Submitted to: Mr. Raul E. Garcia Submitted by: Katherine Anne C.


Aralin 1- Ang Pinagmulan ng Daigdig

Galaxy- A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. The name is from the ancient Greek word galaxias [γαλαξίας], literally meaning "milky", a reference to the Milky Way galaxy. Typical galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million (107) stars, up to giants with a hundred trillion (1014) stars, all orbiting the galaxy's center of mass. Galaxies may contain many star systems, star clusters, and various interstellar clouds. The Sun is one of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy; the Solar System includes the Earth and all the other objects that orbit the Sun. Historically, galaxies have been categorized according to their apparent shape (usually referred to as their visual morphology). A common form is the elliptical galaxy, which has an ellipse-shaped light profile. Spiral galaxies are diskshaped assemblages with dusty, curving arms. Galaxies with irregular or unusual shapes are known as irregular galaxies, and typically result from disruption by the gravitational pull of neighboring galaxies. Such interactions between nearby galaxies, which may ultimately result in galaxies merging, may induce episodes of significantly increased star formation, producing what is called a starburst galaxy. Small galaxies that lack a coherent structure could also be referred to as irregular galaxies.

Milky Way - The Milky Way galaxy, commonly referred to as just the
Milky Way, or sometimes simply as the Galaxy, is the home galaxy of the Solar System, and of Earth. It is a barred spiral galaxy that contains 100-400 billion stars and an estimated 50 billion planets, 500 million of which could be located in the habitable zone of their parent star. The Milky Way is part of the Local Group of galaxies and is one of 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe. The Solar System is located in the Milky Way galaxy halfway out from the center, on the inner edge of the Orion–Cygnus Arm. The Sun orbits around the center of the galaxy in a galactic year—once every 225-250 million Earth years. The "Milky Way" is a translation of the Latin Via Lactea, in turn translated from the Greek Γαλαξίας (Galaxias), referring to the pale band of light formed by stars in the galactic plane as seen from Earth. All the stars that the eye can distinguish in the night sky are part of the Milky Way galaxy, but aside from these relatively nearby stars, the galaxy appears as a hazy band of white light arching around the entire celestial sphere. The light originates from stars and other material that lie within the galactic plane. Dark regions within the band, such as the Great Rift and the Coalsack, correspond to areas where light from distant stars is blocked by dark nebulae. The Milky Way has a relatively low surface brightness due to the interstellar medium that fills the galactic disk, which prevents us from seeing the bright galactic center. It is thus difficult to see from any urban or suburban location suffering from light pollution. A total integrated magnitude of the whole Milky Way stretching across the night sky has been estimated at −5.0.

Aralin 2 – Ang pisikal na anyo ng daigdig

Alfred Wegener - Alfred Lothar Wegener (November 1, 1880 –
November 1930) was a German scientist, geophysicist, and meteorologist. He is most notable for his theory of continental drift (Kontinentalverschiebung), proposed in 1912, which hypothesized that the continents were slowly drifting around the Earth. However, Wegener was unable to demonstrate a mechanism for continental drift, which, combined with his mostly circumstantial evidence, meant that his hypothesis was not accepted until the 1950s, when numerous discoveries provided evidence of continental drift. Alfred Wegener first thought of this idea by noticing that the different large landmasses of the Earth almost fit together like a jigsaw. The Continental shelf of the Americas fit closely to Africa and Europe, and Antarctica, Australia, India and Madagascar fit next to the tip of Southern Africa. But Wegener only took action after reading a paper in Autumn 1911 and seeing that a flooded land-bridge contradicts isostasy. Wegener's main interest was meteorology, and he wanted to join the Denmark-Greenland expedition scheduled for mid 1912. So he hurried up to present his Continental Drift hypothesis on 6 January 1912. But it wasn't considered to be sufficient evidence in itself. He analyzed either side of the Atlantic Ocean for rock type, geological structures and fossils. He noticed that there was a significant similarity.

Siberia and Baltica. . the Iapetus Ocean and Paleoasian Ocean. it split into three pieces: the supercontinent of Proto-Laurasia and the supercontinent of Proto-Gondwana. and lasted until 540 Ma.0-1. Pannotia.8 Ga. Before Pannotia. Soon thereafter Proto-Laurasia itself split apart to form the continents of Laurentia. The breaking up and formation of supercontinents appear to be cyclical through Earth's 4. he postulated that all the continents had at one time formed a single supercontinent which he called the "Urkontinent". The exact configuration and geodynamic history of Rodinia are not nearly as well understood as Pannotia and Pangaea. which lasted from about 1. there was Rodinia. Rodinia formed by the accretion and assembly of fragments produced by breakup of an older supercontinent. In his book The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane) first published in 1915. Baltica was situated east of Laurentia. before later breaking up and drifting to their present locations. When Rodinia broke up. called Columbia or Nuna that was assembled in the period 2.Pangaea. Proto-Laurasia and ProtoGondwanaland were separated by the Proto-Tethys Ocean.The name was coined during a 1926 symposium discussing Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift. The rifting also spawned two new oceans. The nextto-last one.6 billion year history. There may have been several others before Pangaea. and Siberia northeast of Laurentia.1 billion years ago (Ga) until about 750 million years ago. and the smaller Congo craton. formed about 600 million years ago (Ma) during the Proterozoic eon.

26472°E and flows into Sudan from the southeast. and 'waters' determinative) In Coptic. It flows north through Rwanda. p(h). The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The Blue Nile starts at Lake Tana in Ethiopia at 12°02′09″N 037°15′53″E / 12. the Nile is called Ḥ'pī or iteru. The two rivers meet near the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia. roughly halfway to the sea. which originates in Ethiopia north of Lake Tana. the White Nile and Blue Nile.591 sq mi).254. It joins the Nile approximately 300 kilometres (200 mi) north of Khartoum. Uganda and southern Sudan.Aralin 3 – Ang heograpiya at kasaysayan Nile. Tanzania. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift.canal-great") come from the same ancient name. The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert.iar-o "the. represented by the hieroglyphs shown on the left (literally itrw. a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. the southern part of the Great Rift Valley. In the ancient Egyptian language. Lake Victoria. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3. The Atbara flows only while there is rain in Ethiopia and dries very rapidly.555 square kilometres (1. Below this confluence the only major tributary is the Atbara River. The former is the longer. The White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa. . The latter is the source of most of the water and fertile soil.256.The Nile has two major tributaries.03583°N 37. The two great tributaries join at Khartoum. with the most distant source in central Burundi. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa. about 10% of the area of Africa. During the dry period of January to June. meaning "great river". and is around 800 kilometres (500 mi) long. the words piaro (Sahidic) or phiaro (Bohairic) meaning "the river" (lit. from Sudan into Egypt. it typically dries up. and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along riverbanks.

particularly during drought. The rivers have several small tributaries which feed into the system from shallow freshwater lakes. all surrounded by desert.In the 1980s. The hydrology of these vast marshes is extremely important to the ecology of the entire upper Persian Gulf. Syria and Iraq. this ecoregion was put in grave danger as the Iran–Iraq War raged within its boundaries. the Tigris and Euphrates.. were completely dried out. and marshes. with many Tigris tributaries originating in Iran. The Tigris-Euphrates Basin is primarily shared by Turkey.The Tigris–Euphrates river system is part of the TigrisEuphrates alluvial salt marsh ecoregion of West Asia. The wetlands of Iraq. it saw the earliest emergence of literate urban civilization in the Uruk period. Syrian and Iranian dam construction has also contributed to political tension within the basin. the area is known as Mesopotamia. and is characterized by two large rivers. Historically. when Turkey began the GAP project in earnest. which were inhabited by the Marsh Arabs. . Tigris Euphrates . Since the 1960s and in 1970s. As part of the larger Fertile Crescent. swamps. and only recently have shown signs of recovery. In addition. for which reason it is often dubbed the "Cradle of Civilization". water disputes have regularly occurred in addition to the associated dam's effects on the environment.

and having skin covered in scales and/or scutes. working from species-poor Sweden. that grows to only 1. Linnaeus. "to creep") being preferred by the French. . reptiles are oviparous (egg-laying). which may reach 6 m in length and weigh over 1. Modern reptiles inhabit every continent with the exception of Antarctica. Extant reptiles range in size from a tiny gecko.000 kg. it is still common to treat the two groups under the same heading as herptiles.[ Today. The reptiles were from the outset of classification grouped with the amphibians. included all reptiles and amphibians in class "III – Amphibia" in his Systema Naturæ. and four living orders are currently recognized. Reptiles are classically viewed as having a "coldblooded" metabolism.6 cm (0. This is achieved by either ovoviviparity (egg retention) or viviparity (birth of offspring without the development of calcified eggs). with some providing initial care for their hatchlings. They are tetrapods (either having four limbs or being descended from four-limbed ancestors). reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage.Reptiles are animals in the (Linnaean) class Reptilia. Crocodylus porosus. The terms "reptile" and "amphibian" were largely interchangeable. Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals. laying shelled eggs. although certain species of squamates are capable of giving live birth. They are characterized by breathing air.Aralin 4 – Ebolusyon ng tao Reptile . As a rule. where the common adder and grass snake are often found hunting in water. Sphaerodactylus ariase. Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti was the first to formally use the term "Reptilia" for an expanded selection of reptiles and amphibians basically similar to that of Linnaeus. "reptile" (from Latin repere.6 in) to the saltwater crocodile. Unlike amphibians.

Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist. instead. In modified form. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science. His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry. and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection. . he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed that natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. The scientific community and much of the general public came to accept evolution as a fact in his lifetime. Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences. and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.Charles Darwin . Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh. He published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species. However. explaining the diversity of life.

although official reports remain critical of the site's "poor" presentation and interpretation. consisting of a skullcap. gave it the scientific name Pithecanthropus erectus.66 million years old. Central Java. The oldest African Homo erectus fossils. 18 km to the north of Solo.Ngawi Regency on the banks of the Solo River in East Java. Eugène Dubois. more complete specimen was later discovered in the village of Sangiran.81 million years. a skullcap of similar size to that found by Dubois. a femur. There is some dissent as to whether all these bones represent the same species A second. . and the Sangiran fossils are about 1. is about 1. Many more finds have subsequently been made at the Sangiran site. Dubois' find was a very incomplete specimen. a name derived from Greek and Latin roots meaning upright apeman. Its discoverer. one of the first known specimens of Homo erectus. Dr. This find. Indonesia.Aralin 5. was discovered by Berlin-born paleontologist GHR von Koenigswald in 1936. and a few teeth. found at Koobi Fora in Kenya. has been dated at about the same age as the Mojokerto child.Pag unlad ng kultura ng mga tao Java Man-(Homo erectus erectus) is the name given to fossils discovered in 1891 at Trinil . Swisher's group [of the Institute of Human Origins in Berkeley] has determined. The new date of the Mojokerto child.

analyses based on more current dataconcerning the migrations of early humans have contributed to a refined definition of this expression. Today.000 years before present.The Cro-Magnon (pronounced /kroʊˈmæɡnən/. French [kʁomaɲɔ̃]) were the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) of the European Upper Paleolithic. However. where the first specimen was found Being the oldest known modern humans (Homo sapiens) in Europe. The earliest known remains of Cro-Magnon-like humans are radiometrically dated to 35. By the 1970s the term was used for any early modern human wherever found. Current scientific literature prefers the term "European Early Modern Humans" Aralin 6 – Ang kabihasnan sa Mesopotamia . though it remains an important term within the archaeological community as an identifier for the commensurate fossil remains in Europe and adjacent areas. the term "Cro-Magnon" falls outside the usual naming conventions for early humans. The term "Cro-Magnon" soon came to be used in a general sense to describe the oldest modern people in Europe. as was the case with the far-flung Jebel Qafzeh remains in Israel and various PaleoIndian in the Americas. and dating techniques improved in the early 20th century. The name derives from the Abri de Cro-Magnon (French: rock shelter of Cro-Magnon. the big cave in the local dialect) near the commune of Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil in southwest France. new finds were added to the taxonomic classification. As additional remains of early modern humans were discovered in archaeological sites from Western Europe and elsewhere. the Cro-Magnon were from the outset linked to the well-known Lascaux cave paintings and the Aurignacian culture that flourished in southern France and Germany .

" and Rāpi. Hammurabi's portrait is in many government buildings throughout the world.Hammurabi . had conquered the city-states of Borsippa.Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ʻAmmurāpi. by the time of his reign. To the north. Owing to his reputation in modern times as an ancient law-giver. (died c. "the kinsman is a healer. Babylonian culture gained a degree of prominence among the literate classes throughout the Middle East. and inherited the power from his father. To the east lay the kingdom of Elam. 1750 BC)) was the sixth king of Babylon (that is. Babylon was one of the many ancient citystates that dotted the Mesopotamian plain and waged war on each other for control of fertile agricultural land. Shamshi-Adad I was undertaking expansionistic wars. Hammurabi was a First Dynasty king of the city-state of Babylon. Hammurabi is known for the set of laws called Hammurabi's Code. Though many cultures co-existed in Mesopotamia." from ʻAmmu. and Sippar. although his untimely death would fragment his newly conquered Semitic empire. Kish. 1792 BC. his successors were unable to maintain his empire. Although his empire controlled all of Mesopotamia at the time of his death. "paternal kinsman. Sin-Muballit. Thus Hammurabi ascended to the throne as the king of a minor kingdom in the midst of a complex geopolitical situation. Sin-Muballit. The powerful kingdom of Eshnunna controlled the upper Tigris River while Larsa controlled the river delta. . The kings who came before Hammurabi had begun to consolidate rule of central Mesopotamia under Babylonian hegemony and. one of the first written codes of law in recorded history. These laws were written on a stone tablet standing over eight feet tall (2.4 meters) that was found in 1901. "healer". of the First Babylonian Dynasty) from 1792 BC to 1750 BC middle chronology (1728 BC – 1686 BC short chronology) He became the first king of the Babylonian Empire following the abdication of his father. in c. extending Babylon's control over Mesopotamia by winning a series of wars against neighboring kingdoms.

Aralin 7 – Iba pang Sibilisasyon sa Asya . Jordan. Modern-day countries with significant territory within the Fertile Crescent are Iraq.The Fertile Crescent is a region in Western Asia. they were not the only factor in the area's precocity. Israel. where climate changes during the Ice Age led to repeated extinction events due to ecosystems becoming squeezed against the waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon and Syria. delimited by the dry climate of the Syrian Desert to the south and the Anatolian highlands to the north. and is the birthplace of writing and the wheel. This "bridging role" has allowed the Fertile Crescent to retain a greater amount of biodiversity than either Europe or North Africa. The region was so named due to its rich soil and crescent shape. this Middle Eastern land-bridge is of extreme importance to the modern distribution of Old World flora and fauna. Coupled with the Saharan pump theory. The region is often considered the cradle of civilization. The term "Fertile Crescent" was first used by University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted in his Ancient Records of Egypt. As crucial as rivers and marshlands were to the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent. including the spread of humanity. The area is important as the "bridge" between Africa and Eurasia. saw the development of many of the earliest human civilizations. published in 1906. It includes the comparatively fertile regions of Mesopotamia and the Levant.Fertile Crescent . besides the southeastern fringe of Turkey and the western fringe of Iran.

From the Caspian in the northwest to Baluchistan in the south-east.Iranian Plateau . and its eastern slopes may be included in the term. it is far from flat but contains several mountain ranges. the Iranian Plateau extends for close to 2. Afghanistan and Pakistan).700. it includes Parthia.000 square kilometres (1. Afghanistan and Pakistan.430. the Hormuz Strait and Persian gulf to the south and the Indus River to the east in Pakistan. The Encyclopedia Britannica excludes "lowland Khuzestan" explicitly and characterizes Elam as spanning "the region from the Mesopotamian plain to the Iranian Plateau".The Iranian plateau (or in much less common use: the Persian plateau.000 km. In spite of being called a "plateau".000 sq mi). It encompasses the greater part of Iran. Peshawar and Quetta containing some 3. on an area roughly outlined by the quadrangle formed by the cities of Tabriz. the heartlands of Greater Iran (mainly Iran. the highest peak being Damavand in the Alborz at 5610 m. The Zagros mountains form the plateau's western boundary. Shiraz. the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north. As a historical region. and the Lut basin ast of Kerman in Central Iran falling below 300 m. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates. situated between the Zagros mountains to the west. . Media and eastern Persia. is a geological formation in Southwest Asia.

as "the anointed of the Lord" or a "Messiah. Cyrus the Great also left a lasting legacy on the Jewish religion through his Edict of Restoration.کوروش بزرگ‬Kūrosh-e-Bozorg) (c." Aralin 8 – Ang Sinaunang China . Under his rule. which resulted in major campaigns that brought "into subjection every nation without exception." Cyrus did not venture into Egypt.Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: IPA: [kʰuːruʃ]. as he himself died in battle. he led an expedition into central Asia. In fact. were the works of Cyrus. Persian: ‫ . Aside from his own nation. who managed to add to the empire by conquering Egypt. he is referred to by the people of the Jewish faith. the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East. the role of the Achaemenid empire founded by Cyrus lies in its very successful model for centralized administration and establishing a government working to the advantage and profit of its subjects. Either before or after Babylon. Cambyses II. Nubia. fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC. Cyrus the Great respected the customs and religions of the lands he conquered. Persia (modern Iran). and Cyrenaica during his short rule. also known as Cyrus II or Cyrus of Persia. He was succeeded by his son. then the Lydian Empire and eventually the Neo-Babylonian Empire. was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. 600 BC or 576 BC – December 530 BC). From the Mediterranean sea and the Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east.Cyrus the Great . Cyrus built his empire by conquering first the Median Empire. expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia. where because of his policies in Babylonia. It is said that in universal history. the administration of the empire through satraps and the vital principle of forming a government at Pasargadae. Kūruš. The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted between 29 and 31 years. parts of Europe and Caucasus. Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen.

pinyin: Huáng Hé. Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China. as its basin is the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilizations and was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history. pinyin: Hàn Shū) written in the Western Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 9). Sometimes the Yellow River is poetically called the "Muddy Flow" (simplified Chinese:. pinyin: Zhuó Liú).520 mi²). The Yellow River basin has an east-west extent of 1900 km (1. The name "Yellow River" describes the perennial ochre-yellow colour of the muddy water in the lower course of the river. Total basin area is 742. it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into the Bohai Sea. But frequent devastating flooding largely due to the elevated river bed in its lower course. and were used in the meaning "river"). traditional Chinese: 黃河. Mongolian: Hatan Gol.The Yellow River is called "the cradle of Chinese civilization". Queen river) is the second-longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of 5. traditional Chinese: 漢書. The yellow color comes from loess suspended in the water.180 mi) and a north-south extent of 1100 km (684 mi). . The Chinese idiom "when the Yellow River flows clear" is used to refer to an event that will never happen and is similar to the English expression "when pigs fly". the word that has come to mean simply "river" in modern language (in ancient times.The Yellow River or Huang He / Hwang Ho (simplified Chinese: 黄河. The first appearance of the name "Yellow River" (黃河) is in the Book of Han (simplified Chinese: 汉 书. traditional Chinese:." Early Chinese literature refers to the Yellow River simply as He .395 mi).464 kilometers (3. however. has also earned it the unenviable names "China's Sorrow" and "Scourge of the Sons of Han.443 km² (290.

concurrent with the Hundred Schools of Thought and Warring States Period. Historians variously contend that Laozi is a synthesis of multiple historical figures. also a contemporary of Confucius. Throughout history. The earliest reliable reference (circa 100 BC) to Laozi is found in the Records of the Grand Historian (Shini) by Chinese historian Sima Qian (ca. who lived during the reign (384–362 BC) of Duke Xian (獻公) of Qin). He was an official in the imperial archives. His association with the Tao Te Ching has led him to be traditionally considered the founder of Taoism (also spelled "Daoism"). and wrote a book in two parts before departing to the West. both nobility and common people claim Laozi in their lineage. A central figure in Chinese culture. or that he actually lived in the 4th century BC. which combines a number of stories. In the second. or "One of the Three Pure Ones". Lao-Tsu. In the third. His surname was Li (李 "plum"). who wrote a book in 15 parts. and his personal name was Er (耳 "ear") or Dan (聃 "long ear"). though the identity of its author(s) and/or compiler(s) has been debated throughout history. He is also revered as a deity in most religious forms of the Taoist religion. Laozi was said to be a contemporary of Confucius (551–479 BC). that he is a mythical figure. 145–86 BC). Laocius. Laozi lived in the 6th century BC. and other variations) was a mystic philosopher of ancient China. and is generally considered honorific According to Chinese tradition. Laozi was Lao Laizi (老來子 "Old Master"). which often refers to Laozi as Taishang Laojun. LaoTzu. Lao Zi. Laotze.Laozi Chinese: pinyin: Lǎozǐ. and best known as the author of the Tao Te Ching. also Lao Tse. Laozi translated literally from Chinese means "old master" or "old one". . Lao Tu. Wade–Giles: Lao Tzu. Laozi's work has been embraced by various anti-authoritarian Laozi is traditionally regarded as the author of the Daodejing (Tao Te Ching). Laosi. In the first. Laozi was the Grand Historian and astrologer Lao Dan (老聃 "Old Long-ears").

flowing through the North in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan. pinyin: Sēngé Zàngbù/Shīquán Hé/Yìndù Hé. Sutlej. Wylie: Sênggê Zangbo "Lion River". Chenab. to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. Turki: Nilab) is a major river which flows through Pakistan. Avestan: Hapta Hindu. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1. Avestan: Harauhuti.Aralin 9 – Ang sinaunang India The Indus River (Sanskrit: Sarasvati. Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region. the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests. Pashto: ‫ اباسين‬Abāsin "Water of Sindh".165. The river's estimated annual flow stands at around 207 cubic kilometers.دریائے سندھ‬daryā-e sindh. the Indus forms the Sapta Sindhu (Seven Rivers) delta of Pakistan.000 square kilometers (450. Urdu: ‫ . the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and then enters Pakistan via the Northern Areas (Gilgit-Baltistan). Pashto: ‫ السند‬Al-Sind. Beas and two tributaries from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Afghanistan. Together with the rivers Jhelum. plains and arid countryside. Ravi.180 kilometers (1. Hindko: ‫ سندھ‬Sindh. Sindhu. The total length of the river is 3. Punjabi: ‫ سندھ‬Sindh. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers. making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. Tibetan: སེང་གེ།་གཙང་པོ. . Chinese: 森格藏布/狮泉河/印度河.000 square miles). Sindhi: ‫ سنڌو‬Sindhu.976 miles) and it is Pakistan's longest river. Greek: Ινδός Indós.

such as Ian Stevenson and Jim B. many people in the West have developed an interest in reincarnation. Skeptics are critical of this work and Carl Sagan said that more reincarnation research is needed. Christianity and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate. comes back to life in a newborn body. in places such as Siberia. the Cathars. and Sikhism. Some university researchers.Reincarnation is believed to occur when the soul or spirit. What Dreams May Come and Birth.Reincarnation . and Australia. these groups include the mainstream historical and contemporary followers of Kabbalah. Hermeticism. is unclear. and Eckankar. The idea was also fundamental to some Greek philosophers and religions as well as other religions. regularly mention reincarnation. It is also found in many small-scale societies around the world. the Alawi. Jainism. This doctrine is a central tenet within the majority of Indian religious traditions. Spiritism. particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation. the Buddhist concept of rebirth is also often referred to as reincarnation. . as well as the Indian religions. Manicheanism and Gnosticism of the Roman era. as well as popular songs. North America. Although the majority of sects within Judaism. after the death of the body. Feature films. such as Hinduism. such as Kundun. and later on. Tucker. The historical relations between these sects and the beliefs about reincarnation that were characteristic of the Neoplatonism. West Africa. contemporary books by authors such as Carol Bowman and Vicki Mackenzie. have explored the issue of reincarnation and published reports of children's memories of earlier lives in peer-reviewed journals and in books such as Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation and Life Before Life. the Druze and the Rosicrucians. such as Druidism. In recent decades.

or casing stones to build houses and Mosques in Cairo. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral. quadrilateral. is the Great Pyramid of Cholula. with the majority of the weight closer to the ground. A pyramid's design. and is considered an architectural masterpiece. For thousands of years. . This pyramid is still being excavated. is a common version. but today it is only 137 m (455 ft) high.ang sinaunang Egypt Pyramid .300. Khufu’s Pyramid is built entirely of limestone. by volume. in the Mexican state of Puebla. The original height of the Pyramid was 146.5 tons to 15 tons and is built on a square base with sides measuring about 230 m (755 ft). Its four sides face the four cardinal points precisely and it has an angle of 52 degrees. The largest pyramid in the world ever built.Aralin 10. the largest structures on earth were pyramids: first the Red Pyramid in the Dashur Necropolis and then the Great Pyramid of Khufu. both of Egypt. the 9 m (33 ft) that is missing is due to the theft of the fine quality limestone covering. The square pyramid. It contains around 1. the latter the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still remaining.000 blocks ranging in weight from 2. or any polygon shape.5 m (488 ft).A pyramid (from Greek "πυραμίς" – pyramis) is a structure where the outer surfaces are triangular and converge at a point. covering 13 acres. and with the pyramidion on top means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above: this distribution of weight allowed early civilizations to create stable monumental structures. meaning that a pyramid has at least three triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). with square base and four triangular outer surfaces. It is still the tallest pyramid.

Nubia and Libya. first mentioned by Flinders Petrie in an 1883 book and then lost to historians. Greek: Χέοψ. one of whom. was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom. Khufu had nine sons. Khufu came to the Egyptian throne in his twenties. in Manetho. and reigned for about 23 years. Kheops) or. Djedefra. the "Year after the 13th cattle count" of Khufu was found on a rock inscription at the Dakhia Oasis in the Sahara. one of whom would later become Queen Hetepheres II. Greek: Σοῦφις. He also had fifteen daughters. two dates have been discovered from his reign. Suphis (pronounced /ˈsuːfɨs/ SOO-fis. Secondly. was his immediate successor. An inscription containing his highest regnal year. Khufu is remembered as a cruel and ruthless pharaoh in later folklore. Other sources from much later periods suggest a significantly longer reign: Manetho gives him a reign of 63 years. Unlike his father. which is the number ascribed to him by the Turin King List. He is generally accepted as being the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza. KOO-foo in English). Aralin 11 – ang sinaunang Greece . and Herodotus states that he reigned for 50 years. it is also likely that he led military expeditions into the Sinai. Khufu was the son of King Sneferu and Queen Hetepheres I and brother of Princess Hetepheres. He started building his pyramid at Giza. Souphis). the "Year of the 17th Count of Khufu". while other children are merely known from their tombs in Giza. Based on inscriptional evidence. He reigned from around 2589 to 2566 BC. Khufu's full name was "KhnumKhufu" which means "the god Khnum protects me. in 2003. Several of Khufu's sons are known from the papyrus Westcar. the first to be built there. also known as Cheops (pronounced /ˈkiːɒps/ KEE-ops. Cemetery G 7000 contains several of the mastabas of these royal children. one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. was rediscovered by Zahi Hawass in 2001 in one of the relieving chambers within Khufu's pyramid. Since 2000.Khufu (pronounced /ˈkuːfuː/.

to the north. Under Roman rule. and music). in Classical Latin. Under Ottoman rule. The island has an elongated shape: it spans 260 km (160 mi) from east to west. which in turn came from the Arabic rabḍ al-ḫandaq 'castle of the moat'. and toward the east the Karpathion Sea. a Venetian adaptation of the earlier Greek name Chandax (Greek: Χάνδαξ. while it retains its own local cultural traits (such as its own dialect. Crete covers an area of 8. Crete is the largest island in Greece and the second largest in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (after Cyprus). Crete was the center of the Minoan civilization (circa 2700–1420 BC). the island was called Creta.336 km2 (3. It is located in the south of the Aegean Sea separating the Aegean from the Libyan Sea.Crete (Greek: Κρήτη) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. is 60 km (37 mi) at its widest point. and narrows to as little as 12 km (7. it was called Girit. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece. the first civilization in Europe and the first European country with a palace (at Knossos).219 sq mi). with a coastline of 1. in the west. it broaches the Sea of Crete (Greek: Κρητικό Πέλαγος).5 mi) (close to Ierapetra). to the south. It lies approximately 160 km (99 mi) south of the Greek mainland. "moat") or Chandakas (Greek: Χάνδακας). it was known as Candia (sometimes anglicized as 'Candy'). in Turkish. Under Venetian rule. the Myrtoan Sea. . the Libyan Sea (Greek: Λιβυκό Πέλαγος). poetry.046 km (650 mi).

Ancient Greek: Ζεύς. . striding forward. with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand. although. such as the scepter. In most traditions he was married to Hera. His symbols are the thunderbolt. and the Muses (by Mnemosyne). and the youngest of his siblings. Dias) is the "Father of Gods and men"[3] who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father ruled the family. he was the King of the Gods.[6] In Hesiod's Theogony Zeus assigns the various gods their roles.In Greek mythology Zeus /ˈzuːs/ or /ˈzjuːs/. eagle. who oversaw the universe. the classical "cloud-gatherer" also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near East. Greek Religion." For the Greeks. Perseus. "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father. Hebe and Hephaestus As Walter Burkert points out in his book. and oak. Hermes. he is usually said to have fathered Ares. His Roman counterpart was Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart was Tinia. by Hera. Heracles. and all the gods rise in his presence. "That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men". including Athena. He was the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. Persephone (by Demeter). Zeus was the child of Cronus and Rhea. bull. Apollo and Artemis. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing.Zeus . Helen. or seated in majesty. he is the father of Aphrodite by Dione. He is known for his erotic escapades. In addition to his IndoEuropean inheritance. Minos. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring. his consort was Dione: according to the Iliad. Modern Greek: Δίας. As Pausanias observed. Dionysus. In the Homeric Hymns he is referred to as the chieftain of the gods. at the oracle of Dodona.

Modern Greek: Αθήνα. Athens dominates the Attica periphery and it is one of the world's oldest cities. Athína. largely due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then known European continent. A cosmopolitan metropolis.Aralin 12 – Ang Athens at Spartans Athens . The Greek capital has a population of 745. Athine.013. it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy.400 years. modern Athens is central to economic. Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι. Athens was ranked the world's 32nd richest city by purchasing power and the 25th most expensive in a UBS study. Athēnai ).841 (in 2001) and a land area of 412 km2 (159 sq mi). The urban area of Athens extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3. A centre for the arts.Athens ( /ˈæθɪnz/. In 2008. learning and philosophy. home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum. Katharevousa: Ἀθῆναι.368 (in 2004). is the capital and largest city of Greece. the Athens Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) is the 7th most populous LUZ in the European Union (the 4th most populous capital city of the EU) with a population of 4. . political and cultural life in Greece and it is rated as an alphaworld city.514 (in 2001) within its administrative limitsand a land area of 39 km2 (15 sq mi). IPA: [aˈθina]. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state.130. as its recorded history spans around 3. financial. industrial. According to Eurostat.

Sparta's defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended Sparta's prominent role in Greece. an admiration of Sparta is called laconophilia. from which it emerged victorious. it maintained its political independence until 146 BC. Given its military pre-eminence. However. situated on the banks of the River Eurotas in Laconia. . Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War. enslaved non-Spartan local population). Sparta was recognized as the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-Persian Wars. in south-eastern Peloponnese.[1] It emerged as a political entity around the 10th century BC. which completely focused on military training and excellence. as well as in the West following the revival of classical learning. when the Romans conquered Greece. Perioikoi (freedmen). Spartan women enjoyed considerably more rights and equality to men than elsewhere in the classical world. non-Dorian population. when the invading Dorians subjugated the local. Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution. Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen. Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates (Spartan citizens. who enjoyed full rights). Sparta continues to fascinate Western Culture. Between 431 and 404 BC. Mothakes (non-Spartan free men raised as Spartans). From c. and Spartan phalanxes were widely considered to be among the best in battle. 650 BC it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece.Sparta (Doric Σπάρτα. though at great cost. Attic Σπάρτη Spartē) or Lacedaemon. was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. Sparta was the subject of fascination in its own day. and Helots (state-owned serfs.

the Cyclades. generally considered the cradle of Western civilization. The modern Greek state was established in 1830. including Crete. featuring a vast number of islands (approximately 1400. Ellīnikī́ Dīmokratía.570 ft). including both tragedy and comedy. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of mainland Greece. . and the Ionian Islands among others. of which Mount Olympus is the highest at 2. Modern Greece traces its roots to the civilisation of ancient Greece. of which 227 are inhabited). political science.880 km (9. As such. IPA: [eliniˈki ðimokraˈtia]).917 m (9. and Turkey to the east. Situated on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula. is a country in southeastern Europe. and Western drama. Western literature and historiography.246 mi) in length. following a victorious uprising against Ottoman rule. the Ionian Sea to the west. it is the birthplace of democracy. and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the tenth longest coastline in the world at 14. the Dodecanese. major scientific and mathematical principles. Greece has land borders with Albania. Eighty percent of Greece consists of mountains. the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north. the Olympic Games. This legacy is partly reflected in the 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in Greece.Aralin 13 – Mga digmaan sa Greece Greece also known as Hellas and officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία. Western philosophy.

i.e. the general sense of which has since changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and. or chains of islands. east of Crete. The sea's maximum depth is 3. dividing the Aegean from the Mediterranean.000 sq mi) in area. The Aegean Islands are found within its waters. One chain extends across the sea to Chios. Egeo Pelagos [eˈʝeo ˈpelaɣos] . to any island group because the Aegean Sea is remarkable for its large number of islands. generally. The Aegean Sea covers about 214. Karpathos and Rhodes.624 ft).. another extends across Euboea to Samos. Crete. Αρχιπέλαγος). with the following islands delimiting the sea on the south (generally from west to east): Kythera. Kasos.The Aegean Sea (Greek: Αιγαίο Πέλαγος. . The Aegean Islands are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery.543 metres (11. and measures about 610 kilometres (380 mi) longitudinally and 300 kilometres (190 mi) latitudinally. Turkish: Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas. and a third extends across the Peloponnese and Crete to Rhodes.000 square kilometres (83. in part bordering on the Aegean Sea. Many of the Aegean Islands. In the north. are actually extensions of the mountains on the mainland. The sea was traditionally known as Archipelago (in Greek. Antikythera. The Aegean Region consists of nine provinces in southwestern Turkey. between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus. including Crete and Rhodes. The word archipelago was originally applied specifically to the Aegean Sea and its islands.

After nine days of plague. Odysseus takes a ship and brings Chryseis to her father. also attributed to Homer. so Agamemnon will realize how much the Greeks need Achilles. Agamemnon's messengers take Briseis away. Although most of the Greek army is in favor of the offer. the Iliad is among the oldest extant works of Western literature. to ask Zeus that the Greeks be brought to the breaking point by the Trojans. it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. The Iliad contains over 15. Zeus agrees. Chryses. Under pressure. as compensation. In the meantime. a Trojan priest of Apollo. Agamemnon agrees to return Chryseis to her father. Angered. Although the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war. the Iliad mentions or alludes to many of the Greek legends about the siege.Aralin 14 – Ang Kulturang Hellenitik The Iliad (sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters. offers the Greeks wealth for the return of his daughter Chryseis. urging him to attack the city. calls an assembly to solve the plague problem. Thetis. Thetis does so. and its written version is usually dated to around the eighth century BC. Chryses prays for Apollo's help. a captive of Agamemnon. the tenyear siege of Ilium by a coalition of Greek states. Achilles. Along with the Odyssey. . but will go home. Briseis. the leader of the Myrmidon contingent. After an invocation to the Muses. a literary amalgam of Ionic Greek with other dialects. Agamemnon refuses. but also decides to take Achilles's captive. the Greek leader. Achilles declares that he and his men will no longer fight for Agamemnon. the story launches in medias res towards the end of the Trojan War between the Trojans and the besieging Greeks. Agamemnon heeds the dream but decides to first test the morale of the Greek army by telling them to go home. and is written in Homeric Greek. Set in the Trojan War. and sends a dream to Agamemnon. whereupon Apollo ends the plague. and Achilles asks his mother. traditionally attributed to Homer. and Apollo causes a plague throughout the Greek army.000 lines.

most importantly by adding a third actor. which was to become a setting for one of his plays. For almost 50 years. Antigone. Sophocles influenced the development of the drama. although 497/6 is the most likely. the son of Sophilus. Triptolemus was probably one of the plays that Sophocles presented at this festival. He also developed his characters to a greater extent than earlier playwrights such as Aeschylus. while Euripides won only 4 competitions. He competed in around 30 competitions. a 10th century encyclopedia. and was sometimes defeated by Sophocles. Sophocles wrote 123 plays during the course of his life. Sophocles was the most-fêted playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens that took place during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia. Sophocles' first artistic triumph was in 468 BC. and earlier than those of Euripides. 497/6 BC – winter 406/5 BC) is one of three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays have survived. According to the Suda. and he was probably born there. Plutarch further contends that following this loss Aeschylus soon left for Sicily. it is now thought that his first production was probably in 470 BC. but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax. the other members of which are now lost. Sophocles has a crater on the surface of Mercury named after him. was a wealthy member of the rural deme (small community) of Colonus Hippius in Attica. Instead of following the usual custom of choosing judges by lot. Aeschylus. His first plays were written later than those of Aeschylus. Aeschylus won 14 competitions.[ Although Plutarch says that this was Sophocles' first production. the archon asked Cimon and the other strategi present to decide the victor of the contest. Sophocles. won perhaps 24.Sophocles c. Trachinian Women. The most famous tragedies of Sophocles feature Oedipus and Antigone: they are generally known as the Theban plays. although each play was actually a part of a different tetralogy. Oedipus the King. thereby reducing the importance of the chorus in the presentation of the plot. Electra. and was never judged lower than second place. He was born a few years before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC: the exact year is unclear. Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus. . when he took first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the reigning master of Athenian drama. According to Plutarch the victory came under unusual circumstances.

from a small kingdom at the periphery of Classical Greek affairs. the capital of fabled king Midas. migrated to the region from the Greek city of Argos in Peloponnesus (thus the name Argead). after the conquests of Alexander the Great. called Lower Macedonia. Paeonia to the north. Bottiaea.Ang Pananalakay sa Greece at ang Kulturang Hellenistik Macedonia or Macedon (from Greek: Μακεδονία. it was Dorus. the Thracians to the northeast. to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world. the Argead Macedonians started to expand into Upper Macedonia. Later. The lands around Aegae. with whom the Macedonians were frequently in conflict. It seems that the first Macedonian state emerged in the 8th or early 7th century BC under the Argead Dynasty. To the south lay Thessaly. watered by the rivers Haliacmon and Axius. The kingdom was situated in the fertile alluvial plain. he expelled Midas and other kings off the lands and he formed his new kingdom. accompanied by a multitude of Greeks came to the area in search for a new homeland took Edessa and renamed it to Aegae. Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom. the first Macedonian capital. regions settled by.Aralin 15 . To the north of Macedonia lay various non-Greek peoples such as the Paeonians due north. The Macedonian tribe ruled by the Argeads. For a brief period. centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula. were home to various peoples. at that time it inaugurated the Hellenistic period of Ancient Greek civilization. many Thracian tribes. Around the time of Alexander I of Macedon. According to legend. was itself called Argead (which translates as "descended from Argos"). it became the most powerful state in the world. bordered by Epirus to the west. stretching as far as the Indus River. According to Herodot. where they settled as Macedonians. Mygdonia. with whose inhabitants. the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south. among others. the son of Hellen who led his people to Histaeotis. Macedonia was called Emathia (from king Emathion) and the city of Aiges was called Edessa. into Eordaia. beyond Axius river. Caranus. . who. controlling a territory that included the former Persian empire. according to legend. and the Illyrians. to the northwest. Subsequently. a branch would migrate further south to be called Dorians. north of the mountain Olympus. The rise of Macedon. occurred under the reign of Philip II. whence they were driven off by the Cadmeians into Pindus. and Almopia. lands inhabited by independent Macedonian tribes like the Lyncestae and the Elmiotae and to the West.

but was eventually forced to turn back by the near-mutiny of his troops. Although he is mostly remembered for his vast conquests. Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. and by the age of thirty was the creator of one of the largest empires in ancient history. he invaded India in 326 BC. In the years following Alexander's death a series of civil wars tore his empire apart which resulted in the formation of a number of states ruled by the Diadochi . Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC. The Macedonian Empire now stretched from the Adriatic sea to the Indus River. most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. was a king of Macedon or Macedonia (Greek: Βασιλεύς Μακεδόνων). a state in the north eastern region of Greece. Alexander was tutored by the famed philosopher Aristotle. commonly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος. Following his desire to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea". Born in Pella in 356 BC. but the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered. Mégas Aléxandros). stretching from the Ionian sea to the Himalaya. Upon Philip's death. using both military and diplomatic means. launched the military plans for expansion left by his father.Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 – 10/11 June 323 BC).Alexander's surviving generals. with his authority firmly established. Philip had brought most of the city-states of mainland Greece under Macedonian hegemony. In 334 BC he invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor and began a series of campaigns lasting ten years. He succeeded in being awarded the generalship of Greece and. In 336 BC he succeeded his father Philip II of Macedon to the throne after he was assassinated. Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of the most successful commanders of all time. Alexander's lasting legacy was not his reign. without realizing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. Subsequently he overthrew the Persian king Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire. Aralin 16 – Ang Sinaunang Rome .

Lombard: Alp. It is located in Italy. The English name Alps was taken via French from Latin Alpes.810.The Alps (German: Alpen. Switzerland.45 metres (15. The German Albe. on the Italian–French border. which may be ultimately cognate with Latin albus ("white"). The division is along the line between Lake Constance and Lake Como. Slovene: Alpe) is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe. Liechtenstein and Slovenia. The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc. stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy. Germany. All the main peaks of the Alps can be found in the list of mountains of the Alps and list of Alpine peaks by prominence. . the Occitan Alp/Aupand the French Alpage or Alpe in the singular mean "alpine pasture". French: Alpes. France and Switzerland. The Western Alps is higher. The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc. Romansh: Alps. Switzerland. following the rivers Rhine.810.45 metres (15. Alpe or Alp (f. Austria. Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west. at 4. but the central chain is shorter and curved. Italian: Alpi. Old High German alpâ. and only in the plural may also refer to the mountain range as a whole. The Eastern Alps (main ridge system elongated and broad) belongs to Italy. on the Italian–French border. Liro and Mera. plural alpûn).782 ft). Occitan: Aups/Alps..782 ft). The Alps is generally divided into the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps. All the main peaks of the Alps can be found in the list of mountains of the Alps and list of Alpine peaks by prominence. at 4.

267 m (17. It covers an approximate area of 2. Phoenician.900 ft) and the deepest recorded point is 5. Armenian. Illyrian. Greek. meaning "inland" or "in the middle of the earth" (from medius. "earth"). Gallic. Levantine. Slavic and Turkish cultures. Macedonian.280 ft) in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus. Albanian. the Mediterranean Sea is similarly the uniting element and the centre of World History Aralin 17 – Ang Pagwawakas ng Republikang Romano . and on the east by the Levant.7 mi) wide. Iberian.5 million km² (965. Berber.000 sq mi). but its connection to the Atlantic (the Strait of Gibraltar) is only 14 km (8.The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe. "middle" and terra. "For the three quarters of the globe. Arabic. Roman. Carthaginian. It was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region — the Mesopotamian. In oceanography.500 m (4. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1. Egyptian. although it is usually identified as a completely separate body of water. it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. Jewish. The sea is technically a part of the Atlantic Ocean. Thracian. on the south by North Africa.

hoping to restore the constitutional government of the Republic. the result was a series of civil wars. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns. Caesar entered into a political alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. crossing the Rubicon in 49 BC. .Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC– 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman. the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate. Political realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and Pompey. This sparked a civil war from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world. led by Marcus Junius Brutus. Caesar entered into a political alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey's standing. which ultimately led to the establishment of the permanent Roman Empire by Caesar's adopted heir Octavius (later known as Augustus). After assuming control of government. and in 55 BC he conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. Caesar marched from Gaul to Italy with his legions. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. and in 55 BC he conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. However. he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. and other contemporary sources. A group of senators. In 60 BC. Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended Rome's territory to the North Sea. among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended Rome's territory to the North Sea. The balance of power was further upset by the death of Crassus in 53 BC. Ordered by the senate to stand trial in Rome for various charges. Their attempts to amass power for themselves through populist tactics were opposed within the Roman Senate by the conservative elite. Their attempts to amass power for themselves through populist tactics were opposed within the Roman Senate by the conservative elite. assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC. In 60 BC. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources.

Aralin 18 – Ang Imperyong Romano . informally. so that plebeians could not be surprised and would know the law. but also to find out about the legislation of other Greek cities. According to traditional. during the earliest period of the Republic the laws were kept secret by the pontifices and other representatives of the patrician class. The Twelve Tables must be distinguished from the unrelated — and much older — "twelve shields" of King Numa Pompilius. the first Decemvirate (board of "Ten Men") was appointed to draw up the first ten tables. and were enforced with untoward severity. especially against the plebeian class. and did not travel all the way to Greece. The Law of the Twelve Tables formed the centerpiece of the constitution of the Roman Republic and the core of the mos maiorum (custom of the ancestors). Modern scholars believe that a Roman assembly most likely visited the Greek cities of Southern Italy.C. the second decemviri started work on the last 2 tables. They allegedly sent an embassy to Greece to study the legislative system of Athens. Patricians long opposed this request. known as the Solonian Constitution. In 450 B. semi-legendary historical accounts preserved in Livy.The Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum. but around 451 BC. or. Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. A plebeian named Terentilius proposed in 462 BC that an official legal code should be published.

It took several years to determine the exact framework by which a formally republican state could be led by a sole ruler. . In 43 BC. but in practice retained his autocratic power. In Greek sources. The young Octavius came into his inheritance after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. and Augustus when referring to events after 27 BC. Octavian restored the outward facade of the Roman Republic. Octavian (or Octavianus) when referring to events between 44 and 27 BC. Octavian ruled Rome and many of its provinces. As a triumvir. he declined it when the Roman populace "entreated him to take on the dictatorship". Because of the various names he bore. which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. and thus consequently he was Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus. the result became known as the Roman Empire. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate. indeed. In 27 BC the Senate awarded him the honorific Augustus ("the revered one"). Augustus is known as Ὀκτάβιος. Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus. he was adopted posthumously by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC via his last will and testament. The emperorship was never an office like the Roman dictatorship which Caesar and Sulla had held before him.Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire. and between then and 27 BC was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar. Octavian joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in a military dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate.[note 3] The triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its rulers: Lepidus was driven into exile. and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by the fleet of Octavian commanded by Agrippa in 31 BC. it is common to call him Octavius when referring to events between 63 and 44 BC. with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate.

Caligula. historians have named it the JulioClaudian dynasty. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian. Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum. In relations to the other emperors of this dynasty. Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus. and somber ruler who never really desired to be emperor. Tiberius' grand-nephew and adopted grandson. Raetia.Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (November 16. AD 37). reclusive. In 26. and great-great uncle of Nero Aralin 19 – Ang Kulturang Romano . Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals. born Tiberius Claudius Nero. the quality of his rule declined and ended in a terror. "the gloomiest of men." Tiberius is considered to have lacked the political ability of his predecessor Augustus and was a jealous emperor. After the death of Tiberius’ son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23. against better judgement. and temporarily Germania. Dalmatia. But he came to be remembered as a dark. Dalmatia. particularly distrustful of his popular general Germanicus. conquering Pannonia. great-uncle of Caligula. Raetia. paternal uncle of Claudius. His mother divorced his father and was remarried to Augustus in 39 BC. son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. succeeded the emperor upon his death. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the next forty years. and temporarily Germania. 42 BC – March 16. Tiberius exiled himself from Rome and left administration largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian Prefects Sejanus and Macro. was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. making him a step-son of Octavian Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals. conquering Pannonia. laying the foundations for the northern frontier.

Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo). the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. executions. The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers.The Colosseum. with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96). It was later reused for such purposes as housing. or the Coliseum. . its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus. quarters for a religious order. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church. and a Christian shrine. and dramas based on Classical mythology. Italy. re-enactments of famous battles. from the gens Flavia). the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles. as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum.000 spectators. a fortress. is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome. Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum. the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. Capable of seating 50. animal hunts. originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium. a quarry. workshops.

"Would that he had been able to endure prosperity with greater self control. attacking him in a series of speeches. Cicero's speeches and letters remain some of the most important primary sources that survive on the last days of the Roman Republic. lawyer. January 3.Marcus Tullius Cicero (pronounced /ˈsɪsɨroʊ/. political theorist. was a Roman philosopher. and adversity with more fortitude!" wrote C. the 1st century BC biographer of Atticus. and essentia) distinguishing himself as a linguist. his career as a statesman was marked by inconsistencies and a tendency to shift his position in response to changes in the political climate. and philosopher. and the revolutions in the government" that their reader had little need for a history of the period. sometimes anglicized as "Tully"). he is appreciated primarily for his humanism and philosophical and political writings. statesman. During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar. a contemporary Roman statesman and historian. Aralin 20 – Ang Imperyong Byzantine . His indecision may be attributed to his sensitive and impressionable personality. Today. 43 BC. 106 BC – December 7. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the equestrian order. he was prone to overreaction in the face of political and private change. He was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and subsequently murdered in 43 BC. Asinius Pollio. Cornelius Nepos. Classical Latin: [ˈkikeroː]. and Roman constitutionalist. Cicero thought that his political career was his most important achievement. However. and is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists He introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary (with neologisms such as humanitas. much of it addressed to his friend Atticus. quantitas. introducing the art of refined letter writing to European culture. has been especially influential. the faults of the generals. His voluminous correspondence. Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. qualitas. Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony. translator. An impressive orator and successful lawyer. remarked that Cicero's letters contained such a wealth of detail "concerning the inclinations of leading men.

Bureaucratic and military growth. Diocletian ended the Crisis of the Third Century. Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome had been. and levied at generally higher rates. Born to an Illyrian family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia. but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganised the empire's provincial divisions. and construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform. Antioch. Mediolanum. and Trier. From at least 297 on. elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonial and architecture. made more equitable. Building on third-century trends towards absolutism. 22 December 244 – 3 December 311). . He established new administrative centers in Nicomedia. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia. was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305. Carinus. establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire.Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. imperial taxation was standardized. commonly known as Diocletian. With his accession to power. he styled himself an autocrat. Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become cavalry commander to the emperor Carus. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son. constant campaigning.

Nevertheless. being in course of major governmental reforms as well as of sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church. Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city. All Resource are from Wikipedia :) . Constantinople was founded by the Roman emperor Constantine I on the site of an already-existing city. The site lay astride the land route from Europe to Asia and the seaway from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. However. readily defended. the Latin Empire and the Ottoman Empire. he identified the site of Byzantium as the right place: a place where an emperor could sit. the Byzantine/Eastern Roman Empire. This took place through the Turkish Postal Service Law. settled in the early days of Greek colonial expansion. The Turks have called the city Istanbul since they conquered it in 1453. and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest that the capital be moved to a different location. Having restored the unity of the Empire. Latin: Constantinopolis. Turkish: Kostantiniyye or İstanbul) was the imperial capital of the Roman Empire. and. Yet it had been the capital of the state for over a thousand years. with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers. and ask that others use the same name they did. and hence from the armies and the Imperial courts. he was well aware that Rome was an unsatisfactory capital. and it offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians. and had in the Golden Horn an excellent and spacious harbour. Rome was too far from the frontiers. Not until the 20th century did the Turks formally object. Constantine had altogether more colorful plans.Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις. as part of Atatürk's national reforms. his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia. see Names of Istanbul for fuller discussion. Throughout most of the Middle Ages. This name in turn derives from the Greek and Slavic colloquial name Stambol. his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the Empire. Byzantium. many Westerners continued to call it Constantinople. probably around 671-662 BC.

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