Perl version 5.12.

2 documentation - perlop

NAME
perlop - Perl operators and precedence

DESCRIPTION
Operator Precedence and Associativity
Operator precedence and associativity work in Perl more or less like they do in mathematics. Operator precedence means some operators are evaluated before others. For example, in 2 + 4 * 5, the multiplication has higher precedence so 4 * 5 is evaluated first yielding 2 + 20 == 22 and not 6 * 5 == 30. Operator associativity defines what happens if a sequence of the same operators is used one after another: whether the evaluator will evaluate the left operations first or the right. For example, in 8 4 - 2, subtraction is left associative so Perl evaluates the expression left to right. 8 - 4 is evaluated first making the expression 4 - 2 == 2 and not 8 - 2 == 6. Perl operators have the following associativity and precedence, listed from highest precedence to lowest. Operators borrowed from C keep the same precedence relationship with each other, even where C's precedence is slightly screwy. (This makes learning Perl easier for C folks.) With very few exceptions, these all operate on scalar values only, not array values. left terms and list operators (leftward) left -> nonassoc ++ -right ** right ! ~ \ and unary + and left =~ !~ left * / % x left + - . left << >> nonassoc named unary operators nonassoc < > <= >= lt gt le ge nonassoc == != <=> eq ne cmp ~~ left & left | ^ left && left || // nonassoc .. ... right ?: right = += -= *= etc. left , => nonassoc list operators (rightward) right not left and left or xor In the following sections, these operators are covered in precedence order. Many operators can be overloaded for objects. See overload.

Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
A TERM has the highest precedence in Perl. They include variables, quote and quote-like operators, any expression in parentheses, and any function whose arguments are parenthesized. Actually, there aren't really functions in this sense, just list operators and unary operators behaving as functions because you put parentheses around the arguments. These are all documented in perlfunc. If any list operator (print(), etc.) or any unary operator (chdir(), etc.) is followed by a left parenthesis as http://perldoc.perl.org Page 1

Perl version 5.12.2 documentation - perlop the next token, the operator and arguments within parentheses are taken to be of highest precedence, just like a normal function call. In the absence of parentheses, the precedence of list operators such as print, sort, or chmod is either very high or very low depending on whether you are looking at the left side or the right side of the operator. For example, in @ary = (1, 3, sort 4, 2); print @ary; # prints 1324 the commas on the right of the sort are evaluated before the sort, but the commas on the left are evaluated after. In other words, list operators tend to gobble up all arguments that follow, and then act like a simple TERM with regard to the preceding expression. Be careful with parentheses: # These evaluate exit before doing the print: print($foo, exit); # Obviously not what you want. print $foo, exit; # Nor is this. # These do the print before evaluating exit: (print $foo), exit; # This is what you want. print($foo), exit; # Or this. print ($foo), exit; # Or even this. Also note that print ($foo & 255) + 1, "\n"; probably doesn't do what you expect at first glance. The parentheses enclose the argument list for print which is evaluated (printing the result of $foo & 255). Then one is added to the return value of print (usually 1). The result is something like this: 1 + 1, "\n"; # Obviously not what you meant.

To do what you meant properly, you must write: print(($foo & 255) + 1, "\n"); See Named Unary Operators for more discussion of this. Also parsed as terms are the do {} and eval {} constructs, as well as subroutine and method calls, and the anonymous constructors [] and {}. See also Quote and Quote-like Operators toward the end of this section, as well as I/O Operators.

The Arrow Operator
"->" is an infix dereference operator, just as it is in C and C++. If the right side is either a [...], {...}, or a (...) subscript, then the left side must be either a hard or symbolic reference to an array, a hash, or a subroutine respectively. (Or technically speaking, a location capable of holding a hard reference, if it's an array or hash reference being used for assignment.) See perlreftut and perlref . Otherwise, the right side is a method name or a simple scalar variable containing either the method name or a subroutine reference, and the left side must be either an object (a blessed reference) or a class name (that is, a package name). See perlobj.

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Perl version 5.12.2 documentation - perlop

Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
"++" and "--" work as in C. That is, if placed before a variable, they increment or decrement the variable by one before returning the value, and if placed after, increment or decrement after returning the value. $i = 0; $j = 0; print $i++; # prints 0 print ++$j; # prints 1 Note that just as in C, Perl doesn't define when the variable is incremented or decremented. You just know it will be done sometime before or after the value is returned. This also means that modifying a variable twice in the same statement will lead to undefined behaviour. Avoid statements like: $i = $i ++; print ++ $i + $i ++; Perl will not guarantee what the result of the above statements is. The auto-increment operator has a little extra builtin magic to it. If you increment a variable that is numeric, or that has ever been used in a numeric context, you get a normal increment. If, however, the variable has been used in only string contexts since it was set, and has a value that is not the empty string and matches the pattern /^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/, the increment is done as a string, preserving each character within its range, with carry: print print print print ++($foo ++($foo ++($foo ++($foo = = = = '99'); 'a0'); 'Az'); 'zz'); # # # # prints prints prints prints '100' 'a1' 'Ba' 'aaa'

undef is always treated as numeric, and in particular is changed to 0 before incrementing (so that a post-increment of an undef value will return 0 rather than undef). The auto-decrement operator is not magical.

Exponentiation
Binary "**" is the exponentiation operator. It binds even more tightly than unary minus, so -2**4 is -(2**4), not (-2)**4. (This is implemented using C's pow(3) function, which actually works on doubles internally.)

Symbolic Unary Operators
Unary "!" performs logical negation, i.e., "not". See also not for a lower precedence version of this. Unary "-" performs arithmetic negation if the operand is numeric. If the operand is an identifier, a string consisting of a minus sign concatenated with the identifier is returned. Otherwise, if the string starts with a plus or minus, a string starting with the opposite sign is returned. One effect of these rules is that -bareword is equivalent to the string "-bareword". If, however, the string begins with a non-alphabetic character (excluding "+" or "-"), Perl will attempt to convert the string to a numeric and the arithmetic negation is performed. If the string cannot be cleanly converted to a numeric, Perl will give the warning Argument "the string" isn't numeric in negation (-) at .... Unary "~" performs bitwise negation, i.e., 1's complement. For example, 0666 & ~027 is 0640. (See also Integer Arithmetic and Bitwise String Operators.) Note that the width of the result is platform-dependent: ~0 is 32 bits wide on a 32-bit platform, but 64 bits wide on a 64-bit platform, so if you are expecting a certain bit width, remember to use the & operator to mask off the excess bits. Unary "+" has no effect whatsoever, even on strings. It is useful syntactically for separating a function name from a parenthesized expression that would otherwise be interpreted as the complete list of http://perldoc.perl.org Page 3

the return value generally indicates the success of the operation. # a list of 80 1's @ones = (5) x @ones. "%" gives you direct access to the modulo operator as implemented by your C compiler. which it will consider a syntax error. it repeats the list. substituted. then $a % $b is $a minus the largest multiple of $b less than or equal to $a. # set all elements to 5 http://perldoc. If the right operand is zero or negative. only the integer portion of $a and $b will be used in the operation (Note: here UV_MAX means the maximum of the unsigned integer type). Binary "!~" is just like "=~" except the return value is negated in the logical sense. or transliteration. "%" computes the floating-point remainder $r in the equation ($r = $a . it returns a string consisting of the left operand repeated the number of times specified by the right operand. substitution. substitution. This operator is not as well defined for negative operands. Multiplicative Operators Binary "*" multiplies two numbers. depending on the context. it is interpreted as a search pattern at run time.perl. # tab over @ones = (1) x 80. Note that when use integer is in scope. # print row of dashes print "\t" x ($tab/8). although both forms do convey the notion of protecting the next thing from interpolation. Note that this means that its contents will be interpolated twice. The right argument is a search pattern. In list context. which computes the division remainder of its first argument with respect to its second argument.org Page 4 . In scalar context or if the left operand is not enclosed in parentheses. If the absolute value of the right operand (abs($b)) is greater than or equal to (UV_MAX + 1). If the right argument is an expression rather than a search pattern.2 documentation . or transliterated instead of the default $_. Binary "%" is the modulo operator. If the operands $a and $b are floating point values and the absolute value of $b (that is abs($b)) is less than (UV_MAX + 1). Certain operations search or modify the string $_ by default. Binary "/" divides two numbers. Binding Operators Binary "=~" binds a scalar expression to a pattern match. if the left operand is enclosed in parentheses or is a list formed by qw/STRING/. See Regexp Quote-Like Operators for details and perlretut for examples using these operators. (See examples above under Terms and List Operators (Leftward). Given integer operands $a and $b: If $b is positive. Behavior in list context depends on the particular operator. See perlreftut and perlref.$i*$b) where $i is a certain integer that makes $r have the same sign as the right operand $b (not as the left operand $a like C function fmod()) and the absolute value less than that of $b.) Unary "###BOT_TEXT###quot; creates a reference to whatever follows it. Do not confuse this behavior with the behavior of backslash within a string. so '\' =~ q'\'.12. but it will execute faster. print '-' x 80. it returns an empty string or an empty list. ' ' x ($tab%8).Perl version 5. This operator makes that kind of operation work on some other string.e. When used in scalar context. as the regex engine will end up trying to compile the pattern \. is not ok. If $b is negative. or transliteration. The left argument is what is supposed to be searched. the result will be less than or equal to zero). Binary "x" is the repetition operator. then $a % $b is $a minus the smallest multiple of $b that is not less than $a (i.perlop function arguments.

(See also Integer Arithmetic. See also Terms and List Operators (Leftward).perlop Additive Operators Binary "+" returns the sum of two numbers. # (rand 10) * 20 rand (10) * 20.) is followed by a left parenthesis as the next token.". Arguments should be integers.bak". are treated like named unary operators. The result of overflowing the range of the integers is undefined because it is undefined also in C. else unsigned C integers are used.org Page 5 . Arguments should be integers.) Note that both "<<" and ">>" in Perl are implemented directly using "<<" and ">>" in C. because named unary operators are higher precedence than ||: chdir $foo chdir($foo) chdir ($foo) chdir +($foo) || || || || die. # # # # (chdir (chdir (chdir (chdir $foo) $foo) $foo) $foo) || || || || die die die die but. etc. # rand (10 * 20) rand(10) * 20. but they don't follow this functional parenthesis rule.perl. die. For example. for example. If use integer (see Integer Arithmetic) is in force then signed C integers are used. the filetest operators. # (chdir $foo) * 20 chdir +($foo) * 20.bak" is equivalent to -f "$file. Shifting by a negative number of bits is also undefined. that -f($file). Shift Operators Binary "<<" returns the value of its left argument shifted left by the number of bits specified by the right argument.) Binary ">>" returns the value of its left argument shifted right by the number of bits specified by the right argument. http://perldoc. -M. In other words. # chdir ($foo * 20) rand 10 * 20. If any list operator (print(). # (rand 10) * 20 rand +(10) * 20. Binary ".2 documentation . the operator and arguments within parentheses are taken to be of highest precedence.12. with optional parentheses.Perl version 5. just like a normal function call. (See also Integer Arithmetic. etc. Binary "-" returns the difference of two numbers. 1 << 32 is undefined. the implementation isn't going to generate results larger than the size of the integer type Perl was built with (32 bits or 64 bits). Named Unary Operators The various named unary operators are treated as functions with one argument. # rand (10 * 20) Regarding precedence. like -f." concatenates two strings. etc. Relational Operators Binary "<" returns true if the left argument is numerically less than the right argument. # (chdir $foo) * 20 chdir ($foo) * 20.) or any unary operator (chdir(). because * is higher precedence than named operators: chdir $foo * 20. die. die. using 32-bit integers. That means. Either way. # chdir ($foo * 20) chdir($foo) * 20.

NaN != NaN returns true. ">". 0. Binary ">=" returns true if the left argument is numerically greater than or equal to the right argument.) Binary "^" returns its operands XORed together bit by bit. Binary "ne" returns true if the left argument is stringwise not equal to the right argument.perl. "le". Binary "le" returns true if the left argument is stringwise less than or equal to the right argument. (See also Integer Arithmetic and Bitwise String Operators. 0.org Page 6 . Smart matching is described in "Smart matching in detail" in perlsyn. "==". or 1 depending on whether the left argument is stringwise less than. or greater than the right argument. Binary "cmp" returns -1. If your platform supports NaNs (not-a-numbers) as numeric values. or greater than the right argument. "gt" and "cmp" use the collation (sort) order specified by the current locale if use locale is in effect.) Note that "|" and "^" have lower priority than relational operators.2 documentation . (See also Integer Arithmetic and Bitwise String Operators. Binary "gt" returns true if the left argument is stringwise greater than the right argument. Binary "ge" returns true if the left argument is stringwise greater than or equal to the right argument. so for example the brackets are essential in a test like print "false\n" if (8 | 2) != 10. Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or Binary "|" returns its operands ORed together bit by bit. Binary "!=" returns true if the left argument is numerically not equal to the right argument.) Note that "&" has lower priority than relational operators.Perl version 5. Equality Operators Binary "==" returns true if the left argument is numerically equal to the right argument. NaN is not "<". using them with "<=>" returns undef. perl -le '$a = "NaN". Binary "<=" returns true if the left argument is numerically less than or equal to the right argument. If your platform doesn't support NaNs then NaN is just a string with numeric value 0. or 1 depending on whether the left argument is numerically less than.perlop Binary ">" returns true if the left argument is numerically greater than the right argument. Binary "lt" returns true if the left argument is stringwise less than the right argument. "<=" or ">=" anything (even NaN). equal to. "ge". http://perldoc. Binary "~~" does a smart match between its arguments. so for example the brackets are essential in a test like print "Even\n" if ($x & 1) == 0. print "NaN support here" if $a != $a' Binary "eq" returns true if the left argument is stringwise equal to the right argument. equal to. so those 5 return false. Bitwise And Binary "&" returns its operands ANDed together bit by bit. print "No NaN support here" if $a == $a' perl -le '$a = "NaN". "lt". Binary "<=>" returns -1. (See also Integer Arithmetic and Bitwise String Operators. as does NaN != anything else. See perllocale.12.

12. next LINE. # this works fine. C-style Logical Or Binary "||" performs a short-circuit logical OR operation. if the left operand is false. but older versions of Perl might burn a lot of memory when you write something like this: for (1 . "gamma") || (gripe(). Thus. though As more readable alternatives to && and || when used for control flow. If the left value is greater than the right value then it returns the empty list. Thus. # this is wrong @a = scalar(@b) || @c. # really meant this @a = @b ? @b : @c. "gamma" or gripe(). 1_000_000) { http://perldoc. if the left operand is true. "beta". In the current implementation. Range Operators Binary ". If you actually want to test if at least one of $a and $b is defined. "beta".perlop C-style Logical And Binary "&&" performs a short-circuit logical AND operation... so that you can safely use them after a list operator without the need for parentheses: unlink "alpha". Scalar or list context propagates down to the right operand if it is evaluated.perl.Perl version 5. That is. With the C-style operators that would have been written like this: unlink("alpha". Perl provides the and and or operators (see below). // and && operators return the last value evaluated (unlike C's || and &&. C-style Logical Defined-Or Although it has no direct equivalent in C. Using "or" for assignment is unlikely to do what you want. Scalar or list context propagates down to the right operand if it is evaluated. however.org Page 7 . In list context. a reasonably portable way to find out the home directory might be: $home = $ENV{'HOME'} // $ENV{'LOGDIR'} // (getpwuid($<))[7] // die "You're homeless!\n". The range operator is useful for writing foreach (1.10) loops and for doing slice operations on arrays. The ||.. the right operand is not even evaluated." is the range operator. no temporary array is created when the range operator is used as the expression in foreach loops. which return 0 or 1). Perl's // operator is related to its C-style or. which is really two different operators depending on the context. see below. this means that you shouldn't use this for selecting between two aggregates for assignment: @a = @b || @c. In fact. In particular.2 documentation . next LINE). That is. The short-circuit behavior is identical. the right operand is not even evaluated. it returns a list of values counting (up by ones) from the left value to the right value. except that it tests the left hand side's definedness instead of its truth. it's exactly the same as ||. $a // $b is similar to defined($a) || $b (except that it returns the value of $a rather than the value of defined($a)) and is exactly equivalent to defined($a) ? $a : $b. The precedence of "and" and "or" is much lower. This is very useful for providing default values for variables. use defined($a // $b).

.. but it still returns true once.perl. It doesn't become false till the next time the range operator is evaluated.. but gives you something to search for if you want to exclude the endpoint. == 200) { print. just use three dots (". but that is only an issue if you use a floating point expression.. } # print 2nd hundred lines. 3. the comparison is int(EXPR) == int($. # parse mail messages while (<>) { $in_header = 1 . $in_body = /^$/ . awk.. /^$/).Perl version 5. To be pedantic. which doesn't affect its numeric value. short for # next LINE if ($. or a sequence number (beginning with 1) for true. If you don't want it to test the right operand until the next evaluation. eof()). eof.. that operand is considered true if it is equal ( ==) to the current input line number (the $. 200) { print." is a constant expression.. If either operand of scalar ".18 . each file Page 8 .org # reset $. AFTER which the range operator becomes false again. The precedence is a little lower than || and &&." does." returns a boolean value. Examples: As a scalar operator: if (101 . Each ". is set to a floating point value and you are not reading from a file.14 will not do what you want in scalar context because each of the operands are evaluated using their integer representation. and emulates the line-range (comma) operator of sed. see below. "spat" or 2.. $. In all other regards. even across calls to a subroutine that contains it. and the left operand is not evaluated while the operator is in the "true" state. and various editors.12.. You can exclude the beginning point by waiting for the sequence number to be greater than 1.. The final sequence number in a range has the string "E0" appended to it. # skip header lines. The right operand is not evaluated while the operator is in the "false" state. # (typically in a loop labeled LINE) # quote body s/^/> / if (/^$/ . It can test the right operand and become false on the same evaluation it became true (as in awk). The value returned is either the empty string for false.... if ($in_header) { # do something } else { # in body # do something else } } continue { close ARGV if eof. the range operator stays true until the right operand is true. as described in the previous paragraph. when implicitly using $. /^$/). The sequence number is reset for each range encountered. == 1 .) which is only an issue when $.") instead of two. Furthermore. The operator is bistable.perlop # code } The range operator also works on strings. as in sed." behaves just like ". ". "span" . "." operator maintains its own boolean state. Once the left operand is true. http://perldoc... the comparison is actually int(EXPR) == int(EXPR). /^$/.. == 101 . short for # if ($. In scalar context. } next LINE if (1 . using the magical auto-increment.2 documentation . like a flip-flop. variable).. It is false as long as its left operand is false.

} } This program will print only the line containing "Bar". http://perldoc... You can say @alphabet = ('A' . If the initial value specified isn't part of a magical increment sequence (that is. .. the sequence goes until the next value would be longer than the final value specified.. Bar". 2. 'Z'). my @greek_small = ("\N{alpha}" . /1/) { print "$_\n". '31')..2 documentation . 9. use this instead: my @greek_small = ). to get a hexadecimal digit. # slice last 5 items The range operator (in list context) makes use of the magical auto-increment algorithm if the operands are strings. $#foo].. foreach (@lines) { if (/0/ ... Baz". to get all normal letters of the English alphabet. a non-empty string matching "/^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/").18 . } # print $_ 100 times @foo = @foo[0 . to get dates with leading zeros.Perl version 5.12. 3.. And now some examples as a list operator: for (101 . it will also print the "Baz" line. only the initial value will be returned. If the final value specified is not in the sequence that the magical increment would produce..14 will return two elements in list context. To get lower-case greek letters. ord("\N{omega}") print $z2[$mday].perlop } Here's a simple example to illustrate the difference between the two range operators: @lines = (" "01 "1 " Foo".. or @z2 = ('01' . "\N{omega}").org Page 9 map { chr } ( ord("\N{alpha}") . or $hexdigit = (0 . 'f')[$num & 15]. 200) { print. Quux"). Because each operand is evaluated in integer form. If the range operator is changed to ... $#foo].perl. # an expensive no-op @foo = @foo[$#foo-4 .. So the following will only return an alpha: use charnames 'greek'. 'a' .

Other assignment operators work similarly. $a += 2. $a = $ok ? @b : @c.12. the argument before the : is returned. For example: printf "I have %d dog%s. 3). such as from tie(). $n. For example. It works much like an if-then-else. Conditional Operator Ternary "?:" is the conditional operator. Scalar or list context propagates downward into the 2nd or 3rd argument.. $a = $ok ? $b : $c. otherwise the argument after the : is returned. @a = $ok ? @b : @c. The following are recognized: **= += -= . If the argument before the ? is true. ($n == 1) ? '' : "s". # get a scalar # get an array # oops. Because this operator produces an assignable result. Assignment operators work as in C.perl.= *= /= %= x= &= |= ^= <<= >>= &&= ||= //= Page 10 http://perldoc. whichever is selected. 3. this: $a % 2 ? $a += 10 : $a += 2 Really means this: (($a % 2) ? ($a += 10) : $a) += 2 Rather than this: ($a % 2) ? ($a += 10) : ($a += 2) That should probably be written more simply as: $a += ($a % 2) ? 10 : 2.\n".2 documentation . # same as @list = (2 .14). That is. using assignments without parentheses will get you in trouble. Assignment Operators "=" is the ordinary assignment operator.perlop @list = (2.. that's just a count! The operator may be assigned to if both the 2nd and 3rd arguments are legal lvalues (meaning that you can assign to them): ($a_or_b ? $a : $b) = $c.18 . although without duplicating any side effects that dereferencing the lvalue might trigger. is equivalent to $a = $a + 2.org .Perl version 5. just as in C.

$a *= 3. 23). This is just like C's comma operator. is equivalent to: my %h = ("FOO". constants. and other paired elements in lists. is equivalent to $a += 2. This includes operands that might otherwise be interpreted as operators. the => operator behaves exactly as the comma operator or list argument separator. 23)." is the comma operator. If in doubt about this behaviour. they all have the precedence of assignment. The => operator is a synonym for the comma except that it causes its left operand to be interpreted as a string if it begins with a letter or underscore and is composed only of letters. http://perldoc.2 documentation .12. %hash = ( $key => $value ). a list assignment in list context produces the list of lvalues assigned to. For example: use constant FOO => "something". This is useful for modifying a copy of something. my %h = ( FOO => 23 ). the left operand can be quoted explicitly.perlop Although these are grouped by family. It is NOT: my %h = ("something". then evaluates its right argument and returns that value. Modifying an assignment is equivalent to doing the assignment and then modifying the variable that was assigned to. Likewise. it's just the list argument separator. according to context.Perl version 5. Similarly. the scalar assignment operator produces a valid lvalue.org Page 11 .perl. These arguments are also evaluated from left to right. throws that value away. Comma Operator Binary ". single number v-strings or function calls. like this: ($tmp = $global) =~ tr [A-Z] [a-z]. In list context. Unlike in C. digits and underscores. and a list assignment in scalar context returns the number of elements produced by the expression on the right hand side of the assignment. Otherwise. The => operator is helpful in documenting the correspondence between keys and values in hashes. In scalar context it evaluates its left argument. and inserts both its arguments into the list. ($a += 2) *= 3. login( $username => $password ).

Now the yada yada works: my @transformed = map {........ These examples of the yada yada are still syntax errors: print . . disambiguates http://perldoc. '/dev/passwd' or ...12. } eval { unimplemented() }... } @input. For instance. .. sub foo { my( $self ) = shift. open my($fh). These examples of the yada yada work: { . The yada yada cannot stand in for an expression that is part of a larger statement since the .Perl version 5.. In that case... . } You can only use the yada yada to stand in for a complete statement.. } do { my $n... is the yada yada because it's expecting an expression instead of a statement: my @transformed = map { .perlop Yada Yada Operator The yada yada operator (noted .... } sub foo { . it throws an exception with the text Unimplemented: sub unimplemented { .. the syntax for a block and an anonymous hash reference constructor look the same unless there's something in the braces that give Perl a hint. # ... if( $condition && . it doesn't think the .. is also the three-dot version of the range operator (see Range Operators). ) { print "Hello\n" }..) is a placeholder for code...org Page 12 . if( $@ eq 'Unimplemented' ) { print "I found the yada yada!\n"... } is a block. # syntax error You can use a .. } @input. The yada yada is a syntax error if Perl doesn't guess that the { . eval { .. '>'.. }.perl....2 documentation . } is a block and not a hash reference constructor. print 'Hurrah!' }. Perl parses it without error. inside your block to denote that the { . but when you try to execute a yada yada... There are some cases where Perl can't immediately tell the difference between an expression and a statement. } ..

# oops. } @input.. Logical Not Unary "not" returns the logical negation of the expression to its right. It's equivalent to && except for the very low precedence.12. when it's a list-context assignment and you're trying to use "||" for control flow. (But see the "###BOT_TEXT###quot; operator for taking a reference. This makes it useful for control flow print FH $data or die "Can't write to FH: $!". It cannot short circuit. Logical And Binary "and" returns the logical conjunction of the two surrounding expressions. Then again.. @info = stat($file) or die.e. and Exclusive Or Binary "or" returns the logical disjunction of the two surrounding expressions. Binary "xor" returns the exclusive-OR of the two surrounding expressions. # better written this way However.. # bug: this is wrong ($a = $b) or $c. # . which may be used to evaluate calls to list operators without the need for extra parentheses: open HANDLE. you could always use parentheses. %. now @info gets its due C Operators Missing From Perl Here is what C has that Perl doesn't: unary & Address-of operator. This means that it short-circuits: i.org Page 13 . "or". only for control flow.) unary * Dereference-address operator. such that it controls all comma-separated expressions found there. It's the equivalent of "!" except for the very low precedence. The only operators with lower precedence are the logical operators "and". you should probably avoid using this for assignment.perlop my @transformed = map { .perl. the right expression is evaluated only if the left expression is false. you probably need "or" so that the assignment takes higher precedence. Defined or.. and "not". See also discussion of list operators in Terms and List Operators (Leftward). Due to its precedence. Logical or. @info = stat($file) || die. (Perl's prefix dereferencing operators are typed: $.e.2 documentation .. the right expression is evaluated only if the left expression is true. scalar sense of stat! # better. of course. This means that it short-circuits: i. disambiguates List Operators (Rightward) On the right side of a list operator. $a = $b or $c. and &.) http://perldoc. @. It's equivalent to || except for the very low precedence. it has very low precedence. "filename" or die "Can't open: $!\n".Perl version 5. # really means this $a = $b || $c.

curly) will all nest. Quote and Quote-like Operators While we usually think of quotes as literal values. except when # is being used as the quoting character.org Page 14 . \t tab (HT. Non-bracketing delimiters use the same character fore and aft. square. The following escape sequences are available in constructs that interpolate and in transliterations. while q #foo# is the operator q followed by a comment.. # WRONG is a syntax error. angle. and starting from Perl 5.perlop (TYPE) Type-casting operator. q#foo# is parsed as the string foo. however. This allows you to write: s {foo} {bar} # Replace foo # with bar. }. a {} represents any pair of delimiters you choose. in Perl they function as operators.12. TAB) \n newline (NL) \r return (CR) \f form feed (FF) \b backspace (BS) \a alarm (bell) (BEL) \e escape (ESC) ###BOT_TEXT###33 octal char (example: ESC) http://perldoc. providing various kinds of interpolating and pattern matching capabilities. There can be whitespace between the operator and the quoting characters.. which means that q{foo{bar}baz} is the same as 'foo{bar}baz' Note. Perl provides customary quote characters for these behaviors. Its argument will be taken from the next line. but also provides a way for you to choose your quote character for any of them.8 part of the standard distribution) is able to do this properly. In the following table. Customary Generic Meaning Interpolates '' q{} Literal no "" qq{} Literal yes `` qx{} Command yes* qw{} Word list no // m{} Pattern match yes* qr{} Pattern yes* s{}{} Substitution yes* tr{}{} Transliteration no (but see below) <<EOF here-doc yes* * unless the delimiter is ''. The Text::Balanced module (from CPAN.Perl version 5.2 documentation . that this does not always work for quoting Perl code: $s = q{ if($a eq "}") . but the four sorts of brackets (round.perl.

Subscripted variables such as $a[3] or $href->{key}[0] are also interpolated. @array. separated by the value of $". The most interesting range is from '@' to '_' (0x40 through 0x5F). device drivers. variables beginning with "$" or "@" are interpolated. In general. even without braces. For documentation of \N{name}. (\v does have meaning in regular expression patterns in Perl. you may be burned some day. see perlre. For example. '

. A '?' maps to the DEL character. and @. Not all systems read "\r" as ASCII CR and "\n" as ASCII LF.) The following escape sequences are available in constructs that interpolate. as are array and hash slices. If Unicode (for example. For example. Perl has no \v escape sequence for the vertical tab (VT ASCII 11). called a "newline". on a Mac. You'll need to write something like m/\Quser\E\@\Qhost/. but special arrays @_. but you may use \ck or \x0b. Interpolating an array or slice interpolates the elements in order. \l \u \L \U \E \Q lowercase next char uppercase next char lowercase till \E uppercase till \E end case modification quote non-word characters till \E If use locale is in effect. use "\n" when you mean a "newline" for your system. but not in transliterations. most networking protocols expect and prefer a CR+LF ("###BOT_TEXT###15###BOT_TEXT###12" or "\cM\cJ") for line terminators. the case map used by \l. and on systems without line terminator. '^'. resulting in a control character from 0x00 through 0x1F.Perl version 5. All systems use the virtual "\n" to represent a line terminator. If you get in the habit of using "\n" for networking. \L. On EBCDIC systems only '@'. the letters. while escaping will cause the literal string \$ to be inserted. It is only an illusion that the operating system. C libraries. \N{U+wide hex char} means the Unicode character whose Unicode ordinal number is wide hex char. resulting in 0x00 through 0x1F and 0x7F. @+.perlop \x1b hex char (example: ESC) \x{263a} wide hex char (example: SMILEY) \c[ control char (example: ESC) \N{name} named Unicode character \N{U+263D} Unicode character (example: FIRST QUARTER MOON) The character following \c is mapped to some other character by converting letters to upper case and then (on ASCII systems) by inverting the 7th bit (0x40). printing "\n" may emit no actual data. "Punctuation" arrays such as @* are only interpolated if the name is enclosed in braces @{*}. and Perl all conspire to preserve. ']'.perl. \u and \U is as defined by Unicode. But method calls such as $obj->meth are not. but use the literal ASCII when you need an exact character.org Page 15 . An unescaped $ or @ interpolates the corresponding variable. they seldom tolerate just "###BOT_TEXT###15". the case map used by \l. physical newline character. see charnames. See perllocale. For constructs that do interpolate. so is equivalent to interpolating join $". '['. so that regular expressions may be incorporated into http://perldoc.2 documentation . NOTE: Unlike C and other languages. Patterns are subject to an additional level of interpretation as a regular expression. and although they often accept just "###BOT_TEXT###12". these are reversed. You cannot include a literal $ or @ within a \Q sequence. after variables are interpolated. There is no such thing as an unvarying. \u and \U is taken from the current locale. '_' and '?' will work. \L. \N{} or wide hex characters of 0x100 or beyond) is being used.are interpolated.12. This is done as a second pass.

s/$rex/foo/. } Precompilation of the pattern into an internal representation at the moment of qr() avoids a need to recompile the pattern every time a match /$pat/ is attempted. no interpolation is done. qr/STRING/msixpo This operator quotes (and possibly compiles) its STRING as a regular expression.STRING) . The returned value is a normalized version of the original pattern.) Options are: m Treat string as multiple lines. Regexp Quote-Like Operators Here are the quote-like operators that apply to pattern matching and related activities. In particular. $string =~ /foo${re}bar/.12. If "'" is used as the delimiter. If this is not what you want. print $rex. # or this way Since Perl may compile the pattern at the moment of execution of qr() operator. For example.org Page 16 # prints (?si-xm:my. nor do single quotes impede evaluation of variables when used within double quotes. last if /$pat/. @$patterns. back-quotes do NOT interpolate within double quotes. grep { my $success = 0. $rex = qr/my. even though dereferencing the result returns undef. } $success. s Treat string as single line. but none would be triggered in the above example if we did not use qr() operator.perlop the pattern from the variables. # can be interpolated in other patterns $string =~ $re.Perl version 5. STRING is interpolated the same way as PATTERN in m/PATTERN/. } @_.STRING/is. (Perl has many other internal optimizations.2 documentation .perl.STRING/foo/is. (Make . The result may be used as a subpattern in a match: $re = qr/$pattern/. my @compiled = map qr/$_/i. Returns a Perl value which may be used instead of the corresponding /STRING/msixpo expression. contrary to the expectations of shell programmers. foreach my $pat (@compiled) { $success = 1. is equivalent to s/my. Perl does not expand multiple levels of interpolation. notably if the result of qr() is used standalone: sub match { my $patterns = shift. match a newline) http://perldoc. use \Q to interpolate a variable literally. It magically differs from a string containing the same characters: ref(qr/x/) returns "Regexp". using qr() may have speed advantages in some situations. # or used standalone $string =~ /$re/. Apart from the behavior described above.

perlop i Do case-insensitive pattern matching. being restricted to those patterns explicitly using it. the $_ string is searched.the other flags are taken from the original pattern. only the g and c flags on the empty pattern is honoured . the following match process modifiers are available: g Match globally. add a /o after the trailing delimiter.. In all of these examples. in addition. ${^MATCH}.) See also perlre. but some pathological cases might trigger this. this will (silently) act instead as a genuine empty pattern (which will always match). With the m you can use any pair of non-whitespace characters as delimiters. See perlre for additional information on valid syntax for STRING. such as $a/// (is that ($a) / (//) or $a // /?) and print $fh // (print $fh(// or print($fh //?). x Use extended regular expressions.perl. This avoids expensive run-time recompilations. and for a detailed look at the semantics of regular expressions. (Note that $(. false if it fails. find all occurrences. but remember the =~ binds rather tightly. The effect of the 'o' modifier has is not propagated.org Page 17 . See also qr/STRING/msixpo. Perl is usually pretty good about this. Note that it's possible to confuse Perl into thinking // (the empty regex) is really // (the defined-or operator). o Compile pattern only once. except for when the delimiter is a single quote. If a precompiled pattern is embedded in a larger pattern then the effect of 'msixp' will be propagated appropriately. to avoid LTS (leaning toothpick syndrome).) If you want such a pattern to be compiled only once. If no string is specified via the =~ or !~ operator. PATTERN may contain variables. no interpolation is performed on the PATTERN. which will be interpolated (and the pattern recompiled) every time the pattern search is evaluated. (The string specified with =~ need not be an lvalue--it may be the result of an expression evaluation. $). Options are as described in qr//. If "/" is the delimiter then the initial m is optional. just use parentheses or spaces to disambiguate. If "'" is the delimiter. m/PATTERN/msixpogc /PATTERN/msixpogc Searches a string for a pattern match. If you change them. ${^POSTMATCH} will be defined. i. In this case. or even prefix the empty regex with an m (so // becomes http://perldoc. When using a character valid in an identifier. then the match-only-once rule of ?PATTERN? applies. See perllocale for discussion of additional considerations that apply when use locale is in effect. and is useful when the value you are interpolating won't change over the life of the script. c Do not reset search position on a failed match when /g is in effect. This is particularly useful for matching path names that contain "/". However. whitespace is required after the m. and in scalar context returns true if it succeeds. If no match has previously succeeded. the last successfully matched regular expression is used instead. and $| are not interpolated because they look like end-of-string tests.Perl version 5. The empty pattern // If the PATTERN evaluates to the empty string.2 documentation . If you meant the empty regex. Perl will assume you meant defined-or. Perl won't even notice. If "?" is the delimiter.12.e. p When matching preserve a copy of the matched string so that ${^PREMATCH}. mentioning /o constitutes a promise that you won't change the variables in the pattern.

Perl version 5. as if there were parentheses around the whole pattern.e. the return value is the list (1) for success. while (defined($paragraph = <>)) { http://perldoc. '/dev/tty').e. while (<>) { print if /$arg/o. (Note that here $1 etc. but you can avoid that by adding the /c modifier (e. Modifying the target string also resets the search position. each execution of m//g finds the next match. $3. see "pos" in perlfunc. and that this differs from Perl 4's behavior. $Etc) = ($foo =~ /^(\S+)\s+(\S+)\s*(. matching as many times as possible within the string.. the \G assertion still anchors at pos(). but the match is of course only attempted once. In scalar context.) When there are no parentheses in the pattern. m//gc). m// in list context returns a list consisting of the subexpressions matched by the parentheses in the pattern. it returns a list of all the matched strings. # do foo if desired if (/Version: *([0-9. \G assertion You can intermix m//g matches with m/\G. $F2.g. it returns a list of the substrings matched by any capturing parentheses in the regular expression. ($1. <TTY> =~ /^y/i && foo(). returning true if it matches.perlop m//).perl. With or without parentheses.).. The conditional is true if any variables were assigned. $F2.12. where \G is a zero-width assertion that matches the exact position where the previous m//g. Note also that.. left off. if the pattern matched. The position after the last match can be read or set using the pos() function.*)/)) This last example splits $foo into the first two words and the remainder of the line./g. The /g modifier specifies global pattern matching--that is. How it behaves depends on the context. Examples: open(TTY. an empty list is returned upon failure. are also set. currently.. Using \G without /g on a target string that has not previously had a /g match applied to it is the same as using the \A assertion to match the beginning of the string. # compile only once } if (($F1.2 documentation .]*)/) { $version = $1. In list context. # poor man's grep $arg = shift. i. Matching in list context If the /g option is not used. Without the /g modifier. A failed match normally resets the search position to the beginning of the string. i. # scalar context $/ = "".\d+)/g). Examples: # list context ($one. and assigns those three fields to $F1. and false if there is no further match.. } next if m#^/usr/spool/uucp#.org Page 18 . if any. \G is only properly supported when anchored at the very beginning of the pattern. and $Etc. $2.$fifteen) = (`uptime` =~ /(\d+\.$five. If there are no parentheses..

$url = URI::URL->new( "http://example. which a match without the \G anchor would have done.)/.]?\s*/gc. EOL LOOP: { print(" digits"). "\n". redo LOOP if /\G[A-Z]+\b[. You can combine several regexps like this to process a string part-by-part.pos. pos. ..perlop while ($paragraph =~ /[a-z]['")]*[. pos=5 3: 'pp'."\n" if The last example should print: 1: 'oo'.]?\s*/gc. A useful idiom for lex-like scanners is /\G.12..Perl version 5. /\G(.../gc. redo LOOP if /\G[A-Za-z0-9]+\b[. $_ = <<'EOL'. redo LOOP if /\G\d+\b[.]?\s*/gc. pos=8 3: ''. print(" UPPERCASE"). pos=". redo LOOP if /\G[A-Z][a-z]+\b[. die if $url eq "xXx". } } print "$sentences\n". redo LOOP if /\G[a-z]+\b[. pos is only updated on a /g match.0) Perl. print "3: '".com/" ). pos..2 documentation . print(" alphanumeric"). while ($i++ < 2) { print "1: '"... it's a good bet that you're running an older (pre-5. Each regexp tries to match where the previous one leaves off.. print(" MiXeD").perl. print(" lowercase"). pos=".. doing different actions depending on which regexp matched. pos. print ". print(" line-noise").6. print $1 if /\G(q)/gc.]?\s*/gc. pos=8 Notice that the final match matched q instead of p. If the final match did indeed match p. print "'.. pos=8 Final: 'q'. } print "Final: '$1'. "\n"...]?\s*/gc. pos=7 1: ''. print(" Capitalized"). print $1 while /(o)/gc. print "2: '". pos=". pos=7 2: 'q'. print $1 while /(p)/gc.!?]+['")]*\s/g) { $sentences++.]?\s*/gc. } Here is the output (split into several lines): line-noise lowercase line-noise lowercase UPPERCASE line-noise UPPERCASE line-noise lowercase line-noise lowercase line-noise http://perldoc.org Page 19 pos=". print "'.. "\n". Also note that the final match did not update pos. redo LOOP if /\G[^A-Za-z0-9]+/gc. # using m//gc with \G $_ = "ppooqppqq". print "'. redo LOOP if /\G[A-Za-z]+\b[.. pos=4 2: 'q'. That's all!\n".

an array element. This is a useful optimization when you want to see only the first occurrence of something in each file of a set of files. That's all! ?PATTERN? This is just like the /pattern/ search. http://perldoc. no interpolation is done on either the PATTERN or the REPLACEMENT. Add space after the s when using a character allowed in identifiers. Options are as with m// with the addition of the following replacement specific options: e Evaluate the right side as an expression.perl. i. the empty string). an lvalue. # don't change wintergreen $path =~ s|/usr/bin|/usr/local/bin|. except that it matches only once between calls to the reset() operator. perhaps somewhere around the year 2168. a hash element. which means it just might possibly be removed in some distant future version of Perl. the $_ variable is searched and modified.12. If the PATTERN is delimited by bracketing quotes. replaces that pattern with the replacement text and returns the number of substitutions made. for instance. the last successfully executed regular expression is used instead. the replacement text is not evaluated as a command. which may or may not be bracketing quotes. no interpretation is done on the replacement string (the /e modifier overrides this. Otherwise.g. Perl 5 treats backticks as normal delimiters. or an assignment to one of those..) If the delimiter chosen is a single quote. and if found. If you want the pattern compiled only once the first time the variable is interpolated.e.org Page 20 . Only ?? patterns local to the current package are reset. Examples: s/\bgreen\b/mauve/g. A second e modifier will cause the replacement portion to be evaled before being run as a Perl expression. See perllocale for discussion of additional considerations that apply when use locale is in effect. e.Perl version 5. Unlike Perl 4. (The string specified with =~ must be scalar variable. s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/msixpogce Searches a string for a pattern. If single quotes are used. ee Evaluate the right side as a string then eval the result Any non-whitespace delimiter may replace the slashes.. if the PATTERN contains a $ that looks like a variable rather than an end-of-string test. It is.2 documentation . If no string is specified via the =~ or !~ operator. the REPLACEMENT has its own pair of quotes. See perlre for further explanation on these. s(foo)(bar) or s<foo>/bar/. the variable will be interpolated into the pattern at run-time. A /e will cause the replacement portion to be treated as a full-fledged Perl expression and evaluated right then and there.perlop lowercase lowercase line-noise lowercase lowercase line-noise MiXeD line-noise. Otherwise it returns false (specifically. use the /o option. however). If the pattern evaluates to the empty string. while (<>) { if (?^$?) { # blank line between header and body } } continue { reset if eof. however. syntax checked at compile-time. # clear ?? status for next file } This usage is vaguely deprecated.

} # trim whitespace in $variable. # reverse 1st two fields Note the use of $ instead of \ in the last example.)/$percent{$1}/g. http://perldoc. # yields 'abc 246xyz' s/\w/$& x 2/eg. and then evaluated s/(\$\w+)/$1/eeg. # Delete $program /\* # Match .length($`)%8)/e. change-count # get $_ = 'abc123xyz'. you can't use just a /g to get all the changes to occur that you might want.*? # Match \*/ # Match } []gsx.)/$percent{$1} || $&/ge. Unlike sed. =~ s { the opening delimiter. so /e s/^=(\w+)/pod($1)/ge. a minimal number of characters. # Add one to the value of any numbers in the string s/(\d+)/1 + $1/eg. cheap s/([^ ]*) *([^ ]*)/$2 $1/. # expr now.*?)\s*$/$1/. # yields 'abc246xyz' s/\d+/sprintf("%5d". then change $count = ($paragraph =~ s/Mister\b/Mr. Here are two common cases: # put commas in the right places in an integer 1 while s/(\d)(\d\d\d)(?!\d)/$1. # change percent escapes. Anywhere else it's $<digit>.2 documentation . Occasionally. # copy first.12.perlop s/Login: $foo/Login: $bar/. the closing delimiter./g). # run-time pattern ($foo = $bar) =~ s/this/that/. # yields 'aabbcc 224466xxyyzz' s/%(. # expand tabs to 8-column spacing 1 while s/\t+/' ' x (length($&)*8 . we use the ###BOT_TEXT###lt;digit> form in only the left hand side. # This will expand any embedded scalar variable # (including lexicals) in $_ : First $1 is interpolated # to the variable name.$&)/e. but dynamics only. expensively for ($variable) { s/^\s+//. s/\s+$//. no /e s/%(.Perl version 5.perl.org Page 21 . # use function call # expand variables in $_. using # symbolic dereferencing s/\$(\w+)/${$1}/g. s/\d+/$&*2/e. s/^\s*(.$2/g. (most) C comments. # trim whitespace in $_.

'She said it. To capture a command's STDERR but discard its STDOUT (ordering is important here): $output = `cmd 2>&1 1>/dev/null`.Perl version 5. standard error is unaffected. To capture a command's STDERR and STDOUT together: $output = `cmd 2>&1`.'). or undef if the command failed.perl. # :-) $baz = "\n". The collected standard output of the command is returned. "blam" || die "Can't open: $!". To exchange a command's STDOUT and STDERR in order to capture the STDERR but leave its STDOUT to come out the old STDERR: $output = `cmd 3>&1 1>&2 2>&3 3>&-`. # a one-character string qx/STRING/ `STRING` A string which is (possibly) interpolated and then executed as a system command with /bin/sh or its equivalent. In list context. http://perldoc. "<&BLAM". $baz = '\n'. returns a list of lines (however you've defined lines with $/ or $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR). "You said. open STDIN.org Page 22 . A backslash represents a backslash unless followed by the delimiter or another backslash.= qq (*** The previous line contains the naughty word "$1".perlop Quote-Like Operators q/STRING/ 'STRING' A single-quoted.'"!.12. Because backticks do not affect standard error. Shell wildcards. To read both a command's STDOUT and its STDERR separately. interpolated string. For example: open BLAM.2 documentation . in which case the delimiter or backslash is interpolated. literal string. or an empty list if the command failed. it comes back as a single (potentially multi-line) string. The STDIN filehandle used by the command is inherited from Perl's STDIN. and then read from those files when the program is done: system("program args 1>program. and redirections will be honored. print `sort`.stderr"). pipes. In scalar context. To capture a command's STDOUT but discard its STDERR: $output = `cmd 2>/dev/null`. use shell file descriptor syntax (assuming the shell supports this) if you care to address this. will print the sorted contents of the file "blam". $foo = q!I said. it's easiest to redirect them separately to files. $bar = q('This is it.\n) if /\b(tcl|java|python)\b/i. $_ . # a two-character string qq/STRING/ "STRING" A double-quoted.stdout 2>program.

the $^W variable) produces warnings if the STRING contains the ". Just understand what you're getting yourself into. For this reason. To be safe. See perlsec for a clean and safe example of a manual fork() and exec() to emulate backticks safely. Beginning with v5. Using this operator can lead to programs that are difficult to port. on many Unix shells. Perl was made to be a glue language. You must ensure your strings don't exceed this limit after any necessary interpolations. 'baz' Some frequently seen examples: use POSIX qw( setlocale localeconv ) @EXPORT = qw( foo bar baz ). tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds http://perldoc. Beware that some command shells may place restrictions on the length of the command line. the differences being that it generates a real list at compile time. Perl will attempt to flush all files opened for output before starting the child process. the shell may not be capable of dealing with multiline commands. passing it on to the shell instead: $perl_info = qx(ps $$). That doesn't mean you should go out of your way to avoid backticks when they're the right way to get something done. but this may not be supported on some platforms (see perlport).12.6. # that's Perl's $$ # that's the new shell's $$ How that string gets evaluated is entirely subject to the command interpreter on your system.perl. you may need to set $| ($AUTOFLUSH in English) or call the autoflush() method of IO::Handle on any open handles. You may be able to evaluate multiple commands in a single line by separating them with the command separator character. the type command under the POSIX shell is very different from the type command under DOS. $shell_info = qx'ps $$'.0. so putting newlines in the string may not get you what you want. the use warnings pragma and the -w switch (that is. qw/STRING/ Evaluates to a list of the words extracted out of STRING. 'bar'. you will have to protect shell metacharacters if you want them treated literally.g." or the "#" character. See the platform-specific release notes for more details about your particular environment. It can be understood as being roughly equivalent to: split(' '. as it's unclear how to escape which characters. See I/O Operators for more discussion. On most platforms.Perl version 5. because the shell commands called vary between systems. q/STRING/). and one of the things it glues together is commands. So this expression: qw(foo bar baz) is semantically equivalent to the list: 'foo'.2 documentation .perlop Using single-quote as a delimiter protects the command from Perl's double-quote interpolation. . As one example.org Page 23 . using embedded whitespace as the word delimiters. On some platforms (notably DOS-like ones). and in scalar context it returns the last element in the list. & on the Windows NT cmd shell). and may in fact not be present at all. A common mistake is to try to separate the words with comma or to put comments into a multi-line qw-string. if your shell supports that (e. This is in practice difficult to do.

only the first one is used: http://perldoc. Otherwise.) If the /s modifier is specified. the final character is replicated till it is long enough. This latter is useful for counting characters in a class or for squashing character sequences in a class.12.. Examples: $ARGV[1] =~ tr/A-Z/a-z/. an array element. spell out the character sets in full. the REPLACEMENTLIST is always interpreted exactly as specified. # count the digits in $_ # bookkeeper -> bokeper ($HOST = $host) =~ tr/a-z/A-Z/.) A character range may be specified with a hyphen. If no string is specified via the =~ or !~ operator. e. If the /d modifier is used. If the /c modifier is specified. Anything else is unsafe.perlop Transliterates all occurrences of the characters found in the search list with the corresponding character in the replacement list. which may or may not be bracketing quotes. It returns the number of characters replaced or deleted. For sed devotees. tr/a-zA-Z//s. y is provided as a synonym for tr. Note that tr does not do regular expression character classes such as \d or [:lower:]. tr[A-Z][a-z] or tr(+\-*/)/ABCD/. If the /d modifier is specified. (Note that this is slightly more flexible than the behavior of some tr programs.g.org Page 24 . If the SEARCHLIST is delimited by bracketing quotes.e.. If the REPLACEMENTLIST is empty. the REPLACEMENTLIST has its own pair of quotes.perl. Options: c Complement the SEARCHLIST. an lvalue. s Squash duplicate replaced characters. # count the stars in $sky $cnt = tr/0-9//. tr/a-zA-Z/ /cs. which delete anything they find in the SEARCHLIST. A-E).2 documentation . a hash element. or an assignment to one of those. if the REPLACEMENTLIST is shorter than the SEARCHLIST. If you want to map strings between lower/upper cases. the SEARCHLIST character set is complemented. tr [00-77] [###BOT_TEXT###00-77]. or digits (0-4). # change non-alphas to single space # delete 8th bit If multiple transliterations are given for a character. i. # canonicalize to lower case $cnt = tr/*/*/. sequences of characters that were transliterated to the same character are squashed down to a single instance of the character. The tr operator is not equivalent to the tr(1) utility. any characters specified by SEARCHLIST not found in REPLACEMENTLIST are deleted. and in general consider using the s operator if you need regular expressions. d Delete found but unreplaced characters.Perl version 5. period. the SEARCHLIST is replicated. (The string specified with =~ must be a scalar variable. A sound principle is to use only ranges that begin from and end at either alphabets of equal case (a-e. # count the stars in $_ $cnt = $sky =~ tr/*/*/. Note also that the whole range idea is rather unportable between character sets--and even within character sets they may cause results you probably didn't expect. If in doubt. see "lc" in perlfunc and "uc" in perlfunc. so tr/A-J/0-9/ does the same replacement as tr/ACEGIBDFHJ/0246813579/. the $_ string is transliterated.

If the terminating string is quoted. neither the SEARCHLIST nor the REPLACEMENTLIST are subjected to double quote interpolation. # execute command and get results echo hi there EOC It is possible to stack multiple here-docs in a row: print <<"foo". you must use an eval(): eval "tr/$oldlist/$newlist/". The terminating string may be either an identifier (a word). <<EOF A line-oriented form of quoting is based on the shell "here-document" syntax. and all lines following the current line down to the terminating string are the value of the item. print << `EOC`.2 documentation . print <<EOF.Perl version 5. This is the only form of quoting in perl where there is no need to worry about escaping content. die $@ if $@. EOF Single Quotes Single quotes indicate the text is to be treated literally with no interpolation of its content. which is valid. Double Quotes Double quotes indicate that the text will be interpolated using exactly the same rules as normal double quoted strings. something that code generators can and do make good use of. EOF print << "EOF". or some quoted text. Because the transliteration table is built at compile time. Following a << you specify a string to terminate the quoted material. An unquoted identifier works like double quotes.perlop tr/AAA/XYZ/ will transliterate any A to X.) The terminating string must appear by itself (unquoted and with no surrounding whitespace) on the terminating line. and matches the first empty line. Backticks The content of the here doc is treated just as it would be if the string were embedded in backticks. The price is $Price. That means that if you want to use variables. 1" or die $@. http://perldoc. There may not be a space between the << and the identifier. the type of quotes used determine the treatment of the text. # same as above The price is $Price. unless the identifier is explicitly quoted. eval "tr/$oldlist/$newlist/.perl. <<"bar". This is similar to single quoted strings except that backslashes have no special meaning.org Page 25 . with the results of the execution returned. (If you put a space it will be treated as a null identifier.12. # you can stack them I said foo. with \ being treated as two backslashes and not one as they would in every other quoting construct. Thus the content is interpolated as though it were double quoted and then executed via the shell.

and the only interpolation is for backslashing the quoting character: print << "abc###BOT_TEXT###quot;def". 'that' . If you want to remove the line terminator from your here-docs.perl. <<'THAT').Perl version 5.. 'more '/eg. Additionally. the quoted material must come on the lines following the final delimiter. the quoting rules for the end of string identifier are not related to Perl's quoting rules.. otherwise. The general rule is that the identifier must http://perldoc. such as in s///eg. qq(). and the like are not supported in place of '' and "". chomp($string = <<'END'). 23. Perl will give the warning Can't find string terminator "END" anywhere before EOF. quoted strings cannot span multiple lines.2 documentation . This is a string.perlop foo I said bar. you must be sure there is a newline after it. use chomp(). bar myfunc(<< "THIS". 'more '/eg.org Page 26 . q(). THIS and here's another. testing. The Road goes ever on and on.. END If you want your here-docs to be indented with the rest of the code. FINIS If you use a here-doc within a delimited construct.12. you'll need to remove leading whitespace from each line manually: ($quote = <<'FINIS') =~ s/^\s+//gm. the other E If the terminating identifier is on the last line of the program. THAT Just don't forget that you have to put a semicolon on the end to finish the statement. So instead of s/this/<<E . down from the door where it began. abc"def Finally. as Perl doesn't know you're not going to try to do this: print <<ABC 179231 ABC + 20.. 'that' the other E . you have to write s/this/<<E .. Here's a line or two.

If the delimiters are bracketing. But from time to time. Although the most common reason to learn this is to unravel labyrinthine regular expressions. ]. combinations of \ and \/ are skipped. During this search. During the search for the end. while searching for terminating /. If the construct is a here-doc. [. }. but these passes are always performed in the same order. Perl's notions differ substantially from what the author honestly meant. This section hopes to clarify how Perl handles quoted constructs. and nested [ and ] are skipped as well. In other words. but because their results are the same. When searching for single-character delimiters.org Page 27 . Perl first finds the end of that construct. For example. If the starting delimiter is an unpaired character like / or a closing punctuation. or <>). Therefore a / terminates a qq// construct. we consider them individually.perlop be a string literal. from one to four. whitespaces and comments are allowed between both parts. or <). three delimiters must be same such as s!!! and tr))). y///. Thus: "$hash{"$foo/$bar"}" or: http://perldoc. and tr///).2 documentation . {}. The other rules are likely to contradict the user's expectations much less frequently than this first one. in which case the second delimiter terminates the left part and starts the right part at once. while searching for closing ] paired with the opening [. text between the starting and ending delimiters is copied to a safe location. The most important Perl parsing rule is the first one discussed below: when processing a quoted construct. If the starting delimiter is an opening punctuation (that is (. \]. then interprets its contents. However. Gory details of parsing quoted constructs When presented with something that might have several different interpretations. or >). they are not copied to the safe location). If the left part is delimited by bracketing punctuations (that is (). For the constructs except here-docs. the search is repeated once more. {. In these cases. and you should be safe. otherwise a character expected as the start of the comment may be regarded as the starting delimiter of the right part. the ending delimiter is a line that has a terminating string as the content. single characters are used as starting and ending delimiters.perl.12. nothing is skipped. Some passes discussed below are performed concurrently. backslashes that escape delimiters are removed (exactly speaking. though the comment must follow at least one whitespace. For constructs with three-part delimiters (s///. when backslashes are used as the delimiters (like qq\ and tr\\). If the first delimiter is not an opening punctuation. the ending delimiter is same as the starting delimiter. the ending delimiter is the corresponding closing punctuation (that is ). For different quoting constructs. lines after the here-doc syntax are compared with the terminating string line by line. For example. Perl uses the DWIM (that's "Do What I Mean") principle to pick the most probable interpretation. they are all discussed together. Finding the end The first pass is finding the end of the quoted construct. nested pairs are also skipped. When searching for the terminating line of a here-doc. Stick with that. Perl performs different numbers of passes. nothing is skipped. The text copied gets delimiter-independent. If you understand this rule. combinations of \.Perl version 5. while a ] terminates qq[] and qq]] constructs. During this search no attention is paid to the semantics of the construct. the right part needs another pair of delimiters such as s(){} and tr[]//. escaped delimiters and \ are skipped. Therefore <<EOF is terminated by EOF immediately followed by "\n" and starting from the first column of the terminating line. you may skip the rest of this section on the first reading. and \[ are all skipped. []. because the initial steps of parsing are the same for all quoting operators. This strategy is so successful that Perl programmers often do not suspect the ambivalence of what they write. where the information about the delimiters is used in parsing.

Thus the second \ in qq/\c\/ is interpreted as a part of \/. Interpolated scalars and arrays are converted internally to the join and . Something like "\Q\E" has no \E inside.is treated as a literal -. As a general rule.are replaced with appropriate expansions. Note that the combination \ is left intact.are converted to appropriate literals. @arr) .perl. " XXX '" . String modifying combinations for case and quoting such as \Q. <file*glob>. Interpolation The next step is interpolation in the text obtained. the example above is not m//x. \U. ''.Perl version 5. m''.12.is treated specially and therefore \. use ###BOT_TEXT###34 or \x1c at the end of quoted constructs. and E. "\Q\t\E" is converted to quotemeta("\t"). but rather m// with no /x modifier. q//.in tr''' and y''' is treated literally as a hyphen and no character range is available. \U. which is the same as "\\t" (since TAB is not alphanumeric). may be closer to the conjectural intention of the writer of "\Q\t\E". Also no attention is paid to \c\ (multichar control char syntax) during this search. and the following / is not recognized as a delimiter. tr'''. Any backslashed sequences including \ are treated at the stage to parsing regular expressions. tr///. Thus. The other escape sequences such as 00 and \t and backslashed characters such as \ and \. it has \Q.perlop m/ bar # NOT a comment. since escaped delimiters are not available for here-docs. Instead. this slash / terminated m//! /x do not form legal quoted expressions.2 documentation . "$foo\Qbaz$bar" is converted to $foo . So. $bar)) internally. y'''. in the replacement of s''' does not work as $1. <<"EOF" \Q.org Page 28 . \. (join $". backslashes between \Q and \E may lead to counterintuitive results. \L. http://perldoc. so the result is the same as for "\\E". <<'EOF' No interpolation is performed. Therefore . and the rest happens to be a syntax error. Let it be stressed that whatever falls between \Q and \E is interpolated in the usual way. The other escape sequences such as 00 and \t and backslashed characters such as \ and \. qq//. the replacement of s''' The only interpolation is removal of \ from pairs of \. \l (possibly paired with \E) are converted to corresponding Perl constructs. and \E are not recognized. The character . The quoted part ends on the first " and /. "'". y/// No variable interpolation occurs. return "\Q$str". qx//. ``. (quotemeta("baz" . Note also that: $str = '\t'. instead. catenation operations. which is now delimiter-independent. "". the pattern of s''' No interpolation is performed at this stage. \u. So the embedded # is interpreted as a literal #. Thus. There are multiple cases. "$foo XXX '@arr'" becomes: $foo . Because the slash that terminated m// was followed by a SPACE.

} is a compile-time construct. $ will be quoted to became "\\$". whether "a $b -> {c}" really means: "a " . \u. Processing of \N{. and compiled into an intermediate form for the regex compiler. Because / is equivalent to \/ inside a regular expression. it's usually correct for ambiguous cases. m/RE/. As \c is skipped at this step.perlop All operations above are performed simultaneously. @ of \c@ in RE is possibly treated as an array symbol (for example @foo).. because the outcome may be determined by voting based on heuristic estimators. in order to correct the incorrigible sed hackers who haven't picked up the saner idiom yet.. A warning is emitted if the use warnings pragma or the -w command-line flag (that is. \E. (?# comment ). there is no way to insert a literal $ or @ inside a \Q\E pair.2 documentation . \L. Processing of \Q. \U. $(. / will finish the regular expression. the result is not predictable. \/ will be stripped to / on the previous step. Since voting among different estimators may occur.perl. or ?foo?. RE in ?RE?.12. /RE/. s/RE/foo/. this does not matter unless the delimiter happens to be character special to the RE engine. as in: m m ^ a \s* b mmx. Fortunately. If the delimiter is /. left to right. the replacement of s/// Processing of \Q. the longest possible text that does not include spaces between components and which contains matching braces or brackets. Because the result of "\Q STRING \E" has all metacharacters quoted.org Page 29 . and interpolation happens (almost) as with qq// constructs.. the result is not strictly predictable. the delimiter is m.Perl version 5. one cannot get the combination \/ into the result of this step. even though the same text in qq// gives interpolation of \c@. This is the first step at which the presence of the //x modifier is relevant. inside (?{BLOCK}). (This is because. $b .) However any other combinations of \ followed by a character are not substituted but only skipped. Interpolation in patterns has several quirks: $|.. Note also that the interpolation code needs to make a decision on where the interpolated scalar ends. the http://perldoc. or an alphanumeric char. it is interpreted as the start of an interpolated scalar. the $^W variable) was set. not as a regular expression from the variable $arr followed by a digit. the regex compilation may be done at execution time. and constructs $var[SOMETHING] are voted (by several different estimators) to be either an array element or $var followed by an RE alternative. \L. as mentioned below. For instance. \U. m[foo]. Most of the time. and \N{. \l. " -> {c}". $). This is where the notation ${arr[$bar]} comes handy: /${arr[0-9]}/ is interpreted as array element -9. and \/ will be left as is. or: "a " . In the RE above. $b -> {c}. which would be the interpretation of /$arr[0-9]/. and interpolation happens as with qq// constructs. \u. if not. If protected by \. The lack of processing of \ creates specific restrictions on the post-processed text. no processing is performed whatsoever. such as in s*foo*bar*. in order to parse them as regular expressions at the following step. \l. @+ and @.are not interpolated. which is intentionally obfuscated for illustration. and a #-comment in a //x-regular expression.} is also done here. It is at this step that is begrudgingly converted to $1 in the replacement text of s///. Moreover.

(?#. evaluating a filehandle in angle brackets yields the next line from that file (the newline. and possibly after evaluation if concatenation. [. (You can set $/ to use a different line terminator. or undef at end-of-file or on error. (Because backticks always undergo shell expansion as well. as well as Perl's -Dr command-line switch documented in "Command Switches" in perlrun. and the output of that command is the value of the backtick string. There's more than one reason you're encouraged to restrict your delimiters to non-alphanumeric. the terminator of (?{. parsing regular expressions Previous steps were performed during the compilation of Perl code. This is another step where the presence of the //x modifier is relevant.perl.. and after delimiter-removal the RE is the same as for m/ ^ a \s* b /mx. a list of values is returned. casing translation.2 documentation . Whatever happens in the RE engine might be better discussed in perlre.org Page 30 . Unlike in any of the shells.. or metaquoting are involved. After preprocessing described above. included).. see perlsec for security concerns. joining. See the arguments debug/debugcolor in the use re pragma. is rather different than the rule used for the rest of the pattern. single quotes do not hide variable names in the command from interpretation. To pass a literal dollar-sign through to the shell you need to hide it with a backslash. Backslashed characters are either replaced with corresponding literal strings (as with \{). It is at this stage that split() silently optimizes /^/ to mean /^/m.12. a single string consisting of all output is returned. the resulting string is passed to the RE engine for compilation. Similarly. but this one happens at run time. Since it does not change semantics.) In scalar context. In list context. It is then interpreted as an external command. if any. This step is the last one for all constructs except regular expressions. we shall do so here. The status value of the command is returned in $? (see perlvar for the interpretation of $?). When $/ is set to undef (sometimes known as file-slurp mode) and the file is empty. It is possible to inspect both the string given to RE engine and the resulting finite automaton. although it may be optimized to be calculated at compile time if appropriate. The RE engine scans the string from left to right and converts it to a finite automaton. or else they generate special nodes in the finite automaton (as with \b). Parsing of the bracketed character class construct. or else is ignored (as is whitespace and #-style comments if //x is present). Unlike in csh.Perl version 5. The generalized form of backticks is qx//. In scalar context..perlop modifier is mx. Characters special to the RE engine (such as |) generate corresponding nodes or groups of nodes. followed by undef http://perldoc. details of this step are not documented and are subject to change without notice. which are processed further. the only exception being that ] immediately following [ is treated as though preceded by a backslash.) comments are ignored. but for the sake of continuity.) The command is executed each time the pseudo-literal is evaluated. Optimization of regular expressions This step is listed for completeness only. I/O Operators There are several I/O operators you should know about. like in a shell.}) is found using the same rules as for finding the terminator of a {} -delimited construct. This step is performed over the finite automaton that was generated during the previous pass. A string enclosed by backticks (grave accents) first undergoes double-quote interpolation. one per line of output.]. The terminator of this construct is found using the same rules as for finding the terminator of a {}-delimited construct.. All the rest is either converted to literal strings to match.. non-whitespace choices. it returns '' the first time. no translation is done on the return data--newlines remain newlines.

where they would be interpreted as local identifiers rather than global.2 documentation . and stderr will also work except in packages. (This may seem like an odd thing to you.. The defined test avoids problems where line has a string value that would be treated as false by Perl. while (<>) { # code for each line } is equivalent to the following Perl-like pseudo code: unshift(@ARGV. they should be tested for explicitly: while (($_ = <STDIN>) ne '0') { .Perl version 5.perl. or from each file listed on the command line.) { print. destroying whatever was there previously. The filehandles STDIN. The loop .. See "readline" in perlfunc. <filehandle> without an explicit defined test or comparison elicits a warning if the use warnings pragma or the -w command-line switch (the $^W variable) is in effect. http://perldoc. If a <FILEHANDLE> is used in a context that is looking for a list. $ARGV).) The $_ variable is not implicitly localized. print while <STDIN>.. and if it is empty.. STDOUT. '-') unless @ARGV. . and STDERR are predefined. } In other boolean contexts. The following lines are equivalent: while (defined($_ = <STDIN>)) { print. the assigned value (whether assignment is automatic or explicit) is then tested to see whether it is defined. } while (<STDIN>) { last unless $_. one line per list element. the value is automatically assigned to the global variable $_. <FILEHANDLE> may also be spelled readline(*FILEHANDLE). If and only if the input symbol is the only thing inside the conditional of a while statement (even if disguised as a for(.<STDIN>. $ARGV[0] is set to "-".. the @ARGV array is checked. but you'll use the construct in almost every Perl script you write.) Additional filehandles may be created with the open() function. but there is one situation where an automatic assignment happens.perlop subsequently. This also behaves similarly. a list comprising all input lines is returned. print while ($_ = <STDIN>). If you really mean for such values to terminate the loop. Here's how it works: the first time <> is evaluated. } print while defined($_ = <STDIN>). } while (<STDIN>) { print.org Page 31 .. See perlopentut and "open" in perlfunc for details on this. amongst others. } for (. The null filehandle <> is special: it can be used to emulate the behavior of sed and awk. Input from <> comes either from standard input. It's easy to grow to a rather large data space this way. but avoids $_ : while (my $line = <STDIN>) { print $line } In these loop constructs.) loop). while ($ARGV = shift) { open(ARGV. which when opened gives you standard input. so use with care. for example a "" or a "0" with no trailing newline. before the loop if you want that to happen. } while ($_ = <STDIN>) { print.12. stdout.Ordinarily you must assign the returned value to a variable. You'll have to put a local $_. The @ARGV array is then processed as a list of filenames. (The filehandles stdin..

If what the angle brackets contain is a simple scalar variable (e. last if if (/^-D(.(gz|Z)$/ ? "gzip -dc < $_ |" : $_ } @ARGV. This sets @ARGV to all plain text files if no @ARGV was given: @ARGV = grep { -f && -T } glob('*') unless @ARGV. For example. and will actually work.. or a reference to the same. It really does shift the @ARGV array and put the current filename into the $ARGV variable. See the example in "eof" in perlfunc for how to reset line numbers on each file. then that variable contains the name of the filehandle to input from.perlop while (<ARGV>) { .2 documentation . You can modify @ARGV before the first <> as long as the array ends up containing the list of filenames you really want. If you call it again after this. /^-/) { /^--$/. and if you haven't set @ARGV.) Since the null filehandle uses the two argument form of "open" in perlfunc it interprets special characters. # code for each line } The <> symbol will return undef for end-of-file only once.org Page 32 ..perl. If you want all items in @ARGV to be interpreted as file names.g. If you want to set @ARGV to your own list of files. { $debug = $1 } { $verbose++ } switches while (<>) { # . <$foo>). If you want to pass switches into your script.. Line numbers ($.. executes the rm command and reads rm's output from that pipe. which is magical. # other } $ARGV[0]. you can use the module ARGV::readonly from CPAN.12. It also uses filehandle ARGV internally. <> is just a synonym for <ARGV>. you can use one of the Getopts modules or put a loop on the front like this: while ($_ = shift..Perl version 5.*)/) if (/^-v/) # . it will assume you are processing another @ARGV list. this automatically filters compressed arguments through gzip: @ARGV = map { /\.) continue as though the input were one big happy file. You can even set them to pipe commands. } and call it with perl dangerous. will read input from STDIN. go right ahead. so if you have a script like this: while (<>) { print.. For example: http://perldoc. it actually opens a pipe. (The pseudo code above doesn't work because it treats <ARGV> as non-magical.pl 'rm -rfv *|'. # code for each line } } except that it isn't so cumbersome to say. or its typeglob..

$_.12. If what's within the angle brackets is neither a filehandle nor a simple scalar variable containing a filehandle name. it's considered cleaner to call the internal function directly as glob($foo).Perl version 5. So if you're expecting a single value from a glob. but $hash{key} is not--it's a hash element.c | tr -s ' \t\r\f' '\012\012\012\012'|"). One level of double-quote interpretation is done first. and either a list of filenames or the next filename in the list is returned. A (file)glob evaluates its (embedded) argument only when it is starting a new list. Even <$x > (note the extra space) is treated as glob("$x "). while (<FOO>) { chomp. undef is returned only once. } is roughly equivalent to: open(FOO. } except that the globbing is actually done internally using the standard File::Glob extension. because legal glob returns (e. than $file = <blurch*>. Of course.[ch]"). "echo *. which is probably the right way to have done it in the first place.) For example: while (<*. These days. If you're trying to do variable interpolation. $line = <$fh>.perlop $fh = \*STDIN. it's definitely better to use the glob() function. it is much better to say ($file) = <blurch*>. an automatic defined is generated when the glob occurs in the test part of a while. because the older notation can cause people to become confused with the indirect filehandle notation. or undef when the list has run out. a file called 0) would otherwise terminate the loop. not readline($x). but <$hash{key}> is always a glob().c>) { chmod 0644. <*. (In older versions of Perl. http://perldoc. As with filehandle reads. programmers would insert curly brackets to force interpretation as a filename glob: <${foo}>. That means <$x> is always a readline() from an indirect handle. That's because $x is a simple scalar variable.c>. because the latter will alternate between returning a filename and returning false. this isn't important because you automatically get them all anyway. typeglob. This distinction is determined on syntactic grounds alone. All values must be read before it will start over. chmod 0644. In list context. but you can't say <$foo> because that's an indirect filehandle as explained in the previous paragraph. or typeglob reference. @files = glob($files[$i]).org Page 33 .g.perl. Again. it is interpreted as a filename pattern to be globbed. However. $_. depending on context. @files = glob("$dir/*. in scalar context the operator returns the next value each time it's called. the shortest way to do the above is: chmod 0644.2 documentation .

| and ^ ops act as though the shorter operand had additional zero bits on the right. # yields 255 = 150 | '105'.Perl version 5. # print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n". if you say foreach $file (@filenames) { if (-s $file > 5 + 100 * 2**16) { } } the compiler will precompute the number which that expression represents so that the interpreter won't have to. # both ops explicitly stringy See "vec" in perlfunc for information on how to manipulate individual bits in a bit vector. http://perldoc. be certain that you're supplying bitstrings: If an operand is a number. that will imply a numeric bitwise operation. "Perl\n". 'good men to come to.perlop Constant Folding Like C. No-ops Perl doesn't officially have a no-op operator. string concatenation happens at compile time between literals that don't do variable substitution.' and this all reduces to one string internally. so you can for example safely do 1 while foo(). Bitwise String Operators Bitstrings of any size may be manipulated by the bitwise operators (~ | & ^). The granularity for such extension or truncation is one or more bytes.12.2 documentation . If you are intending to manipulate bitstrings. In particular. as in the examples below. "\n" . $foo $foo $foo $foo = 150 | 105. # print "japh\nJunk" & '_____'. # yields 255 = '150' | '105'. You may explicitly show which type of operation you intend by using "" or 0+. But by saying use integer. # both ops explicitly numeric $biz = "$foo" ^ "$bar". Likewise.perl. # yields string '155' (under ASCII) $baz = 0+$foo & 0+$bar. Perl does a certain amount of expression evaluation at compile time whenever it determines that all arguments to an operator are static and have no side effects. # yields 255 (0x96 | 0x69 is 0xFF) = '150' | 105. Perl assumes that it must do most of its arithmetic in floating point. # prints prints "JAPH\n" prints "japh\n" prints "JAPH\n". # ASCII-based examples print "j p \n" ^ " a h". Backslash interpolation also happens at compile time. Integer Arithmetic By default. # print "JA" | " ph\n". while the & op acts as though the longer operand were truncated to the length of the shorter. You can say 'Now is the time for all' . but the bare constants 0 and 1 are special-cased to not produce a warning in a void context. If the operands to a binary bitwise op are strings of different sizes.org Page 34 .

$tY). use integer still has meaning for them. $POINTS) = @_. their results are interpreted as signed integers. you'll still get 1.perl. merely that Perl may use integer operations if it is so inclined.Perl version 5. # produces 123456789123456784 Testing for exact floating-point equality or inequality is not a good idea. return $tX eq $tY. See perlfaq4. In these cases.) However.perlop you may tell the compiler that it's okay to use integer operations (if it feels like it) from here to the end of the enclosing BLOCK. For rounding to a certain number of digits. For example: printf "%. but to instead implement the rounding function you need yourself. if you take the sqrt(2). $tX = sprintf("%. my ($tX. but POSIX can't work with complex numbers. ~0 usually evaluates to a large integral value. and the rounding method used should be specified precisely. and other mathematical and trigonometric functions. Here's a (relatively expensive) work-around to compare whether two floating-point numbers are equal to a particular number of decimal places.4142135623731 or so. ~0 is -1 on two's-complement machines. See Knuth. By default. $x = Math::BigInt->new('123456789123456789'). An inner BLOCK may countermand this by saying no integer. and ">>") always produce integral results. so some corners must be cut. Note that this doesn't mean everything is only an integer. At the cost of some space and considerable speed. use integer. sub fp_equal { my ($X. the bitwise operators ("&". print $x * $x. their results are interpreted as unsigned integers. # prints +15241578780673678515622620750190521 http://perldoc. } The POSIX module (part of the standard perl distribution) implements ceil(). Floating-point numbers are only approximations to what a mathematician would call real numbers.${POINTS}g". 123456789123456789. volume II. "|". but if use integer is in effect. For example. use Math::BigInt. Math::Complex not as efficient as POSIX. they avoid the normal pitfalls associated with limited-precision representations. Used on numbers.12. $tY = sprintf("%. There are infinitely more reals than floats. $X). $Y. However. sprintf() or printf() is usually the easiest route. floor(). "~". Rounding in financial applications can have serious implications. The Math::Complex module (part of the standard perl distribution) defines mathematical functions that work on both the reals and the imaginary numbers. Bigger Numbers The standard Math::BigInt and Math::BigFloat modules provide variable-precision arithmetic and overloaded operators. although they're currently pretty slow. for a more robust treatment of this topic.2 documentation . (But see also Bitwise String Operators. "<<". there is no analogous mechanism to provide automatic rounding or truncation to a certain number of decimal places. $Y). even under use integer.org Page 35 . which lasts until the end of that BLOCK.${POINTS}g".20g\n". "^". it probably pays not to trust whichever system rounding is being used by Perl. For example. Floating-point Arithmetic While use integer provides integer-only arithmetic.

but incomplete summary: Math::Fraction big.perlop There are several modules that let you calculate with (bound only by memory and cpu-time) unlimited or fixed precision. unlimited fractions like 9973 / 12967 Math::String treat string sequences like numbers Math::FixedPrecision calculate with a fixed precision Math::Currency for currency calculations Bit::Vector manipulate bit vectors fast (uses C) Math::BigIntFast Bit::Vector wrapper for big numbers Math::Pari provides access to the Pari C library Math::BigInteger uses an external C library Math::Cephes uses external Cephes C library (no big numbers) Math::Cephes::Fraction fractions via the Cephes library Math::GMP another one using an external C library Choose wisely.Perl version 5. http://perldoc.2 documentation .org Page 36 .12. There are also some non-standard modules that provide faster implementations via external C libraries. Here is a short.perl.

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. A '?' maps to the DEL character. and @. Not all systems read "\r" as ASCII CR and "\n" as ASCII LF.) The following escape sequences are available in constructs that interpolate. as are array and hash slices. If Unicode (for example. For example. Perl has no \v escape sequence for the vertical tab (VT ASCII 11). called a "newline". on a Mac. You'll need to write something like m/\Quser\E\@\Qhost/. but special arrays @_. but you may use \ck or \x0b. Interpolating an array or slice interpolates the elements in order. \l \u \L \U \E \Q lowercase next char uppercase next char lowercase till \E uppercase till \E end case modification quote non-word characters till \E If use locale is in effect. use "\n" when you mean a "newline" for your system. but not in transliterations. most networking protocols expect and prefer a CR+LF ("###BOT_TEXT###15###BOT_TEXT###12" or "\cM\cJ") for line terminators. the case map used by \l. and on systems without line terminator. '^'. resulting in a control character from 0x00 through 0x1F.Perl version 5. All systems use the virtual "\n" to represent a line terminator. If you get in the habit of using "\n" for networking. \L. On EBCDIC systems only '@'. the letters. while escaping will cause the literal string \$ to be inserted. It is only an illusion that the operating system. C libraries. \N{U+wide hex char} means the Unicode character whose Unicode ordinal number is wide hex char. resulting in 0x00 through 0x1F and 0x7F. @+.perlop \x1b hex char (example: ESC) \x{263a} wide hex char (example: SMILEY) \c[ control char (example: ESC) \N{name} named Unicode character \N{U+263D} Unicode character (example: FIRST QUARTER MOON) The character following \c is mapped to some other character by converting letters to upper case and then (on ASCII systems) by inverting the 7th bit (0x40). printing "\n" may emit no actual data. "Punctuation" arrays such as @* are only interpolated if the name is enclosed in braces @{*}. and Perl all conspire to preserve. ']'.perl. \u and \U is as defined by Unicode. But method calls such as $obj->meth are not. but use the literal ASCII when you need an exact character.org Page 15 . An unescaped $ or @ interpolates the corresponding variable. they seldom tolerate just "###BOT_TEXT###15". the case map used by \l. physical newline character. see charnames. See perllocale. For constructs that do interpolate. so is equivalent to interpolating join $". '['. so that regular expressions may be incorporated into http://perldoc.2 documentation . NOTE: Unlike C and other languages. Patterns are subject to an additional level of interpretation as a regular expression. and although they often accept just "###BOT_TEXT###12". these are reversed. You cannot include a literal $ or @ within a \Q sequence. after variables are interpolated. There is no such thing as an unvarying. \u and \U is taken from the current locale. '_' and '?' will work. \L. \N{} or wide hex characters of 0x100 or beyond) is being used.are interpolated.12. This is done as a second pass.

s/$rex/foo/. } Precompilation of the pattern into an internal representation at the moment of qr() avoids a need to recompile the pattern every time a match /$pat/ is attempted. no interpolation is done. qr/STRING/msixpo This operator quotes (and possibly compiles) its STRING as a regular expression.STRING) . The returned value is a normalized version of the original pattern.) Options are: m Treat string as multiple lines. Regexp Quote-Like Operators Here are the quote-like operators that apply to pattern matching and related activities. In particular. $string =~ /foo${re}bar/.12. If "'" is used as the delimiter. If this is not what you want. print $rex. # or this way Since Perl may compile the pattern at the moment of execution of qr() operator. For example.org Page 16 # prints (?si-xm:my. nor do single quotes impede evaluation of variables when used within double quotes. last if /$pat/. @$patterns. back-quotes do NOT interpolate within double quotes. grep { my $success = 0. $rex = qr/my. even though dereferencing the result returns undef. } $success. s Treat string as single line. but none would be triggered in the above example if we did not use qr() operator.perlop the pattern from the variables. # can be interpolated in other patterns $string =~ $re.Perl version 5. STRING is interpolated the same way as PATTERN in m/PATTERN/. } @_.STRING/is. (Perl has many other internal optimizations.2 documentation .perl.STRING/foo/is. (Make . The result may be used as a subpattern in a match: $re = qr/$pattern/. my @compiled = map qr/$_/i. Returns a Perl value which may be used instead of the corresponding /STRING/msixpo expression. contrary to the expectations of shell programmers. foreach my $pat (@compiled) { $success = 1. is equivalent to s/my. Perl does not expand multiple levels of interpolation. notably if the result of qr() is used standalone: sub match { my $patterns = shift. match a newline) http://perldoc. use \Q to interpolate a variable literally. It magically differs from a string containing the same characters: ref(qr/x/) returns "Regexp". using qr() may have speed advantages in some situations. # or used standalone $string =~ /$re/. Apart from the behavior described above.

perlop i Do case-insensitive pattern matching. being restricted to those patterns explicitly using it. the $_ string is searched.the other flags are taken from the original pattern. only the g and c flags on the empty pattern is honoured . the following match process modifiers are available: g Match globally. add a /o after the trailing delimiter.. In all of these examples. in addition. ${^MATCH}.) See also perlre. but some pathological cases might trigger this. this will (silently) act instead as a genuine empty pattern (which will always match). With the m you can use any pair of non-whitespace characters as delimiters. See perlre for additional information on valid syntax for STRING. such as $a/// (is that ($a) / (//) or $a // /?) and print $fh // (print $fh(// or print($fh //?). x Use extended regular expressions.perl. This avoids expensive run-time recompilations. and for a detailed look at the semantics of regular expressions. (Note that $(. false if it fails. find all occurrences. but remember the =~ binds rather tightly. The effect of the 'o' modifier has is not propagated.org Page 17 . See also qr/STRING/msixpo. Perl is usually pretty good about this. Note that it's possible to confuse Perl into thinking // (the empty regex) is really // (the defined-or operator). o Compile pattern only once. except for when the delimiter is a single quote. If a precompiled pattern is embedded in a larger pattern then the effect of 'msixp' will be propagated appropriately. to avoid LTS (leaning toothpick syndrome).) If you want such a pattern to be compiled only once. If no string is specified via the =~ or !~ operator. PATTERN may contain variables. no interpolation is performed on the PATTERN. which will be interpolated (and the pattern recompiled) every time the pattern search is evaluated. (The string specified with =~ need not be an lvalue--it may be the result of an expression evaluation. $). Options are as described in qr//. If "/" is the delimiter then the initial m is optional. just use parentheses or spaces to disambiguate. If "'" is the delimiter. m/PATTERN/msixpogc /PATTERN/msixpogc Searches a string for a pattern match. If you change them. ${^POSTMATCH} will be defined. i. In this case. or even prefix the empty regex with an m (so // becomes http://perldoc. When using a character valid in an identifier. then the match-only-once rule of ?PATTERN? applies. See perllocale for discussion of additional considerations that apply when use locale is in effect. and is useful when the value you are interpolating won't change over the life of the script. c Do not reset search position on a failed match when /g is in effect. This is particularly useful for matching path names that contain "/". However. whitespace is required after the m. and in scalar context returns true if it succeeds. If no match has previously succeeded. the last successfully matched regular expression is used instead. and $| are not interpolated because they look like end-of-string tests.Perl version 5. The empty pattern // If the PATTERN evaluates to the empty string.2 documentation . If you meant the empty regex. Perl will assume you meant defined-or. Perl won't even notice. If "?" is the delimiter.12.e. p When matching preserve a copy of the matched string so that ${^PREMATCH}. mentioning /o constitutes a promise that you won't change the variables in the pattern.

Perl version 5. as if there were parentheses around the whole pattern.e. the return value is the list (1) for success. while (defined($paragraph = <>)) { http://perldoc. '/dev/tty').e. while (<>) { print if /$arg/o. (Note that here $1 etc. but you can avoid that by adding the /c modifier (e. Modifying the target string also resets the search position. each execution of m//g finds the next match. $3. see "pos" in perlfunc. and that this differs from Perl 4's behavior. $Etc) = ($foo =~ /^(\S+)\s+(\S+)\s*(. matching as many times as possible within the string.. the \G assertion still anchors at pos(). but the match is of course only attempted once. In scalar context.) When there are no parentheses in the pattern. m//gc). m// in list context returns a list consisting of the subexpressions matched by the parentheses in the pattern. it returns a list of all the matched strings. # do foo if desired if (/Version: *([0-9. \G assertion You can intermix m//g matches with m/\G. $F2.g. it returns a list of the substrings matched by any capturing parentheses in the regular expression. ($1. <TTY> =~ /^y/i && foo(). returning true if it matches.perlop m//).perl. With or without parentheses.).. The conditional is true if any variables were assigned. $F2.12. where \G is a zero-width assertion that matches the exact position where the previous m//g. Note also that.. left off. if the pattern matched. The position after the last match can be read or set using the pos() function.*)/)) This last example splits $foo into the first two words and the remainder of the line./g. The /g modifier specifies global pattern matching--that is. How it behaves depends on the context. Examples: open(TTY. an empty list is returned upon failure. are also set. currently.. Using \G without /g on a target string that has not previously had a /g match applied to it is the same as using the \A assertion to match the beginning of the string. # compile only once } if (($F1.2 documentation .]*)/) { $version = $1. In list context. # poor man's grep $arg = shift. i. Matching in list context If the /g option is not used. Without the /g modifier. A failed match normally resets the search position to the beginning of the string. i. # scalar context $/ = "".\d+)/g). Examples: # list context ($one. and assigns those three fields to $F1. and false if there is no further match.. } next if m#^/usr/spool/uucp#.org Page 18 . if any. \G is only properly supported when anchored at the very beginning of the pattern. and $Etc. $2.$fifteen) = (`uptime` =~ /(\d+\.$five. If there are no parentheses..

$url = URI::URL->new( "http://example. which a match without the \G anchor would have done.)/.]?\s*/gc. EOL LOOP: { print(" digits"). "\n". redo LOOP if /\G[A-Z]+\b[. You can combine several regexps like this to process a string part-by-part.pos. pos. ..perlop while ($paragraph =~ /[a-z]['")]*[. pos=5 3: 'pp'."\n" if The last example should print: 1: 'oo'.]?\s*/gc. A useful idiom for lex-like scanners is /\G.12..Perl version 5. /\G(.../gc. redo LOOP if /\G[A-Za-z0-9]+\b[. $_ = <<'EOL'. redo LOOP if /\G\d+\b[.]?\s*/gc. pos=8 3: ''. print(" UPPERCASE"). pos=". redo LOOP if /\G[A-Z][a-z]+\b[. die if $url eq "xXx". } } print "$sentences\n". redo LOOP if /\G[a-z]+\b[. pos is only updated on a /g match.0) Perl. print "3: '".com/" ). pos..2 documentation . print(" alphanumeric"). while ($i++ < 2) { print "1: '"... it's a good bet that you're running an older (pre-5. Each regexp tries to match where the previous one leaves off.. print(" MiXeD").perl. print(" lowercase"). pos=".. doing different actions depending on which regexp matched. pos. print ". print(" line-noise").6. print $1 if /\G(q)/gc.]?\s*/gc. pos=8 Notice that the final match matched q instead of p. If the final match did indeed match p. print "'.. pos=8 Final: 'q'. } print "Final: '$1'. "\n"...]?\s*/gc. pos=7 1: ''. print(" Capitalized"). print $1 while /(o)/gc. print "2: '". pos=". pos=7 2: 'q'. print $1 while /(p)/gc.!?]+['")]*\s/g) { $sentences++.]?\s*/gc. } Here is the output (split into several lines): line-noise lowercase line-noise lowercase UPPERCASE line-noise UPPERCASE line-noise lowercase line-noise lowercase line-noise http://perldoc.org Page 19 pos=". print "'.. "\n". Also note that the final match did not update pos. redo LOOP if /\G[^A-Za-z0-9]+/gc. # using m//gc with \G $_ = "ppooqppqq". print "'. redo LOOP if /\G[A-Za-z]+\b[.. pos=4 2: 'q'. That's all!\n".

an array element. This is a useful optimization when you want to see only the first occurrence of something in each file of a set of files. That's all! ?PATTERN? This is just like the /pattern/ search. http://perldoc. no interpolation is done on either the PATTERN or the REPLACEMENT. Add space after the s when using a character allowed in identifiers. Options are as with m// with the addition of the following replacement specific options: e Evaluate the right side as an expression.perl. i. the empty string). an lvalue. # don't change wintergreen $path =~ s|/usr/bin|/usr/local/bin|. except that it matches only once between calls to the reset() operator. perhaps somewhere around the year 2168. a hash element. which means it just might possibly be removed in some distant future version of Perl. the $_ variable is searched and modified.12. If the PATTERN is delimited by bracketing quotes. replaces that pattern with the replacement text and returns the number of substitutions made. for instance. the last successfully executed regular expression is used instead. the replacement text is not evaluated as a command. which may or may not be bracketing quotes. no interpretation is done on the replacement string (the /e modifier overrides this. Otherwise.g. Perl 5 treats backticks as normal delimiters. or an assignment to one of those..) If the delimiter chosen is a single quote. and if found. If you want the pattern compiled only once the first time the variable is interpolated.e.org Page 20 . Only ?? patterns local to the current package are reset. Examples: s/\bgreen\b/mauve/g. A second e modifier will cause the replacement portion to be evaled before being run as a Perl expression. See perllocale for discussion of additional considerations that apply when use locale is in effect. e.Perl version 5. Unlike Perl 4. (The string specified with =~ must be scalar variable. s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/msixpogce Searches a string for a pattern. If single quotes are used. ee Evaluate the right side as a string then eval the result Any non-whitespace delimiter may replace the slashes.. if the PATTERN contains a $ that looks like a variable rather than an end-of-string test. It is.2 documentation . If no string is specified via the =~ or !~ operator. the REPLACEMENT has its own pair of quotes. See perlre for further explanation on these. s(foo)(bar) or s<foo>/bar/. the variable will be interpolated into the pattern at run-time. A /e will cause the replacement portion to be treated as a full-fledged Perl expression and evaluated right then and there.perlop lowercase lowercase line-noise lowercase lowercase line-noise MiXeD line-noise. Otherwise it returns false (specifically. use the /o option. however). If the pattern evaluates to the empty string. while (<>) { if (?^$?) { # blank line between header and body } } continue { reset if eof. however. syntax checked at compile-time. # clear ?? status for next file } This usage is vaguely deprecated.

} # trim whitespace in $variable. # reverse 1st two fields Note the use of $ instead of \ in the last example.)/$percent{$1}/g. http://perldoc. # yields 'abc 246xyz' s/\w/$& x 2/eg. and then evaluated s/(\$\w+)/$1/eeg. # Delete $program /\* # Match .length($`)%8)/e. change-count # get $_ = 'abc123xyz'. you can't use just a /g to get all the changes to occur that you might want.*? # Match \*/ # Match } []gsx.)/$percent{$1} || $&/ge. Unlike sed. =~ s { the opening delimiter. so /e s/^=(\w+)/pod($1)/ge. a minimal number of characters. # Add one to the value of any numbers in the string s/(\d+)/1 + $1/eg. cheap s/([^ ]*) *([^ ]*)/$2 $1/. # expr now.*?)\s*$/$1/. # yields 'abc246xyz' s/\d+/sprintf("%5d". then change $count = ($paragraph =~ s/Mister\b/Mr. Here are two common cases: # put commas in the right places in an integer 1 while s/(\d)(\d\d\d)(?!\d)/$1. # change percent escapes. Anywhere else it's $<digit>.2 documentation . Occasionally. # copy first.12.perlop s/Login: $foo/Login: $bar/. the closing delimiter./g). # run-time pattern ($foo = $bar) =~ s/this/that/. # yields 'aabbcc 224466xxyyzz' s/%(. # expand tabs to 8-column spacing 1 while s/\t+/' ' x (length($&)*8 . we use the ###BOT_TEXT###lt;digit> form in only the left hand side. # This will expand any embedded scalar variable # (including lexicals) in $_ : First $1 is interpolated # to the variable name.$&)/e. but dynamics only. expensively for ($variable) { s/^\s+//. s/\s+$//. no /e s/%(.Perl version 5.perl.org Page 21 . # use function call # expand variables in $_. using # symbolic dereferencing s/\$(\w+)/${$1}/g. s/\d+/$&*2/e. s/^\s*(.$2/g. (most) C comments. # trim whitespace in $_.

'She said it. To capture a command's STDERR but discard its STDOUT (ordering is important here): $output = `cmd 2>&1 1>/dev/null`.Perl version 5. standard error is unaffected. To capture a command's STDERR and STDOUT together: $output = `cmd 2>&1`.'). or undef if the command failed.perl. # :-) $baz = "\n". The collected standard output of the command is returned. "blam" || die "Can't open: $!". To exchange a command's STDOUT and STDERR in order to capture the STDERR but leave its STDOUT to come out the old STDERR: $output = `cmd 3>&1 1>&2 2>&3 3>&-`. # a one-character string qx/STRING/ `STRING` A string which is (possibly) interpolated and then executed as a system command with /bin/sh or its equivalent. In list context. http://perldoc. "<&BLAM". $baz = '\n'. returns a list of lines (however you've defined lines with $/ or $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR). "You said. open STDIN.org Page 22 . A backslash represents a backslash unless followed by the delimiter or another backslash.= qq (*** The previous line contains the naughty word "$1".perlop Quote-Like Operators q/STRING/ 'STRING' A single-quoted.'"!.12. Because backticks do not affect standard error. Shell wildcards. To read both a command's STDOUT and its STDERR separately. interpolated string. For example: open BLAM.2 documentation . in which case the delimiter or backslash is interpolated. literal string. or an empty list if the command failed. it comes back as a single (potentially multi-line) string. The STDIN filehandle used by the command is inherited from Perl's STDIN. and then read from those files when the program is done: system("program args 1>program. and redirections will be honored. print `sort`.stderr"). pipes. In scalar context. To capture a command's STDOUT but discard its STDERR: $output = `cmd 2>/dev/null`. use shell file descriptor syntax (assuming the shell supports this) if you care to address this. will print the sorted contents of the file "blam". $foo = q!I said. it's easiest to redirect them separately to files. $bar = q('This is it.\n) if /\b(tcl|java|python)\b/i. $_ . # a two-character string qq/STRING/ "STRING" A double-quoted.stdout 2>program.

the $^W variable) produces warnings if the STRING contains the ". Just understand what you're getting yourself into. For this reason. To be safe. See perlsec for a clean and safe example of a manual fork() and exec() to emulate backticks safely. Beginning with v5. Using this operator can lead to programs that are difficult to port. on many Unix shells. Perl was made to be a glue language. You must ensure your strings don't exceed this limit after any necessary interpolations. 'baz' Some frequently seen examples: use POSIX qw( setlocale localeconv ) @EXPORT = qw( foo bar baz ). tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds http://perldoc. Beware that some command shells may place restrictions on the length of the command line. the differences being that it generates a real list at compile time. Perl will attempt to flush all files opened for output before starting the child process. the shell may not be capable of dealing with multiline commands. passing it on to the shell instead: $perl_info = qx(ps $$). That doesn't mean you should go out of your way to avoid backticks when they're the right way to get something done. but this may not be supported on some platforms (see perlport).12.6. # that's Perl's $$ # that's the new shell's $$ How that string gets evaluated is entirely subject to the command interpreter on your system.perl. you may need to set $| ($AUTOFLUSH in English) or call the autoflush() method of IO::Handle on any open handles. You may be able to evaluate multiple commands in a single line by separating them with the command separator character. the type command under the POSIX shell is very different from the type command under DOS. $shell_info = qx'ps $$'.0. so putting newlines in the string may not get you what you want. the use warnings pragma and the -w switch (that is. qw/STRING/ Evaluates to a list of the words extracted out of STRING. 'bar'. you will have to protect shell metacharacters if you want them treated literally.g." or the "#" character. See the platform-specific release notes for more details about your particular environment. It can be understood as being roughly equivalent to: split(' '. as it's unclear how to escape which characters. See I/O Operators for more discussion. On most platforms.Perl version 5. because the shell commands called vary between systems. q/STRING/). and one of the things it glues together is commands. So this expression: qw(foo bar baz) is semantically equivalent to the list: 'foo'.2 documentation .perlop Using single-quote as a delimiter protects the command from Perl's double-quote interpolation. . As one example.org Page 23 . using embedded whitespace as the word delimiters. On some platforms (notably DOS-like ones). and in scalar context it returns the last element in the list. & on the Windows NT cmd shell). and may in fact not be present at all. A common mistake is to try to separate the words with comma or to put comments into a multi-line qw-string. if your shell supports that (e. This is in practice difficult to do.

only the first one is used: http://perldoc. Otherwise.) If the /s modifier is specified. the final character is replicated till it is long enough. This latter is useful for counting characters in a class or for squashing character sequences in a class.12.. Examples: $ARGV[1] =~ tr/A-Z/a-z/. an array element. spell out the character sets in full. the REPLACEMENTLIST is always interpreted exactly as specified. # count the digits in $_ # bookkeeper -> bokeper ($HOST = $host) =~ tr/a-z/A-Z/.) A character range may be specified with a hyphen. If no string is specified via the =~ or !~ operator. e. If the /d modifier is used. If the /c modifier is specified. Anything else is unsafe.perlop Transliterates all occurrences of the characters found in the search list with the corresponding character in the replacement list. which may or may not be bracketing quotes. It returns the number of characters replaced or deleted. For sed devotees. tr/a-zA-Z//s. y is provided as a synonym for tr. Note that tr does not do regular expression character classes such as \d or [:lower:]. tr[A-Z][a-z] or tr(+\-*/)/ABCD/. If the /d modifier is specified. (Note that this is slightly more flexible than the behavior of some tr programs.g.org Page 24 . If the SEARCHLIST is delimited by bracketing quotes.e.. If the REPLACEMENTLIST is empty. the REPLACEMENTLIST has its own pair of quotes.perl. Options: c Complement the SEARCHLIST. an lvalue. s Squash duplicate replaced characters. # count the stars in $sky $cnt = tr/0-9//. tr/a-zA-Z/ /cs. which delete anything they find in the SEARCHLIST. A-E).2 documentation . a hash element. or an assignment to one of those. if the REPLACEMENTLIST is shorter than the SEARCHLIST. If you want to map strings between lower/upper cases. the SEARCHLIST character set is complemented. tr [00-77] [###BOT_TEXT###00-77]. or digits (0-4). # change non-alphas to single space # delete 8th bit If multiple transliterations are given for a character. i. # canonicalize to lower case $cnt = tr/*/*/. sequences of characters that were transliterated to the same character are squashed down to a single instance of the character. The tr operator is not equivalent to the tr(1) utility. any characters specified by SEARCHLIST not found in REPLACEMENTLIST are deleted. and in general consider using the s operator if you need regular expressions. d Delete found but unreplaced characters.Perl version 5. period. the SEARCHLIST is replicated. (The string specified with =~ must be a scalar variable. A sound principle is to use only ranges that begin from and end at either alphabets of equal case (a-e. # count the stars in $_ $cnt = $sky =~ tr/*/*/. Note also that the whole range idea is rather unportable between character sets--and even within character sets they may cause results you probably didn't expect. If in doubt. see "lc" in perlfunc and "uc" in perlfunc. so tr/A-J/0-9/ does the same replacement as tr/ACEGIBDFHJ/0246813579/. the $_ string is transliterated.

If the terminating string is quoted. neither the SEARCHLIST nor the REPLACEMENTLIST are subjected to double quote interpolation. # execute command and get results echo hi there EOC It is possible to stack multiple here-docs in a row: print <<"foo". you must use an eval(): eval "tr/$oldlist/$newlist/". The terminating string may be either an identifier (a word). <<EOF A line-oriented form of quoting is based on the shell "here-document" syntax. and all lines following the current line down to the terminating string are the value of the item. print << `EOC`.2 documentation . print <<EOF.Perl version 5. This is the only form of quoting in perl where there is no need to worry about escaping content. die $@ if $@. EOF Single Quotes Single quotes indicate the text is to be treated literally with no interpolation of its content. which is valid. Double Quotes Double quotes indicate that the text will be interpolated using exactly the same rules as normal double quoted strings. something that code generators can and do make good use of. EOF print << "EOF". or some quoted text. Because the transliteration table is built at compile time. Following a << you specify a string to terminate the quoted material. An unquoted identifier works like double quotes.perlop tr/AAA/XYZ/ will transliterate any A to X.) The terminating string must appear by itself (unquoted and with no surrounding whitespace) on the terminating line. and matches the first empty line. Backticks The content of the here doc is treated just as it would be if the string were embedded in backticks. The price is $Price. That means that if you want to use variables. 1" or die $@. http://perldoc. There may not be a space between the << and the identifier. the type of quotes used determine the treatment of the text. # same as above The price is $Price. unless the identifier is explicitly quoted. eval "tr/$oldlist/$newlist/.perl. <<"bar". This is similar to single quoted strings except that backslashes have no special meaning.org Page 25 . with the results of the execution returned. (If you put a space it will be treated as a null identifier.12. # you can stack them I said foo. with \ being treated as two backslashes and not one as they would in every other quoting construct. Thus the content is interpolated as though it were double quoted and then executed via the shell.

and the only interpolation is for backslashing the quoting character: print << "abc###BOT_TEXT###quot;def". 'that' . If you want to remove the line terminator from your here-docs.perl. <<'THAT').Perl version 5.. 'more '/eg. Additionally. the quoted material must come on the lines following the final delimiter. the quoting rules for the end of string identifier are not related to Perl's quoting rules.. otherwise. The general rule is that the identifier must http://perldoc. such as in s///eg. qq(). and the like are not supported in place of '' and "". chomp($string = <<'END'). 23. Perl will give the warning Can't find string terminator "END" anywhere before EOF. quoted strings cannot span multiple lines.2 documentation . This is a string.perlop foo I said bar. you must be sure there is a newline after it. use chomp(). bar myfunc(<< "THIS". 'more '/eg.org Page 26 . q(). THIS and here's another. testing. The Road goes ever on and on.. END If you want your here-docs to be indented with the rest of the code. FINIS If you use a here-doc within a delimited construct.12. you'll need to remove leading whitespace from each line manually: ($quote = <<'FINIS') =~ s/^\s+//gm. the other E If the terminating identifier is on the last line of the program. THAT Just don't forget that you have to put a semicolon on the end to finish the statement. So instead of s/this/<<E . down from the door where it began. abc"def Finally. as Perl doesn't know you're not going to try to do this: print <<ABC 179231 ABC + 20.. 'that' the other E . you have to write s/this/<<E .. Here's a line or two.

If the delimiters are bracketing. But from time to time. Although the most common reason to learn this is to unravel labyrinthine regular expressions. ]. combinations of \ and \/ are skipped. During this search. During the search for the end. while searching for terminating /. If the construct is a here-doc. [. }. but these passes are always performed in the same order. Perl's notions differ substantially from what the author honestly meant. This section hopes to clarify how Perl handles quoted constructs. and nested [ and ] are skipped as well. In other words. but because their results are the same. When searching for single-character delimiters.org Page 27 . Perl first finds the end of that construct. For example. If the starting delimiter is an unpaired character like / or a closing punctuation. or <>). Therefore a / terminates a qq// construct. we consider them individually.perlop be a string literal. from one to four. whitespaces and comments are allowed between both parts. or <). three delimiters must be same such as s!!! and tr))). y///. Thus: "$hash{"$foo/$bar"}" or: http://perldoc. and tr///).2 documentation . {}. The other rules are likely to contradict the user's expectations much less frequently than this first one. in which case the second delimiter terminates the left part and starts the right part at once. while searching for closing ] paired with the opening [. text between the starting and ending delimiters is copied to a safe location. The most important Perl parsing rule is the first one discussed below: when processing a quoted construct. If the starting delimiter is an opening punctuation (that is (. \]. then interprets its contents. However. Gory details of parsing quoted constructs When presented with something that might have several different interpretations. or >). they are not copied to the safe location). If the left part is delimited by bracketing punctuations (that is (). For the constructs except here-docs. the search is repeated once more. {. In these cases. and you should be safe. otherwise a character expected as the start of the comment may be regarded as the starting delimiter of the right part. the ending delimiter is a line that has a terminating string as the content. single characters are used as starting and ending delimiters.perl.12. nothing is skipped. Some passes discussed below are performed concurrently. backslashes that escape delimiters are removed (exactly speaking. though the comment must follow at least one whitespace. For constructs with three-part delimiters (s///. when backslashes are used as the delimiters (like qq\ and tr\\). If the first delimiter is not an opening punctuation. the ending delimiter is same as the starting delimiter. the ending delimiter is the corresponding closing punctuation (that is ). For different quoting constructs. lines after the here-doc syntax are compared with the terminating string line by line. For example. Perl uses the DWIM (that's "Do What I Mean") principle to pick the most probable interpretation. they are all discussed together. Finding the end The first pass is finding the end of the quoted construct. nested pairs are also skipped. When searching for the terminating line of a here-doc. Stick with that. Perl performs different numbers of passes. nothing is skipped. The text copied gets delimiter-independent. If you understand this rule. combinations of \.Perl version 5. while a ] terminates qq[] and qq]] constructs. During this search no attention is paid to the semantics of the construct. the right part needs another pair of delimiters such as s(){} and tr[]//. escaped delimiters and \ are skipped. Therefore <<EOF is terminated by EOF immediately followed by "\n" and starting from the first column of the terminating line. you may skip the rest of this section on the first reading. and \[ are all skipped. []. because the initial steps of parsing are the same for all quoting operators. This strategy is so successful that Perl programmers often do not suspect the ambivalence of what they write. where the information about the delimiters is used in parsing.

Thus the second \ in qq/\c\/ is interpreted as a part of \/. Interpolated scalars and arrays are converted internally to the join and . Something like "\Q\E" has no \E inside.is treated as a literal -. As a general rule.are replaced with appropriate expansions. Note that the combination \ is left intact.are converted to appropriate literals. @arr) .perl. " XXX '" . String modifying combinations for case and quoting such as \Q. <file*glob>. Interpolation The next step is interpolation in the text obtained. the example above is not m//x. \U. ''.Perl version 5. m''.12.is treated specially and therefore \. use ###BOT_TEXT###34 or \x1c at the end of quoted constructs. and E. "\Q\t\E" is converted to quotemeta("\t"). but rather m// with no /x modifier. q//.in tr''' and y''' is treated literally as a hyphen and no character range is available. \U. which is the same as "\\t" (since TAB is not alphanumeric). may be closer to the conjectural intention of the writer of "\Q\t\E". Also no attention is paid to \c\ (multichar control char syntax) during this search. and the following / is not recognized as a delimiter. tr'''. Any backslashed sequences including \ are treated at the stage to parsing regular expressions. tr///. Thus. The other escape sequences such as 00 and \t and backslashed characters such as \ and \. it has \Q.perlop m/ bar # NOT a comment. since escaped delimiters are not available for here-docs. Instead. this slash / terminated m//! /x do not form legal quoted expressions.2 documentation . "$foo\Qbaz$bar" is converted to $foo . So. $bar)) internally. y'''. in the replacement of s''' does not work as $1. <<"EOF" \Q.org Page 28 . \. (join $". backslashes between \Q and \E may lead to counterintuitive results. \L. http://perldoc. so the result is the same as for "\\E". <<'EOF' No interpolation is performed. Therefore . and the rest happens to be a syntax error. Let it be stressed that whatever falls between \Q and \E is interpolated in the usual way. The other escape sequences such as 00 and \t and backslashed characters such as \ and \. qq//. the replacement of s''' The only interpolation is removal of \ from pairs of \. \l (possibly paired with \E) are converted to corresponding Perl constructs. and \E are not recognized. The character . The quoted part ends on the first " and /. "'". y/// No variable interpolation occurs. return "\Q$str". qx//. ``. (quotemeta("baz" . Note also that: $str = '\t'. instead. catenation operations. which is now delimiter-independent. "". the pattern of s''' No interpolation is performed at this stage. \u. So the embedded # is interpreted as a literal #. Thus. There are multiple cases. "$foo XXX '@arr'" becomes: $foo . Because the slash that terminated m// was followed by a SPACE.

} is a compile-time construct. $ will be quoted to became "\\$". whether "a $b -> {c}" really means: "a " . \u. Processing of \N{. and compiled into an intermediate form for the regex compiler. Because / is equivalent to \/ inside a regular expression. it's usually correct for ambiguous cases. m/RE/. As \c is skipped at this step.perlop All operations above are performed simultaneously. @ of \c@ in RE is possibly treated as an array symbol (for example @foo).. because the outcome may be determined by voting based on heuristic estimators. in order to correct the incorrigible sed hackers who haven't picked up the saner idiom yet.. A warning is emitted if the use warnings pragma or the -w command-line flag (that is. \E. (?# comment ). there is no way to insert a literal $ or @ inside a \Q\E pair.2 documentation . \L. Processing of \Q. \U. $(. / will finish the regular expression. the result is not predictable. \/ will be stripped to / on the previous step. Since voting among different estimators may occur.perl. or ?foo?. RE in ?RE?.12. /RE/. s/RE/foo/. this does not matter unless the delimiter happens to be character special to the RE engine. as in: m m ^ a \s* b mmx. Fortunately. If the delimiter is /. left to right. the replacement of s/// Processing of \Q. the longest possible text that does not include spaces between components and which contains matching braces or brackets. Because the result of "\Q STRING \E" has all metacharacters quoted.org Page 29 . and interpolation happens (almost) as with qq// constructs.. the result is not strictly predictable. the delimiter is m.Perl version 5. one cannot get the combination \/ into the result of this step. even though the same text in qq// gives interpolation of \c@. This is the first step at which the presence of the //x modifier is relevant. inside (?{BLOCK}). (This is because. $b .) However any other combinations of \ followed by a character are not substituted but only skipped. Interpolation in patterns has several quirks: $|.. Note also that the interpolation code needs to make a decision on where the interpolated scalar ends. the http://perldoc. or an alphanumeric char. it is interpreted as the start of an interpolated scalar. the $^W variable) was set. not as a regular expression from the variable $arr followed by a digit. the regex compilation may be done at execution time. and constructs $var[SOMETHING] are voted (by several different estimators) to be either an array element or $var followed by an RE alternative. \L. as mentioned below. For instance. \U. m[foo]. Most of the time. and \N{. \l. " -> {c}". $). This is where the notation ${arr[$bar]} comes handy: /${arr[0-9]}/ is interpreted as array element -9. and \/ will be left as is. or: "a " . In the RE above. $b -> {c}. which would be the interpretation of /$arr[0-9]/. and interpolation happens as with qq// constructs. \u. if not. If protected by \. The lack of processing of \ creates specific restrictions on the post-processed text. no processing is performed whatsoever. such as in s*foo*bar*. in order to parse them as regular expressions at the following step. \l. @+ and @.are not interpolated. which is intentionally obfuscated for illustration. and a #-comment in a //x-regular expression.} is also done here. It is at this step that is begrudgingly converted to $1 in the replacement text of s///. Moreover.

(?#. evaluating a filehandle in angle brackets yields the next line from that file (the newline. and possibly after evaluation if concatenation. [. (You can set $/ to use a different line terminator. or undef at end-of-file or on error. (Because backticks always undergo shell expansion as well. as well as Perl's -Dr command-line switch documented in "Command Switches" in perlrun. and the output of that command is the value of the backtick string. There's more than one reason you're encouraged to restrict your delimiters to non-alphanumeric. the terminator of (?{. parsing regular expressions Previous steps were performed during the compilation of Perl code. This is another step where the presence of the //x modifier is relevant.perl.. and after delimiter-removal the RE is the same as for m/ ^ a \s* b /mx. a list of values is returned. casing translation.2 documentation . Whatever happens in the RE engine might be better discussed in perlre.org Page 30 . Unlike in any of the shells.. or metaquoting are involved. After preprocessing described above. included).. see perlsec for security concerns. joining. See the arguments debug/debugcolor in the use re pragma. is rather different than the rule used for the rest of the pattern. single quotes do not hide variable names in the command from interpretation. To pass a literal dollar-sign through to the shell you need to hide it with a backslash. Backslashed characters are either replaced with corresponding literal strings (as with \{). It is at this stage that split() silently optimizes /^/ to mean /^/m.12. a single string consisting of all output is returned. the resulting string is passed to the RE engine for compilation. Similarly. but this one happens at run time. Since it does not change semantics.) In scalar context. In list context. It is then interpreted as an external command. if any. This step is the last one for all constructs except regular expressions. we shall do so here. The status value of the command is returned in $? (see perlvar for the interpretation of $?). When $/ is set to undef (sometimes known as file-slurp mode) and the file is empty. It is possible to inspect both the string given to RE engine and the resulting finite automaton. although it may be optimized to be calculated at compile time if appropriate. The RE engine scans the string from left to right and converts it to a finite automaton. or else they generate special nodes in the finite automaton (as with \b). Parsing of the bracketed character class construct. or else is ignored (as is whitespace and #-style comments if //x is present). Unlike in csh.Perl version 5. The generalized form of backticks is qx//. In scalar context..perlop modifier is mx. Characters special to the RE engine (such as |) generate corresponding nodes or groups of nodes. followed by undef http://perldoc. details of this step are not documented and are subject to change without notice. which are processed further. the only exception being that ] immediately following [ is treated as though preceded by a backslash.) comments are ignored. but for the sake of continuity.) The command is executed each time the pseudo-literal is evaluated. Optimization of regular expressions This step is listed for completeness only. I/O Operators There are several I/O operators you should know about. like in a shell.}) is found using the same rules as for finding the terminator of a {} -delimited construct. This step is performed over the finite automaton that was generated during the previous pass. A string enclosed by backticks (grave accents) first undergoes double-quote interpolation. one per line of output.]. The terminator of this construct is found using the same rules as for finding the terminator of a {}-delimited construct.. All the rest is either converted to literal strings to match.. non-whitespace choices. it returns '' the first time. no translation is done on the return data--newlines remain newlines.

where they would be interpreted as local identifiers rather than global.2 documentation . and stderr will also work except in packages. (This may seem like an odd thing to you.. The defined test avoids problems where line has a string value that would be treated as false by Perl. while (<>) { # code for each line } is equivalent to the following Perl-like pseudo code: unshift(@ARGV. they should be tested for explicitly: while (($_ = <STDIN>) ne '0') { .Perl version 5.perl. or from each file listed on the command line.) { print. destroying whatever was there previously. The filehandles STDIN. The loop .. See "readline" in perlfunc. <filehandle> without an explicit defined test or comparison elicits a warning if the use warnings pragma or the -w command-line switch (the $^W variable) is in effect. http://perldoc. If a <FILEHANDLE> is used in a context that is looking for a list. $ARGV).) The $_ variable is not implicitly localized. print while <STDIN>.. and if it is empty.. STDOUT. '-') unless @ARGV. . and STDERR are predefined. } In other boolean contexts. The following lines are equivalent: while (defined($_ = <STDIN>)) { print. the assigned value (whether assignment is automatic or explicit) is then tested to see whether it is defined. } while (<STDIN>) { last unless $_. one line per list element. the value is automatically assigned to the global variable $_. <FILEHANDLE> may also be spelled readline(*FILEHANDLE). If and only if the input symbol is the only thing inside the conditional of a while statement (even if disguised as a for(.<STDIN>. $ARGV[0] is set to "-".. the @ARGV array is checked. but you'll use the construct in almost every Perl script you write.) Additional filehandles may be created with the open() function. but there is one situation where an automatic assignment happens.perlop subsequently. This also behaves similarly. a list comprising all input lines is returned. print while ($_ = <STDIN>). If you really mean for such values to terminate the loop. Here's how it works: the first time <> is evaluated. } print while defined($_ = <STDIN>). } while (<STDIN>) { print.org Page 31 .. See perlopentut and "open" in perlfunc for details on this. amongst others. } for (. The null filehandle <> is special: it can be used to emulate the behavior of sed and awk. Input from <> comes either from standard input. It's easy to grow to a rather large data space this way. but avoids $_ : while (my $line = <STDIN>) { print $line } In these loop constructs.) loop). while ($ARGV = shift) { open(ARGV. which when opened gives you standard input. so use with care. for example a "" or a "0" with no trailing newline. before the loop if you want that to happen. } while ($_ = <STDIN>) { print.12. stdout.Ordinarily you must assign the returned value to a variable. You'll have to put a local $_. The @ARGV array is then processed as a list of filenames. (The filehandles stdin..

If what the angle brackets contain is a simple scalar variable (e. last if if (/^-D(.(gz|Z)$/ ? "gzip -dc < $_ |" : $_ } @ARGV. This sets @ARGV to all plain text files if no @ARGV was given: @ARGV = grep { -f && -T } glob('*') unless @ARGV. For example. and will actually work.. or a reference to the same. It really does shift the @ARGV array and put the current filename into the $ARGV variable. See the example in "eof" in perlfunc for how to reset line numbers on each file. then that variable contains the name of the filehandle to input from.perlop while (<ARGV>) { .2 documentation . You can modify @ARGV before the first <> as long as the array ends up containing the list of filenames you really want. If you call it again after this. /^-/) { /^--$/. and if you haven't set @ARGV.) Since the null filehandle uses the two argument form of "open" in perlfunc it interprets special characters. # code for each line } The <> symbol will return undef for end-of-file only once.org Page 32 ..perl. If you want all items in @ARGV to be interpreted as file names.g. If you want to set @ARGV to your own list of files. { $debug = $1 } { $verbose++ } switches while (<>) { # . <$foo>). If you want to pass switches into your script.. Line numbers ($.. executes the rm command and reads rm's output from that pipe. which is magical. # other } $ARGV[0]. you can use the module ARGV::readonly from CPAN.12. It also uses filehandle ARGV internally. <> is just a synonym for <ARGV>. you can use one of the Getopts modules or put a loop on the front like this: while ($_ = shift..Perl version 5.*)/) if (/^-v/) # . it will assume you are processing another @ARGV list. this automatically filters compressed arguments through gzip: @ARGV = map { /\.) continue as though the input were one big happy file. You can even set them to pipe commands. } and call it with perl dangerous. will read input from STDIN. go right ahead. so if you have a script like this: while (<>) { print.. For example: http://perldoc. it actually opens a pipe. (The pseudo code above doesn't work because it treats <ARGV> as non-magical.pl 'rm -rfv *|'. # code for each line } } except that it isn't so cumbersome to say. or its typeglob..

$_.12. If what's within the angle brackets is neither a filehandle nor a simple scalar variable containing a filehandle name. it's considered cleaner to call the internal function directly as glob($foo).Perl version 5. So if you're expecting a single value from a glob. but $hash{key} is not--it's a hash element.c | tr -s ' \t\r\f' '\012\012\012\012'|"). One level of double-quote interpretation is done first. and either a list of filenames or the next filename in the list is returned. A (file)glob evaluates its (embedded) argument only when it is starting a new list. Even <$x > (note the extra space) is treated as glob("$x "). while (<FOO>) { chomp. undef is returned only once. } is roughly equivalent to: open(FOO. } except that the globbing is actually done internally using the standard File::Glob extension. because legal glob returns (e. than $file = <blurch*>. Of course.[ch]"). "echo *. which is probably the right way to have done it in the first place.) For example: while (<*. These days. If you're trying to do variable interpolation. $line = <$fh>.perlop $fh = \*STDIN. it's definitely better to use the glob() function. it is much better to say ($file) = <blurch*>. an automatic defined is generated when the glob occurs in the test part of a while. because the older notation can cause people to become confused with the indirect filehandle notation. or undef when the list has run out. a file called 0) would otherwise terminate the loop. not readline($x). but <$hash{key}> is always a glob().c>) { chmod 0644. <*. (In older versions of Perl. http://perldoc. As with filehandle reads. programmers would insert curly brackets to force interpretation as a filename glob: <${foo}>. That means <$x> is always a readline() from an indirect handle. That's because $x is a simple scalar variable.c>. because the latter will alternate between returning a filename and returning false. this isn't important because you automatically get them all anyway. typeglob. This distinction is determined on syntactic grounds alone. All values must be read before it will start over. chmod 0644. In list context. but you can't say <$foo> because that's an indirect filehandle as explained in the previous paragraph. or typeglob reference. @files = glob($files[$i]).org Page 33 .g.perl. Again. it is interpreted as a filename pattern to be globbed. However. $_. depending on context. @files = glob("$dir/*. in scalar context the operator returns the next value each time it's called. the shortest way to do the above is: chmod 0644.2 documentation .

| and ^ ops act as though the shorter operand had additional zero bits on the right. # yields 255 = 150 | '105'.Perl version 5. # print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n". if you say foreach $file (@filenames) { if (-s $file > 5 + 100 * 2**16) { } } the compiler will precompute the number which that expression represents so that the interpreter won't have to. # both ops explicitly stringy See "vec" in perlfunc for information on how to manipulate individual bits in a bit vector. http://perldoc. be certain that you're supplying bitstrings: If an operand is a number. that will imply a numeric bitwise operation. "Perl\n". 'good men to come to.perlop Constant Folding Like C. No-ops Perl doesn't officially have a no-op operator. string concatenation happens at compile time between literals that don't do variable substitution.' and this all reduces to one string internally. so you can for example safely do 1 while foo(). Bitwise String Operators Bitstrings of any size may be manipulated by the bitwise operators (~ | & ^). The granularity for such extension or truncation is one or more bytes.12.2 documentation . If you are intending to manipulate bitstrings. In particular. as in the examples below. "\n" . $foo $foo $foo $foo = 150 | 105. # print "japh\nJunk" & '_____'. # yields 255 = '150' | '105'. You may explicitly show which type of operation you intend by using "" or 0+. But by saying use integer. # both ops explicitly numeric $biz = "$foo" ^ "$bar". Likewise.perl. # yields string '155' (under ASCII) $baz = 0+$foo & 0+$bar. Perl does a certain amount of expression evaluation at compile time whenever it determines that all arguments to an operator are static and have no side effects. # yields 255 (0x96 | 0x69 is 0xFF) = '150' | 105. Perl assumes that it must do most of its arithmetic in floating point. # prints prints "JAPH\n" prints "japh\n" prints "JAPH\n". # ASCII-based examples print "j p \n" ^ " a h". Backslash interpolation also happens at compile time. Integer Arithmetic By default. # print "JA" | " ph\n". while the & op acts as though the longer operand were truncated to the length of the shorter. You can say 'Now is the time for all' . but the bare constants 0 and 1 are special-cased to not produce a warning in a void context. If the operands to a binary bitwise op are strings of different sizes.org Page 34 .

$tY). use integer still has meaning for them. $POINTS) = @_. their results are interpreted as signed integers. you'll still get 1.perl. merely that Perl may use integer operations if it is so inclined.Perl version 5. # produces 123456789123456784 Testing for exact floating-point equality or inequality is not a good idea. return $tX eq $tY. See perlfaq4. In these cases.) However.perlop you may tell the compiler that it's okay to use integer operations (if it feels like it) from here to the end of the enclosing BLOCK. For rounding to a certain number of digits. For example: printf "%. but to instead implement the rounding function you need yourself. if you take the sqrt(2). $tX = sprintf("%. my ($tX. but POSIX can't work with complex numbers. ~0 usually evaluates to a large integral value. and the rounding method used should be specified precisely. and other mathematical and trigonometric functions. Here's a (relatively expensive) work-around to compare whether two floating-point numbers are equal to a particular number of decimal places.4142135623731 or so. ~0 is -1 on two's-complement machines. See Knuth. By default. $x = Math::BigInt->new('123456789123456789'). An inner BLOCK may countermand this by saying no integer. and ">>") always produce integral results. so some corners must be cut. Note that this doesn't mean everything is only an integer. At the cost of some space and considerable speed. use integer. sub fp_equal { my ($X. the bitwise operators ("&". print $x * $x. their results are interpreted as unsigned integers. # prints +15241578780673678515622620750190521 http://perldoc. } The POSIX module (part of the standard perl distribution) implements ceil(). Floating-point numbers are only approximations to what a mathematician would call real numbers.${POINTS}g". 123456789123456789. volume II. "|". but if use integer is in effect. For example. use Math::BigInt. Math::Complex not as efficient as POSIX. they avoid the normal pitfalls associated with limited-precision representations. Used on numbers.12. $tY = sprintf("%. There are infinitely more reals than floats. $X). $Y. However. sprintf() or printf() is usually the easiest route. floor(). "~". Rounding in financial applications can have serious implications. The Math::Complex module (part of the standard perl distribution) defines mathematical functions that work on both the reals and the imaginary numbers. Bigger Numbers The standard Math::BigInt and Math::BigFloat modules provide variable-precision arithmetic and overloaded operators. although they're currently pretty slow. for a more robust treatment of this topic.2 documentation . (But see also Bitwise String Operators. "<<". there is no analogous mechanism to provide automatic rounding or truncation to a certain number of decimal places. $Y). even under use integer.org Page 35 . which lasts until the end of that BLOCK.${POINTS}g".20g\n". "^". it probably pays not to trust whichever system rounding is being used by Perl. For example. Floating-point Arithmetic While use integer provides integer-only arithmetic.

but incomplete summary: Math::Fraction big.perlop There are several modules that let you calculate with (bound only by memory and cpu-time) unlimited or fixed precision. unlimited fractions like 9973 / 12967 Math::String treat string sequences like numbers Math::FixedPrecision calculate with a fixed precision Math::Currency for currency calculations Bit::Vector manipulate bit vectors fast (uses C) Math::BigIntFast Bit::Vector wrapper for big numbers Math::Pari provides access to the Pari C library Math::BigInteger uses an external C library Math::Cephes uses external Cephes C library (no big numbers) Math::Cephes::Fraction fractions via the Cephes library Math::GMP another one using an external C library Choose wisely.Perl version 5. http://perldoc.2 documentation .org Page 36 .12. There are also some non-standard modules that provide faster implementations via external C libraries. Here is a short.perl.

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