SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL PAPER “THE IMPACT OF ECOLOGICAL MARKETING ON THE ROMANIAN ENTERPRISES”

Roúca Mihai Ioan Bucharest University of Economics, Marketing Faculty, 1,Bucharest, mirosca@ase.ro, 021.319.19.00 C toiu Iacob Bucharest University of Economics, Marketing Faculty, 1,Bucharest, facultatea.marketing@ase.ro, 021.319.19.00 str. Mihai Eminescu, no. 13-15, sect

str. Mihai Eminescu, no. 13-15, sect

Resume: This article is a summary of doctoral paper “The impact of ecological marketing on the Romanian Enterprises” sustains in November 2006 by Mihai Rosca and coordinated by prof. Iacob Catoiu at the Bucharest University of Economics. Key words: green marketing, eco-marketing, environmental marketing, ecological behavior., The work is structurest in 3 well defined parts. While the first part analyses the knowledge state in the field, the second part tries to be an analysis of the marketing medium and the third is dedicated to a series of research studies unique to date in Romania. The part dedicated to the knowledge state in the field opens with a review of the scientific ideas about ecologic marketing. First chapter starts from the appearance of the concept of ecologic marketing, passing by its various definitions and senses used by various authors and ends with the role and place of ecologic marketing in science. The second chapter is dedicated to the ecologic marketing peculiarities; a chapter talks about the ecological products market and another one about consumers. On this market there is a paradox: people with big revenues try to become ecologists, while the ones with small revenues, due to the lack of money, use cleaner, environment-friendlier methods to satisfy their needs, being in this way better ecologists than the ones who want to be ecologists. It is serious, however, that everyone wants an improvement in their life level, following the example of the most developed state, USA. The problem is that we would need a few more planets if every Earth inhabitant would adopt the American life model. From this perspective I tried to analyze what is an ecologic consumer and I offered a set of market segmentations based on this criterion from the international scientific literature. This subchapter supported an absolute novelty in Romania, the author’s segmentation of ecologist clients presented in chapter eight of this work. As we cannot talk about ecologic marketing without an ecologic policy of marketing/marketing mix, I had studied and developed ecological policies inside each element of the traditional marketing mix from the third chapter. The products which are more ecologic from a customer point of view are not necessarily more ecologic. The concept of ecologic product starts from the idea of a total product, followed during its whole life, from the project phase to the phase of its reintegration in environment at the end of the life cycle. The price of ecologic producs hides many aspects developed in this chapter, from ecologic costs to strategies of ecologic price. In the subchapter about promotion I followed the influence of communication of ecologic character messages, a whole section being dedicated to the correct communication. In the subchapter about distribution, I proposed a new logistic chain, in which to be also covered the gestion of goods after use. I gave a strong importance to the inverse distribution as an anti-polutant activity, while a different section is dedicated to the strategies of ecologic distribution, with an accent on the strategies of prevention of polutants and on the strategies of recource recovery. The second part of the doctoral paper is dedicated to the marketing medium. I wanted this part to be a helping instrument for the ones interested in introducting an ecologic marketing policy in their company. As the implementation of ecologic marketing in a company cannot be realized without the implication of its leading factors, in the first chapter of this part I analyzed aspects connected with the internal company aspects, such as management problems. I analyzed the management of ecologic marketing, with all that its 1180

The fight between the non-governmantal organizations and the mining company was an extremely new thing for Romania. presented also in the oral exam phase of my Ph. some research areas being stressed.D. The role of civil society. The last subchapter was not planned when I had started to work on this dissertation. It was not planned for two reasons: first.implementation in a company means. and I am very happy to have had the opportunity to analyze it. The third part of the dissertation is completely dedicated to direct research. is not a complete study but rather a research interested in the general traits. Although my hypothesis was that the companies will be more and more ecologist. people are the only ones who managed to introduce in nature materials that cannot be decomposed and keep accumulating. so important in other countries for a „green” transformation. especially the ones coming from the European Union as conditions of integration of Romania. This fight is presented in the last subchapter of chapter six. the first battle between the ecologist organizations and a large company. appeared due to the surprising conclusions from the first research. Another problem treated by me was the political implication of various nations in treaties to limit the pollution. I consider this research to be an absolute novelty for Romania because in my search for secondary data I found no published study on a similar subject. This study. while other areas had been abandonned. as well as a presentation of the most important treaties in which Romania participates. as well as to numerous strategies of ecologic marketing. The restart of economic growth in Romania brought with it new investitions. Thought in 2001. due to economic development. The study regarding the impact of ecologic marketing on Romanian companies was interested in obtaining general information on the way in which companies had integrated ecologic marketing concepts at the level of upper management of the organization. in 2006 I realized two personal studies inside the business environment.D. Of course. this did not proved true 1181 . But a surprising case appeared. The elements of macro-environment have a large influence in the implementation of ecologic marketing: the continuous degradation of the environment is the main reason inspiring the writing of this dissertation. Because the studies were thought as omnibus-type studies. The chapter tries to unify theory and practice. while I was ready to jump to somber conclusions on the lack of citizen impication in social problems: the Roúia Montana case. the quantity of data being somehow limited. data collection were organized in the years 2002.. The starting hypothesis of my research was that. I was sincerely surprised by the unmodified lack of interest and I realized that most changes regarding environment are made not due to an internal pressure from the company. the research morphed under the light on previously collected information. In the sixth chapter I analyzed the elements of micro-environment and their role in ecologic marketing implementation. 2004 and 2006. This last research. The impact of people on the environment is provoking maybe one of the the largest unbalances in nature. The second reason was discovered during my research in Romanian companies. Truly interesting is the fact that both camps used a full arsenal of communication tehniques to touch their objectives. In fact. because the year of intergration of Romania in European Union was not a certitude in that moment. due to the data collected at the level of years 2002 and 2004 and of the conclusions based on those. started as a longitudinal research. The two chapters of the last part are divided after two big studies of the dissertation. In the first is the longitudinal research in the Romanian companies from years 2002. I decided to start a study of the consumers. the Romanian companies will be more and more responsable for their hosting society and they will integrate environmental protection policies in their activities. while the second comprises the 2006 study on the Romanian consumers. designed as a longitudinal search. but due to external pressures. with plans to exploit whole mountains using cyanides flamed the unrest of some ecologist organizations. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the macro-environment factors. 2004 and 2006. mentioning on one hand theoretical aspects and on the other hand numerous exemples of companies that used various ecologic principles. This is why I consider that the mimum ecologic direction appeared in the Romanian economic medium is not started by companies or clients (as the theory of ecologic marketing says) but it is due to european integration. If for each natural substance there is some living factor that can transform it. it was transformed based on the better understanding of Romanian business environment and of the way this problem is perceived. Moreover. in the 3 data collection campains. initially unplanned. that can be used in a company. this research wanted to see the transormations in Romanian companies during my Ph. The new mining investition. Here we pointed to the means of economic management. To this end. studies. not even due to civil society or consumer pressure. is in Romania quite unimportant.

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