INTRODUCTION The lush green and historic Swat Valley lies between 34°-40′ to 35° N latitude and

72′ to 74°-6′ E longitude and is part of the Provincially Administrated Tribal Area (PATA) of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The valley is an integral part of the strategic and significant region where three parts of the Asian continent–South Asia, Central Asia and China, meet. The names found in ancient sources for Swat are Udyana and Suvastu because of the scenic beauty of the valley and the name of the river respectively. The historical and cultural remains of the area provide evidence about human activities covering a large span of time.

(Alam, 2005)The valley is sprawled on 5737 sq. kms with the average elevation of 2800 feet above the sea level. Malakand is southern boundary of swat valley located at a distance of 91 km from Peshawar, 211 km from Islamabad. The Physiology of the valley changes from south to north as elevation increases. River swat is flowing in the axis of the valley. Swat is known as historical and scenic tourist destination all over the world. It is one of the most beautiful, green and fertile than valleys further north. Lover Swat valley including Swat ranizai is wide and the fields are on the either side of the river, the villages are prosperous and surrounded by fruits laden orchards. In the upper swat valley, the river flows through respectively narrow valley while Swat Kohistan is the northern mountainous part of the valley where alpine forests are in abundance in snow capped mountains. The highest peaks in these mountains are Mt Falaksir and Mt Mankial. Swat offer some of the outstanding walking and hiking in Pakistan, as well as excellent ground for skiing, fishing, trekking, rafting, gliding, and climbing. Alexander the Great came here in 327 BC en route India and conquered Bazira and Ora. At his departure the inhabitants of the area threw off Greek yoke, and enjoyed either independent or semi-independent status subsequently. In the meantime Buddhism penetrated here and Swat became center of Buddhist/Gandhara civilization. The Turki Shahis incorporated Swat in their kingdom but at the decline of their power it remained exposed to Hindu Shahis’ influence.
In early tenth century CE/AD, the Muslims occupied Swat. Consequently, Afghans from different tribes, commonly called Swati Pukhtun, came and settled here. They remained independent of the neighboring powers. The Yusufzais conquered Swat in the first quarter of the sixteenth century and emerged and remained dominant segment. Instead of forming a government they lived in the tribal fashion, divided into two dalas (factions) headed by their own tribal chiefs called Khans and Malaks. The Swat Yusufzai enjoyed freedom and neither had paid taxes to Delhi or Kabul not yielded obedience to any foreign law or administrative system. They fought Akbar's mighty arms for years and incurred great losses over them.

History of Swat from ASSAKENOI to ASHOKA (1500 - 300 BC) (Khan, ) The valley of Swat is of great historical significance including the cradle of many Buddhist part of Gandhara. Gandhara remains vast area extended from Sind in south to swat on north, where Buddhism was in peak. The art that developed in Gandhara is known as Gandhara Art. Gandhara was specialized in settlement architecture and stone carving. The itineraries and travelogues of the Tibetan and Chinese pilgrims who visited this scared land from time to time provide the reliable source of information on Swat valley. Due to specific geographical position of the valley kept sandwich between the great powers of the history from one period to another.

The intrusion was from all side central Asians from west, chine’s and Tibetan from north. Iranian, and Indian from south. This is why the region in invaded population. On the basis of the earliest reference found in RIG VEDA the ASSAKENOI occupied this part of land they were Burhaminic and organized people living in fortified cities and were traders of horses and cattle’s. Mahabarta reveilles that the ARYAN peoples migrated to this part of northern India between 1500-500 BC. They were settled along the bank of river swat. The remains of 17th century BC are also excavated at Aligrama a village on the Right bank of river swats on Kabul road. Swat was subjected by Iranian king DARIS in 518 BC. This was followed by a continuous tug of war between the rival tribes for annexation of the area for long period. In the early 4th century BC recorded a new phase of development in swat. When Alexander the great cross the mountains through Kunar valley to Nawagai in to Masaga. After capturing Masaga the army split into two on crossed river swat at Chakdara moved north word to subdue the prosperous towns and the inhabitant of Bazira (Bari kot), )Ora (udigram). Alexander moves with his mobile forces and crossed the river near Bandai to subdue the Manglawar about 18 km radius from Mingora. After the siege of Manglawar, the queen of the king IRNAS made peace deal with Alexander in Manglawar the n Alexander moved to Kund. Swat remains under the Greek administration from 327 to 307 BC, only for 20 years but it stamped deep impacts on its culture and social life of the people. In 308 BC, king CHANDRA GUPTA MAURYAIN annexed the area in his territory. The Mauryan dynasty remained stable, secure and powerful up to the grandson of Chandra Gupta known as ASHOKA. ASHOKA was dedicated and faithful follower of Buddhism, he devoted all his resources to the propagation of Buddhist instructions and as a result Buddhism deeply penetrated in the culture of the whole region. During this period, a large number of Stupas and monasteries were created, these monasteries were the center of learning and spreading of knowledge, books were copied, development of literature took place with the death of ASHOK in 232 BC, disintegration of the Murya dynasty started. Written by irfan

History of Swat from BACTRAIN till Yousafzai(300 BC - 1500 AD) (Qayum, 1990 ) The BACTRAIN Greek king invaded the region in 185 BC. MENANDER was the most successful of their king between 155-130BC. The Bactrain was followed by SEYTHIAN also called Sakas; they were the central Asian nomadic tribe who was dislodged by YEUHI-CHI tribes from the shore of Aral Sea. The sythian were over thrown by PARTHIAN. Parthians were the Iranian people who brought Greek culture and western artistic culture in to the Gandhara. Ghandara school of Arts is developed during this period. The Parthian rule was dismantled by KUSHANS in 60 AD. The kushan was a branch of the yeuhi-chi nomadic tribe. This period was the most significant rule of the history of the area. They not only ruled but also expanded the culture of this region beyond its boundaries. The western and eastern touches are combining in the image of Buddha. The touches are combining in the image of Buddha. The famous king kanishka built most of the religious monuments, who was a stronger preacher of this faith. He transformed Ghandhara in to a holy land. WHITE HUNS (HEPHTALITA) (W.K. Tytler Frazier ) a fierce barbarian from central Asia overthrows the kushans Dynasty. The Buddhists were forced to far-plung northern areas. While the end of

Huns rule cause destruction and killing of monks, some escaped and took shelter in the mountains. The fall of white Huns calls TURK SHAHI and after them HINDU SHAHI occupied the area. In the eleventh century SULTAN MAHMOOD GHAZNAVI defeated the last ruler of Hindu shahi known as Raja Gira under the command of khushal khan (pir khushhal Baba) at Udigram. The Ghaznavied were accompanied by Dilazaks pathan and swati pathan (both are pathan tribes) than after mohmood settle down pathan tribes while pushing the Aryan race natives in to the mountains. After hundreds of year the name of Ghandhara was replaced. The population was slowly converted in to Muslim by the efforts of Muslim kings and sufia where it presents 99.6% of the population representing Muslims strong hold. The Gahaznavied were replaced by GURIED and continued by other Muslim rulers and different tribes from time to time. But what is important the arrival of YOUSAFZAI PAKHTUNS in swat I 1525 under the leadership of Malik Ahmad and Sheikh Mali with a possession to Dilazaks and the swati pathan. Sultan Owas was their king in Manglawer as their capital. After a tug of war between the yousafzai and swatis, The swatis ere ultimately expelled to Hazara in the Block Mountains. The yousafzai divided the land among the clans and became the landowners of the Valley.

Yousafzai Struggle for Surviving (Mughal - British) (Britannica) The important aspect in swat history was the arrival of Yousafzai Pakhtuns in swat (1525) under the leadership of Malik Ahmad and Sheikh Mali with a possession to Dilazaks and the swati pathan. Sultan Owas was their king in Manglawer as their capital. After a tug of war between the yousafzai and swati's, The swati's ere ultimately expelled to Hazara in the Block Mountains. The yousafzai divided the land among the clans and became the landowners of the Valley. The Mughal king Babar became worried over the growing power of Yousafzai, he attacked over swat, which was defended by Yousafzai after a peace deal. During the Akbar era Mughal and Sikhs once again tried to subdue the inhabitant of swat but they were retreated, Birbal and Abulfath lost their lives in this campaign. The mogul’s did not get any direct rules on swat valley but they had their political influence on other sources. When Peshawar fell to British rules in 1849 the yousafzai became worried and tried to from government in the valley to preserve their independence. Akhund of swat played a vital role in the unity of Pakhtun tribes and formation of Islamic Pakhtun rule in swat valley. Sayed Akbar Shah (grandson of pir Baba of Buner) became their king in 1850, as proposed by Abdul Ghafoor(Akhund of Swat popularly known as Saidu Baba). Sayed Mubarik Shah became he king after the death of his father syed Akbar shah in may 11th 1857 but the unity was not processed onward. During this period the British government also took interest in this part of the subcontinent and extended the British rule and also kept an eye on Russia and west. In 26th October 1863 Akhund of swat call jihad against the British rule (Battle of Bun er). The pathan tribes started resistance to the extension of British rule in swat and Buner. During the PATHAN UPRISING IN 1897,, Mullah Mastan (mad Mullah) and Sandal Mullah took part in reuniting or the swati's. The sheathed baa (spleen sheathed) and the British graveyard in Alaskan reveal the bloody story of resistance-faced bye the British government in Alaskan passes. Due to the importance of Alaskan pass, the territory of lower swat valley was declared a Alaskan Agency in 1901 by the British government. In April 1915 Sayed Abdul Jab bar shah is made a king by a jirga in kabal but after two and half years of rule, he was unable to hold the pakhtuns and with the political and religious antagonist with the mianguls. However he was enforces by jirga to leave swat valley. Till 1917 the area remained a tribal society in which the conduct of citizens was governed bye pathan code of customs and traditions.

It was only in September 1917 it was again the Mianguls(the Grand sons of Saidu Baba) to reunite the swati's. The grandson of Akhud of swat Mianguls shahzada abdul Wadood founded the state of swat, which was officially recognized bye he British Government of India. Like other princely states in the subcontinent the state was given autonomy in its domestic affairs so long that it remained loyal to the British Crown. It went with Pakistan in 1947. The founder ruler of swat was popularly known as Badshah sahib. He abdicated the throne in favor of his son and successor Miangul Jehanzeb popularly known as Wali sahib on 12 th December 1949 . The Wali of swat Miangul Jehanzeb ruled till 29 th July 1969 when the state was merged with Pakistan . During the 52 years of mianguls rule, swat valley again run on the trek of progress and developments. The people of swat still reveal the phase as the golden era of swat. The Mianguls' family is highly respected by the swati. They have their strong and deep political roots in the valley. The valley (District swat and Malakand Agency now Mkd protected area) was administered by two different administrative systems. The district swat was administered by the commissioner and the Malakand agency by the commissioner and the Malakand agency by the political agent till 2001, after implementation of the Devolution plan, a full-pledged district government has been established. The new administration is headed by the District nazim who is assisted by a District Naib Nazim, District Coordination Officer (DCO) IG (for swat district) commandant Malakand levies (Malakand protected area), Tehsil Nazimeen, Union Council Nanzimeen and heads of all the district departments. The system is running with its first electory period with some complications and simplifications. There is more expectations from this local level setup to solve the problem on door step and explore the natural resources to uplift and distinguish the valley in the new scenario of the economic prospective.

Swat Pakistan - History (Pakistanpaedia) In ancient times Swat was known as Udyana, the probable birthplace of Vajrayana Buddhism. There are many archaeological sites in the district, and Buddhist relics are common. Swat is a former state in the northwest frontier province of Pakistan. It has for centuries been a home to Yousafzai, a tribe of the pakhtun. As explained by Sir Olaf, the northern areas of the province were settled by the hard speaking dialect, compared to those living in the south, who are known as pashtun. The people of the Kalam region in northern Swat are not Pashtuns, but are a group known as Kohistanis who speak the Torwali and Kalami languages. Their are also some Khowar speakers in the Kalam region. This is because before Kalam came under the rule of Swat State it was a region tributary to both Yasin and Chitral and after Yasin itself was assimilated into Chitral the Kalamis paid a tribute of mountain ponies to the Mehtar of Chitral every year. In Pakistan’s tribal region in the North-West Frontier Province, the princely frontier states were maintained till 1971 when all states were abolished by merger into the republic, all princely titles being abolished in 1972. There had actually still been a new hereditary salute granted in 1966 : 15 guns for the Wali of Swat, one of the last princely states to be created 1926. Before Swat was granted a gun salute there were already four other Gun-Salute States in Pakistan. Bahawalpur, Kalat, Khairpur and Chitral. Swat is the most historically interesting valley in Pakistan. It is also one of the most beautiful - certainly much greener and more fertile than the valleys further north because it lies within The people of Swat are Pathans (Pakhtuns) , Kohistanis and Gujars. Some have very distinct features and claim to be descendants of Alexander of Mecedonia.

Swat has been inhabited for over two thousand years. The first inhabitants were settled in well-planned towns. In 327 BC, Alexander the Great fought his way to Udegram and Barikot and stormed their battlemens. In Greek accounts these towns have been identified as Ora and Bazira. Around the 2nd century BC, the area was occupied by Buddhists, who were attracted by the peace and serenity of the land. There are many remains that testify to their skills as sculptors and architects. In the beginning of the 11th century AD, Mahmud of Ghazni advanced through Dir and invaded Swat, defeating Gira, the local ruler, near Udegram. Later on, when the King of Kabul Mirza Ulagh Beg assasinated 900 dominating cheifs of the Yousafzais, while they were set to eat, in return they had to leave their land, they took refudge in hilly areas of Swat, Bajawar of the swatis Country, the whole country was dominated by the Swati Sultans of Swat, the last of the Swati Sultans were Owais Jahangiri and Mir Haider Ali Gebri of famous Jahangiri dynasty, streched from Jalalabad to Jehlum and Dilazaks of the Peshawar plain, who in turn were ousted by the Yousafzais. Majority of the aboriginal inhabitants of Swat migrated to Hazara region of Pakistan, to this day a large predominant Tribe use the surname Swati, which reflects their link to the region.

The arrival of Afghans
(Rome, 1992) In eleventh century, Khwaja Ayyaz went on the Right Bank of Swat River and conquered the areas of Adenzee, Shamozee, Nekpikheil and so on. Mahmood went on the Left Bank of the river, when he reached Hudigram, there was the fort of Raja Gira, strongly built on a high peak. Mahmood commanded the conquest of this fort to an adroit general, Peer Khushal. The conquest of the fort was much more risky, but the order of the supreme commander was complied with. Taking charge, the creative minded general besieged the fort for three days and cut off the underground connection of water link. On the forth day, he attacked the fort. The attack was a serious one and many soldiers were martyred, including Peer Khushal himself, but the fort was captured and since then Mahmood proceeded on and captured the whole Swat. After conquering Swat, Mahmood settled two tribes of Afghan here, i.e. Swati and Dalazak, and went back. Both these tribes were living a happy life till they were driven away by the Yousafzai tribe of Pathans. Dr. Sultan-I-Rome, Swat State under the Walis (1917-69), Ph.D. Dissertation, P 28-35 Swat: The Valley Of Paradise (Asif,1963) The whole of Swat state is gifted with scenic beauty and natural charms par excellence; some of the more notable are briefly described below: KALAM VALLEY:

Twenty-five miles upstream from Bahrain, it is a beautiful spot where the River Swat has cut broader banks on both sides among the high mountains. As we travel up the road, the snow-topped peaks and expansive green parks impress our minds with a sense of being in an unearthly place. BAHRAIN: Situated at the confluence of two winding, affluent streams, it presents a beautiful scene. Their roaring, bounding currents which reflect the flanking hills in their crystal breast, are the source and means of livelihood and prosperity for thousands of persons inhabiting their bands in the upper and the lower regions, when joined with numerous others they form a river flowing through plains and providing the much-needed water for the thirsty lands of many a poor farmer, as well as power for the mills and industrial undertakings of several others. Bahrain is the gateway of Kohistan. It is an ideal town to spend a few peaceful and serene hours of life. MADYAN: It is seven miles this side of Bahrain. Here the narrow valley opens up a little and presents wider prospect. Amenities of modern life are all found at Madyan, and its hotel is first class. MIANDUM: A road branches off to the right to Miandum from Fatehpur, a town twenty-six miles away from Mingora en route to Bahrain. At the height of six thousand feet, Miandum is a pretty spot where a snug, spacious Rest house has been built by the State. MURGHZAR: TH THE SOUTH WEST OF Saidu Sharif is the beautiful valley of Murghzar. Starting from the third mile from the capital it continues for five more and ends at the foot of Mt. Illam. The entire valley is owned by Badshah Sahib, but all are welcome to visit it. Used by him as a summer resort, Badshah Sahib has built here a white marble palace, called Safaid Mahal. The hills around Murghzar are now being used for fruit-gardening, the apples grown in them are superior to those from Kashmir and Kabul, both in appearance and taste. Famous Mountains of Swat: Mt. Mankial is the highest mountain in Swat, its two peaks Mankial 18500 feet and Falakser 21000 feet are covered by snow all the year around. My. Dosari rises to a mazimum height of 10,000 feet.

Mt. Ilam, 9,500 feet high, is famous for its thick forests and green slopes. At its stop there is a platform which is reputed among the Hindus as being a place where Ram Chanderaji lived for some time during his exile. All the mountains and hills of Swat are rich in herbs and plants valuable for their medicinal properties. LAKES: Daral and Saidai are the important lakes of Swat. The River Daral which flows through Bahrain has its source in the former, situated high among the hills near the town. Its water is pure, crystal clear and health giving. Eight miles from Daral is the lake of Saidgai placed in equally charming surroundings. It is difficult to reach these lakes but it is hoped that better means of communication will soon enable the tourists to visit them. RELIGION: Besides a population of six lac Sunni Hanafi Muslims, there are two hundred Hindus and Sikhs in Swat and Dependencies. They have the same rights and privileges as the others. They lead peaceful lives, secure from any danger to their persons or property, likes responsible citizens of the State. The People of Swat: Generally, the people are hard-working, enterprising, and therefore well to do. No longer are they an ignorant and backward lot, engaged in constant feuds and fights, on contrary, being alive politically they appreciate the vast advantages of living peaceably and peacefully. Unfortunately, having come in closer contact with the outside world, western influences are finding their way among them, yet they are still not totally devoid of their innate simplicity. How long they will continue to have it remains to be seen. Equipped with humanistic and scientific education and other requites of the present day, these valiant sons of the mountains stand shoulder to shoulder with their brothers in Islam, a pledged to the service of their country and the nation at large. References: 1) Alam Mohammad (2005), Swat valley past, future and prospects.1st ed, Swat, Shoaib Sons Publishers & Booksellers. 14,15. 2) Amin irfan, (2005), History of Swat from Assakenoi to Ashoka( 1500-300 BC). Retrieved from http:// retrieved on 04/03/2011. 3) Encyclopedia Britannice, Yousafzai struggle for surviving. P 763. 4) Fraser Tytler w.k (1967), Afghanistan history, (3rd), London, Oxford university Press. P.362.

5) Pakistan paedia, Swat valley. Retrieved from http:// www. Retrieved on march 04, 2011. 6) Qayum Abdul, (1990), The Charming Swat. Retrieved from history/swat_history.php. 7) Rome-i-Sultan, (1992), Swat State Under Walis.(1917-69), Ph.D. Dissertation, P 28-35. retrieved from. retrieved on 04/03/2011.