Significant when evaluating absolute values .Radiometric corrections Largely ignored for the purpose of interpretation / classification.

j. k + BV i+1.k) 2 BV ijk = . j.Sensor Error Line drop Bad line Int ( BV i-1.

Absolute radiometric corrections Ls = LT + Lp Where . Ls = total radiance at sensor LT = total radiance transmitted by target Lp = path radiance .

Absolute radiometric corrections Ls = ( K x BV ijk) + Lmin K = radiance per bit of sensor count rate = (Lmax – Lmin)/ Cmax Lmax = highest radiance value Lmin = lowest radiance value Cmax = max. value on CCT ( for 8 bit = 255) .

Absolute radiometric corrections Ls = 1/ π R band x Τθυ Eg + Lp Τθυ = atmospheric transmittance Eg = global irradiance at earth surface Lp = path radiance .

Absolute radiometric corrections ( K x BV ijk) + Lmin = 1/ π R band x Τθυ Eg + Lp .

.Relative radiometric correction Single image normalization / black body subtraction Multi date normalization.

9481 160 140 120 100 Band 3 year 91 80 60 40 20 0 40 60 Band 3 Year 87 80 100 120 140 0 20 .0088 R2 = 0.0311x + 3.Radiometric normalization y = 1.

Radiometric normalization Same elevation Flat area Avoid vegetation .

Radiometric normalization C = Dref .(Dnorm) M M = multiplicative correction term D = dark normalization target .

Radiometric normalization (cos θ0 ref) (1 / ES 2 ref ) ( A ref) M= (cos θ0 norm) (1 / ES 2 norm ) ( A norm) 1/A = radiance interval θ0 = solar zenith angle ES = Earth sun distance .

Slope correction Amount of irradiance reaching pixel at slope is directly proportional to cosine of the incidence angle i Cosine correction cos θ0 LH = LT cos i LH = radiance observed at horizontal surface LT = radiance observed at sloped terrain θ0 = zenith angle i = incidance angle .

Minnaert Correction LH = LT(cos θ0 / cos i ) k LH = radiance observed at horizontal surface LT = radiance observed at sloped terrain θ0 = zenith angle i = incidance angle K = Minnaert constant = 1 for Perfect Lambertian surface .

Statistical correction LH = LT .cos (i) m – b + LT LH = radiance observed at horizontal surface LT = radiance observed at sloped terrain LT= Average of LT for given class i = incidence angle m = slope of regression line b = y intercept of the line .

. Overcorrection due to Lambertian surface assumption Ignore diffused component of incident radiation Wavelength sensitive Very difficult to remove topographic effect from shadows.Radiometric correction DEM should have comparable spatial resolution to image.