respected the customs and religions of the lands he conquered. The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted between 29 and 31 years.Cyrus the Great . as "the anointed of the Lord" or a "Messiah. It is said that in universal history. Under his rule. Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen." Cyrus did not venture into Egypt. parts of Europe and Caucasus.کوروش بزرگKūrosh-e-Bozorg) (c. then the Lydian Empire and eventually the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Either before or after Babylon. Nubia. the administration of the empire through satraps and the vital principle of forming a government at Pasargadae. Cambyses II. fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC." Aralin 8 – Ang Sinaunang China . the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East. Persian: . In fact. the role of the Achaemenid empire founded by Cyrus lies in its very successful model for centralized administration and establishing a government working to the advantage and profit of its subjects. Cyrus built his empire by conquering first the Median Empire. He was succeeded by his son. From the Mediterranean sea and the Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east. expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia. Cyrus the Great also left a lasting legacy on the Jewish religion through his Edict of Restoration. Kūruš.Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: IPA: [kʰuːruʃ]. was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. he is referred to by the people of the Jewish faith.
Mongolian: Hatan Gol. however. Total basin area is 742. pinyin: Hàn Shū) written in the Western Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 9)." Early Chinese literature refers to the Yellow River simply as He . traditional Chinese: 黃河. pinyin: Zhuó Liú).180 mi) and a north-south extent of 1100 km (684 mi).520 mi²).464 kilometers (3. has also earned it the unenviable names "China's Sorrow" and "Scourge of the Sons of Han.443 km² (290.The Yellow River or Huang He / Hwang Ho (simplified Chinese: 黄河. Queen river) is the second-longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of 5. The yellow color comes from loess suspended in the water. The name "Yellow River" describes the perennial ochre-yellow colour of the muddy water in the lower course of the river. as its basin is the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilizations and was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history. . Sometimes the Yellow River is poetically called the "Muddy Flow" (simplified Chinese:.The Yellow River is called "the cradle of Chinese civilization".395 mi). traditional Chinese:. The first appearance of the name "Yellow River" (黃河) is in the Book of Han (simplified Chinese: 汉 书. the word that has come to mean simply "river" in modern language (in ancient times. But frequent devastating flooding largely due to the elevated river bed in its lower course. and were used in the meaning "river"). The Yellow River basin has an east-west extent of 1900 km (1. traditional Chinese: 漢書. Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China. pinyin: Huáng Hé. it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into the Bohai Sea. The Chinese idiom "when the Yellow River flows clear" is used to refer to an event that will never happen and is similar to the English expression "when pigs fly".
Laozi lived in the 6th century BC.Laozi Chinese: pinyin: Lǎozǐ. concurrent with the Hundred Schools of Thought and Warring States Period. and other variations) was a mystic philosopher of ancient China. Laozi was said to be a contemporary of Confucius (551–479 BC). Laotze. and best known as the author of the Tao Te Ching. Laosi. and wrote a book in two parts before departing to the West. who wrote a book in 15 parts. also a contemporary of Confucius. which combines a number of stories. Laozi was the Grand Historian and astrologer Lao Dan (老聃 "Old Long-ears"). who lived during the reign (384–362 BC) of Duke Xian (獻公) of Qin). He is also revered as a deity in most religious forms of the Taoist religion. Lao Zi. He was an official in the imperial archives. though the identity of its author(s) and/or compiler(s) has been debated throughout history. that he is a mythical figure. Historians variously contend that Laozi is a synthesis of multiple historical figures. or that he actually lived in the 4th century BC. Lao-Tsu. both nobility and common people claim Laozi in their lineage. His surname was Li (李 "plum"). The earliest reliable reference (circa 100 BC) to Laozi is found in the Records of the Grand Historian (Shini) by Chinese historian Sima Qian (ca. Laozi was Lao Laizi (老來子 "Old Master"). In the second. or "One of the Three Pure Ones". His association with the Tao Te Ching has led him to be traditionally considered the founder of Taoism (also spelled "Daoism"). Lao Tu. Laozi's work has been embraced by various anti-authoritarian Laozi is traditionally regarded as the author of the Daodejing (Tao Te Ching). Wade–Giles: Lao Tzu. and his personal name was Er (耳 "ear") or Dan (聃 "long ear"). Throughout history. Laozi translated literally from Chinese means "old master" or "old one". . In the first. Laocius. which often refers to Laozi as Taishang Laojun. 145–86 BC). also Lao Tse. In the third. and is generally considered honorific According to Chinese tradition. A central figure in Chinese culture. LaoTzu.
000 square kilometers (450. . plains and arid countryside.180 kilometers (1. Sutlej. Urdu: . Sindhi: سنڌوSindhu. the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests. Sindhu. the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and then enters Pakistan via the Northern Areas (Gilgit-Baltistan). flowing through the North in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan. to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. pinyin: Sēngé Zàngbù/Shīquán Hé/Yìndù Hé. Pashto: اباسينAbāsin "Water of Sindh". Tibetan: སེང་གེ།་གཙང་པོ. Beas and two tributaries from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Afghanistan. Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region.000 square miles). Pashto: السندAl-Sind. Avestan: Harauhuti. Chenab. Greek: Ινδός Indós. Punjabi: سندھSindh. The total length of the river is 3. making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers. Ravi. Hindko: سندھSindh.165. Avestan: Hapta Hindu. The river's estimated annual flow stands at around 207 cubic kilometers.Aralin 9 – Ang sinaunang India The Indus River (Sanskrit: Sarasvati.976 miles) and it is Pakistan's longest river. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1.دریائے سندھdaryā-e sindh. Turki: Nilab) is a major river which flows through Pakistan. Chinese: 森格藏布/狮泉河/印度河. Together with the rivers Jhelum. Wylie: Sênggê Zangbo "Lion River". the Indus forms the Sapta Sindhu (Seven Rivers) delta of Pakistan.
Christianity and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate. and later on. such as Druidism. have explored the issue of reincarnation and published reports of children's memories of earlier lives in peer-reviewed journals and in books such as Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation and Life Before Life. contemporary books by authors such as Carol Bowman and Vicki Mackenzie.Reincarnation is believed to occur when the soul or spirit. North America. and Sikhism. In recent decades. in places such as Siberia. many people in the West have developed an interest in reincarnation. Spiritism. Some university researchers. the Buddhist concept of rebirth is also often referred to as reincarnation. Jainism. is unclear. particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation. such as Hinduism. and Australia. Manicheanism and Gnosticism of the Roman era. the Alawi. such as Ian Stevenson and Jim B. The historical relations between these sects and the beliefs about reincarnation that were characteristic of the Neoplatonism. Feature films. West Africa. such as Kundun. . after the death of the body. and Eckankar. these groups include the mainstream historical and contemporary followers of Kabbalah. The idea was also fundamental to some Greek philosophers and religions as well as other religions. This doctrine is a central tenet within the majority of Indian religious traditions. Tucker. Although the majority of sects within Judaism. Skeptics are critical of this work and Carl Sagan said that more reincarnation research is needed. Hermeticism. as well as the Indian religions. regularly mention reincarnation. as well as popular songs. comes back to life in a newborn body. the Cathars. What Dreams May Come and Birth. It is also found in many small-scale societies around the world.Reincarnation . the Druze and the Rosicrucians.
is a common version. the 9 m (33 ft) that is missing is due to the theft of the fine quality limestone covering. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral. The largest pyramid in the world ever built. with the majority of the weight closer to the ground. . the largest structures on earth were pyramids: first the Red Pyramid in the Dashur Necropolis and then the Great Pyramid of Khufu. It contains around 1. the latter the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still remaining. with square base and four triangular outer surfaces. The square pyramid.Aralin 10. in the Mexican state of Puebla. quadrilateral. A pyramid's design. and with the pyramidion on top means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above: this distribution of weight allowed early civilizations to create stable monumental structures. and is considered an architectural masterpiece.300.A pyramid (from Greek "πυραμίς" – pyramis) is a structure where the outer surfaces are triangular and converge at a point. covering 13 acres. meaning that a pyramid has at least three triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). both of Egypt. but today it is only 137 m (455 ft) high. It is still the tallest pyramid.5 m (488 ft). The original height of the Pyramid was 146. Its four sides face the four cardinal points precisely and it has an angle of 52 degrees.000 blocks ranging in weight from 2. For thousands of years.ang sinaunang Egypt Pyramid . by volume. Khufu’s Pyramid is built entirely of limestone. or any polygon shape. This pyramid is still being excavated.5 tons to 15 tons and is built on a square base with sides measuring about 230 m (755 ft). is the Great Pyramid of Cholula. or casing stones to build houses and Mosques in Cairo.
the "Year of the 17th Count of Khufu". two dates have been discovered from his reign. Greek: Χέοψ. and Herodotus states that he reigned for 50 years. Other sources from much later periods suggest a significantly longer reign: Manetho gives him a reign of 63 years. while other children are merely known from their tombs in Giza. the first to be built there. Khufu had nine sons. in 2003. Suphis (pronounced /ˈsuːfɨs/ SOO-fis. Based on inscriptional evidence. Since 2000. He reigned from around 2589 to 2566 BC. He is generally accepted as being the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza. was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom. one of whom. which is the number ascribed to him by the Turin King List. one of whom would later become Queen Hetepheres II. the "Year after the 13th cattle count" of Khufu was found on a rock inscription at the Dakhia Oasis in the Sahara. Several of Khufu's sons are known from the papyrus Westcar. Aralin 11 – ang sinaunang Greece . first mentioned by Flinders Petrie in an 1883 book and then lost to historians. and reigned for about 23 years.Khufu (pronounced /ˈkuːfuː/. also known as Cheops (pronounced /ˈkiːɒps/ KEE-ops. was his immediate successor. Greek: Σοῦφις. Unlike his father. He also had fifteen daughters. was rediscovered by Zahi Hawass in 2001 in one of the relieving chambers within Khufu's pyramid. one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. in Manetho. An inscription containing his highest regnal year. Kheops) or. Khufu's full name was "KhnumKhufu" which means "the god Khnum protects me. Khufu is remembered as a cruel and ruthless pharaoh in later folklore. Khufu was the son of King Sneferu and Queen Hetepheres I and brother of Princess Hetepheres. Djedefra. KOO-foo in English). it is also likely that he led military expeditions into the Sinai. Cemetery G 7000 contains several of the mastabas of these royal children. Khufu came to the Egyptian throne in his twenties. He started building his pyramid at Giza. Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. Secondly. Souphis). Nubia and Libya.
"moat") or Chandakas (Greek: Χάνδακας). to the south. it broaches the Sea of Crete (Greek: Κρητικό Πέλαγος). . and music). the island was called Creta. a Venetian adaptation of the earlier Greek name Chandax (Greek: Χάνδαξ. while it retains its own local cultural traits (such as its own dialect. with a coastline of 1. to the north. which in turn came from the Arabic rabḍ al-ḫandaq 'castle of the moat'. It is located in the south of the Aegean Sea separating the Aegean from the Libyan Sea. it was called Girit. Crete covers an area of 8.Crete (Greek: Κρήτη) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies approximately 160 km (99 mi) south of the Greek mainland. Under Roman rule. and narrows to as little as 12 km (7.336 km2 (3. poetry. Crete is the largest island in Greece and the second largest in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (after Cyprus). is 60 km (37 mi) at its widest point. in Classical Latin. Under Ottoman rule. the first civilization in Europe and the first European country with a palace (at Knossos). the Myrtoan Sea. Under Venetian rule. in Turkish.5 mi) (close to Ierapetra). in the west. and toward the east the Karpathion Sea.219 sq mi).046 km (650 mi). it was known as Candia (sometimes anglicized as 'Candy'). The island has an elongated shape: it spans 260 km (160 mi) from east to west. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece. the Libyan Sea (Greek: Λιβυκό Πέλαγος). Crete was the center of the Minoan civilization (circa 2700–1420 BC).
Perseus. His Roman counterpart was Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart was Tinia. such as the scepter. bull. Hebe and Hephaestus As Walter Burkert points out in his book. including Athena. His symbols are the thunderbolt. eagle. Dionysus. Heracles. he is the father of Aphrodite by Dione. who oversaw the universe. Zeus was the child of Cronus and Rhea. Apollo and Artemis. at the oracle of Dodona. and all the gods rise in his presence. He is known for his erotic escapades. In the Homeric Hymns he is referred to as the chieftain of the gods. and the youngest of his siblings. with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand. Helen. or seated in majesty. and oak. As Pausanias observed. Persephone (by Demeter). Hermes. Dias) is the "Father of Gods and men" who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father ruled the family. "That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men". In most traditions he was married to Hera. striding forward. the classical "cloud-gatherer" also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near East. Modern Greek: Δίας. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing." For the Greeks. he was the King of the Gods. by Hera. Greek Religion. He was the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. In addition to his IndoEuropean inheritance.In Greek mythology Zeus /ˈzuːs/ or /ˈzjuːs/. Ancient Greek: Ζεύς. he is usually said to have fathered Ares. although. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring. "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father.Zeus . In Hesiod's Theogony Zeus assigns the various gods their roles. his consort was Dione: according to the Iliad. and the Muses (by Mnemosyne). . Minos.
largely due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then known European continent.Athens ( /ˈæθɪnz/. financial. Athine. the Athens Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) is the 7th most populous LUZ in the European Union (the 4th most populous capital city of the EU) with a population of 4. In 2008. political and cultural life in Greece and it is rated as an alphaworld city. as its recorded history spans around 3. Athens was ranked the world's 32nd richest city by purchasing power and the 25th most expensive in a UBS study.368 (in 2004).514 (in 2001) within its administrative limitsand a land area of 39 km2 (15 sq mi). Athína. it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy. Modern Greek: Αθήνα. The Greek capital has a population of 745. industrial. A cosmopolitan metropolis. is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athēnai ). According to Eurostat.013. Athens dominates the Attica periphery and it is one of the world's oldest cities. Katharevousa: Ἀθῆναι.400 years. The urban area of Athens extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state. home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum. A centre for the arts.130. Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι. modern Athens is central to economic. IPA: [aˈθina]. .841 (in 2001) and a land area of 412 km2 (159 sq mi).Aralin 12 – Ang Athens at Spartans Athens . learning and philosophy.
which completely focused on military training and excellence. Perioikoi (freedmen). Sparta's defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended Sparta's prominent role in Greece. from which it emerged victorious. Sparta continues to fascinate Western Culture. From c. as well as in the West following the revival of classical learning. Given its military pre-eminence. in south-eastern Peloponnese. and Helots (state-owned serfs. who enjoyed full rights). Sparta was the subject of fascination in its own day. Sparta was recognized as the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-Persian Wars. However. an admiration of Sparta is called laconophilia. 650 BC it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece. was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. though at great cost. . Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution. Spartan women enjoyed considerably more rights and equality to men than elsewhere in the classical world. enslaved non-Spartan local population). situated on the banks of the River Eurotas in Laconia. when the invading Dorians subjugated the local. Mothakes (non-Spartan free men raised as Spartans). Attic Σπάρτη Spartē) or Lacedaemon. non-Dorian population. Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War. It emerged as a political entity around the 10th century BC. Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen. when the Romans conquered Greece. it maintained its political independence until 146 BC. Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates (Spartan citizens. and Spartan phalanxes were widely considered to be among the best in battle.Sparta (Doric Σπάρτα. Between 431 and 404 BC.
The Aegean Sea lies to the east of mainland Greece. including both tragedy and comedy. Eighty percent of Greece consists of mountains. Modern Greece traces its roots to the civilisation of ancient Greece. including Crete. Ellīnikī́ Dīmokratía. political science. The modern Greek state was established in 1830. Greece has the tenth longest coastline in the world at 14. major scientific and mathematical principles. Western philosophy. .570 ft). featuring a vast number of islands (approximately 1400. IPA: [eliniˈki ðimokraˈtia]). the Olympic Games.917 m (9.246 mi) in length. Western literature and historiography. the Cyclades. As such. is a country in southeastern Europe. and the Ionian Islands among others. Situated on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula. following a victorious uprising against Ottoman rule. the Dodecanese. and Western drama. generally considered the cradle of Western civilization. Greece has land borders with Albania.880 km (9. This legacy is partly reflected in the 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in Greece.Aralin 13 – Mga digmaan sa Greece Greece also known as Hellas and officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία. the Ionian Sea to the west. of which Mount Olympus is the highest at 2. and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north. and Turkey to the east. of which 227 are inhabited). it is the birthplace of democracy.
it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus. in part bordering on the Aegean Sea. between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north.000 square kilometres (83. including Crete and Rhodes. The sea was traditionally known as Archipelago (in Greek. One chain extends across the sea to Chios. with the following islands delimiting the sea on the south (generally from west to east): Kythera.e. dividing the Aegean from the Mediterranean. The sea's maximum depth is 3. The Aegean Islands are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery. The Aegean Region consists of nine provinces in southwestern Turkey. i. Many of the Aegean Islands. the general sense of which has since changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and.. Egeo Pelagos [eˈʝeo ˈpelaɣos] .The Aegean Sea (Greek: Αιγαίο Πέλαγος. Turkish: Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas. Kasos. The Aegean Islands are found within its waters. are actually extensions of the mountains on the mainland. Crete. The word archipelago was originally applied specifically to the Aegean Sea and its islands.000 sq mi) in area.543 metres (11. generally. Αρχιπέλαγος). another extends across Euboea to Samos. and measures about 610 kilometres (380 mi) longitudinally and 300 kilometres (190 mi) latitudinally. Antikythera. east of Crete. . or chains of islands. Karpathos and Rhodes. The Aegean Sea covers about 214.624 ft). and a third extends across the Peloponnese and Crete to Rhodes. to any island group because the Aegean Sea is remarkable for its large number of islands.
the Greek leader. a literary amalgam of Ionic Greek with other dialects. to ask Zeus that the Greeks be brought to the breaking point by the Trojans. and its written version is usually dated to around the eighth century BC. After nine days of plague. and Apollo causes a plague throughout the Greek army. and sends a dream to Agamemnon. calls an assembly to solve the plague problem. the tenyear siege of Ilium by a coalition of Greek states. Thetis. Although most of the Greek army is in favor of the offer. Set in the Trojan War. Under pressure. Chryses. but will go home. Along with the Odyssey. Although the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war. the story launches in medias res towards the end of the Trojan War between the Trojans and the besieging Greeks. as compensation. the Iliad mentions or alludes to many of the Greek legends about the siege.000 lines.Aralin 14 – Ang Kulturang Hellenitik The Iliad (sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters. The Iliad contains over 15. Angered. a captive of Agamemnon. In the meantime. . so Agamemnon will realize how much the Greeks need Achilles. urging him to attack the city. and Achilles asks his mother. traditionally attributed to Homer. but also decides to take Achilles's captive. the leader of the Myrmidon contingent. Zeus agrees. whereupon Apollo ends the plague. Thetis does so. also attributed to Homer. Agamemnon refuses. Agamemnon agrees to return Chryseis to her father. the Iliad is among the oldest extant works of Western literature. Achilles. Achilles declares that he and his men will no longer fight for Agamemnon. Agamemnon heeds the dream but decides to first test the morale of the Greek army by telling them to go home. it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. Briseis. and is written in Homeric Greek. Agamemnon's messengers take Briseis away. a Trojan priest of Apollo. After an invocation to the Muses. Odysseus takes a ship and brings Chryseis to her father. Chryses prays for Apollo's help. offers the Greeks wealth for the return of his daughter Chryseis.
497/6 BC – winter 406/5 BC) is one of three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays have survived. Sophocles wrote 123 plays during the course of his life. He competed in around 30 competitions. Trachinian Women. Aeschylus won 14 competitions. and was never judged lower than second place. His first plays were written later than those of Aeschylus. For almost 50 years. Antigone. it is now thought that his first production was probably in 470 BC. Sophocles was the most-fêted playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens that took place during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia. although each play was actually a part of a different tetralogy.Sophocles c. He was born a few years before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC: the exact year is unclear. when he took first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the reigning master of Athenian drama. most importantly by adding a third actor. a 10th century encyclopedia. thereby reducing the importance of the chorus in the presentation of the plot. and earlier than those of Euripides. Sophocles' first artistic triumph was in 468 BC. Sophocles. and was sometimes defeated by Sophocles. won perhaps 24. and he was probably born there. Sophocles has a crater on the surface of Mercury named after him. Sophocles influenced the development of the drama.[ Although Plutarch says that this was Sophocles' first production. The most famous tragedies of Sophocles feature Oedipus and Antigone: they are generally known as the Theban plays. Electra. but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax. although 497/6 is the most likely. He also developed his characters to a greater extent than earlier playwrights such as Aeschylus. while Euripides won only 4 competitions. the archon asked Cimon and the other strategi present to decide the victor of the contest. According to the Suda. Aeschylus. Instead of following the usual custom of choosing judges by lot. Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus. Plutarch further contends that following this loss Aeschylus soon left for Sicily. the son of Sophilus. . which was to become a setting for one of his plays. the other members of which are now lost. Oedipus the King. was a wealthy member of the rural deme (small community) of Colonus Hippius in Attica. According to Plutarch the victory came under unusual circumstances. Triptolemus was probably one of the plays that Sophocles presented at this festival.
and Almopia. Later. it was Dorus. the Thracians to the northeast. the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south. The kingdom was situated in the fertile alluvial plain. called Lower Macedonia. with whom the Macedonians were frequently in conflict. controlling a territory that included the former Persian empire. and the Illyrians. lands inhabited by independent Macedonian tribes like the Lyncestae and the Elmiotae and to the West. Paeonia to the north. to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world. to the northwest. centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula. the Argead Macedonians started to expand into Upper Macedonia. was itself called Argead (which translates as "descended from Argos"). among others. the son of Hellen who led his people to Histaeotis. According to Herodot. Bottiaea. into Eordaia.Ang Pananalakay sa Greece at ang Kulturang Hellenistik Macedonia or Macedon (from Greek: Μακεδονία. stretching as far as the Indus River. north of the mountain Olympus. after the conquests of Alexander the Great. bordered by Epirus to the west. where they settled as Macedonians. beyond Axius river. Mygdonia. Subsequently. the first Macedonian capital. the capital of fabled king Midas. To the south lay Thessaly. it became the most powerful state in the world. According to legend. The rise of Macedon. For a brief period. were home to various peoples. at that time it inaugurated the Hellenistic period of Ancient Greek civilization.Aralin 15 . To the north of Macedonia lay various non-Greek peoples such as the Paeonians due north. he expelled Midas and other kings off the lands and he formed his new kingdom. according to legend. whence they were driven off by the Cadmeians into Pindus. The Macedonian tribe ruled by the Argeads. migrated to the region from the Greek city of Argos in Peloponnesus (thus the name Argead). It seems that the first Macedonian state emerged in the 8th or early 7th century BC under the Argead Dynasty. Caranus. with whose inhabitants. a branch would migrate further south to be called Dorians. from a small kingdom at the periphery of Classical Greek affairs. regions settled by. The lands around Aegae. many Thracian tribes. Around the time of Alexander I of Macedon. accompanied by a multitude of Greeks came to the area in search for a new homeland took Edessa and renamed it to Aegae. who. occurred under the reign of Philip II. . Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom. watered by the rivers Haliacmon and Axius. Macedonia was called Emathia (from king Emathion) and the city of Aiges was called Edessa.
Upon Philip's death. most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. and by the age of thirty was the creator of one of the largest empires in ancient history. was a king of Macedon or Macedonia (Greek: Βασιλεύς Μακεδόνων). The Macedonian Empire now stretched from the Adriatic sea to the Indus River. Born in Pella in 356 BC. Alexander was tutored by the famed philosopher Aristotle. Aralin 16 – Ang Sinaunang Rome . Following his desire to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea".Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 – 10/11 June 323 BC). He succeeded in being awarded the generalship of Greece and. but was eventually forced to turn back by the near-mutiny of his troops. In the years following Alexander's death a series of civil wars tore his empire apart which resulted in the formation of a number of states ruled by the Diadochi . Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Although he is mostly remembered for his vast conquests. Philip had brought most of the city-states of mainland Greece under Macedonian hegemony. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC. Subsequently he overthrew the Persian king Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire. launched the military plans for expansion left by his father. In 336 BC he succeeded his father Philip II of Macedon to the throne after he was assassinated. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of the most successful commanders of all time. In 334 BC he invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor and began a series of campaigns lasting ten years. Alexander's lasting legacy was not his reign. a state in the north eastern region of Greece.Alexander's surviving generals. stretching from the Ionian sea to the Himalaya. Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles. Mégas Aléxandros). commonly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος. but the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered. with his authority firmly established. he invaded India in 326 BC. without realizing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. using both military and diplomatic means.
782 ft). but the central chain is shorter and curved. following the rivers Rhine. The English name Alps was taken via French from Latin Alpes. The Alps is generally divided into the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps. Occitan: Aups/Alps. French: Alpes.810. the Occitan Alp/Aupand the French Alpage or Alpe in the singular mean "alpine pasture". Liechtenstein and Slovenia. Austria. Switzerland.45 metres (15. at 4. stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy. Switzerland. France and Switzerland. The German Albe. All the main peaks of the Alps can be found in the list of mountains of the Alps and list of Alpine peaks by prominence. Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west. The division is along the line between Lake Constance and Lake Como. . All the main peaks of the Alps can be found in the list of mountains of the Alps and list of Alpine peaks by prominence. Lombard: Alp.45 metres (15. plural alpûn). on the Italian–French border. It is located in Italy.. The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc. at 4. Italian: Alpi.782 ft). Germany. Romansh: Alps. The Western Alps is higher. Slovene: Alpe) is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe. on the Italian–French border. Liro and Mera. Alpe or Alp (f.810. Old High German alpâ.The Alps (German: Alpen. and only in the plural may also refer to the mountain range as a whole. The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc. which may be ultimately cognate with Latin albus ("white"). The Eastern Alps (main ridge system elongated and broad) belongs to Italy.
In oceanography.900 ft) and the deepest recorded point is 5. although it is usually identified as a completely separate body of water.5 million km² (965. Berber.500 m (4. The sea is technically a part of the Atlantic Ocean. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. Thracian.267 m (17. Macedonian. Carthaginian. and on the east by the Levant.280 ft) in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus. It covers an approximate area of 2. Arabic. "middle" and terra. It was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region — the Mesopotamian. meaning "inland" or "in the middle of the earth" (from medius. on the south by North Africa. Greek. "earth"). Armenian. Illyrian. Slavic and Turkish cultures.7 mi) wide. The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1. the Mediterranean Sea is similarly the uniting element and the centre of World History Aralin 17 – Ang Pagwawakas ng Republikang Romano . Iberian. but its connection to the Atlantic (the Strait of Gibraltar) is only 14 km (8. Levantine. it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. Egyptian. "For the three quarters of the globe. Albanian.000 sq mi). Phoenician. Jewish. Roman. Gallic.The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe.
The balance of power was further upset by the death of Crassus in 53 BC. Their attempts to amass power for themselves through populist tactics were opposed within the Roman Senate by the conservative elite. Political realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and Pompey. the result was a series of civil wars. Their attempts to amass power for themselves through populist tactics were opposed within the Roman Senate by the conservative elite. This sparked a civil war from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world. Caesar entered into a political alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Caesar entered into a political alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. which ultimately led to the establishment of the permanent Roman Empire by Caesar's adopted heir Octavius (later known as Augustus). Caesar marched from Gaul to Italy with his legions. and in 55 BC he conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns. Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended Rome's territory to the North Sea. assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC. . In 60 BC. among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. However. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. A group of senators. After assuming control of government. among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Ordered by the senate to stand trial in Rome for various charges. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey's standing. mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust.Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC– 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman. the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". crossing the Rubicon in 49 BC. Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended Rome's territory to the North Sea. hoping to restore the constitutional government of the Republic. and other contemporary sources. In 60 BC. and in 55 BC he conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. led by Marcus Junius Brutus.
A plebeian named Terentilius proposed in 462 BC that an official legal code should be published. Aralin 18 – Ang Imperyong Romano . but also to find out about the legislation of other Greek cities. Modern scholars believe that a Roman assembly most likely visited the Greek cities of Southern Italy. They allegedly sent an embassy to Greece to study the legislative system of Athens. especially against the plebeian class. informally. In 450 B. during the earliest period of the Republic the laws were kept secret by the pontifices and other representatives of the patrician class. known as the Solonian Constitution. semi-legendary historical accounts preserved in Livy. but around 451 BC. and did not travel all the way to Greece. and were enforced with untoward severity. The Law of the Twelve Tables formed the centerpiece of the constitution of the Roman Republic and the core of the mos maiorum (custom of the ancestors). Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. According to traditional.C. the first Decemvirate (board of "Ten Men") was appointed to draw up the first ten tables. the second decemviri started work on the last 2 tables. so that plebeians could not be surprised and would know the law. or.The Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum. Patricians long opposed this request. The Twelve Tables must be distinguished from the unrelated — and much older — "twelve shields" of King Numa Pompilius.
it is common to call him Octavius when referring to events between 63 and 44 BC. but in practice retained his autocratic power. In Greek sources. the result became known as the Roman Empire. Because of the various names he bore. As a triumvir. The young Octavius came into his inheritance after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. In 27 BC the Senate awarded him the honorific Augustus ("the revered one"). The emperorship was never an office like the Roman dictatorship which Caesar and Sulla had held before him. Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus. .Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire. he declined it when the Roman populace "entreated him to take on the dictatorship". with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate. Octavian ruled Rome and many of its provinces. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate. Octavian (or Octavianus) when referring to events between 44 and 27 BC. Octavian joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in a military dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate. Octavian restored the outward facade of the Roman Republic. and between then and 27 BC was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar. Augustus is known as Ὀκτάβιος. and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by the fleet of Octavian commanded by Agrippa in 31 BC. and thus consequently he was Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus.[note 3] The triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its rulers: Lepidus was driven into exile. In 43 BC. he was adopted posthumously by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC via his last will and testament. and Augustus when referring to events after 27 BC. which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. indeed. It took several years to determine the exact framework by which a formally republican state could be led by a sole ruler.
Caligula. against better judgement. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the next forty years. laying the foundations for the northern frontier. conquering Pannonia. Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals. and great-great uncle of Nero Aralin 19 – Ang Kulturang Romano . Dalmatia." Tiberius is considered to have lacked the political ability of his predecessor Augustus and was a jealous emperor. paternal uncle of Claudius. the quality of his rule declined and ended in a terror. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian. conquering Pannonia. His mother divorced his father and was remarried to Augustus in 39 BC. reclusive. Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum. Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus. and somber ruler who never really desired to be emperor. 42 BC – March 16. In 26. particularly distrustful of his popular general Germanicus. Raetia. But he came to be remembered as a dark. making him a step-son of Octavian Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals. born Tiberius Claudius Nero. succeeded the emperor upon his death. Dalmatia. Raetia. In relations to the other emperors of this dynasty. was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius' grand-nephew and adopted grandson. Tiberius exiled himself from Rome and left administration largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian Prefects Sejanus and Macro. "the gloomiest of men. and temporarily Germania. AD 37). After the death of Tiberius’ son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23. and temporarily Germania.Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (November 16. historians have named it the JulioClaudian dynasty. great-uncle of Caligula. son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla.
000 spectators. quarters for a religious order. as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church. The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius. re-enactments of famous battles. the largest ever built in the Roman Empire.The Colosseum. and dramas based on Classical mythology. executions. or the Coliseum. its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus. is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome. the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles. Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum. Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers. Capable of seating 50. with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96). . It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. workshops. Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo). and a Christian shrine. animal hunts. from the gens Flavia). the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. Italy. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing. a fortress. a quarry. originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium.
statesman. political theorist. and philosopher. quantitas. However. 43 BC. He was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and subsequently murdered in 43 BC. Classical Latin: [ˈkikeroː].Marcus Tullius Cicero (pronounced /ˈsɪsɨroʊ/. "Would that he had been able to endure prosperity with greater self control. much of it addressed to his friend Atticus. and is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists He introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary (with neologisms such as humanitas. Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony. sometimes anglicized as "Tully"). and essentia) distinguishing himself as a linguist. 106 BC – December 7. and Roman constitutionalist. Asinius Pollio. His voluminous correspondence. introducing the art of refined letter writing to European culture. was a Roman philosopher. and the revolutions in the government" that their reader had little need for a history of the period. attacking him in a series of speeches. During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar. Cicero thought that his political career was his most important achievement. Cicero's speeches and letters remain some of the most important primary sources that survive on the last days of the Roman Republic. January 3. Cornelius Nepos. a contemporary Roman statesman and historian. Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. his career as a statesman was marked by inconsistencies and a tendency to shift his position in response to changes in the political climate. lawyer. remarked that Cicero's letters contained such a wealth of detail "concerning the inclinations of leading men. Aralin 20 – Ang Imperyong Byzantine . He came from a wealthy municipal family of the equestrian order. the 1st century BC biographer of Atticus. His indecision may be attributed to his sensitive and impressionable personality. and adversity with more fortitude!" wrote C. he is appreciated primarily for his humanism and philosophical and political writings. has been especially influential. the faults of the generals. Today. he was prone to overreaction in the face of political and private change. translator. An impressive orator and successful lawyer. qualitas.
Mediolanum. Antioch. and Trier. he styled himself an autocrat. made more equitable. With his accession to power. . 22 December 244 – 3 December 311). From at least 297 on. elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonial and architecture. and levied at generally higher rates. constant campaigning. Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganised the empire's provincial divisions. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son. and construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia. establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire. Carinus. Born to an Illyrian family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia. was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305. closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome had been. Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become cavalry commander to the emperor Carus. He established new administrative centers in Nicomedia. Bureaucratic and military growth. imperial taxation was standardized. Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. Building on third-century trends towards absolutism. commonly known as Diocletian.Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian ended the Crisis of the Third Century.
The site lay astride the land route from Europe to Asia and the seaway from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. Rome was too far from the frontiers. probably around 671-662 BC. Nevertheless. This took place through the Turkish Postal Service Law. as part of Atatürk's national reforms. and hence from the armies and the Imperial courts. Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city. Throughout most of the Middle Ages. Latin: Constantinopolis. Constantine had altogether more colorful plans. and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest that the capital be moved to a different location. Constantinople was founded by the Roman emperor Constantine I on the site of an already-existing city. This name in turn derives from the Greek and Slavic colloquial name Stambol. settled in the early days of Greek colonial expansion. However. the Latin Empire and the Ottoman Empire. his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the Empire. he was well aware that Rome was an unsatisfactory capital. and. Turkish: Kostantiniyye or İstanbul) was the imperial capital of the Roman Empire. the Byzantine/Eastern Roman Empire. his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia. he identified the site of Byzantium as the right place: a place where an emperor could sit. with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers. and ask that others use the same name they did. Byzantium. The Turks have called the city Istanbul since they conquered it in 1453. being in course of major governmental reforms as well as of sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church. and had in the Golden Horn an excellent and spacious harbour. readily defended. and it offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians. Yet it had been the capital of the state for over a thousand years.Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις. Having restored the unity of the Empire. many Westerners continued to call it Constantinople. Not until the 20th century did the Turks formally object. All Resource are from Wikipedia :) . see Names of Istanbul for fuller discussion.
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