VOLTAGE BALANCING TECHNIQUES FOR FLYING CAPACITORS USED IN SOFT-SWITCHING MULTILEVEL ACTIVE POWER FILTERS

Byeong-Mun Song

Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering

Dr. Jason Lai, Chair Dr. Fred C. Lee Dr. Dan Y. Chen Dr. Werner Kohler Dr. Hugh F. VanLandingham

July 24, 2001 Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords, Active Power Filter, Soft-switching Topologies, Multilevel Converters, Voltage Balancing, Flying Capacitor

Copyright 2001, Byeong-Mun Song

The proposed active filter has proved to be a solution for power system harmonics produced by static high power converters.Voltage Balancing Techniques for Flying Capacitors Used in Soft-switching Multilevel Active Power Filters by Byeong-Mun Song Committee Chairman: Dr. The study of voltage balancing provides the fundamental high-level solutions to flying capacitor based multilevel converter and inverter applications without additional passive balancing circuits. rather than ideal conditions. However. the fundamentals of flying capacitors were characterized dealing with voltage balancing between flying capacitors and dc capacitors under practical operation. Thus. The use of proposed voltage balancing techniques made it possible to have a simple structure for solving the problems associated with the conventional bulky passive -ii- . Jason Lai Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ABSTRACT This dissertation presents voltage stabilization techniques for flying capacitors used in soft-switching multilevel active power filters. voltage unbalance of the clamping capacitors in the active filter in practical applications was observed due to its unequal parameters.

It can achieve the high performance of the active filter by compensating an adaptive gain to the controller. The voltage unbalance is investigated and characterized to provide safe operations. various studies on soft-switching techniques. Also. -ii- . Furthermore.resistors and capacitor banks. the proposed control algorithms can be implemented with a real time digital signal processor. the proposed soft-switching techniques were evaluated through simulation and experimentation. The focus of this study is to identify and develop voltage stabilization techniques for flying capacitors used in a proposed active filter. multilevel inverters. Experimental results indicate that the proposed active filter achieved zero-voltage conditions in all of the main switches and zero-current turn-off conditions to the auxiliary switches during commutation processes. in conjunction with an instantaneous reactive power (IRP) control of an active filter. After having defined the problems associated with the voltage unbalance. the most important voltage stabilization techniques are proposed to solve this problem. In order to reduce the switching losses and improve the efficiency of the active filter. The effectiveness of the proposed controller was confirmed through various simulations and experiments. control issues and dynamics of the proposed active filter are discussed and analyzed in depth.

To my wife Eun-Hee. son In-Bum (David) And Our families in Korea -ii- . daughter Ji-Hae (Diana).

who is an excellent educator. Werner Kohler for serving as a member of my committee. who has been a constant source of support and guidance throughout my studies. I had gained his strong industrial background in Virginia Power Electronics Center (VPEC). His strong academic background made it possible for me to gain more knowledge from the study. Lee for his remarkable advice and concern for this topic. -ii- . Dr. I would also like to thank Dr. I am very grateful for his training. who have been a great source of support and comfort. Dr. I would like to thank Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) to support my research as several national projects. Especially. I owe it to her for all the sacrifices she made to care for our two children. I would like to thank Dr. Krishnan Ramu. Hugh F. I thank Dr. Dan Chen. Ji-Hae and In-Bum while I worked on this project. which will be a valuable resource in my professional career.Acknowledgements In the name of God. I am very grateful to my family members in Korea. for his support and guidance for the 2 years that I was part of his lab. I would like to express my deep indebtedness to my wife EunHee. I would like to thank my former advisor. At that time I had gained a lot of knowledge about motor drives. His valuable encouragement enabled me to finish my successful study. Most of all. I would like to thank my advisor. I also wish to thank Dr. Dong-Wook Yoo. Dr. Motion Control Systems Research Group (MCSRG). He Since I started working with PEC. and Geun-Hee Rim. and Dr. VanLandingham. I am very grateful to all my friends in the Center for Power Electronics Systems (CPES) and Virginia Power Electronics Center (VPEC) for valuable discussions about research and our vision. Since September of 1996. Ki-Youn Joe. Fred C. who has been a constant pillar of support and understanding. Jason Lai.

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………….…….…………………….3 Soft-Switching Techniques .4.17 2.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF SOFT-SWITCHING CIRCUITARY ………………………………..5 SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS…………………….4.38 2.3 1..………….……………………...1 INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………….3 SCOPE ……………………………………………………………………………………13 1.2.2....3 Soft-switching Control ……………………………………………………………37 2.……………………………………….2.….…………………………11 1.2 Multilevel Active Power Filters ……………………………………………………5 1.4 Control Issues of Active Filter …………………………………………………….2 REVIEWS OF SOFT-SWITCHING INVERTERS…………..7 1.3 1..…………………………………20 2.6 CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………………44 -ii- .3 PROPOSED SOFT-SWITCHING INVERTER TOPOLOGY………………………………….………..2.1 1.21 2.2.1 Coupled Inductor Characteristics …………………………………………………35 2..4 DISSERTATION OUTLINE……………………………………………………………….35 . SOFT-SWITCHING MULTILEVEL INVERTER WITH FLYING CAPACITORS FOR ACTIVE POWER FILTER APPLICATIONS …………………………….………………………………………………………..TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.1 1.1 OVERVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………….5 Fundamentals Issues of Flying Capacitors . 2.…….1 Power Quality and Active Filters.35 2...2 Reset Mechanism with Saturable Inductor ………………………………… …….15 2.2 STATE OF THE ART……………………………………………….………….4.17 2.10 1.

2 Voltage Stabilizer ………………………………………………………………….48 3.3 CURRENT CONTROL………………………………………………………..48 3..1 Flying Capacitors………………………………………………….5.2 DC Link Split Capacitors ………………………………………………………….……………………80 4.2 INSTANTANEOUS REACTIVE POWER CONTROL…………………………………………82 4.97 4. CONTROL FOR VOLTAGE STABILIZATION ………………………………………80 4.2 FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES OF VOLTAGE STABILIZATION ………………………………..3.5 CHARATERISTICS OF SNUBBING CAPACITORS ………………………………………….1 Circuit Analysis ………………………………………………………………….45 3..2 Voltage Synthesizing Modulations ……………………………………………….6 CHARATERISTICS OF DC LINK CAPACITORS ……………………………………………71 3.48 3.3 Voltage Synthesizing …………………………………………………………….2.45 3.79 4...6 DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………………………………103 -ii- .4 CHARATERISTICS OF FLYING CAPACITORS ……………………………………………. FUNDAMENTALS OF VOLTAGE STABILIZATION FOR FLYING CAPACITORS …………………………………………………………………………….1 INTRODUCTION ….45 3.47 3.59 3. 4.2..…………….65 3..1 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………….7 INTERACTION BETWEEN FLYING CAPACITORS AND DC CAPACITOR …………………74 3.90 4....…………………………………………………………………….3....3 ANALYSIS OF MAIN CIRCUIT AND ITS MODULATION ……………………………….5.85 4.2.3...5 FLYING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE CONTROL ……………… …………………………….57 3...4 DC BUS CAPACITOR VOLTAGE CONTROL …………………………………………….45 3.……………….1 Analysis of Voltage Variations ……………………………………………………92 4.8 CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………………..91 .

..2.3.1.135 B: SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS OF NPT.119 6.121 REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………...122 APPENDIX: A: A NOVEL TWO-QUADRANT SOFT-SWITCHING CONVERTER WITH ONLY AUXILARY SWITCH FOR HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS ………………………….177 -ii- .1 SUMMARY ……………………………………………………………………………..3 Dynamic Responses ……………………………………………………………..119 6. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………….3 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………….2...117 6.2 FURTHER RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………………………………………. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS……………………………….105 5.115 5.1 Control Models…………………………………………………………………....AND PT IGBTS UNDER ZERO-VOLTAGE SWITCHING CONDITIONS …………………………………………………………….1.105 5..1.1 SIMULATION RESULTS………………………………………………………………….…104 5..111 5.2 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS …………………………………………………………….112 5.1 Test Descriptions ………………………………………………………………..2 Experimental Verification ………………………………………………………..112 5.2 Performance Evaluation …………………………………………………………108 5.112 5.5.3 CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………….158 VITA …………………………………………………………………………………………..

2.9(c) Fig. 2.9 Fig.11 Fig. 2. 2.29 ……….3 Fig.31 ……….39 ………. Experimental current waveforms of the inverter under softswitching operations Experimental voltage and current waveforms of Sx1 under soft………. 2.33 ……….32 ………. 2.9(a) Fig. 2.34 ………. 2.8(e) Fig.33 ……….10 Fig.32 ………. 2.14 Basic block diagram of active harmonic compensation Sample current waveforms of a three-phase active power filter Reactive power compensation of a three-phase system Configuration of a single-phase three-level inverter circuit with flying capacitors Proposed soft-switching three-level inverter with one phase leg Switching sequences and corresponding voltage and current waveforms of the multilevel inverter. 2. 2.8(b) Fig. 2.39 ……….23 ……….9(b) Fig.38 ……….8(g) Fig.8(f) Fig. 2. 2.LIST OF FIGURES Fig.13 Fig. 2. 2.36 ………. 2. 2.34 ……….22 ……….8(d) Fig. 2.31 ……….8(h) Fig. 2.8 Fig. 2.5 Fig.19 ……….30 ……….36 ……….8(c) Fig. 2. 2.10(a) Fig.18 ………. 2.2 Fig.8(k) Fig. 2. 2.8(i) Fig.12 Fig.36 ……….4 Fig. 2.10(b) Fig. 2. 2.7 Fig.8(j) Fig.8(a) Fig.6 Fig.1 Fig. Operational modes of the commutation sequence (a) Mode 0 [t0 – t1] (b) Mode 0 [t1 – t2] (c) Mode 0 [t2 – t3] (d) Mode 0 [t3 – t4] (e) Mode 0 [t4 – t5] (f) Mode 0 [t5 – t6] (g) Mode 0 [t6 – t7] (h) Mode 0 [t7 – t8] (i) Mode 0 [t8 – t9] (j) Mode 0 [t9 – t10] (k) Mode 0 [t10 – t11] (l) Mode 0 [t11 – t12] Reset mechanism of the coupled inductor with a saturable inductor (a) Reset mode (b) Blocking function (c) Voltage sharing Control block diagram for soft-switching control (a) Soft-switching control scheme (b) Gate signals Simulated output voltage and current waveforms of a singlephase three-level inverter with flying capacitors Simulated voltage and current waveforms of the soft-switching inverter with fixed time of TD.30 ………. 2.29 ……….19 ………. 2.8(l) Fig. Corresponding voltage and current waveforms during commutations for S1 and S4.22 ……….24 ……….37 ……….40 -ii- .

4(a) Fig.3 Fig.10(a) Fig.9(b) Fig. 2.51 ……….61 ……….14(a) Fig.9 Fig.53 ………. 3.64 ………. 2.10(c) Fig.5(a) Fig.47 ……….52 ………. 3. 3. 3.55 ………. 3.11(a) Fig.51 ……….11(b) switching operations (a) Auxiliary switch and resonant inductor (b) Resonant branch (c) Coupled inductor and its blocking voltage (d) Saturable inductor and its blocking voltage (e) Current sharing between coupled windings (f) Auxiliary switch and diode currents Unbalanced flying capacitor waveforms under soft-switching operations Self-balanced waveforms of a dc link capacitor under PWM switching Configuration of a half-bridge 3-level inverter with a flying capacitor Simulated capacitor voltages at start-up (a) Numerical calculation (b) P-spice simulation Bode plots of the flying capacitor voltage with open-loop (a) Cf = 1000µF and IL = 1A (b) Cf = 470µF and IL = 1A (c) Cf = 470µF and IL = 20A Experimental waveforms of the flying capacitor at start-up conditions (c) Balanced case at a load current of 10A (VCf = Vs/2) (d) Unbalanced case of a load current of 20A (VCf > Vs/2) (c) Voltage imbalance waveforms of the main switch Single-phase 3-level active power filter with flying capacitors Normalized capacitor current vs.66 -ii- . 2.8 Fig.5 Fig. 3.11 Fig.4 Fig. 3. 3. 3. 3.6 Fig. 2. 3.6(c) Fig.14(b) Fig.5(c) Fig.66 ………. 3.64 ………. 3.43 ……….56 ………. 3. 3. 3.58 ……….46 ……….9(a) Fig.62 ……….54 ……….9(c) Fig.41 ……….54 ……….14(f) Fig. 3.5(b) Fig.43 ………. duty ratio at a load frequency of 500 Hz Current and voltage waveforms of clamping capacitor (a) Load current of 80A (b) Capacitor ripples voltage vs.7 Fig.42 ……….58 ……….14(e) Fig.Fig.6(b) Fig.42 ………. 3. 3. 3. 3.4(b) Fig. 3. 3. 2. 3.56 ……….10(b) Fig.41 ……….62 ……….1 Fig. 3.14(c) Fig.10 Fig. duty ratio at a load current 80A (c) Ripple voltage of the clamping capacitor under PWM switching Relationship between the ripple voltage and modulation index (a) Cf = 200 µF (b) Cf = 1000 µF (c) Ripple voltage versus modulation index Experimental waveforms of the current and voltage of IGBTs under hard-switching (a) Hard-switching: Isw = 300 A (b) Hard-switching: Isw = 600 A ……….63 ……….6(a) Fig.14(d) Fig. 2. 3. 3.2 Fig.

3.10(a) Fig.16 Fig.14 Fig.94 ………. 3.9(c) Fig.9 Fig. 3.6(a) Fig.94 ………. 4.99 -ii- .86 ……….12(a) Fig.84 ……….8(b) Fig.10(b) Soft-switching characteristics of IGBT under different snubbing capacitors (a) Cr = 0.16 (b) Fig. 3. 4.14(b) Fig.7 Fig.16 (c) Fig.68 ……….89 ……….77 ………. 3. 3. 4.12 Fig.12(a) Fig.83 ………. 3.5 Fig. 4.15 Fig.1 Fig.14(a) Fig.67 ………. 3. 3.97 ……….71 ……….81 ………. 4.2 Fig.3 Fig. 4.3(b) Fig. 3.9(b) Fig. 4.3(a) Fig.4 Fig. 4.10 Fig.8(a) Fig. 4.5(b) Fig.96 ………. 4. 4.91 ………. 4.99 ……….5(a) Fig.96 ………. 4. 4.84 ……….78 ……….91 ………. 4.6 Fig. 4. 4.76 ……….13 Fig.16(d) Fig. 3.6(b) Fig. 4.89 ………. 4.and softswitching operations (a) Tj = 25 °C (b) Tj = 100 °C Unbalanced voltage waveforms of clamping capacitor Power flow of the capacitors during reactive power compensation (a) Charging mode for Cf1 (b) Charging mode for Cf2 (c) Flying mode (d) Dc voltage mode Proposed three-level active power filter with flying capacitors Definition of active and reactive power with α-β coordinates p-q algorithm for the current reference extraction (a) Block diagram of control logic (b) Implementation of control logic A current control loop for active filter Bode plots of an open-loop current control system with proportional-integral control (a) Proportional-integral (PI) controller (b) Open-loop system Voltage control loop for dc bus capacitor (a) Overall voltage control loop (b) Simplified voltage control loop Voltage control for balancing Estimated voltage imbalance of the clamping capacitor during inverter operation (a) Cf = 1000µF (b) Cf = 200µF Proposed voltage controller for flying capacitor (a) Diverse capacitor voltage waveforms of the inverter (b) Feedback control scheme of the voltage stabilization (c) Voltage stabilizer with a PI controller Proposed voltage controller for flying capacitor with PI control (a) Voltage stabilizer for flying capacitor with a PI controller (b) Simplified voltage control loop ……….14 µF (b) Cr = 0.70 ……….69 ……….77 ………. 3.70 ………. 4. 4.93 ……….16 (a) Fig.9(a) Fig. 4.Fig. 4.28 µF Turn-off dv/dt comparisons corresponding to snubbing capacitors Turn-off switching energy comparisons under hard. 3.8 Fig.

5.116 ……….3 Fig.105 ……….106 ……….116 ……….109 ……….117 -ii- .113 ………. 5.7(a) Fig.110 ……….10 Fig. 5.9 Fig.11 Fig.4 Fig.115 ……….6 Fig.113 ………. 5.8 Fig. 5.12 Fig. 5.102 ……….2 Fig. 5.1 Fig.Fig.7(b) Fig. 5. 5.12(b) Fig. 5.12 Fig.107 ……….7 Fig. 4. 4. 5. 5. 5. 4.111 ……….109 ……….5 Fig. 5. 4.14 Step response of the close-loop system for a flying capacitor voltage loop Bode plots of a voltage loop transfer function with proportional-integral control (a) Proportional-integral (PI) controller (b) Open-loop system Calculation of source voltage and load current with α-β orthogonal coordinates Calculation of current commands from instantaneous reactive power Compensated source current and control signals of the active filter Simulated results of a compensated source current Compensated harmonic spectrum under frequency domain THD comparison under active filtering Simulation results of an active filter with/and without a proportional-integral (PI) voltage balancing controller (a) Overall simulation results of the controller (b) Dynamic responses of a controller with voltage balancing gains (c) Dynamic responses of a controller without voltage balancing gains Experimental results of the source voltage and the load currents without an active filter Experimental results of the source voltage and load currents with an active filter Compensated source voltage and current waveforms under high impedance load conditions Compensated source voltage and currents under unbalanced load conditions DC link voltage transitions while the load is suddenly connected to the source DC link voltage transitions while the load is suddenly disconnected from the source DC link voltage transitions during start-up ……….100 ……….102 ……….107 ………. 5.114 ……….110 ……….7(c) Fig. 5.12(a) Fig. 5.13 Fig.11 Fig.

…….63 ……….57 ……….112 -ii- ..75 .58 ……….LIST OF TABLES Table 3-1 Table 3-2 Table 3-3 Table 3-4 Table 5-1 Switching states of a single-phase three-level inverter Possible switching states of a single-phase 3-level active filter Voltage ripple comparison under different flying capacitors Power flows between flying capacitors and dc capacitor during reactive compensation System parameters of the experimental prototype ……….