INTRODUCTION Today computers have gained access to every aspect of our life.

It is very hard to imagine a world without computers. Now a days, the computers have come up in such a big way that their presence is felt every sphere of life such as education, business, research, medicine, banking, communication etc. What is a computer? “A computer is an automatic electronic device, that process data & generates meaningful information with high speed & accuracy”. Computers are treated as data processing machines. They take data as input, process data and produces information as out-put. Hence a computer is treated as universal information manipulator. Characteristics of computers: - Every computer performs 4 basic functions; they are i/p, storage, processing and o/p data. Following are the characteristics of a digital computer. 1) Automatic: - Computers are automatic in operation i.e. they work without human intervention. Computers are automatic machines because once started on a Job, they work until the job is finished. 2) Speed: - As the computer is electronic, it works with a very high speed. The speed of execution of operation by modern computer is several million operations per second. 3) Accuracy: - Computers are very accurate, degree of accuracy of computer depends on its design, however every calculation is performed with the same accuracy. 4) Diligence: - A computer does not suffer from tiredness or lack of concentration. When a computer performs a millions of operations, it performs the last calculation with the same accuracy and perfection, as it will do the 1st one. 5) Versatility: -Computers are extremely versatile & are capable of performing almost any task. Computers are used in education, training, preparing electric bill, Air & Railways reservation, Banking, business, industries etc., 6) Storage: - Computer has in built memory, where it can store large amount of data. Also huge amount of data can be stored using secondary storage. 7) Reliability: - Today’s computers are highly reliable & give consistent results without errors. History of computers (Early computing devices) 1) The abacus was the first computing device, which emerged about 5000 years ago. It was invented in china. It is a rectangular wooden frame with beads on parallel wires. 2) The first mechanical adding machine was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642 & called Pascaline. It was limited only for addition. 3) In 1694, a German mathematician & philosophy Leibniz, improved pascaline by creating a machine where multiplication was done. It was called Rotation wheel calculator. Both Pascaline & Leibniz machines worked by a system of Gears & dials. 4) Difference engine: - In 1822, a professor of mathematics, Charles Babbage invented the differential Engine. It was used to calculate various mathematical functions and to perform differential equations. 5) Analytical Engine: - After working for ten years Charles Babbage developed the analytical engine. It consists of 5 functional units such as input unit, memory unit, arithmetic unit, control unit and out put unit. The modern computers resemble the analytical engine. Hence Charles Babbage is called the father of Computers. 6) Mark-I: - In 1943,an American Mathematician, Howard H.Aiken built the first electro mechanical computer, Mark-I. It was capable of performing arithmetic operations 7) ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator): - ENIAC was the first all electronic computers. It was a general-purpose computer. 8) EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) : - EDVAC was the first ever computer developed on stored program concept. 9) UNIVAC-I (Universal Automatic Computer): - UNIVAC-I was the first commercial computer used for both scientific & commercial applications. This is the first digital computer. Generations of Computers: Generations of computers are broadly classified in two types: 1. Non- electronic generation 2. Electronic generation Non-Electronic Generation:- These are also called Zero generation computers. They were made up of wooden or mechanical computers. They were developed before 1946.

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Ex: - Abacus, Napier’s bones, differential engine etc. Electronic Generation: - Computer developed after first electronic computer ENIAC are classified into five generations. Based on the technology used in architectural development of computers. First Generation of Computers: (era of vacuum tube): These were developed between 1946-59, and built with vacuum tubes. Their speed was 10-3 sec. They have limited primary memory. They used punched card and magnetic tape to input and output operations. The instructions were given in Machine language and were machine dependent. Ex: - ENIAC, UNIVAC, EDSAC, EDVAC. Disadvantages: 1.Size of computer becomes large hence non-portable. 2. Air conditioning is required since large amount of heat is liberated by vacuum tube. 3. Switching time is very high and speed of the computer is slow. 4. Machine language was used which is machine dependent. Second-generation computer: - Thee were developed between 1957-64 and were built diodes and transistors. Their speed was 10-6 sec. They had more primary memory and proved higher reliability. High Level programming languages like FORTRAN, Pascal, ALGOL etc., were used in these machine. Multiprogramming. Time-sharing and Real-time processing were introduced. Ex: - BURROUGHS 5000, IBM 1401, GE635, CDC 1604, HONEYWELL 400 etc. Third Generation of Computer (1965-70): These were built with Integrated Circuit (I Cs), 10-1000 transistors in a single silicon chip. Their speed was 10-9 sec (nano second). They have semi-conducting memory. They have higher reliability and reduced size. They were used in weather forecasting, airline reservation, banking services. Ex: - IBM 35060, Honeywell 6000, Cyber-175, etc. Fourth Generation Computer (1975 onwards): These built with large-scale integration (LSI), 100-1000 transistor in a single chip and very large scale integration (VLSI), 1000 to millions of transistors per chip. They have huge storage capacity and their processing speed is from 10-12 sec. The concept of networking was introduced. Ex: - IBM 3033, HP-3000, CYBER-205, all modern PCs. Sl. Generations No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. IV (1975-Onwards) LSI circuit and Technologies Vacuum Tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits VLSI circuit and semiconductor memories Machine FORTRAN-IV, PASCAL, FORTRAN-77, Software COBOL, FORTRAN Language COBOL-68, PL/1 COBOL-74 Number of users 1 1 Multiple users Remote users Nature of processing serial Serial Serial Serial/parallel Millisecond Nanoseconds Micro second Pico seconds Execution speed (Thousandth of a (Billionth of a (Millionth of a second) (Trillionth of a second) second) second) Representative ENIAC, IBM-7094, IBM –360, CDCcomputers UNIVAC I etc. CDC 1604 6000 Database Personal computer, Mostly scientific, Extensive business management Integrated CAD/CAM, Applications simple business application, Scientific systems, on line Distributed system application research system Fifth generation of computer: The development of super computers was the key motivation of the 5 th generation supercomputer. Computers developed with Super Large Scale Integration (SLSI), have millions of transistors per chip. Fifth generation computers have following characteristics. 1) Mega chip memories 2) Extensive use of parallel processing and I (1946-59) II (1957-64) III (1965-75)

3) Artificial intelligence.

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Digital Alpha etc. etc. acceleration etc. They work on the principal of counting. Classification based on Size and capability Based on size and capability. sales analysis. Analog computers 2. which are used in many applications of homes.Payroll. They weigh around 3 to 5 kgs. It has smaller processing power. Mainframe computers 4. 3. games. The CPU speed is more than100 MIPS (Million instructions per second). They are costlier compared to laptops. In short these are called midis. Depending on the size.Classification of computers: Computers can be classified into various types based on • Principle of working • Size and capability Classification based on Principle of working Based on principle of working. General-purpose computers are designed to solve wide variety of problems to meet the needs of many different applications. The word length of these computers is 16 to 32 bits. They weigh 2 to 3 kgs. In short these are called micros. 3 . Microcomputers: These are also called personal computers (pcs) because one person uses them at a time. speed and storage pcs are further classified into 1. e. They are expensive than desktops. playing games. Micro computers 2. faxing and paging. Different types of portables available. Desktops 2. e. palmtops and wearable computers.: . or both. robots. It may be either AC-powered. Mini computers 3. pcs had very limited input-output capabilities & small storage capacity. memory & speed compared to microcomputers. But modern computers have large input-output capabilities. Minicomputers are multi-user systems i. they are laptops. They accept either the analog or digital data for processing. Palmtops: Also called PDAs (personal Digital Assistant). business organizations etc. Initially. Notebooks: They are as powerful as desktops but have the size of a notebook. Hybrid computer are the combination of both analog and digital computers. The CPU speed is 10-30 MIPS. Laptops: It works similar to desktops but smaller in size. voltage variation. A Mainframe computer is connected with several micros and minis. Wearable computers: the size is very small and can be worn on the body itself. In short these are called minis. Digital computers are further classified into Special purpose and General-purpose computers. 2. 4.e. Digital computers 3. huge amount of memory &processing speed. They are used for word processing. force. They are small enough to be held in one’s palm. etc. spreadsheet calculations. Digital computers are used to process alphanumeric and graphic data. III. notebooks. Portables are small size computers that can be carried around. They are not as powerful as desktops. 1. Super computers I. Mainframe computers: Mainframe computers are larger than micros and minis and occupy a room. schools. computers are classified into 4 types 1. Portables The pcs are called as Home computers or Desktops. Hybrid computers Analog computers are used to process data that occurs in continuous flow such as temperature pressure. IBM System/38. Minicomputers: Minicomputers are slightly bigger in size. Special purpose computers are designed for specific applications like computers used for air traffic control. more than user can use the computer system at the same time.HP-3000. process control in industry. battery powered.The word length of these computers is 32 to 64 bits and has a large storage capacity.g.g. computers are classified into 3 types: 1. II.

b. Computers also used in satellite communication. we discuss the following • Edu • Science & cational applications Technology • Co • Defense mmercial applications applications • Tele • Applicatio communication ns of Computer Graphics • Indu • Multimedi strial application a applications 1) Computers in Education: Computers are used in the field of education for many purposes ranging from preparation of timetable to examination results. In this section.000. accounting. Computers used as switching elements in telephone exchange. stock control. Computers changed the life of every organization. office accounts. machine components etc. the reactions are distinguished using colors.IV.000 MIPS. Computer aided design (CAD) is used to develop the products. hospital personnel. 4 . Educational software has major influence at all levels from elementary schools to university. Computers are used to know the working conditions of weapons (in army). invoicing. We can have a face-to-face conversation with a friend residing in other country. space research etc. buildings.g. Super computers are large. 6) Defense applications: Computers are used in various activities of air force. planning and process control. This is possible by world wide web (www). & controlling a satellite. PARAM 10. e. a) Chemistry: A chemical process is explored on a computer. Factories: Computers are used for many purposes including inventory control. pressure etc. Computers are used to measure & control variables like temperature. b) Space technology: Computers are used for designing. CAAY YMP series etc. Computers are used for simple calculation to complex applications such as. diagnosis of diseases. record keeping. a. E-mail facility allows people to come together globally. There are varieties of uses for computer animation that range from fun to practical applications. launching. surgical equipments. payroll. weather forecasting. records of patients. Product design: Designing complicated products need a teamwork to produce computerized design. sales analysis. Computer use starts from recruitment and training to war and retirement. weapon control. Suitable software is used to draw the structure of chemical compounds. Computers are used to constantly monitor and control the functioning of a satellite. Computers are extensively used in daily transactions like pay roll. Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is used to produce them. 4) Computers in industry: Computers have a major impact on industries where products are designed and manufactured. 3) Computers in Communications: -Computers used in teleconferencing to communicate and discuss on line projects and technologies. defense research. remote surgery etc. medical diagnoses. controlling a satellite. Connecting computers & students together over Internet opens up more educational opportunities. Animation makes images more realistic and put them in motion. weapons control etc. Computers are used to design the cars. c) Medical diagnosis: Computers are used in hospitals for maintenance of drugs. treatment and so on. roads. Super computers: Super computers are designed for ultra –high performance tasks such as weather forecasting. expensive and have high storage densities .Their high speed is due to the use of a number of processors working in parallel. CRAY XMP. Applications of Computers The idea behind the invention of Computer was to make a machine that assists man in every day life. ships. etc. jet engines. navy and army. They are 64 bits or 96 bits computers and process more than 10. 5) Computers in Science and technology: Computers are used in scientific and technological activities like weather forecasting. 2) Computers in Business: Today each and every company depends on computers for numerous clerical and administrative functions. personnel. to detect the enemy ship (in navy) and for training the pilots in air force 7) Applications of computer graphics: Computer graphics is mainly used in animation.

Control Unit [CU]: It controls and directs the transfer of program instructions and data between various units. OCR 7. The input unit basically links the external world or environment to the computr system. ------. Input Unit [ I/P ] 2. a. MICR 8. Logical operation like AND. Most computers are identified by the type of CPU that is present in them. Greater than (>). Some times it is also called as ‘Heart of a Computer’ or ‘Brain of a computer’. Whose main function is to accept the data and information provided by the user of the system and pass this information to the CPU or to the memory for storage. b. exhibitions etc. The main activity of the control unit is to maintain order and direct the operations of the entire system. They are. education. The Function of the CPU is to interpret the instructions in the program and execute them one by one. 3. Communicates with Input-Output devices for transfer of data/results into/From storage. Multimedia can be used for entertainment. Functions of Control Units: 1. Maintains order and controls activity in CPU 2. They are: 1. It consists of THREE sub units. Control Unit [CU] b.7) Multimedia Applications: Multimedia Applications use a collection of multiple media sources like text. NOT and Relation operators like Less than (<). Central Processing Unit [CPU] a. Light Pen 4. Less then 5 . OR. In other words. Scanner 5. OMR 6. BCR 2. Arithmetic and Logical Unit [ALU] : Is the place where the actual execution of the instructions takes place during the processing operation. graphics. Other input devices are 1. Track Ball 3. Joy stick 2. video & animation. Arithmetic operations like Addition (+). Registers. Multiplication (*) and division (/). Input Unit [I/P]: A Device that accepts the information from the user is called Input Unit. a. Registers. Directs sequence of operations. Control Unit [CU] b. 1. 3. simulations. Memory Unit. images. A system may consist of one or more input devices. Arithmetic & Logic Unit[ALU] c. Arithmetic Logic Unit [ALU] c. The most commonly used input devices are Keyboard & Mouse. Central Processing Unit [CPU] : It is the main part of the Computer System. training.#### --------- COMPUTER ORGANIZATION Block Diagram of a computer: ALU Output Unit Input Unit CU Register Memory A Computer is designed using FOUR basic units. Subtraction (-). sound. it controls the overall activities of the entire system. Output Unit [O/P] 4.

There are two classes of memory devices called Primary Storage and Secondary Storage. Computer Memory: Memory is an essential component of a digital computer. One byte includes total of 8 individual units called as bit [Binary digIT]. Monitor b. Some of the output devices are . The output unit links the computer to the outside world. CX (Counter). Memory Primary Memory Secondary Memory RAM ROM Floppy Hard Disk CD-ROM Pen Drive Static RAM Dynamic RAM PROM EPROM EEPROM 6 . Does Branching on prefixed conditions. The two kinds of memory are commonly used in modern computers.or equal to (<=). Plotter. DX (Data).073. Speakers d.627. which are stored in the memory unit. Output Unit: It is used to print or display the results. Registers: The CPU consists of a number of temporary storage units. The primary memory or the main memory is a fast memory capable of operating at electronic speed. results etc. As the computer works with binary values the output generated will also in this form. hard disks and compact disks etc. Secondary storage devices are additional memory devices such as floppy disks.048. BX (Base). Greater than or equal to (>=).776 The input unit.824 1. Performs arithmetic functions 2. c. 4. data. equal to (=) are being carried out in this unit.099. Name Byte Kilobyte Megabyte Gigabyte Terabyte Shorthan d 1Byte 1KB 1MB 1GB 1TB Power 20 210 220 230 240 Bytes 1 1024 1. a. magnetic tapes.. The Storage capacity of a computer is measured in terms of Bytes. It stores programs. Does Logical Operations 3.576 1.511. intermediate results and the final output generated. which may be generated during processing. The memory unit provides space to store input data. which are used to store huge information for future use.. The output unit converts the data from binary form to the user understandable form before it displays the results. Printer c. One bit can store either a 0(Zero) or 1(One). Memory Unit: It is a storage unit. It is a storage device. CPU consists of FOUR general purpose registers are AX (Accumulator).741. Functions of ALU are 1. 3. Which are used to store instructions and intermediate data. output unit and Secondary storage devices are together known as “Peripheral devices”.

It is also called as Main Memory or Volatile Memory. Temporarily store the data input from the keyboard. 2. The user can write information into RAM and Read information from it. EPROM is cheap. All the data required for 7 . There are two important types of RAM.e. a. which is generated from processing until it is transferred to an output device. 4. The information written into it is retained in it as long as the power supply is on. EEPROM [Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory]: Any number of times erases the data and reprogrammed with in the same circuit. RAM [Random Access Memory]: RAM is Volatile Memory. Is cheaper and consumes less power. Static RAM is costlier and consumes more power. which is required for processing. Static RAM: It retains stored information as long as the power supply is on. EEPROM i). It is a static device as there is no rotating part in it. It have to be refreshed periodically. It is also called as Write Once and Read Many Times’. The CPU communicates directly only with the main memory.. Primary Memory: Is a temporary memory. RAM is accessible to users. To contain a copy of the main software [S/W] program (Operating System). Read Only Memory [ROM]: It is nonvolatile memory i. The size of the main memory is comparatively much smaller than that of the secondary memory. ROM. Primary memories are of two types. These devices are normally very slow compared to the primary storage. EPROM iii. ii). their contents are erased when power goes off. The data on the secondary storage is not directly accessible for processing. It do not need refreshing circuitry and have higher speed than dynamic RAM. It is possible to integrate the circuitry into the computer. reliable and hence they are widely used. As soon as the power supply goes off (or is interrupted) its stored information is lost. 3. Function of the Primary Memory: 1.e. iii). Is once Programmable i. Dynamic RAM i). There are 3 types of ROM. b. generally every 2 millisecond. This program is loaded into the primary memory when the computer is turned on. The access time is same for each memory location. They are. which are currently needed by the CPU. It is used for permanent storage of information only at the time of Manufacturing. the user can write his information in a PROM only once. EPROM IC has to be removed from the computer for the Exposure to high intensity ultraviolet light for about 20 minutes and erase entire data stored in EPROM and reprogrammed. Temporarily store a copy of the application program that is currently being executed. The user cannot erase the contents of certain selected memory locations. data or any other kind of information in a PROM. Secondary Storage Device: Any additional storage used in a computer other than the primary memory may be classified as secondary memory or storage. The primary memory is faster. It stores programs and data. Temporarily store the result.1. In RAM any memory location can be accessed in a random manner directly without going through any other memory location.. ii). RAM is also called as the main memory of a computer. PROM [Programmable Read Only Memory]: The user can store permanent programs. Static RAM ii. 2. a. the information stored in it is not lost even when the power supply goes off. Special equipment called PROM Programmer is available for the programming of PROM. RAM b. Dynamic RAM: It loses its stored information in a very short time (a few milliseconds) even though the power supply is on. compact and lighter and it consumes less power. so that the EEPROM does not have to be removed form its socket for programming. because of its high cast. PROM ii. EPROM [Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory]: Any number of times erases the data and reprogrammed. i. i. It is used where large capacity of memory is needed.

Advantages: 1. The hard disk typically contains several rotating disk plates. The surface of a plate is organized as a number of concentric “Tracks”. It stores system software assemblers. Set of matched tracks are called “Cylinder”. the magnetic memories such as hard disks and floppy disks are the most common secondary memories used in computers. Hard Disk: The most common physical device for storing files is the Hard disk.processing has to be routed through the primary or main memory as for as the CPU is concerned. Direct access to Data. Seek time: Time to move the heads to the right or specified track. Floppy Disk 1. The Secondary memory is used as auxiliary memory. 8 . In a disk plate information is stored on both surfaces. and performs the read/write operation. Each track is divided Into “Sectors” . The time taken to access a particular block consists of: a. The surfaces of the plates are coated with metal oxide. b. It must store information permanently. electromagnetic recording heads. like those on an audiocassette recorder. useful packages. large data file etc. Modern disks typically hold 40GB to 200GB of data. The surface is further divided into a number of invisible concentric circles called as “Tracks” . The secondary memory is used for bulk storage of programs. 1. The central shaft rotates at speeds of about 7200 revolutions per minute (rpm). Magnetic Disks: Magnetic disks are thin circular plastic plates on which some magnetic material is coated. More Reliable 2. The appearance is somewhat similar to a gramophone plate. data and other information. A disk pack normally consists of a number of such disks mounted on a central shaft. Latency time: Time waiting for the sector to come around to the head. Magnetic disks come in various sizes and materials. compiler. Sectors Tracks Some Important Magnetic Disks are The information stored on a disk can be read any number of times without affecting the stored data. High storage Capacity 3. It has much larger capacity than main memory. The disk rotates at around 7200 rpm.. Hard Disk 2. which are permanently encased in a pack or drive. and all the heads moves together. They use the properties of magnetism to store the data on a magnetic surface. The size of the secondary is normally large and the cost is also reasonable. The tacks are further divided into various sections called as “Sectors” . The secondary memory is a non-volatile memory. There is one head for each surface.

a.. The cache memory is placed in between the CPU and main memory. The most commonly used floppy disk is of 3½ inches with storage capacity of 1. To read information from the disk we need CD-ROM drive.WORM 1. Diskettes are small and portable. It is much faster than main memory. CD-RW: This is Rewritable-drive. b. Advantages: 1. 2. There are different types of optical laser disks. It is written once and read many times. The transactions are written to an optical disk& become a permanent record that can be read but never be altered. CD-R: It is also called as the Recordable-CD. 74 minutes of audio recording. This sequence of reflections is then converted into electronic signals.g.44 MB and is of double-sided high-density capacities. Difference between Primary and Secondary Memory: Primary Memory Secondary Memory 9 . CD-ROM & DVD-ROM disks are similar but DVD holds upto 25 times more than CD-ROM. DVD [Digital Versatile Disk]: It works exactly like CD-ROM but packs more data bits into the same area. WORM is an ideal medium for making a permanent record of data. Optical Disks: Optical disks consist of a rotating disk. Physically. This allows the user to erase previously recorded information and then to record new information onto the same physical location on the disk. DVD 3. many banks use WORM disks to store a record of each day transactions. 2. 5¼ inches and 8 inches in diameter. Cache Memory: The word cache is pronounced as cash.e. Data accessing is faster than floppy disk but is considerably slower than the modern hard disk. It stores instructions and data. it can hold 4 films in a single disk. Erase or written information on to the disk with the help of CDWriter. Easy to handle.7GB [i. There are 2 types of CD-ROMs. The cache memory is an RAM intermediate memory and is not accessible to System Cache users.33. CD-ROM 2. Disks are cheap 2. The beam is strongly reflected by the normal surface and weakly reflected by the pits. Data recording on the disk is done by focusing a laser beam on the surface of the spinning disk. They are 1. Each side of DVD can hold upto 4.c.] 3. Portable 3. It contains a single flat piece of circular plastic disk coated with metal oxide and enclosed in plastic cover. Its access time is much less compared to that of main memory. Data once written cannot be erased. The laser beam is turned on and off at varying rates this causes tiny holes to be burnt on the surface. e. The cache memory increased the operating speed of the system. But it is much costlier than main memory.000 pages of text. CD-ROM [Compact Disk Read Only Memory]: Is a read only optical storage medium capable of holding up to 682MB of data approximately 3. Floppy Disk: Is a removable disk. Block transfer time: Time to actually transfer the data. WORM [Write Once Read Many]: Once the data has been fixed onto the surface of a WORM disk they cannot be changed. which is coated with a highly reflective material. which CPU Bus are to be immediately executed. Three common sizes are 3½ inches.

secondary memory is not erased. Ctrl or Control key. Trackball. Num lock key. Hard-copy devices and 2. An input device converts input data and instructions into electrical signals (binary form) that can be accepted by the computer. The function keys can be used for various functions and depend on the application in use. Is a Temporary Memory 2. Del key. They are.1. The computer keyboard has three categories of keys. Tab key . Based on the number of function keys keyboards are 10 . The keyboard provides different keys to perform various operations. such as the pressing of a key on the terminal keyboard. Special keys 3. High Cost 1. Keyboard: The keyboard is the most conventional of all input devices.></?:. Erase all the data present 6. OMR. The process of executing a program requires us to provide some data from the external environment to the system so that it can be used for computations. Cheaper than Primary memory 6. Scanner. Access time is nano seconds 5. OCR. Huge Storage Space 4. . A large variety of input devices are available. Is a Non-Volatile Memory 3. Is a Volatile Memory 3. The alphanumeric keys consists of alphabets and numbers and other special keys which represent certain symbols such as . Some of the special keys on the keyboard are Enter or Return key. such as the screen of a terminal or input the information directly to the users a result of some action of the user. MICR. but it has additional keys. Access time is milliseconds 5. Joystick. It is used to enter data directly into the computer. Mouse. Function keys. Input-Output Devices: Computer systems are proved to be useful only when they are able to communicate with the external environment. Non-Hard-copy devices present the output directly to the user in a nonpermanent form. Power goes. Insert key. Power goes. Alphanumeric keys 2. Keyboard.”’~!@#$%^&*()_+=|\{}[] The special keys perform specific tasks. Non-hard-copy devices Hard-copy devices provide the output on paper or other permanent form. Light Pen. They are also called as Peripheral devices Input-Output devices are of two types: 1. Caps lock Key and so on. a. The input and output devices provide a means for this interaction. Input Devices: Data & instructions are entered into a computer through input devices. Is a Permanent Memory 2. The function keys are used to perform a set of operations by a single keystroke. Alt key. The prices of keyboards are reasonable and it is very simple to operate. 1. Shift key. 1. Limited Storage space 4. Data present in the in the memory. The arrangement of keys is similar to that of the conventional typewriter.

Mechanical sensors detect the movement of the rollers as an X and Y-axis and the cursor on screen is moved accordingly. Optomechanical 3. OCR iii. As the wheels spin. OMR ii. b. DDE devices can scan source documents magnetically or optically to capture data for direct entry into the computer. OMR [Optical Mark Reader]: The main use of these devices is to recognize certain pre-specified types of marks such OMR Answer Sheet as marks made by pencil or pen. For every incremental rotation of the wheel. Optical i. a light-Sensitive optical device counts the number of holes that pass by and convert those numbers to an X and Y-axis. the shaft encoder produces an electrical signal. the movement is coded in the x and y direction. The rollers have wheels on the end of them with evenly spaced holes. grading objective type tests such as the a b c d CET conducted by the Pre-University board. It has two wheels at right angles to each other. These types of scanners are normally used in 1. Optical Mouse: This mouse more accurate or precise and has no moving parts. i. which was developed at the Stanford research institute. It uses a laser to detect movement and has to be paired with a special mat that has an embedded optical reference grid. Devices Using Optical Media: Direct Data Entry [DDE] refers to entry of data directly into the computers through machine readable source documents. Optomechanical Mouse: This mouse works on the same principle. MICR i. Mechanical Mouse 2. There are basically three types of mouse: i. The device can be used for moving a cursor around the display screen. Mechanical Mouse: This mouse has a small hard rubber ball underneath that moves against two roller as it passes across a flat surface. The devices are. The mouse is used as a pointing device. As the device is moved on a flat surface. It is a small device. In these types of exams the 2.classified as either Regular Keyboard [Used with PC’s and AT’s] with 84 keys or Enhanced keyboard with 101keys and Multimedia keyboards. Each of these wheels is connected to the shaft encoder. ii. DDE does not require manual transcription of data from original paper documents. student has to mark the answers to a b c d questions on a special-scoring sheet called OMR Sheet by darkening a square or circular space by a pencil to indicate the correct choice out of various alternatives 11 . Mouse [Mechanically Operated User Serial Engine]: One of the most popular of specialized input devices for terminals or microcomputers is the mouse.

MICR [Magnetic Ink Character Recognition]:The device is normally used to assist the banking sector in processing the cheques that are issued by the customers every day. OCR eliminates the human effort of transcription. shape and that the characters are connected with no stylish loops and so on. have still to be manually processed. not very skilled staff is required. which the system has been programmed to recognize. 3. Once the whole character has been scanned it compares the character with a standard font. The reject and/or error rate may exceed user requirements. roughly handled yet they are accurately read. Is Expensive. 12 . Advantages of MICR: 1. When a filled cheque is presented at the bank. the branch code and the cheque number are preprinted at the bottom using magnetic ink. cheques not encoded with amount etc. Space which has been marked with the pencil or pen normally reflects light. Paper work explosion can be handled because OCR is economical for a high rate of input. Advantages of OCR: 1. Cheques may be smeared stamped. Handwritten recognition requires extra care to ensure that the characters are of standard size. OCR [Optical Character Recognition]: The main use of these devices is to recognize alphabetic and numeric character printed on paper. Only certain types of printed or handwritten characters can be read. iii. 4. MICR possesses a very high reading accuracy. 2. Disadvantages of OCR: 1. The OMR focuses light on the page being scanner and detects the reflection pattern. 3. insurance companies. MICR reads these characters by examining their shapes. 2. American Banking Association has set special font for these characters. Even if there is a slight difference the characters is rejected. 2. Provides automated. Wherever there is a pattern match the character is considered to be read. reliable source data entry. the cheque can be processed using MICR. 3. The OCR goes through each character in detail as if the character is made up of number of minute points. Damaged documents. ii. In a cheque. Cheques can be read both by human beings and machines. This eliminates the duplication of human effort required to get data into the computer.These answer [OMR] sheet are then fed into the computer with the use of a OMR. The OCR may be used to recognize certain standard typewritten fonts some OCR recognize computer outputs also. The characters may be typewritten or handwritten. Since documents have only to be typed or handwritten. Not fully automatic 2. Disadvantages of MICR: 1. airlines and some retail outlets. using a 7 x 10 matrix With MICR devices a special type of cheque is normally used. Slight damage to the document could cause the reader to reject it or read it incorrectly. Optical character readers are also used in banks. OCRs are used in applications such as credit card billing and reading of pin code numbers in large post offices to sort mail geographically.

• Whether a printed version of the output is required. The more pins that a print head contains the higher the printer’s resolution. Dot Matrix Printer: A dot matrix creates an images by using a mechanism called a print head which contains a cluster (or matrix) of short pins arranged in one or more columns. the print head mechanism strikes an inked ribbon located between the print head and the paper. • The volume of data. The two main types of impact printers are Dot matrix and Daisy –Wheel. Speakers. By pushing out pins in various combinations the print head can create alphanumeric characters. The scanner can be used for recognizing any type of data i..Scanner: A Scanner is a direct entry input device that can be moved over a drawing or photograph or any other document. Multiple copies may be printed at once. iv. Uses force by applying hammer pins to strike the paper.e. They eliminate the duplication of data. Some of the output devices are: Printer. The data to be scanned has to be of a higher quality. When the pin strikes the ribbon. the protruding pin’s ends strike a ribbon. • The speed at which the output is required. Transparencies not supported. • Suitability of the application. 5. a. Monitor. 2. The main advantage of the printer is information produced is permanent and the disadvantage of the printer is time to get the printout is slow when compared with display devices. DTP operators who scan images and then reproduce them in the documents being prepared extensively use this process. Reducing human involvement improves the accuracy of the work and the time involved in performing the entire operation. 3. There is a wide range of devices available for outputs. Print on most paper types 4. 1. the choice of these devices depends on the following considerations. The scanned document or photograph can then be used in any form that is suitable for the computer user. otherwise the scanner many reject it directly. • The cost of the method chosen to the benefits derived. . Plotter. When pushed out from the cluster. Slow speed in characters per second 3. either for image processing or character recognition. 2. Some important characteristics are . The scanner converts the data that has been scanned into a digital format. Printed information is often called Hard Copy because the information exists physically and is a more permanent form of output and can not be modifiable. Impact Printer: In impact printers. Features: 1. Out Put Devices: When a computer has completed its processing activities the information that has been produced has to be output in a format that it is useful for further activities. which held in place between the print head and the paper. they press ink from ribbon onto a piece of paper. which may have occurred when a human being is made to enter data to the system. The lowest resolution printers have only nine pins and the highest resolution printer have 13 i. which is output. There are two main classifications of printers. Printers: A printer is an output device that produces text and graphics on a paper.

Information produced on the screen is only temporary. Prints on most paper types but better quality obtained with better paper. It produces a very high quality print. The speed of the printer is measured in characters per second (cps). pixel and refresh rate. the print head does not make contact with the paper and no inked ribbon is necessary. They offer good quality at an affordable price. The Three main types of non-impact printers are Inkjet Printer. Screen displays can include text. LaserJet. The printer speed of a printer is usually expressed in Pages per minute (PPM). is charged as it passes an electrode. The time to display the image is fast. The speed range from 10 pages to about 200 pages per minute. Features: 1. The quality of a display devices depends on resolution. 4. typically there are 103 drops per character. Conductive ink is forced through a small nozzle producing a small droplet of ink. Print quality is high. typically about 100cps. Display devices can be monochrome or color. The toner is the permanently fused on the paper with heat or pressure. Printer’s speed range from 50 to 500 cps. Display Devices: A display device is an output device that conveys text. & Thermal printer. b. graphics and video information to a user. The laser-exposed areas attract a toner or ink powder that attaches itself to the laser generated charges on the page. Information on a display device is sometimes called as Soft Copy because it exists electronically and displays only for a temporary period. speed is slow. The drops are deflected using another electrode. 2. Advantages of display devices are 1. A video card is required to display color on a monitor.24 pins. which is propelled towards the screen surface. This technology is cheaper and most popular in high quality printing operations. The size and spacing of the ink drops is kept constant by vibrating the nozzle at a high frequency (100KHz). 2. Laser Jet Printer: Laser printers are page printers. No paper is wasted for obtaining the output. the higher the resolution. Printed head does not make contact with the paper. A laser printer utilizes a laser beam that sensitizes selected areas on the print page. The viewable size of a display device is the diagonally measurement of the screen. Higher speed in characters per second is possible 3. Inkjet Printer: Ink-Jet printers have become the defacto standard for home computers and low cost printing. Non-Impact: With non-impact printers. The Larger the number. Disadvantages: 1. A page of text or picture is composed at a time. Printer resolution is often expressed in dpi (dots per inch). Two main types of display devices are CRT [Cathode Ray Tube] monitors and LCD [Liquid Crystal Display] monitors. Characters are formed from a dot matrix. Needs a separate device to produce the hard Copy. graphics and colors 3. It can handle large volumes of printed output. a. The resolution of printing varies from 300 to 1200 dots per inch (dpi). Transparencies usually supported. 2. 14 . Each drop of ink. after leaving the nozzle.

The VDU screen is divided into specific character positions-usually 80 columns of characters across the width of the screen and 25 lines of characters from top to bottom. It converts a digital computer signal into an analog telephone signal [Modulate the signal] and converts an analog telephone signal to digital computer signal 15 . Data can be represented on the screen in two modes. 72hz and75hz. In the graphic mode. as well as 17” and 19”. Typical screens are capable of displaying 640x 480 dots. Monitors come in various sizes.Monitor or Visual Display Unit [VDU]: Monitor are devices used to display both text and graphics images from the computer.text and graphics mode. Resolution of the screen indicates the number of dots or pixels on the screen. In the simplest form. Higher refresh rates required for larger resolutions else viewer tends to notice the image on the screen flicker. A refresh rate of 60hz means the images is redrawn 60 times a second. Resolution refers to the number of dots displayed in the X(across) and Y(down) coordinates. In the graphics mode. In text mode only text or individual characters can be displayed. A typical high resolution display ahs 640 columns of dots and across 480 rows of dots. constructing an image on the screen using dots can show the pictures. The larger the size the more expensive and it required for higher resolutions. commonly starting at 14” . then 15” . it is an encoding as well as decoding device used in data transmission. Modem: Modem stands for Modulator/DEModulator. the screen is treated as an array of tiny dots called pixels [picture element] and any thing that appears on the screen is shown using these dots. Refresh rate refers to the number of times per second that the image is redrawn on the monitor screen. Typical refresh rates are 60hz.

But most commonly. people classify them as internal and external modems. They are small. 16 . Modems can be categorized according to speed. price and other features. External modems connect to the serial port of the computers.[Demodulates the signal] in a data communication system. Modems are built with different ranges of transmission speeds. Internal modems is very small and the fit inside the computer. Another category of modems called PCMCIA [Personal Computer Memory Card International Association]. These modems are used only with laptop computers. about the size of a visiting card and are quite expensive. Modems are required to Tele-communication computer data with ordinary telephone lines because computer data is digital form but telephone lines are analog. It is used in Internet working to connect the computer with telephone lines.

monitor. output devices. Application software 1. Definition: A set of programs written to a computer is called software. Application Software: Application Software is a program used for specific purpose. Definition: The physical component of the computer system is called hard ware. Software generally classified into two types 1. Definition: System software is a set of one or more programs. they are responsible for the working of the computer.: keyboard. DTP packages and etc. which deals with the codes. The user can directly operate these devices. WORD. Similarly if we have to communicate with the computer we need a language. etc. General purpose languages 17 . Definition: Programming language is a set of rules which a user has to follow to instruct the computer what operations are to be performed. Inventory system. which makes it possible for individuals to use the computer. student maintenance system. which are responsible for maintaining and using the system i.g. Assembly level language 2. printers. It is any prepared set of instructions that controls the operations of the computer. COMPUTER LANGUAGES A language is a means of communication between any two people. pay calculation. examination result. Machine level language b.CHAPTER 3 COMPUTER HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE Computer hardware: The term computer hardware refers to all physical devices. which are designed to control the operation and extend the processing capability of the computer system. ORACLE. System Software: System software refers to all programs. floppy drives etc. coded instructions according to which the computer operates. Programming languages are classified into following categories: 1. It is acts as intermediatory between hardware and application programs. Definition: Application software is a set of one or more programs designed to do a specific task such as processing of student admission. e. hard disk drives. Such a language is called as programming language. The manufactures of the system commonly supply system software. High level languages a.e. Some important application software includes Payroll systems. which are visible to the user. These devices are required to be interconnected so that they can function properly to perform their required task. Computer hardware includes input devices. Specific purpose languages b. With the help of programming language a user can tell the computer what he wants it to do. processing devices and other peripheral devices. scanners. System software 2. The most widely used general purpose application packages are EXCEL. Low level languages a. 2. mouse. Library management system and so on. Computer Software: Software is the general term describing programs written by the user.

Machine languages are machine dependent. multiply. Machine language instructions can be used to manipulate the individual bits in a byte of computer storage. Disadvantages of Machine language: 1. 3. An instruction given in the machine language has two parts. For example: Statements Action STA A Load the data to accumulator ADD B Add the content of B to accumulator STR C Store the result in location C PRT C Print the results HLT Stop A computer can directly execute only machine language programs. 2. They are more standardized and easier to use than machine language 2.1. Hence. They require no compilation or translation. Assembly language is also called as symbolic language. a. Assembly level languages: The draw back of the machine language has lead to introduce of a new language called assembly language. move. Instructions of a machine language program are immediately executed. an assembly language program must be converted into its equivalent machine language program. The language is substitute’s letters and symbols (mnemonics) for numbers in machine program. A program written in symbolic language is called an assembly code or symbolic program. which use numbers representing instructions and storage locations. before it can be executed program. which is known as assembler. This language of the computer is called as the machine language or machine code. 2. This translation is done with the help of translator program. Machine level languages: The computer understands only 0’s and 1’s. They are easier to debug because programs locate and identify syntax errors Disadvantages: 1. 2. The operand part gives the location or address of the data on which the operation code is to be applied. assembly language program are still complex 3. Machine language makes efficient use of storage (instructions and their storage in computer memory can be easily controlled). representing data as1’s & 0’s. 2. data and so on). Assembler: Assembler is system software. Advantages: 1. assembly languages are still machine independent. Through less abstract than machine language. Operand (Address/ Location) 11100000011111000 00011100 OPCODE Operand The operation code denotes the operations. The instruction provided by the machine language are directly understood by the computer and converted into electrical signals to run the computer. Advantages of Machine language: 1. which is to be performed (such as add. Through more standardized than machine language. 3. Assembly language programs are usually very long. They operate very effectively and easier to use than machine language. divide. Definition: Assembly language is a low-level programming language that allows a user to write programs using letters and symbols which are more easily remembered. Machine language is difficult to program. OPCODE (operation code) b. which translates an assembly language program into its equivalent machine language program. Definition: Machine language is the basic language of the computer. 18 .

Hence they are easy to learn and use. 1. 4. The translates programs are two types namely compiler and interpreters High level languages are classified into two types. difficult to understand and so on new high level problem oriented languages were developed. Example: BASIC. since the programmer need not to write the entire small steps carried out by the computer. Better documentation: Higher level language is designed in such a way that its instructions may be written more like the language of the problem. This is a very valuable advantage because it means that a company changing computers even to one from a different manufacturer will not be required to rewrite all the programs that is currently using. when new machines are acquired.3. Easy to learn and use: These languages are very similar to the languages normally used by us in our day-to–day life. High level programs may be used with different makes of computer with little modification. he is much less likely to make an error. The programmer need not learn anything about the computer is going to use. FORTRAN. Namely. Writing a programming in high-level language does not require the knowledge of the internal structure of the computer.High level languages: To overcome the difficulties of low-level language such as machine dependency. ADVANTAGES OF HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES: 1. Specific purpose language General purpose language can be used to solve a wide variety of problems such as business problems. General purpose language 2. scientific problems. Such a programming languages have on extensive vocabulary of words and symbols which is English like and are used to instruct a computer to carry out the necessary procedures. The program that converts high-level language code into machine code is called translator. they are less flexible than assembly language. B C= A+B PRINT C STOP However a program in high-level language has to be converted to its equivalent machine language to be executed on a computer. regardless of the type of machine being used. DISADVANTAGES: 1. reprogramming expenses are greatly reduced. Lack of flexibility: Because the automatic feature of high-level languages always occur and are not under the control of the programmer. Example: A typical program in high level language to add two numbers may like 10 20 30 40 INPUT A. 5. and graphical applications and so on. 2. 3. Fewer Errors and easier modification: In case of high level languages. 6. 19 . Pascal and C Specific purpose languages can be used to solve only certain types of problems Example: COBOL. Modifications to a program can be easily done with little or no effort at all. Thus. Machine Independent: High-level languages are machine independent.

Assembler is a system program or translator program that translates (converts) inputs source program written in Assembly language into output object program that consist machine language binary code 0’s and 1’s. Differentiate between Assembly language and high level language Assembly language High level language 1 Mnemonic or symbolic instructions 1 English like statements 2 Machine dependent 2 Machine independent 3 Efficient 3 Less efficient It is not directly executed. TRANSLATOR: ASSEBLER: is a language translator for low-level language. Compiler Interpreter It takes entire high-level language program It takes one statement of a high level 1 as input and translates it into machine 1 language program as input and translates it language. but there is no immediate execution of instruction by instruction as in case of interpreter. Although interpreter & compiler are used for high-level language translations. INTEPRETER: An interpreter is a language translator (for system program) which translate input high level language program line by line (or instruction by instruction) into equivalent machine language instructions and immediately executes each instructions if they are free from errors (if there no grammatical or semantic mistakes) COMPILER: A compiler is a language translator which translate input high level language source program into equivalent machine level language program (called object program) the whole program is translated into equivalent machine level language if there are no syntax errors.2. Hence two steps. digits. punctuations and 1 1 some special symbols. write and debug Easy to understand. Such a languages are machine independent. INTERPRETER AND COMPLIER Interpreter and compliers are the language translators for high level languages. write. into machine language and executes it. Differentiate between a complier and interpreter. they differ in their operating mode. Machine language High level language Uses only two symbols 0(zero) and 1 (one) Uses alphabets. modify and 5 5 debug 6 Efficient (Fast) 6 Less efficient (slow) 7 Not standardized 7 Standardized Called as the first generation programming Called as the third generation 8 8 language programming language. First it should be It is also not directly executed. All errors that occur in the program are Errors that occur only in the statement 2 2 listed and displayed being taken for transaction are displayed 3 Debugging is faster 3 Debugging is slower 20 . It should 4 translated into machine language by the 4 be translated into machine language by process called assembly the process called compilation An assembler is used in translation process An interpreter or a complete is used in 5 5 translation process This is converted to machine readable from It is first converted into machine’s 6 in one step 6 assembly language and then into machine language. Each instructions is a sequence of 0’s and 1’s Each instruction is English like 2 2 statement 3 Can be directly executed 3 Cannot be directly executed 4 Machine independent 4 Machine independent Difficult to understand modify. Slower in execution: Runs slower due to generality of the statements and the fact that they are portable between different machines provide a suitable compiler is available.

my heart. which is designed to replicate itself by copying itself into other program stored in a computer. electronic spreads sheets and database of several popular software packages. iv. Luckily. i. Melissa.Require more memory 4 Require less memory Costlier 5 Cheaper Security of source code 6 No security of source code b. Many viruses do wired little things that are adversely affect your computer. File Virus: Either infect execution in various ways (parasitic-the most common type of virus). Viruses are usually very small programs that contain fragments of unique code. such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or it may corrupt a computers memory. Some antivirus programs are installed and run as you need them. It will check all files before they enter your computer and will alert you if a virus is detected before it contaminates your system. Computer viruses spread from machine to machine on disks and telephone lines. Once installed. 4 5 6 ANTIVIRUS Antivirus software is a special kind of program that is written to isolate or remove viruses from your computer. or change the pointer to achieve boot sector. Such a program will check all files for viruses.or use file system specific features(link virus) ii. If you are smart. Other more advanced antivirus can configured to automatically scan your computer for viruses and update them selves on a set schedule. Symantec and Panda software are consultancy scouting for new viruses and updating their anti-virus software tools. W32 and Michelangelo. How does a computer get a virus? Just as a human being virus is passed from person to person. It may have a negative effect. companies like MacAfee. Many viruses are spread through e-mail. Their very names give computer users a scare-klez. A virus can be attached to any file that you copy to your computer. DEFINITION OF VIRUS: A computer program. the first thing to do is to check for a virus. You can do this by purchasing a good virus protection program. Macro Virus: Infect document files. Boot Virus: Either save them selves in disk boot sector. your anti-virus program will quarantine or eliminate it so that it cannot harm your computer. iii. They use any of the growing arsenals of weapons to detect and fight viruses. Keep virus protection software up-to-date: New viruses are written everyday. virus spreading faster than ever. The only way to prevent their growth is trough public awareness of safe computing. If you download the files from the internet or copy programs or files from friends on floppy disks or pirated software. Antivirus companies then combine these ‘fingerprints’ into one large data base called ‘Virus definition’ 21 . you are very susceptive to viruses. TYPES OF VIRUS: Virus can be divided into classes according to the environment. Network Virus: Use protocols and commands of computer network or email to spread themselves. a computer virus passed from computer to computer. Prevention of virus before they attack: A computer virus can do extensive damage. OR A computer is simply a set of computer instructions or computer code that is written by some unscrupulous persons. If a virus is detected. If your computer starts to act a little wired. It seems that there are many people in the world we have a lot o time on their hands and slightly warped idea of ho to use their intelligence. an anti-virus program can be set to work in the background. or ‘Fingerprints’. This code fragments can be used as a method of identification. The most usual symptoms of a computer virus are erratic behavior. With the use of the internet and endless communication between computers. Computer Virus: Computer viruses are every where. or create file doubles (companion viruses). you will stop viruses before they enter your computer. or to the Master Boot Record.

Data base management system [DBMS]: DBMS is software. Most of the real world problems involve a huge amount of information to be collected. date of birth. and to process our paychecks. and retrieved and finally a report is generated. e. The student database may consist of the names of the students. If it finds a match. Hence data processing is a process that converts data into information. It may be small or big.g. generally a virus is present. which means facts. editions etc. As the hardware technology is developed. Computer security: Computers are every where in today’s society. price. publishers. Data processing by a computer is called Electronic Data processing (EDP). stored. Information is the processed data that is organized meaningful to the person receiving it. which helps the user to perform all related operations such as defining. retrieving and modifying information from a database. characters or symbols operated on by a computer.. Information is the processed data that is organized meaningful to the person receiving it. Telephone catalog is a database with the related data such as names. and retrieved and finally a report is generated. A database can be simple or complex. Input (Data) Process (Data processing) Output (Information) Database: A database is a collection of logically related data. Output (Data processing) (Information) Input (Data) 22 . Hence database is a collection of data that is organized and recorded in suitable format.When an antivirus programs scans computer for viruses. sorting. quantities. Hence database technology is one of the most rapidly growing areas of computer technology. stored. McAfee. Some of the popular antivirus software’s are semantic. which means facts. They are used to help control our telephone communication networks. Mistakes can lead some one to loose his/her savings overnight. Data and information: The word data is the plural of datum. Hence database technology is one of the most rapidly growing areas of computer technology. address. Data and information system plays an important role in everyday life. INTRODUCTION TO DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The computer is invented as a calculating machine to solve scientific problems. fees. Most of the real world problems involve a huge amount of information to be collected. As the hardware technology is developed. could lead to a loss of a life should an advance medical equipment malfunctions or could cause a plane to crash. The colleges may have their student database and library database. Process Hence data processing is a process that converts data into information. Data and information: The word data is the plural of datum. telephone numbers and address of the people. Data and information system plays an important role in everyday life. the role of computers gradually changed towards solving business problems. Hence DBMS is a software tool used INTRODUCTION TO DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The computer is invented as a calculating machine to solve scientific problems. Data processing by a computer is called Electronic Data processing (EDP). Dr Solomon and sophos. The computers play a big role and have a big responsibility. The library database may have the title of the books. the role of computers gradually changed towards solving business problems. authors. combination etc. it compares the contents of each file on your computer to its database of virus definition.

Hence DBMS is a software tool used to process data into useful information.Database: A database is a collection of logically related data. publishers. A DBMS allows different class of users to access and manipulate different portions of data in the database. Data sharing and multiple accesses: Since different users present at different physical locations. e. 2. The student database may consist of the names of the students. data must be sharable. fees. address. retrieving and modifying information from a database. Data base management system [DBMS]: DBMS is software. Hence database is a collection of data that is organized and recorded in suitable format. integrity. authors. The library database may have the title of the books. editions etc. A database can be simple or complex. Telephone catalog is a database with the related data such as names. A DBMS also ensures the security. sorting. Data consistency: 23 . which helps the user to perform all related operations such as defining. Advantages of data base management system 1. Data must be sharable since a large number of operations may be common to the different user groups. date of birth. price. telephone numbers and address of the people.g. It may be small or big. and privacy by providing a centralized control of database. The colleges may have their student database and library database. combination etc.

This software is called the micro-program.. Computer Software is divided into two types. 2) Application Software: This solves the problems for the user. Editor. The main aim of the operating system is to provide a proper environment in which the user can use the computer in an efficient manner.g. playing games and many other valuable activities. 24 . the application programs and the users.User N Application Program Compiler. e. the Hardware. with software a computer can perform a vide variety of operations such as storing information. which acts as an intermediary between the user of the computer& the computer Hardware. Windows.4 OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) For the proper functioning of a computer it is necessary that the Hardware and its corresponding Software work together with each other. spell checking. consisting of integrated circuits. Next lies the layer of primitive software. processing data and retrieving information. it is actually an interpreter. 1) System Software 2) Application Software 1) System Software: This manages the operations of the computer. Excel etc. Without Software a computer is a useless scrap of metal.CHAPTER . DOS. which the microprogram interprets. which directly controls the physical device and provides a neat interface to the next layer. User1 User2 ……………………………………………………………. e.g. the operating System. is called the machine language. Assembler. The micro-program is usually located only in the read only memory (ROM). Database Systems Operating System Computer Hardware System Structure System Structure: At the lowest level lies the Physical Device. A computer system can be roughly divided into four components. There cannot be any computer without an operating system to help in its functioning. The set of instructions. What is Operating System? An Operating System is a computer program. the power supply & other components of the system necessary for its functioning. Unix etc. which gets a machine language instruction & carries them as a series of small steps. Word-processing.

memory management and other important functions at the lower level. The Shell (COMMAND. MAIN FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEMS. The Shell (Command. The Operating System is also responsible to provide proper access controls so that users do no interfere with each other’s programs and also the operating system is restricted from unauthorized access. which concentrates on data as named files. 4) Controls storage space for their allocation and de-allocation. which are highly complex. Kernel : The Kernel is present in another hidden file MS-DOS.The layer above is the operating system. Simultaneously a number of other companies also started OS’s. compilers. various drives. DOS (DISK OPERATING SYSTEM) CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers) developed in 1974 by Gary kildal of Digital Research was the first most popular OS. which is used to boot the system one. memory management. The agreement was that IBM would use it as PC-DOS and Microsoft could sell it as MS-DOS. printers. The Operating System is a Guardian. Finally. Today’s computer is made up of a number of components such as processors. 3) Allocates peripherals to programs after checking their availability.sys is present in all MS-DOS Systems.COM): Most people feel the shell as the operating system but in reality it is not so.SYS. 2) Schedules and controls input and output operations and jobs. modems and so on. The file IO.com) i. which isolates MSDOS from details of the Hardware. above the entire system lie the application programs.. game playing or any other application. It mainly handles process management. memories. DIFFERENT VIEWS OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM 1) The Operating System as an extended machine. BIOS (Basic Input Output System) ii. The operating system also hides the user from a number of unpleasant tasks concerning interrupts. to perform a number of specialized tasks in a predefined order. Kernel contains the machine independent part of the Operating System. 1) Loads and Executes programs and Utilities. On the top of the operating system software includes command interpreters. MS-DOS created in 1980 became so popular that many companies started producing hardware for this software. The aim of the operating system is to provide an orderly controlled allocation of the various resources among the various programs competing for them. which isolates kernel from hardware details. The Operating System hides the internal details of the hardware from the programmer and presents him with a virtual system or view. co-processors. Kernel iii. The user creates these application programs and in his activities such as commercial data processing. 5) Supervises the overall operation of the computer. 2) The Operating system as a resource manager. Structure of MS-DOS MS-DOS is structured in three ways. 3) The Operating System as a Guardian and Accountant. network interfaces. BIOS: Contains a collection of low-level device drivers. This created a problem of incompatibility. iii. i. which are independent. in fact it is actually not a part of the operating system and can be 25 . and is loaded immediately after booting and contains a module. IBM at this time approached Bill Gates the owner of a small company called Microsoft to develop an OS similar to CP/M. editors and other similar programs. which hides the complexity present below and gives the user a convenient set of instructions to work with. The present day systems may have to perform more specialized tasks. file system and interpretation of all systems calls. timers. ii. Disk Operating System is so called because much of its work involves managing disks & disk files and also the fact that it physically reside on the disk.

except for one. How MS-DOS organizes Information? MS-DOS organizes information through files. which is called the root directory. which is inside your computer. directories and drives. Current Directory : The directory you are in is called the current directory. This program is automatically loaded into the memory when the computer is started. C :###BOT_TEXT###gt; Computer unit1 chapter1 unit2 Kannada Drives : Drives are usually associated with a piece of hardware called a disk. Some of these commands are in built into a program called as COMMAND. The root directory is the starting point from which all other directories braches out. The most common types of disks are the hard disk. These commands are provided as separate programs. and the floppy disk and compact disc. A drive is a grouping of all the directories on a disk. The root directory does not have a name. File : A file is collection of related information stored by DOS under a single name. Such commands are called as external commands. which you insert into slot in your computer. Each program represents a command. External Commands: DOS supports the use of about 45 additional commands. The file name consists of the root name (1 to 8 characters) also referred to as Primary name. Generally ‘A’ drive refers to as Floppy disk drive & ‘C’ drive refers to as Hard disk.replaced by the user program whenever the user programs need memory. A drive is named with a single letter. Root Directory : All directories are sub-directories. 1) Internal commands 2) External commands Internal Commands: DOS supports the user of about 25 commands. It is a command interpreter. Directories : A group of files can be stored under a unit called as a directory. Instead. 26 . C:\Computer> Sub-Directory : A directory within another directory is called a sub-directory. Such commands are called as internal commands. eg .) and the extension (1 to 3 characters). The flashing underscore next to the command prompt is called the cursor. To execute the command the name of the program has to be typed at the prompt along with its arguments. Command Prompt: C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;_ This is called command prompt. The cursor shows when the command you type will appear. it is represented by a backslash (\). a period(.COM. eg. These commands can be directly executed. The extension is optional. Storing groups of files in different directories makes files easier to find. DOS COMMANDS DOS commands can be classified into two types.

It does not remove the source file after writing the new file.. (go to the previous or parent directory) C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;tumkur>cd. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;copy con filename ------------------------. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;ver REN : This command renames a file on the disk. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; type filename DEL : This command is used to delete a file or a group of files from the disk. If an existing filename is given. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;cls PROMPT : This command is used to set your command prompt.^z Ctrl+Z (^Z) is used to save the file. C :###BOT_TEXT###gt; copy file1 file2 RD : Remove or delete a directory. It will also give you a serial number too.. You must empty the directory to be deleted first or you will just get an error message. Some of the other variations which can be used with the command are $$ adds a $ to your prompt $t states the date $p lists your current directory and drive letter $g the > character $l the < character $q the = character $b the | character $v adds your DOS version $n lists just your current drive 27 : . C :###BOT_TEXT###gt; COPY : Copy from one file to another file. If you use it by itself your prompt will change to just C> form C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;prompt $p$g Changes the prompt to the default type which include the path ($p) and the greater than symbol ($g) in it. It also places your cursor at the top left-hand corner of your screen also called the “home position”.INTERNAL COMMANDS DIR This command gives a listing of the files & directories on a disk. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;date TIME : This command lets you set your systems time. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;dir COPY CON : This command is used to create a new file. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;rd tumkur VER : This command tells us the version of DOS which we are using. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;del filename MD : Create or make a new directory C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;md tumkur CD : Change or moves the user from the current directory. then the previous file is lost. The old & new names have to be specified. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;cd tumkur C :###BOT_TEXT###gt; tumkur> CD. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;ren file1 newname VOL : This command tells you the volume label of your hard drive or floppy disk. TYPE : This command is used to display the contents of a text file to your screen. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;vol DATE : This command is used to display or change the system date. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;time CLS : Clear the screen.

The successful execution of the command deletes all the previous data and prepares the disk as if it is a new disk for use. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;attrib +r filename The options used in the syntax include. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; xcopy directory1 directory2 *~*~*~*~* 28 . C:###BOT_TEXT###gt;chkdsk[dirve name:] [/f] [/v] FORMAT : This command Prepares a diskette or drive for use by DOS. + sets an attribute clear an attribute R Read-only file attribute H Hidden file attribute CHKDSK : This command analyzes disk or diskette and displays a disk and memory status report.EXTERNAL COMMANDS ATTRIB : This command either Displays or Changes file attributes. including hidden system files if they are present C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; diskcopy A B XCOPY : This command is designed to copy the contents of entire directories. along with all of their sub-directories. and all of the files contained in those sub-directories. C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; format [drive name :] DISKCOPY: This command makes an exact copy of a diskette.