Notes on Harmonics Standards

Zainal Salam: Power Electronics and Drives

NOTES ON HARMONICS EMISSION STANDARDS: IEC 1000-3-2 1.0 Goal of implementing the Standard

Limitation of harmonic components of the input current impressed on the public lowvoltage supply system, for equipment with input currents of less than 16A per phase. Extend the previous standard IEC 555-3 2.0

Classification of Equipment: Class A: Balanced 3-phase equipment and all other equipment except those in one of the following classes. Class B: Portable tools Class C: Lighting equipment including dimming devices with input active power above 25W. Class D: Equipment having an input current with “special wave shape” and a fundamental input active power between 75 and 600W. This is the “high crest factor” waveform; e.g. single-phase rectifier input current waveform.

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3.0 Harmonic Limits The limits of harmonics for each phase of the line current are shown in Table 1. Note that the limits are absolute, i.e. not related to power ratings of equipment. The limits are applicable to steady state harmonic currents. Table 1 Harmonic order (n) Odd harmonics 3 5 7 9 11 13 15<=n<=39 Even harmonics 2 4 6 8<=n<=40 Class A max permissible harmonic current (A) 2.30 1.14 0.77 0.40 0.33 0.21 2.25/n 1.08 0.43 0.30 1.84/n
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Class B max permissible harmonic current (A) 3.45 1.71 1.155 0.60 0.495 0.315 3.375/n 1.62 0.645 0.45 2.76/n

low harmonic) rectification is required. • They might also not be able to satisfy future Standard revisions. Mostly from uncontrolled/controlled rectifiers.e. cost is directly borne by end user Cost increase: USD 0. line inductance and/or DC link choke. Active solution • Using electronics/control of switches (e.0 Origin of harmonic pollution. unity power factor correction) • Generate too much EMI. • Less reliable • Significant increased in cost. Size increase: 10 to 30% High quality (i. Solutions to meet IEC 1000-3-2 Standards Passive solution: • Using passive components i.1/W to 0.3/W.0 Equipment-level compliance. • It is quiet (not generating much EMI) and reliable. 6.0 Impact of IEC 1000-3-2 • • • • 5.e. • Too heavy and bulky for most applications. Page 2 of 9 .Notes on Harmonics Standards Zainal Salam: Power Electronics and Drives 4.g.

Three phase bridge rectifier without line filter. As can be seen.Notes on Harmonics Standards Zainal Salam: Power Electronics and Drives 7.0 Example (related to our design): A. Circuit is shown in Figure 1. it is somewhat horrible. Shape of line current is shown in Figure 1(a). Source inductance is neglected. Figure 1(a) Page 3 of 9 .

218E+00 2.702E+01 -2.861E+01 -1.758E+01 2.Notes on Harmonics Standards Zainal Salam: Power Electronics and Drives The spectra of the line current waveform are shown in Figure 1(b).200E+01 3.019E+01 1.000E+02 5.500E+02 1.372E+00 -2.109E+02 -2.434E-01 1.319E-01 5.500E+02 4.500E+02 5.217E-02 8.000E+02 3.721E+00 1.215E+02 -1.070E+00 -7.676E-01 1.531E+02 -3.074E+00 NORMALIZED COMPONENT 1.000E+02 4.261E+00 7.745E+02 1.500E+02 3.436E+02 5.500E+02 9.589E+01 -1.210E-01 2.052E-01 1.470E+02 3.150E+02 5.765E+02 9.500E+02 2.020E-01 4.280E+00 1.415E+02 -3.879E-01 3.000E+02 7.500E+02 6.827E-01 3.296E+02 2.396E+02 -2.284E+02 -3.361E+01 -5.224E+00 5.500E+02 8.015E-01 6.000E+01 1.487E+02 -4.000E+00 2.776E-02 1.286E+02 6.000E+02 8.690E-02 3.218E+00 7.401E-01 1.492E+01 -5.354160E+02 PERCENT DC COMPONENT = -8.445E-01 1.537E+00 1.000E+02 1.000E+00 -1.670E+02 -1.851E+00 2.594E+02 -1.422E+01 1.581E+00 6.180E+02 -1.051E-01 6.500E+02 7.173E+00 2.423E-01 8.000E+03 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION = 1.734E+00 1.510E+01 1.731E+02 -8.427E+02 -2.497E-01 1.000E+02 6. Figure 1(b) The harmonic shown in Figure 1(b) is tabulated as follows.682E+02 -7.458E-01 1.275E+02 -3. Note that the magnitude of the harmonics shown in Figure 1(b) and the ones shown in the “FOURIER COMPONENT” below is slightly different because of the “PHASE” factor.951E-02 PHASE (DEG) 1.945E+01 NORMALIZED PHASE 0.907E+00 1.469E+02 -1.000E+02 9.395E+01 -1.304E+01 -1.745E+01 -5.951E+01 -7. HARMONIC NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 FREQUENCY (HZ) FOURIER COMPONENT 1.077051E-01 Page 4 of 9 .000E+02 2.455E+00 3.450E+02 -2.115E-01 9.662E+00 1.495E+01 2.011E+00 1.015E-01 2.

the input voltage for those users are appear to be distorted. the line is commonly used. i.e. Rectifier with source inductance. Source voltage at the voltage at point of common coupling (pcca) is shown in Figure 2(a). Circuit is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2(a) Page 5 of 9 . If the latter is connected to other users. To illustrate the problem of “line voltage distortion” due to harmonic currents.Notes on Harmonics Standards Zainal Salam: Power Electronics and Drives B. Note the distortion that occurs.

line inductance = 10mH. Note that. Results: Line current harmonic spectra are shown in Figure 3(a). DC choke = 40mH. Line current harmonics improvement: Passive method i. Case: source inductance = 1mH.e. however.Notes on Harmonics Standards Zainal Salam: Power Electronics and Drives C. Figure 3(a) Page 6 of 9 . using line filter and DC link choke.14A). the system does not meet the IEC 1000-3-2 Limits (5th harmonics is bigger than 1.

506E+02 8.127E-02 1.063E-02 5.427E-01 2.097E+02 7.148E-02 8.831E-02 3.449E-01 3.000E+02 5.106E-03 6.000E+02 2.500E+02 7.920E-01 7.322E+02 9.593E+02 1.085E+02 2.518E-02 4.868E-02 5.000E+02 8.133E-02 1.775E+02 1.652E+01 9.761E+00 1.974E+01 1.910E+01 1.150E-03 2.890E-01 8.677E+02 3.818E+01 1.347E-02 1.746E+01 NORMALIZED PHASE 0.000E+02 3.187E-02 4.656E-03 1.524E-02 2.196E+01 -1.173E+02 1.179E-02 1.743E-02 1.267E+02 4.688E+02 6.495E+02 1.000E+02 1.151E+01 -1.050E-02 9.140E+02 1.500E+02 1.160E+02 -1.234E-03 3.743E-02 1.429E+01 8.785E+01 -1.000E+00 1.500E+02 6.294E+00 4.009E-02 4.059094E-02 Page 7 of 9 .000E+02 4.000E+02 7.792E-02 1.183E-01 5.829E-03 3. None of the harmonics exceed the limits imposed by IEC 1000-3-2 Standards.012E-02 1.Notes on Harmonics Standards Zainal Salam: Power Electronics and Drives To improve the line current harmonics.000E+02 6.378E+01 -1. Figure 3(b) .156E+01 9.500E+02 8.585E+01 1.546E-02 NORMALIZED COMPONENT 1.299E+02 4.992E-03 PHASE (DEG) -1.773E-02 1.500E+02 3.500E+02 5. HARMONIC NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 FREQUENCY (HZ) FOURIER COMPONENT 7.247E+01 9. we increased the line inductance filter to 20mH.927E+01 2.494E-02 9. The harmonics shown in Figure 1(b) are tabulated as follows.767E+01 1.000E+01 1.000E+02 9.649845E+01 PERCENT DC COMPONENT = -2.247E+01 6.000E+03 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION = 1.109E+01 4.760E+01 6.352E-01 7.683E+01 7.982E-02 3.000E+00 1.942E+01 5.554E-03 4.533E-03 5.107E+00 1.865E+01 5.500E+02 4.500E+02 2.500E+02 9.510E-02 2.480E+02 6.470E+01 1.024E-03 1.601E-01 3. The resulting spectra are shown in Figure 3(b).

Figure 3(d) shows an example with line inductance filter = 50mH and DC choke = 80mH.Notes on Harmonics Standards Zainal Salam: Power Electronics and Drives The line current waveshape for Figure 3 is shown in Figure 3(c). This is good for the rectifier diode. But the penalty for increasing the values of inductance and choke is size. Note also that the high “current peaks” vanishes. but still not “perfect”. Improved current waveform can be obtained by increasing values of line inductance filter and choke filter. weight and loss in the DC link output voltage. The shape has somewhat improved from the case without filter. Figure 3(c). Figure 3(d) Page 8 of 9 . Note that the waveshape improves.

July 2000 Page 9 of 9 . Johor Bahru. To market electrical products internationally. 4. 3. 2. Rectifiers are the main source of high harmonics pollution of line current. Conclusion.0 1. IEC 1000-3-2 harmonic standards must be complied. This Document is prepared by: Dr. Line current harmonics can be improved using two methods –Passive and Active. The former is simple and reliable. UTM Skudai. but it can be very heavy and bulky.Notes on Harmonics Standards Zainal Salam: Power Electronics and Drives 8. Users connected to this point will possibly experience equipment failures. Low order line current harmonics distort the voltage at “point of common coupling”. Zainal Salam.