Networking Professionals Online TechTalk

Motivations for Gigabit to the Desktop

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Networking Professionals Online TechTalk
Drew Pletcher
Technical Marketing Engineer Ethernet/Switching Technologies Group

Steve Shalita
Senior Manager, Product Marketing LAN Switching Networking Group

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Client Workload Increasing Dramatically
Foreground
Speech Interface CRM, SCM, ERP Apps Collaboration E-Mail Dynamic Browser Net-Integrated Office* Next Generation OS

E-Mail Passive Browser Office* Apps Multitasking OS

Collaboration E-Mail Dynamic Browser Net-Aware Office* M’tasking Net-Aware OS

1998

Today
Virus Scan Compression Back-Up System Management Authent/Encrypt Synchronization Java* Applets Portals

Tomorrow
Virus Scan Compression Back-Up System Management Authent/Encrypt Synchronization Directory Services Peer-to-Peer Services Java* Applets Portals Smart Agents Biz Automation Svcs.

Background

Virus Scan Compression Back-Up System Management Java* Applets

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Why Gigabit Ethernet to the Desktop
• Today’s driver for Gigabit Ethernet to the Desktop is not a single application but the simultaneous use of multiple applications
It’s not about a single application—it’s about increasing user and network productivity

MS-SQL DB Records
250 200 150 100 50 30% 39% 43% GbE 10/100 45% 47%

• Backup/recovery, large file transfers and large data transactions will benefit the most from Gigabit Ethernet end to end • Gig-enabled PCs/Workstations (LOM)—Dell, HP/Compaq, Apple, Sun, many Linux hardware manufacturers
Source: IBM Study November 2002
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

MS-Office Apps
GbE 10/100 36.02s 60.29s

True World Traffic Modeling for Gigabit Ethernet to the Desk

• Study of application and traffic patterns of a number of job types in a Fortune and S&P 500 company • Compute profiles developed by job type • Compute profiles used to model true traffic patters with client connectivity at 10Mbps, 100Mbps and 1000Mbps

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Network Response Improvements 10mbps vs. 100mbps vs. 1000mbps
50M File Transfer Clarify Ariba Outlook 1GB Backup 0
0.5 4.2 42.8 14.2 26.8 17 35 2.3 5.2 53.7 9.8 85 849.4

1000 100
142.2

10

140

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

Time in Seconds
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Network Response Improvements 10mbps vs. 100mbps vs. 1000mbps

1000 100

27

10

Over All

47

186

0

50

100

150

200

Time in Minutes
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Gbe End to End Benefits More than the Desktop

• Eliminate “Far-End” bottleneck • Reduce wire time, buffer congestion & relieve flow control mechanisms • Server sessions shorter • Fewer concurrent sessions at server

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Gigabit and QoS

• • • •

TCP (red) and UDP (green) streams with Gig attached hosts 1GB data using TCP with 0MB Loss 3.7GB data using UDP with 23MB lost 15K of 22.5M datagrams lost—154 max consecutive loss
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Enabling QoS in the Campus Congestion Scenario: TCP Traffic Burst + VoIP
Location of Potential Interface Congestion

Core
Typical 4:1 Data OverSubscription

Si

Si

Distribution
Si Si

Typical 20:1 Data OverSubscription Access

= Data = Voice
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Maximum Throughput
TCP Window

RTT

TCP Window

Delay x BW

A

B

VS.

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Improving Throughput—TCP Windows
TCP Window

RTT

TCP Window

Delay x BW

A

B

Window Size below RTT x BW/8bits Results in Low Throughput

RTT

RTT

RTT

RTT

RTT

RTT

RTT

RTT

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

TCP Windows
• Windows control the amount of data that is allowed to be “in flight” in the network • Maximum throughput is one window full per round trip time • The sender, receiver, and the network each determine a different window size • RFC 1323—TCP for high throughput

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Improving Throughput—TCP Windows
Bandwidth Delay Product
400000
Window Size (Bytes)

350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0
0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3
10 Mbps 100 Mbps 1 Gbps

RTT (ms)
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

TCP Window Size and Throughput
• In our tests we initially ran a 32K windows size, then increased it to 64K, 128K, 256K, 300K and finally 1M; the RTT was 3ms • The performance we saw is as follows:
32K 64K 128K 300K 1M 720mbps average 886mbps average 903mbps average 936mbps average 941mbps average

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

What to Do
• Start with default window and buffer sizes • Find out the rtt with ping, compute BDP • Can tune system wide, by application, or automatically • Check your TCP for high-performance features • Tune TCP values based upon the configuration methods specified by the OS or protocol vendor (e.g.. Microsoft, RedHat, Solaris, etc.)
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

S2

Implementing Gigabit Ethernet for Your Organization
• Switch-to-Switch Deploy Gigabit Ethernet switches in backbone to aggregate wiring closets • Switch-to-Server Gigabit Ethernet servers connections • Wiring Closet-to-Desktop New deployments should be 10/100/1000 to enable smooth migration to Gigabit Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet for high-performance users increases productivity Upgrade remaining wiring closets with 10/100/1000 as required
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Phased Deployment
• Phase I
Implement Gigabit Ethernet NICs in key servers Deploy Gigabit Ethernet switches in backbone to aggregate Fast Ethernet switches Upgrade wiring closet switches to provide Gigabit Ethernet connectivity to servers, high-need users, or large workgroups

• Phase II
Gigabit Ethernet on all new desktop purchases Deploy non-blocking high performance switches/ports where necessary
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Parallel Deployment Strategy
• Any new hardware should be purchased with Gigabit connectivity! • Servers and switches
Multiple Gigabit connections in all new servers Upgrade to Gigabit Ethernet NICs in key existing servers Deploy Gigabit Ethernet switches in backbone to aggregate Fast Ethernet switches

• Desktops and wiring closets
Gigabit Ethernet on all new desktop purchases Upgrade wiring closet switches to provide Gigabit Ethernet connectivity to servers, high-need users, or large workgroups Deploy non-blocking high performance switches in the wiring closet for all users
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

S2

10 Gigabit Ethernet in the Core and for Uplinks
• Aggregates Gigabit Ethernet segments • Scales Enterprise and Service Provider LAN backbones • Leverages installed base of 250 million Ethernet switch ports • Supports all IP services (data, packetized voice and video), • Supports metropolitan and wide area networks • Faster and simpler than other alternatives
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cabling and Gigabit Ethernet
• UTP is the medium of choice for LAN cabling • Category 5 is the original “data grade” UTP cable specification • 87% of companies have Category 5 cabling installed (Sage Research, Inc.) • Focus on cabling standards— follow TIA recommendations and investigate various performance parameters • Cabling recommendations for Gigabit Ethernet deployment
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cabling Recommendations
• Installed Category 5 Cable that meets the defined standard will support Gigabit Ethernet
Performance defined per TIA/EIA-568B.2 Cabling that does not meet the defined standard may require testing to ensure support of the technology

• New installations should specify at least Category 5E with Category 6 highly recommended
Ensure long-term utility of your cabling Plan for the future

• Use a certified cabling installer • Go to www.gigabitsolution.com
Gigabit Ethernet over Copper Cabling White Paper
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

S2

Cisco Catalyst LAN Switching— Comprehensive Portfolio
Wiring Closet 10/100/1000 10/100/1000

Catalyst 6500 Family

Servers Distribution/Backbone

WAN
Catalyst 4500 Family

• Scalable, end-to-end intelligent switching • Foundation for converged service deployment • Simple, easy-to-use with consistent software and end-to-end management
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Catalyst Fixed Configuration 2950/2970/3550/3750

Gigabit Intelligent Campus Network Design
Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit EtherChannel® Gigabit EtherChannel 10 Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gigabit EtherChannel

• • • • • • •

QoS Trust-Boundary Rate-Limiting Port-Security ACLs STP Extensions Identity (802.1x) High Availability

CWDM GBIC

Internet

• Throughput • High Availability • IP Services • • • • • Rate-Limiting ACLs High Availability IP Services STP Extensions
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

• Firewall Services • VPN/IPSec Services • Intrusion Detection • Load Balancing • SSL Offload

Data Center

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Visit the Networking Professionals Connection

• Discussion forums • Online events • Biweekly newsletter

www.cisco.com/discuss/networking

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Networking Professionals Online TechTalk

Steve Shalita
Senior Manager, Product Marketing

Drew Pletcher
Technical Marketing Engineer

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Motivations for Gigabit to the Desktop
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Networking Professionals Online TechTalk

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© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

TIA Cabling Standards Development

• Category 5 specified in TIA/EIA-568-A (1995) Performance through 100 MHz Two Pair Technology • Category 5E specified in TIA/EIA-568-B.2 (2001) Performance through 100 MHz Four Pair Technology • Category 6 specified in TIA/EIA-568-B.2-1 (2002) Performance through 250 MHz Four Pair Technology
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

TCP Throughput (window/rtt)

• The smallest of three windows determines throughput • sbuf, or sender side socket buffers rwin, the receive window size cwin, TCP congestion window • Receive window (rwin) and/or sbuf are still the most common performance limiters
E.g. 8kB window, 87 msec ping time = 753 kbps E.g. 64kB window, 14 msec rtt = 37 Mbps

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bandwidth*Delay Product and TCP

• TCP needs a receive window (rwin) equal to or greater than the BW*Delay product to achieve maximum throughput • TCP needs sender side socket buffers of 2*BW*Delay to recover from errors • You need to send about 3*BW*Delay bytes for TCP to reach maximum speed

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bandwidth*Delay Product
• The number of bytes in flight to fill the entire path • Includes data in queues if they contributed to the delay • Example: 100 Mbps path ping shows a 75 ms rtt BDP = 100 * 0.075 = 7.5 million bits (916 KB)

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.