Wireless & PoE Current and Emerging Solutions

Leviton Manufacturing Background
± Founded in 1906 in Brooklyn, NY, celebrating 100 years of success! ± Leviton¶s first product was gas mantle tips for gas lamps when the city of New York installed gas lamps. ± Isadore Leviton (pictured) was a partner with Thomas Edison. ± Industrial, commercial, OEM and residential markets ± The average American home contains more than 100 Leviton devices ± In a major American city lit up at night, about 90% of the lights you see are connected to some kind of Leviton device ± Leading supplier of electrical, lighting control, power quality, and voice/data products. ± Over 3.2 million products produced per day
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The Leviton Family of Products
Electrical Business

Voice & Data Division American Insulated Wire Integrated Networks & Controls Division

Lighting Management Systems Division

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Voice & Data 

Connectivity Solutions for the Commercial and Residential Premise ± Copper, Fiber, Wireless, Data Center and Power solutions 

Proud to continue our manufacturing heritage in a state of the art facility in Bothell, WA

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Introductions 

Leviton Product Management ± Tom Schoepf Mfg. Rep. Firm: Triumph Marketing ± Mike Lester ± Dan McDonald ± Danielle Talieri Leviton Wireless and POE Product Support Team ± Ross Goldman (VP and GM) ± Joan Johns (Marketing) ± Tom Schoepf (Product Manager) ± Rick Taylor (Sr. Product Manager) ± Scott Robinson (Director, Copper Programs) ± Jeff Seefreid (Manager, Electrical Engineering)  

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Agenda 


Market Overview Enterprise Wireless Applications ± Spectrum Allocation ± IEEE Wireless Standards & Emerging Wireless Technologies ‡ Wi-Fi ‡ 802.11n ‡ Bluetooth ‡ UWB ‡ WiMAX ± Security ‡ 802.1x ‡ RADIUS ‡ WPA & WPA2 Power over Ethernet ± Definition & Need ± PoE Terminology & 802.3af Principles ± 802.3at TSB 162  

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Market Overview

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What Is Driving Development?
Vectors that will influence the marketplace:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Evolving technologies (802.11n, UWB, WiMAX, 802.3at, VoIP, Security) Changes in User Requirements (need for speed, greater power) Major changes in the market place (greater mobility, multi-media applications) Identified Customer Expectation (the Voice of the Customer«what problems are the Customers trying to solve?) e.g., CASE

The 3 Mediums:
‡ Copper (Cat 5e, Cat 6, Cat 6a) ‡ Fiber (multi-mode, single-mode) ‡ Air (Wi-Fi, WiMAX, UWB)

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Market Assessment
‡According to Instat/MDR, enterprises spent $225 billion on 2002; and by 2006, they will be spending more than $256 billion on information technology. ‡Improvements in the security, performance and reliability of wireless networking technology will lead to higher rates of wireless adoption in Enterprise environments.

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Growth of VoIP
VoIP T phon Ship nt -

illion of Vo P P one

45 40 5 0 25 20 15 10 5 0

2005 200 2007 200 200

2010 2011 So e: F Con ltin

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Why Wireless?
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Wireless is one of the fastest growing segments in enterprise networks Many companies are deploying wireless technology to compliment their existing cable infrastructure People now expect to have the ability to connect without wires Sales have steadily increased for wireless technology as security concerns have been addressed and overcome Companies are realizing the cost savings provided by wireless networks

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Enterprise Wireless Applications

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Industrial, Scientific, Medicine (ISM)
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Personal Communication Services (PCS)

Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII)

Source IEEE, 2006

Wireless Standards Overview 

802.11 ± Interface between a wireless client and a base
station, or between two wireless clients. 

802.15 ± Wireless Personal Area Networks 802.16 - Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband
Wireless Access Systems 

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Bandwidth Capabilities

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IEEE 802.11 (Wi Fi)
IEEE 802.11a -Ratified in 1999 for use in the 5GHz band -13 channels, 8 non-overlapping -Utilizes Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) -Supported data rates 54,48,36,18,12,9,6 -Maximum throughput ~24Mbps IEEE 802.11b: -Ratified in 1999 for use in the 2.4GHz band -11 channels, 3 non-overlapping -Utilizes Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) -Supported data rates 11, 5.5, 2, 1 Mbps -Maximum throughput ~5.5Mbps

IEEE 802.11g: -Ratified in 2003 for use in the 2.4GHz band -11 channels, 3 channels non-overlapping -Utilizes Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) -Backward compatible with 802.11b /DSSS (least common denominator) -Supported data rates 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, 6 Mbps -Maximum throughput ~24Mbps
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Typical Wi Fi Layout
Red indicates the strongest wireless signal

Image courtesy of LANPlanner

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Distributed WAP Distance Limitations
802 11a
60 50 40 b s
¢

802 11b
20 15 b s
82 115 131 148
 

30 20 10 0 164 t 180 216 230

t

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 66 82 115 141 164
¦

b s

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¥

¤

802 11
£

De loyment considerations: -Wall thickness/materials -# of users
233 262 305

-Bandwidth desired -Typical applications used  

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10 5 0 230 2 2 2 9

IEEE 802.11n (Next Generation Wi Fi)
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January 2006, IEEE 802.11n Task Group approved the EWC¶s specification as the draft approval of 802.11n March 2006, 802.11n draft sent to first letter ballot May 2006, IEEE 802.11 Working Group rejected Draft 1.0 of the proposed standard Final approval of standard is not due until July 2007 (likely to be 1st quarter 2008) Mid 2008, most vendors will have 802.11n products available

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IEEE 802.11n Benefits
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Performance in physical layer to reach 300 Mbps Could offer up to 600 Mbps with 4 antennas Could hit as much as 75% throughput of its raw data rate Range will increase over existing Wi-Fi networks

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Should You Buy Pre N?
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No Upgrade guarantee: There is significant risk that equipment shipped today will contain chips and firmware that cannot be upgraded to provide full compatibility with the final standard. Could Interfere With Other Networks: chipmakers and the IEEE task group working on 802.11n haven¶t agreed on their approach to mitigate interference with existing legacy Wi-Fi networks. Test methods on well test in real world environments or with other devices. Problems: poor interoperability, security model problems and performance Will need gigabit network Prices will plummet: Airgo is waiting, Intel plans unknown, Atheros, Broadcom and Marvell now producing silicon ± expect a drop

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IEEE 802.15 (Personal Area Networks)
‡ 802.15.1 ± Bluetooth
Provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as PDAs, mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers and digital cameras

‡ 802.15.3a ± UWB / Wireless USB
UWB: A technology for transmitting information spread over a large bandwidth that would be able to share spectrum with other users Wireless USB: A short-ranged, high-bandwidth wireless extension to USB intended to combine the speed and security of wired technology with the ease-of-use of wireless technology

‡ 802.15.4 ± ZigBee
A suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs)

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Bluetooth
‡ ‡ ‡ Designed for low power consumption & short range Utilizes low cost transceiver microchips in each device Applications:
-Wireless communication between a cell phone and a hands free headset -Wireless communications with PC input and output devices (I.E. mouse, keyboard and printer) -Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment, GPS receivers and medical equipment -Wireless control of a game console such as Sony's PlayStation 3

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Bluetooth 2.0
‡ ‡ Backwards compatible with 1.x Main enhancement is the introduction of Enhanced Data Rate (EDR), up to 3.0 Mbps
-3 times faster transmission speed (up to 10 times in certain cases) -Lower power consumption through a reduced duty cycle -Simplification of multi-link scenarios due to more available bandwidth -Improved BER (bit error rate) performance

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UWB
‡ Federal Communications Commission (FCC) authorized the unlicensed use of UWB in the 3.1±10.6 GHz band (2002) Scalable in performance: 110 Mbps @ 10m and 480 Mbps @ 2m Ultra Wideband causes significantly less interference than conventional narrowband radio solutions (result of broader spectrum, lower power and pulsed data) Primary advantages of UWB are high data rates, low cost, and low power The major drawback of UWB is that under current FCC regulations, it is limited to 10, or a few 10s of meters, depending on the desired data rate Status:
-IEEE 802.15.3a task group (TG3a) members decided to withdraw the January 2003 Project Authorization Request (PAR) that initiated the development of high data rate UWB standards. (January 2006) -It was decided to allow the market to move forward with the commercialization of multiple UWB technologies
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UWB ± Primary Applications
‡ Home Entertainment Systems Construct a home theater environment without any cables Instantaneous Sync & File Transfer Synchronize your mobile phone with other phones, your digital camera or your PC Synchronized Music Transmit multiple Megabytes of MP3 audio simply by bringing your MP3 player within range of your PC DVR Everywhere Transfer digital media files recorded by your Personal Video Recorder (PVR) to your Personal Media Player (PMP)

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IEEE 802.16 ± WiMAX (Broadband)
‡ WiMAX improves upon many of the limitations of the Wi-Fi standard by providing increased bandwidth, range and stronger encryption ‡ Most interest will probably be in the 802.16d and .16e standards, since the lower frequencies suffer less from signal attenuation and therefore give improved range and in-building penetration ‡ 802.16e (Mobile WiMAX)
-Allows for fixed wireless and mobile Non Line of Sight (NLOS) applications primarily by enhancing the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) -Approved in December 2005

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WiMAX ± Typical Applications
‡ Connecting Wi-Fi hotspots with each other ‡ Providing a wireless alternative to cable and DSL ‡ Providing high-speed mobile data and telecommunications services (wireless access for everyone) ‡ There is potential for using WiMAX with legacy cellular networks

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WiMAX Current & Planned Deployments
‡ Valtech Communications deployed network in Northwest Ohio at beginning of 2006. Currently holds licenses for the Midwest and Florida. ‡ Clearwire holds 2.5GHz licenses in several regions. ‡ Sprint / Nextel holds licenses in the 2.5GHz band. ‡ NextWave Wireless holds licenses in the 1.7GHz and 2.1GHz band.

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Mesh Networking
‡ A way to route data, voice and instructions between nodes. ‡ Allows for continuous connections and reconfiguration around broken or blocked paths by "hopping" from node to node until the destination is reached. ‡ Allows inexpensive peer network nodes to supply back haul services to other nodes in the same network. ‡ The network can still operate even when a node breaks down or a connection goes bad. I.E. self-healing.

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Wireless Technologies Will Co Exist
Personal Area Network Local Area Network Metropolitan Area Network Wide Area Network

UWB RFID
&

Wi-Fi Wi-

WiMAX

3G

Bluetooth

The Result: Always Best Connected
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802.1x
‡ ‡ ‡ An IEEE standard for port-based Network Access Control Provides authentication to devices attached to a LAN port Establishes a point-to-point connection and prevents access from that port if authentication fails Used for certain closed wireless access points and is based on EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)
Image courtesy of Wikipedia

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RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)
‡ An AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP mobility. ‡ RADIUS is a common authentication protocol utilized by the 802.1x security standard (often used in wireless networks). ‡ The DIAMETER protocol is the planned replacement for RADIUS. DIAMETER uses TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) while RADIUS uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) as the transport layer.

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WPA & WPA2
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ A class of systems to secure wireless (Wi-Fi) computer networks. Created in response to weaknesses researchers had found in the previous system, WEP. WPA is designed to work with all wireless network interface cards, but not necessarily with first generation wireless access points. WPA2 implements the full (802.11i) standard, but will not work with some older network cards. WPA is designed for use with an IEEE 802.1x authentication server, which distributes different keys to each user. However, it can also be used in a less secure "pre-shared key" (PSK) mode, where every user is given the same passphrase. WPA2 certification is mandatory for all new devices wishing to be Wi Fi certified. WPA2 is also known as 802.11i

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PoE (Power Over Ethernet)

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What is Power over Ethernet? 
 

Transmitting safe and reliable power (15.4W, 48V) over existing Cat5/Cat5e/Cat6 cabling Powers IP Phones, Wireless Access Points, security cameras, and various networked devices IEEE 802.3af standard approved in June 2003

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PoE Terminology
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PD (Powered Device) = A terminal device which has been designed to receive power on the same cable as the data PSE (Powered Sourcing Equipment) = Equipment supplying power over the Ethernet infrastructure Midspan = A patch-panel resembling device installed between the Ethernet switch and the PD End-Span = Ethernet switches incorporating Power over Ethernet technology

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The Need for Power
Businesses rely on Networked Devices

‡ IP Phones, computers, printers, fax machines, WAPs, etc (all need power) ‡ 802.3at - will make more PD¶s available
In the past, this required two separate cabling sources

‡ One to connect the network ‡ One to connect power

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Power over Ethernet, End User Benefits 
      Single cable connection per IP telephone, WLAN Access Point, or Network Camera saves $$$ and time Eliminates bulky AC adapters ± simplifies installation IEEE standards compliant technology ± safe and reliable Low DC Voltage = safe power feeding Will not damage non-PoE devices such as NICs and legacy peripherals Extends UPS - continuous operation during power interruptions Manageable network power ± control and monitor (managed systems)

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Why use a Midspan? Midspan
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Large installed base of Ethernet switches. Keep the existing Ethernet infrastructure to save costs. Easy to install without re-wiring the rack (doesn¶t affect testing). Optimizes PoE port expenditure. Purchase the PoE ports you need. Optimal solution for low density applications. Support the bottom-up approach of typical net installations Start with small test installations (using existing data infrastructure) before a large deployment

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IEEE 802.3af Basic Principles
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Midspan supplies power on pairs 4/5 + 7/8 PD has to support power receiving on both Idle and Data pairs (Idle 4/5 + 7/8, Data 1/2 + 3/6) PSE feeding voltage 44 to 57Vdc Maximum continuous current 350mA, Peak = 500mA for 100mS PSE Average Output Power 15.4W, PD maximum power is 12.95W Power detection and power feed shall operate on the same set of pairs Resistive based line detection used to identifying 802.3af compliant PDs Protection for high current, disconnect and more

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Midspan Power
No Connection Power

Pins 4/5 Pins 1/2

Transmit Pair PoE Box Receiver Pair Power

Pins 3/6 Pins 7/8
No Connection

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1Gbps Midspan Power
Transformer

Data

Power

Pins 4/5 Pins 1/2

Data PoE Box Data

Pins 3/6 Pins 7/8
Transformer

Data

Power

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Leviton Midspans are plug & play

No switches or adjustments just plug and play

Data port for connection to the Switch and the Data&Power port for connection to structured wiring horizontal run

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PoE - Enabled Terminals
‡ IP Phones ± Cisco, 3Com, Avaya, Nortel, Mitel, Siemens, NEC, LG, Congruency, Ericsson, Alcatel, Ascom, Tenovis, Pingtel WLAN Access Points ± 3Com, Agere, Proxim, Cisco, Compaq, AVAYA, Intermec, Apple, Elsa, Symbol, Enterasys, Nokia, Samsung, Coulubris Bluetooth Access Points ± Red-M, Axis, Siemens, Bluesocket, Artem, Tadlys, Access1, Commil Lap top Computers- DSP Design colour PC only 10 watts

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IEEE 802.3at (PoE Plus)
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Most optimistic estimate for approval in early 2007 Support power delivery with 10M, 100M, 1G and perhaps even 10Gbps data delivery 802.3at should operate on CAT5 (24AWG) and thicker copper infrastructure such as Cat.6 (23AWG) or Cat.6a (22 AWG), unlike 802.3af, that had take into account the CAT3 limitations 802.3at should follow the power safety rules and limitations pertinent to 802.3af A 802.3at PSE must be backwards compatible with 802.3af, being able to power both 802.3af and 802.3at PDs 802.3at should provide the maximum power to PDs as allowed within practical limits, at least 30W 802.3at PDs, when connected to a legacy 802.3af PSE, will provide the user an indication that a 802.3at PSE is required. Confidential

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TSB 162

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TSB 162 Summary
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Provides design and installation guidelines for cabling in a grid layout Pre-configures buildings for wireless infrastructure by designating wireless cells TSB 162 focuses on new construction Cell size is determined by user requirements Note this does not result in less wiring

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Cell Design
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To appropriately design coverage, it is recommended that a cell be in the shape of a square. The telecommunications outlet (TO) will be placed at the center of this square, A patch cord will extending from it to the wireless access point.

Lmax Cord
WAP

TO

TO

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The maximum length of this patch cord is the radius of the circle
TO TO

The WAP can be place anywhere inside of the cell

TR 20ft Max Cord Active Electronics

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Questions?

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